Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Diseases of plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.

Effects of soybean oil emulsion and eicosapentaenoic acid on stress response and immune function after a severely stressful operation. (1/2857)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of soybean oil emulsion and oral or enteral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on stress response, cytokine production, protein metabolism, and immune function after surgery for esophageal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It has been reported that safflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), affects the survival rate of septic animals and decreases the immune function. It has also been reported that the administration of fish oil, in contrast, reduces these stress responses and stress-induced immunosuppression. In humans, the effects of soybean oil emulsion and the administration of EPA on stress response and immune function after surgery have not been established. METHODS: Patients who underwent esophagectomy with thoracotomy were divided into three groups. Seven patients were fed by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with soybean oil emulsion, which accounted for 20% of total calories. Seven patients were given oral or enteral administration of 1.8 g/day EPA, in addition to TPN with soybean oil emulsion. Nine patients served as the control group; these patients received fat-free TPN. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, concanavalin A (con A)- or phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and stress hormones were measured. RESULTS: The postoperative level of serum IL-6 was significantly higher in the group receiving soybean oil emulsion than in the fat-free group. Oral or enteral supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly reduced the level of serum IL-6 compared with the patients receiving soybean oil emulsion. Con A- or PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation decreased significantly on postoperative day 7 in all groups of patients. The supplementation of EPA with soybean oil emulsion significantly improved the lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity on postoperative day 21 compared with the group receiving soybean oil emulsion. CONCLUSIONS: Soybean oil emulsion amplifies, and the supplementation of EPA reduces, the stress response and stress-induced immunosuppression.  (+info)

Soluble HLA class I, HLA class II, and Fas ligand in blood components: a possible key to explain the immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic blood transfusions. (2/2857)

The immunomodulatory effect of allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) has been known for many years. However, a complete understanding of the effects of ABT on the recipient's immune system has remained elusive. Soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I), HLA class II (sHLA-II), and Fas ligand (sFasL) molecules may play immunoregulatory roles. We determined by double-determinant immunoenzymatic assay (DDIA) sHLA-I, sHLA-II, and sFasL concentrations in different blood components. sHLA-I and sFasL levels in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for up to 30 days and in random-donor platelets are significantly (P <.001) higher than in other blood components and their amount is proportionate to the number of residual donor leukocytes and to the length of storage. Blood components with high sHLA-I and sFasL levels play immunoregulatory roles in vitro as in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses (MLR) and antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) activity, and induce apoptosis in Fas-positive cells. These data suggest that soluble molecules in blood components are functional. If these results are paralleled in vivo, they should be taken into account in transfusion practice. Blood components that can cause immunosuppression should be chosen to induce transplantation tolerance, whereas blood components that lack immunosuppressive effects should be preferred to reduce the risk of postoperative complications and cancer recurrence.  (+info)

Dietary effect of EPA-rich and DHA-rich fish oils on the immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats. (3/2857)

The dietary effect of fish oils (FOs) rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats was compared with that of safflower oil. After 3 weeks of feeding at the 10% level of a dietary fat, the IgG and IgM production by splenocytes and IgG production by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes were significantly higher in the FO-fed rats, while no significant difference was found in IgA or IgE productivity by both the spleen and MLN lymphocytes. In the FO-fed rats, peritoneal exudate cells released a lower amount of LTB4, reflecting their lower arachidonic acid level, and a higher amount of LTB5, reflecting their higher EPA level in phospholipids. On these EPA-rich FO exerted a stronger effect than DHA-rich FO immune functions.  (+info)

Genetically corrected autologous stem cells engraft, but host immune responses limit their utility in canine alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency. (4/2857)

Canine alpha-L-iduronidase (alpha-ID) deficiency, a model of the human storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), is an ideal system in which to evaluate the clinical benefit of genetically corrected hematopoietic stem cells. We performed adoptive transfer of genetically corrected autologous hematopoietic cells in dogs with alpha-ID deficiency. Large volume marrow collections were performed on five alpha-ID-deficient dogs. Marrow mononuclear cells in long-term marrow cultures (LTMCs) were exposed on three occasions during 3 weeks of culture to retroviral vectors bearing the normal canine alpha-ID cDNA. Transduced LTMC cells from deficient dogs expressed enzymatically active alpha-ID at 10 to 200 times the levels seen in normal dogs. An average of 32% of LTMC-derived clonogenic hematopoietic cells were provirus positive by polymerase chain reaction and about half of these expressed alpha-ID. Approximately 10(7) autologous gene-modified LTMC cells/kg were infused into nonmyeloablated recipients. Proviral DNA was detected in up to 10% of individual marrow-derived hematopoietic colonies and in 0.01% to 1% of blood and marrow leukocytes at up to 2 to 3 years postinfusion. Despite good evidence for engraftment of provirally marked cells, neither alpha-ID enzyme nor alpha-ID transcripts were detected in any dog. We evaluated immune responses against alpha-ID and transduced cells. Humoral responses to alpha-ID and serum components of the culture media (fetal bovine and horse sera and bovine serum albumin) were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular immune responses to autologous alpha-ID but not neo(r) transduced cells were demonstrated by lymphocyte proliferation assays. To abrogate potential immune phenomena, four affected dogs received posttransplant cyclosporine A. Whereas immune responses were dampened in these dogs, alpha-ID activity remained undetectable. In none of the dogs engrafted with genetically corrected cells was there evidence for clinical improvement. Our data suggest that, whereas the alpha-ID cDNA may be transferred and maintained in approximately 5% of hematopoietic progenitors, the potential of this approach appears limited by the levels of provirally derived enzyme that are expressed in vivo and by the host's response to cultured and transduced hematopoietic cells expressing foreign proteins.  (+info)

Deficiency of the hematopoietic cell-specific Rho family GTPase Rac2 is characterized by abnormalities in neutrophil function and host defense. (5/2857)

In mammals, the Rho family GTPase Rac2 is restricted in expression to hematopoietic cells, where it is coexpressed with Rac1. Rac2-deficient mice were created to define the physiological requirement for two near-identical Rac proteins in hematopoietic cells. rac2-/- neutrophils displayed significant defects in chemotaxis, in shear-dependent L-selectin-mediated capture on the endothelial substrate Glycam-1, and in both F-actin generation and p38 and, unexpectedly, p42/p44 MAP kinase activation induced by chemoattractants. Superoxide production by rac2-/- bone marrow neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to wild type, but it was normal in activated peritoneal exudate neutrophils. These defects were reflected in vivo by baseline neutrophilia, reduced inflammatory peritoneal exudate formation, and increased mortality when challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus. Rac2 is an essential regulator of multiple specialized neutrophil functions.  (+info)

Role of innate and adaptive immunity in the outcome of primary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, as analyzed in genetically modified mice. (6/2857)

Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of acute respiratory disease in man and is also associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disorder. Herein, we have compared bacterial load and immune parameters of C. pneumoniae-infected mice genomically lacking T cell coreceptors, cytokine receptors, or cytotoxic effector molecules. A protective role for CD8+ cells is shown by the enhanced severity of infection of CD8-/- or TAP-1-/-/beta2-microglobulin -/- mice. CD8+ cells hindered a parasite growth-promoting role of CD4+ T cells, as indicated by the higher sensitivity to early infection of CD8-/- than CD4-/-/CD8-/- mice, which was further confirmed in experiments in which SCID mice were reconstituted with either CD4+ or CD4+ plus CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, CD4+ T cells played a dual role, detrimental early (14 and 24 days) after infection but protective at later time points (60 days after infection). The CD8+ T cell protection was perforin independent. The early deleterious role of CD4+ in the absence of CD8+ T cells was associated with enhanced IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA levels and delayed IFN-gamma mRNA accumulation in lungs. In line with this, IFN-gammaR-/- (but not TNFRp55 -/-) mice showed dramatically increased susceptibility to C. pneumoniae, linked to reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA accumulation, but not to diminished levels of specific Abs. The increased susceptibility of iNOS-/- mice indicates a protective role for iNOS activity during infection with C. pneumoniae. The higher sensitivity of IFN-gammaR-/- mice to C. pneumoniae compared with that of SCID or recombination-activating gene-1-/- mice suggested a relevant protective role of IFN-gamma-dependent innate mechanisms of protection.  (+info)

Chimerism and xenotransplantation. New concepts. (7/2857)

In both transplant and infectious circumstances, the immune response is governed by migration and localization of the antigen. If the antigenic epitopes of transgenic xenografts are sufficiently altered to avoid evoking the destructive force of innate immunity, the mechanisms of engraftment should be the same as those that permit the chimerism-dependent immunologic confrontation and resolution that is the basis of allograft acceptance. In addition to "humanizing" the epitopes, one of the unanswered questions is whether the species restriction of complement described in 1994 by Valdivia and colleagues also necessitates the introduction of human complement regulatory genes in animal donors. Because the liver is the principal or sole source of most complement components, the complement quickly is transformed to that of the donor after hepatic transplantation. Thus, the need for complementary regulatory transgenes may vary according to the kind of xenograft used. Much evidence shows that physiologically important peptides produced by xenografts (e.g., insulin, clotting factors, and enzymes) are incorporated into the metabolic machinery of the recipient body. To the extent that this is not true, xenotransplantation could result in the production of diseases that are analogous to inborn errors of metabolism. In the climate of pessimism that followed the failures of baboon to human liver xenotransplantation in 1992-1993, it seemed inconceivable that the use of even more discordant donors, such as the pig, could ever be seriously entertained; however, this preceded insight into the xenogeneic and allogeneic barriers that has brought transplantation infectious immunity to common ground. With this new insight and the increasing ease of producing transgenic donors, the goal of clinical xenotransplantation may not be so distant.  (+info)

Good genes, oxidative stress and condition-dependent sexual signals. (8/2857)

The immune and the detoxication systems of animals are characterized by allelic polymorphisms, which underlie individual differences in ability to combat assaults from pathogens and toxic compounds. Previous studies have shown that females may improve offspring survival by selecting mates on the basis of sexual ornaments and signals that honestly reveal health. In many cases the expression of these ornaments appears to be particularly sensitive to oxidative stress. Activated immune and detoxication systems often generate oxidative stress by an extensive production of reactive metabolites and free radicals. Given that tolerance or resistance to toxic compounds and pathogens can be inherited, female choice should promote the evolution of male ornaments that reliably reveal the status of the bearers' level of oxidative stress. Hence, oxidative stress may be one important agent linking the expression of sexual ornaments to genetic variation in fitness-related traits, thus promoting the evolution of female mate choice and male sexual ornamentation, a controversial issue in evolutionary biology ever since Darwin.  (+info)

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5 million funded to advance Immunomes native human cancer antibody platform. April 20, 2016, Philadelphia, PA - Immunome, Inc., a biotechnology company focused on developing transformative immunotherapies to treat cancer, today announced it has raised $5 million in Series A Preferred Stock financing. The company anticipates using the proceeds to fund further development of Immunomes growing pipeline of cancer therapeutic antibodies. The financing included investments from new and existing Immunome investors.. Jane Hollingsworth, Immunome CEO, said, We thank all of our investors for their confidence and continued support of the development of our technology and pipeline of novel cancer immunotherapy candidates. Our exceptionally productive discovery engine identifies native antibodies and their target antigens raised during a cancer patients humoral response. We believe that Immunome is poised to meet the demand for less toxic, novel and highly selective cancer antibodies for the ...
On Immunity is dedicated to other mothers, and. Biss refers to her conversations with other mothers. throughout the book. Is On Immunity a book specifically. for mothers? For all parents? For everyone?. In the beginning of On Immunity, Eula Biss is uncertain. about whether or not to fully vaccinate her child, and some of the. other mothers she consults in the book choose not to vaccinate their. children. By the books end, Biss is decidedly pro-vaccination. How. did she arrive at this position?. Why do you think Biss expresses empathy towards anti-vaxxers?. Biss states, Those of us who draw on collective immunity owe. our health to our neighbors and The health of our bodies always. depends on choices other people are making. Beyond vaccination,. what choices do other people make that your health depends on?. As Biss writes, the people who choose not to vaccinate their children. are more likely to be white, to have an older married mother with. a college education, and to live in a ...
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Are you weakening your immune system without even knowing it? Answer Dr. Susan Blums four questions to determine if you have immune invaders in your system. Plus, 3 disease-fighting steps to fortify your immunity and ward off illness naturally!View Part 1 of Easy Fixes to Boost Your Immunity. View ...
Immunity boosters can keep one healthy and full of energy. A run down immune system leaves the body vulnerable to all manner of diseases and illnesses. There are ways to boost your own immunity and ...
Comtest Radiated Immunity chambers are primarily designed for full compliance radiated immunity measurements between 80MHz up to 6GHz, but pre-compliance emission testing as per CISPR16-1-4 can also be accomplished in this compact chamber.
Artificially acquired immunity is any immunity conferred to the body through non-natural means, by introducing a specially designed version of a whole or part of a pathogen to stimulate the bodys...
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Is your immune system on overload? Dr. Ozs reveals the key signs youre missing! Before your health comes crashing down, learn how to boost your disease-fighting power naturally!
Want to know my top 10 tips to boost your immunity and stay well this winter? Youre in the right place..... Humans have more bacterial cells-a lot more-than human cells. Bacteria live on the skin, in the nose and ears, and, most of all, in the gut. Did you know 70% to 80% of the immune system resides in the gut? For t
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Until we have a vaccine, we will have to use a combination of strategies to control COVID-19, and shield immunity is potentially one of them
The recent stripping of immunity for opposition leader Sam Rainsy amounts to the wrongful application of the law, civil society and opp
Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children brings together leading experts in the field to provide a current and authoritative view concerning the hottest topics of concern to clinicians caring
While antibiotics have been great for society as a whole, they have some downfalls. Lets take a look at how overusing antibiotics is affecting our acquired immunity, and what we can do about it.
If I see the following in a library document or source code same_constness_as_arg type func(i_wont_modify type arg) {//... } I immediately understand that this function doesnt change its arguments contents (or make it point to something else), and that if I give it something that Ive elsewhere defined as const, itll return its output as const. Upon seeing this I also immediately grant legal immunity to the function and its author, as far as const issues are concerned. The functions responsibilities start when it is called, and end when it returns its return value. There is no way I could even dream of suing him for things that I do to the return value after the function returns. It is clearly obvious that the contents of arg are safe during the execution of function, and that this function cannot, and _should_not_ need to protect arg thereafter. The fact that theres a debacle going on about this reminds me of the const thoughts that led to the recently aborted const foray in D. The ...
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Federal prosecutors granted immunity to David Pecker, the CEO of National Enquirers publisher, in the Michael Cohen investigation.
We have seen a lot of changes over the last few months, and the word immunity has become a big focus. Many are seeking hope-in-a-bottle via over-the-counter supplements recommended by friends, health care practitioners, or various… ...
by emptywheel Okay. This will serve as a summary of my analysis of the SSCI report on their FISA bill and to show how the SSCI managed to convince themselves to give retroactive immunity to the telecoms. Thus far, I...
When it comes to protecting their designs from a variety of transientelectrical disturbances, developers of microcontroller-based embeddedsystems in
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કોરોના વાયરસ ની બીજી લહેરથી લોકો ત્રાહિમામ થઈ ગયા છે. ઘણી વેક્સીન પણ આવી ગઈ છે. પણ દરેક લોકો આજકાલ રોગપ્રતિકારક શક્તિ વધારવાનું કહે છે. પણ સવાલ એ છે કે તમે પોતાની રોગપ્રતિકારક શક્તિ કમજોર છે કે મજબુત, આ કેવી રીતે જાણી શકો છો. જો કે પ્રતિરક્ષા પ્રણાલી નબળી હોવાના ઘણા કારણો હોઈ શકે છે. … Read moreઆ 5 લક્ષણો બતાવે છે તમારી કમજોર ઇમ્યુનીટી. વહેલી તકે જાણીલો આ લક્ષણો.. ક્યાંક તમારામાં તો નથીને? હોય તો ...
艾迈斯免受杂散场干扰技术集成在传感器IC 中,芯片上不需要安装任何外部屏蔽。这有助于降低位置传感系统的物料清单和组装成本。点击查看详情!
這個詞來自免疫一詞,意為解放,自由。另一方面,巴西詞典將其定義為具有抗拒能力。防禦,保護 ...
قُلْ إِن كَانَ ءَابَآؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَآؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَٰنُكُمْ وَأَزْوَٰجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَٰلٌ ٱقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَٰرَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَٰكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَآ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَجِهَادٍ فِى سَبِيلِهِۦ فَتَرَبَّصُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِىَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِۦ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِى ٱلْقَوْمَ ٱلْفَٰسِقِين ...
కరోనా వైరస్‌ సోకకుండా ఉండాలంటే మాస్క్‌ ధరించడం, శుభ్రత, భౌతిక దూరం పాటించడం ఇవొక్కటే చాలదు. వీటితో పాటు మన శరీరంలో రోగ నిరోధక శక్తిని కూడా పెంచుకోవాలి.
لَوْ خَرَجُوا۟ فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمْ إِلَّا خَبَالًا وَلَأَوْضَعُوا۟ خِلَٰلَكُمْ يَبْغُونَكُمُ ٱلْفِتْنَةَ وَفِيكُمْ سَمَّٰعُونَ لَهُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌۢ بِٱلظَّٰلِمِين ...
Answers to common questions about COVID PROFILE, a study of immunity in people who have recovered from or been exposed to COVID-19.
5/25/2009 6:49:39 PM Here is some new information that suggests that older patients may have some immunity against the H1N1 flu strain. H1N1 Notes: Older
Fights any foreign invader and thus is non-specific. Innate immunity and adaptive immunity are the two categories of the immune system of animals. There are both similarity and difference between innate and adaptive immunity. Memory usage: 1408.09KB, Persistent Low Grade Fever: Causes and Remedies, Humoral immunity, consisting of B cells and plasma cells, Cell mediated immunity, consisting of T cells, which further matures into helper T cells, suppressor T cells and cytotoxic T cells. Innate immunity includes all the defence elements with which an individual is born. Innate immunity is also known as genetic immunity or familial immunity. Innate immunity means the non-specific is present at the time of birth. Difference Between Adaptive Immunity and Innate Immunity: Innate Immunity. Humans have a high degree of resistance to foot-and-mouth disease, for example, while the cattle and sheep with which they may be in close contact suffer in the thousands from it.Rats are highly resistant ...
Limitations on the recovery of damages contained in Pennsylvanias local governmental immunity statute -- but not in its sovereign-immunity law -- violate a plaintiffs constitutional guarantee of equal protection an attorney argued before the state Supreme Court Tuesday. The defendants countered that a legitimate governmental interest underlies local immunity as a protection from excessive jury verdicts.
Judiciary Committee Chairman John Conyers delays vote on immunity for Monica Goodling upon request of panel Republicans, who call the offer a chance to fan the flames of speculation and grab headlines.
Scu has an interesting post up expanding on his discussion of Luhmann and vulnerability yesterday. It seems that he want to draw a distinction between immunity and autoimmunity as it works in Derridas thought. Im not entirely following what hes trying to get at here. As I understand it, the idea is that in order…
HIV-1 infection and mucosal immunity are intimately interrelated. Since the acquisition of HIV-1 primarily occurs through mucosal routes, local immunity at the...
Immunity System. Discuss about Immunity System, Two Divisions of Mammal Immune System, INNATE IMMUNITY (NON-SPECIFIC), ACQUIRED IMMUNITY....
The American College of Physicians (ACP), the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), and the Gerontological Society of America (GSA), representing 220,000 clinicians, today released Aging an
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Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The BMJ.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Copyright Get Revising 2018 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
Baking industry news and commentary offering insight on business, new products, regulatory, market and product trends, supplier innovations and more.
I have been thinking about this for seven or eight years and finally, through scientific research and my experimentation I think I have figured out...
Synonyms for immunity in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for immunity. 23 synonyms for immunity: exemption, amnesty, indemnity, release, freedom, liberty, privilege, prerogative, invulnerability, exoneration, resistance to.... What are synonyms for immunity?
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
GenBioChem® Immunity is used in Herbal Medicine as an adaptogen to help maintain a healthy immune system. GenBioChem Immunity contains a proprietary plant extract that boost natural killer (NK) cells and macrophage cells - the first line immune defence cells.. Immunity also contains Zinc, a vital mineral for immune function. We recommend it to those looking to give their immunity that extra boost!. All of our products are guaranteed with our GenBioChem® Triple Fingerprinting Technology to ensure purity, potency, and traceability. 60 Capsules.. ...
4. Privileges and immunities are accorded to the representatives of members not for the personal benefit of the individuals themselves, but in order to safeguard the independent exercise of their functions in connexion with the Agency. Consequently a member not only has the right but is under a duty to waive the immunity of its representative in any case where in the opinion of the member the immunity would impede the course of justice, and it can be waived without prejudice of the purpose for which the immunity is accorded ...
Immunity is the bodys protection against a disease. There are two types of immunity, passive and active. Immunity is indicated by the presence of antibodies in the blood and can usually be determined with a laboratory test.[1] In legal terminology, immunity is a grant by the court, which assures someone will not face prosecution in return for providing criminal evidence. ...
In this post, the SciMoms answer frequently asked questions on COVID-19 immunity, herd immunity, and strengthening ones immunity.
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Diesen Titel erhalten Sie in einer Bibliothek! Intrinsic immunity. [Bryan Cullen;] -- Recent research has focused attention on the importance of intrinsic antiviral immunity, i.e. immunity mediated by factors that are constitutively expressed in many cells. In this volume, leading ...
Specific Host Defences: The Immune ResponseThe Immune Response Immunity: Immunity: ³Free from burden´. Ability of an organism to rec...
Here at Angels Healing Touch, you will find only the very best products that will build your immunity, make you stronger and have more Vitality. Keep your Immunity strong, when our Immunity is str...
CANVAS, ®SILICA, ®El Jefe, ®Immunity, and ®Infiltrate are all registered trademarks of Immunity Inc.. © 2017 Immunity Inc. All rights ...
Immunity - Our immune systems are designed to protect us. Many herbs and vitamins assist us by boosting or regulating this immune response.
Systematic Immunity is a challenging precision platformer set inside the human body...and not a particularly healthy one either. This body has been infected by a big, nasty bugger of a germ, who is making it his business to spawn many more germs as fast as he can.
In a new study, scientists found that immunity against Sars-2 or COVID-19 lasted for a year at least. They estimated that immunity against COVID-19 could last for decades at least in some people. Antibodies are the proteins that can recognize and help to inactivate viral particles are a key immune defense.
How to Boost Your Childs Immunity: This article intends to spread awareness about World Immunization Week 2015, by explaining the importance of vaccines and listing some strategies to help parents boost their childrens immunity.
AR offers complete systems for all your Radiated Immunity testing requirements. We can customize systems for both IEC and MIL-STD applications which can produce field strengths from 3 V/m to 400 V/m and beyond. We can also supply turn-key systems including a chamber and other equipment for conducted and radiated immunity and emissions tests. These systems take the guesswork out of configuring the proper system to meet your particular requirements. Come to AR, the one source for all your EMC requirements. See more from us . . .
In this paper, we analyze the algebraic immunity of symmetric Boolean functions. The algebraic immunity is a property which measures the resistance
If you decide to improve your immunity, then its best to chew a bowl of 1 tablespoon four or five times a day for about 5-20 minutes.. Thanks to chewing the bowel, the person improves immunity, the person is less ill with various diseases, especially it concerns respiratory diseases, diseases of the skin. If accidentally swallowed zabrus, then okay, zabrus positive effect on the intestine, borytsya with various intestinal diseases, improves motor function secretory stomach.. ...
Страница с текстом из Diplomatic Immunity под исполнением Drake. Diplomatic immunity, fuck em All that peace and that unity All that weak shitll ruin me, fuck em, yeah Cause niggas started talkin to me like Im slowin down Opinions over statistics, of course Gassed off journalistic Come at me and all youll...
Our immune systems face many challenges in todays environment. This biosurvey addresses 6 key areas of immunity to better help the body meet these challenges.
The strength of the immune system in response to respiratory infections is constantly changing, depending on the history of previous, unrelated infections, according to new research from the Crick.
Stop Aging Now Immunity Defense with EpiCor to help you stay healthy and well. One of the best vitamins available to support daily health.
A titer is a laboratory test that measures the presence and amount of antibodies in blood. A titer may be used to prove immunity to disease. A blood sample is taken and tested.. If the test is positive (above a particular known value) the individual has immunity. If the test is negative (no immunity) or equivocal (not enough immunity) you need to be vaccinated.. A Titer Lab Report is generated by the lab that tested the blood sample. The Titer Lab Report must include the test type, exact values, signature, and date.. ...
An anonymous reader writes Scientists from the University of California, Berkeley found that promiscuous mice have significantly stronger immune systems than monogamous mice, suggesting that promiscuous mice may have developed more robust immunity to protect them against the disease-causing bacteri...
There is no better time than the winter months to boost that immunity and get it in high gear! Source Naturals® is here to with that.
If you are inclined toward natural approaches to boost immunity, you will find this article full of Ayurvedic tips especially helpful!
The first 8 weeks are crucial for the development of the immunological system of calves. First, colostrum guarantees protection to the animal; thereafter supplementing the creep feeding with MOS promotes immunity.
This time of year sharing air space with sick people is pretty much unavoidable. When my own staff is sick I send them directly home, but we also work out of a Clients office with 1200 employees. Im avoiding sick people and doing the usual 1000 hand washes a day. I hardly ever get sick, maybe once every year or year and a half, and of course Im feeling a little off. But its just barely so I would like to do some additional immunity boosting ASAP. Any nursing friendly suggestions via food or natural supplements ...
Children are prone to infections, more so when their diet and weight are not appropriate. Take a look at how you could improve your childs immunity and build resistance to disease.
This paper presents the status of the work, by April 2008, in C4.110, a joint working group by CIGRE, CIRED and UIE. Contributions of the working group are: a summary of voltage dip characteristics; a methodology to assess the performance of a complete installation and; recommendations for testing and immunity of equipment.. ...
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Winters are here in its full force. And one is trying to do all that he can to prevent himself from the range of diseases and infections the season is infamous for. What is it about the winters that brings everybody on an alert mode? This is because during winters your immunity takes a dip and your susceptibility towards cold, flu, and infections rises significantly.
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A top figure in President Donald Trumps orbit has been granted immunity in the investigation into hush money payments made to two women who alleged they had affairs with Trump.
Opposition leader Sam Rainsy left the country Tuesday, to visit family and report on the suspension of his National Assembly immunity t
Immunity from subpoena service in civil cases[edit]. As a general rule, a witness who is in attendance at a trial in a state ... Immunity is based on the theory that the Court must be unimpeded in its goals, and fear of service could lead to witnesses not ... Usually, immunity is granted to a witness who voluntarily appears to testify for the benefit of another, but it has also been ... For instance, immunity from civil service to non-resident witnesses no longer applies in California after Silverman v. Superior ...
Immunity and autoimmunity[edit]. The human body has many defense mechanisms against pathogens, one of which is humoral immunity ...
Legal immunity[edit]. In November 2016, in an interview in the Brazilian TV show Roda Viva, Deputy Lorenzoni reaffirmed his ... opposition to legal immunity. "There is, in the country, a feeling of impunity. I hope the Congress take this moment to make a ...
Specific acquired immunity against infectious diseases may be mediated by antibodies and/or T lymphocytes. Immunity mediated by ... Immunity[edit]. Mary Mallon (a.k.a. Typhoid Mary) was an asymptomatic carrier of typhoid fever. Over the course of her career ... There is also the phenomenon of herd immunity which offers a measure of protection to those otherwise vulnerable people when a ... Resistance to infection (immunity) may be acquired following a disease, by asymptomatic carriage of the pathogen, by harboring ...
Protests against MP immunity[edit]. In March 2015, a dispute arouse between ruling alliance PSD-UNPR-PC and main opposition ... In a press release, Transparency International demands the immediate repeal of legal changes granting immunity to Romanian ... "Transparency International demands repeal of legal changes granting immunity to Romanian politicians". Transparency ... "super-immunity" to MPs and the president, as they would be taken out of the "public servant" category stipulated in the Code.[ ...
Immunity[edit]. At least 40% of people with aphthous stomatitis have a positive family history, suggesting that some people are ...
Immunity[edit]. Travelers often get diarrhea from eating and drinking foods and beverages that have no adverse effects on local ... A study among expatriates in Nepal suggests that immunity may take up to seven years to develop-presumably in adults who avoid ... This is due to immunity that develops with constant, repeated exposure to pathogenic organisms. The extent and duration of ... deliberate pathogen exposure.[14] Conversely, immunity acquired by American students while living in Mexico disappeared, in one ...
Humoral immunity[edit]. Developed through an earlier primary exposure that primed specific immunity to the nonself antigen, a ... Lymphocytes include two classes that enact adaptive immunity, also called specific immunity. Lymphocytes of specific immunity T ... Cellular immunity[edit]. As a cell is indicated by the prefix cyto, a cytotoxic influence destroys the cell. Alloreactive ... The recipient's helper T cells coordinate specific immunity directed at the donor's self peptides or at the donor's Major ...
Unlike mammals, Drosophila flies only have innate immunity and lack an adaptive immune response. The D. melanogaster immune ... Troha K, Buchon N (September 2019). "Methods for the study of innate immunity in Drosophila melanogaster". Wiley ... immunity, diabetes, and cancer, as well as drug abuse.[78][79][80] ... Immunity. 51 (4): 625-637.e3. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2019.08.020. PMID 31564469.. ...
Antitumor immunity[edit]. Main article: CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity. Hypersensitivity[edit]. The immune system must ... "Immunity. 31 (2): 209-219. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2009.05.012. PMC 2791889. PMID 19646904.. ... They are triggered by IL-12 and their effector cytokines are IFN-γ and IL-2. The main effector cells of Th1 immunity are ... THαβ helper cells provide the host immunity against viruses. Their differentiation is triggered by IFN α/β or IL-10. Their key ...
Privileges or Immunities Clause. Main article: Privileges or Immunities Clause. The Privileges or Immunities Clause, which ... was patterned after the Privileges and Immunities Clause of Article IV, which protects the privileges and immunities of state ... Privileges and Immunities: A Reference Guide to the United States Constitution, p. 104 (Greenwood Publushing 2003). ... Bogen, David S. (April 30, 2003). Privileges and Immunities: A Reference Guide to the United States Constitution. Greenwood ...
Immunity may be "transactional immunity" or "use immunity"; in the former, the witness is immune from prosecution for offenses ... Grants of immunity[edit]. If the government gives an individual immunity, then that individual may be compelled to testify. ... In Kastigar v. United States,[76] the Supreme Court held that the government need only grant use immunity to compel testimony. ... The use immunity, however, must extend not only to the testimony made by the witness, but also to all evidence derived ...
... called the immunity map, intended to help readers overcome an immunity to change.[36] An immunity to change is the "processes ... Immunity to Change (2009), the next book by Kegan and Lahey, revisits the immunity map of their previous book.[40] The authors ... The revised immunity map worksheet in Immunity to Change has the following structure: (0) Generating ideas. (1) Commitment ( ... Immunity to Change[edit]. Kegan's next book, How the Way We Talk Can Change the Way We Work (2001), co-authored with Lisa ...
Effect on host immunity[edit]. In the host, several mechanisms of the insect immune system can be triggered when the wasp lays ... R. M. Rizki et T. M. Rizki, (November 1990). "Parasitoid virus-like particles destroy Drosophila cellular immunity". ...
Morbidity, mortality, and immunity[edit]. RHD is extremely hard to locate in the wild since about 75% of rabbits with RHD will ... The immunity does not survive through the next generation, leaving open the possibility of further outbreaks in the population. ... Rabbits may develop immunity against other strains of the RHD virus, while others may endure persistent infections. ... Its active ingredient is a live myxoma-vectored RHD virus strain 009 and it offers a duration of immunity of 1 year against ...
Diplomatic immunity[edit]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding ... This sanctity has come to be known as diplomatic immunity. While there have been a number of cases where diplomats have been ... Napoleon also refused to acknowledge diplomatic immunity, imprisoning several British diplomats accused of scheming against ... Main article: Diplomatic immunity. The sanctity of diplomats has long been observed. ...
War crime immunity[edit]. Ishii was arrested by United States authorities during the Occupation of Japan at the end of World ... Ishii's immunity deal was concluded in 1948 and he was never prosecuted for any war crimes, and his exact whereabouts or ... Ishii and Unit 731 were granted immunity in the International Military Tribunal for the Far East by the United States in ... Ishii and his team managed to negotiate and receive immunity in 1946 from Japanese war-crimes prosecution before the Tokyo ...
Immunity[edit]. Function of heat-shock proteins in immunity is based on their ability to bind not only whole proteins, but also ... 2.5 Immunity *2.5.1 Function in antigen presentation * MHCI presentation ... It depends a lot on context of tissue whether HSPs will stimulate the immune system or suppress immunity. They can promote Th17 ... Extracellular heat-shock proteins can be sensed by our immunity as danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP).[26] They are ...
Immunity and vaccination[edit]. Due to its extreme potency, even a lethal dose of tetanospasmin may be insufficient to provoke ... Naturally-acquired tetanus infections thus do not usually provide immunity to subsequent infections. Immunization (which is ...
Interference immunity[edit]. ANT, ZigBee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and some cordless phones all use the 2.4 GHz band (as well as 868- ...
Immunity against viruses or transposons[edit]. RNA silencing is the mechanism that our cells (and cells from all kingdoms) use ...
This immunity became incorporated into the HCQIA. National Practitioner Databank[edit]. The AMA objected to the creation of a ... Principles of immunity for peer review participation[edit]. The American Medical Association lobbied for confidentiality and ... Soon thereafter Congressman Wyden introduced HCQIA in an effort to extend state peer review immunities on a federal level. ... Although the original HCQIA had afforded immunity to physician peer reviewers only (which were originally assumed to constitute ...
... or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular ... It contrasts with cell-mediated immunity. Its aspects involving antibodies are often called antibody-mediated immunity. ... a b c d e Metchnikoff, Elie (1905) Immunity in infectious disease (Full Text Version) Cambridge University Press ... The complement system is involved in the activities of both innate immunity and acquired immunity. ...
This approach has been accomplished through active immunity after early vaccination and a live vaccine or passive immunity from ... Cell-mediated immunity[edit]. An experiment that used monoclonal antibodies that were specific for chick Ia (a chicken class II ... Currently, efforts toward administering inactivated or live vaccines to breeding stock to allow passive immunity to the ...
Adaptive immunity[edit]. Activated platelets are able to participate in adaptive immunity, interacting with antibodies. They ... Hampton T (April 2018). "Platelets' Role in Adaptive Immunity May Contribute to Sepsis and Shock". JAMA. 319 (13): 1311-1312. ... "Thrombocyte inhibition restores protective immunity to mycobacterial infection in zebrafish". The Journal of Infectious ... Jenne CN, Urrutia R, Kubes P (June 2013). "Platelets: bridging hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity". International Journal ...
Plant innate immunity. Plants lack specialized immune cells-all plant cells participate in the plant immune response. ... and the Nucleus in Driving Plant Innate Immunity". Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 23 (11): 1368-80. doi:10.1094/MPMI-05- ...
War crime immunity[edit]. Arrested by the US occupation authorities at the end of World War II, Ishii and other Unit 731 ... Ishii and his team managed to negotiate and receive immunity in 1946 from war-crimes prosecution before the Tokyo tribunal in ...
Acquired immunity[edit]. Koch observed the phenomenon of acquired immunity. On 26 December 1900, he arrived as part of an ...
Immunity vs.. tolerance. *action: Immunity. *Autoimmunity. *Alloimmunity. *Allergy. *Hypersensitivity. *Inflammation. *Cross- ...
... the prevailing of innate immunity, the failing of clonotypic immunity, and the filling of immunological space". Vaccine. 18 (16 ... Weng, N. P. (2006). "Aging of the Immune System: How Much Can the Adaptive Immune System Adapt?". Immunity. 24 (5): 495-499. ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ... A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller ...
Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous ... Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous ... Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous ... Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous ...
Immunity increase Give SEPTILIN DROPS 5drops twice a day for one month. SEPTILIN is a ayurvedic medicine made by Himalaya drugs ...
Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect ... Passive immunity[edit]. Main article: Passive immunity. Individual immunity can also be gained passively, in which antibodies ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Herd immunity.. *A visual simulation of herd immunity written by Shane Killian and ... High levels of immunity in one age group can create herd immunity for other age groups.[7] Vaccinating adults against pertussis ...
The most notable forms of legal immunity are diplomatic immunity, judicial immunity, and witness immunity. One author has ... Absolute immunity, a type of immunity for government officials that confers total immunity when acting in the course of their ... Legal immunity, or immunity from prosecution, is a legal status wherein an individual or entity cannot be held liable for a ... Immunity of government officials[edit]. Many forms of immunity are granted to government officials to enable them to carry out ...
... is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments, which ensures that diplomats are given ... Many countries refuse to waive immunity as a matter of course; individuals have no authority to waive their own immunity ( ... Many principles of diplomatic immunity are now considered to be customary law. Diplomatic immunity as an institution developed ... It is possible for the officials home country to waive immunity; this tends to happen only when the individual has committed a ...
humoral immunity (plural humoral immunities). *(immunology) Immunity to infection due to antibodies, which circulate in the ... Retrieved from "" ...
Herd immunity, or as its sometimes called, community immunity, is a name for a phenomenon in which in a population with high ... Andrew Wakefield claims natural Herd Immunity is better than anything vaccines can do, never mind all that suffering. ... One of the most common tropes used by antivaxers is to attack herd immunity as not being real. ... levels of immunity to a disease members susceptible to the disease are protected. Basically, because the vast majority of ...
... immunity, which protects government agencies from lawsuits unless the government agreed to be sued; 4) diplomatic immunity ... Generally there are four types of immunity at law: 1) a promise not to prosecute for a crime in exchange for information or ... Immunity. Immunity. Exemption from penalties, payments, or legal requirements, granted by authorities or statutes. Generally ... immunity, which protects government agencies from lawsuits unless the government agreed to be sued; 4) diplomatic immunity ...
... results from the production of antibodies matching, nearly one-to-one the foreign substances present. Whereas immunity ... IMMUNITY. A state of resistance or refractoriness resulting from responses by an organism to the invasion of substances foreign ... URL= ... ... 0 Reviews ...
Military privileges and immunities -- United States.. *Retired military personnel -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States. ...
A second type of response, called cell-mediated immunity, does not yield antibodies but instead generates T lymphocytes that ... called humoral immunity, is active mainly against toxins and free pathogens (those not ingested by phagocytes) in body fluids. ... Other articles where Humoral immunity is discussed: human disease: The immune response: This type of response, ... In poison: Cellular and humoral immunities. Humoral immunity utilizes antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), produced ...
Innate immunity.. Medzhitov R1, Janeway C Jr.. Author information. 1. Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of ...
Passive Immunity. Br Med J 1971; 3 doi: (Published 04 September 1971) Cite this as: Br ...
Eliminating qualified immunity is on the list of demands from protesters and activists asking for reforms to how police are ... Eliminating qualified immunity is on the list of demands from protesters and activists asking for reforms to how police are ...
As the authors say, "These findings represent an initial step in identifying serotonin and substance P regulation of immunity ... Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor and Substance P Antagonist Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Innate Immunity in Human ... Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor and Substance P Antagonist Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Innate Immunity in Human ... research will be needed in people with HIV to see whether the drugs could have any role as treatments to enhance immunity. ...
Systematic Immunity is a challenging precision platformer set inside the human body...and not a particularly healthy one either ... Systematic Immunity is a challenging precision platformer set inside the human body...and not a particularly healthy one either ... Systematic Immunity is a challenging precision platformer set inside the human body...and not a particularly healthy one either ...
... innate immunity: Most microorganisms encountered in daily life are repelled before they cause detectable signs and symptoms of ... Other articles where Nonspecific immunity is discussed: immune system: Nonspecific, ... In disease: Immunity. …there are two types: nonspecific, innate immunity and specific, acquired immunity. Innate immunity, with ... Alternative Titles: innate immunity, nonspecific, innate immunity. Learn about this topic in these articles:. major reference. ...
Source for information on Fire Immunity: Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology dictionary. ... Fire Immunity A most dramatic claimed paranormal manifestation, frequently witnessed in the course of history. An early ... Fire Immunity and Religion. Immunity to fire has often been recorded as a religious miracle, especially as an element in the ... Psychic Immunity to Fire. Among mediums none was more famous for handling fire with impunity than D. D. Home. In the report of ...
Allergies arent the only type of immunity gone wrong (theyre just among the most annoying). ...
Part I: influence of protein or protein-calorie malnutrition and zinc deficiency on immunity. Clin Bull 9: 3-12, 1979PubMed ... Fernandes G, Nair M, Onoe K, Tanaka T, FLoyd R, Good RA: Impairment of cell-mediated immunity functions by dietary zinc ... Good RA, Fernandes G: Nutrition, immunity, and cancer - a review. ...
Toxic Immunity. Faced with a hazardous-waste crisis, the Pentagon is pushing hard to exempt itself from the nations ...
Excessive Force, immunity, Police, Texas. WACO, Texas - A man may pursue part of his civil rights suit accusing police officers ... Further development of the facts is required to determine whether qualified immunity is entitled. ...
Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity. Mammals are protected by a ... immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all ... animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity. Mammals are protected by a variety of ...
The Senate moved closer Tuesday morning to approving retroactive immunity for telecoms that helped the Bush administration spy ... Senate Keeps Telecom Spying Immunity. The Senate moved closer Tuesday morning to approving retroactive immunity for telecoms ... Proponents of immunity contend the lawsuits will expose how the nations spies collect information and say the telecoms ... In the fall, the House passed the RESTORE Act, which did not include immunity and limited more sharply when the government ...
The Wall Street Journal first reported Thursday that Flynn was in talks to try to get a promise of immunity, but that nobody ... "Mike Flynn should ask for immunity in that this is a witch hunt (excuse for big election loss), by media & Dems, of historic ... Mike Flynn should ask for immunity in that this is a witch hunt (excuse for big election loss), by media & Dems, of historic ... Flynn seeks immunity for testimony. By Jessica Schneider and Tom LoBianco, CNN ...
Altmetric calculates a score based on the online attention an article receives. Each coloured thread in the circle represents a different type of online attention. The number in the centre is the Altmetric score. Social media and mainstream news media are the main sources that calculate the score. Reference managers such as Mendeley are also tracked but do not contribute to the score. Older articles often score higher because they have had more time to get noticed. To account for this, Altmetric has included the context data for other articles of a similar age. ...
The principle of immunity as it is now interpreted by the courts maintains that there should be no liability without fault to ... Immunity would have no significance if it did not mean that the public official is more protected from liability than is a ... It is limited in scope to the immunity defense to damages liability and does not treat the many other defenses asserted in ... However, since this complete immunity does not extend to conduct clearly outside the scope of the officials authority, his ...
Seger, R., Buchinger, G., Ströder, J.: On the influence of age on immunity in Downs syndrome. Europ. J. Pediat. 124, 77 (1977) ... Seger, R., Buchinger, G., Ströder, J.: On the influence of age in immunity in Downs syndrome. Europ. J. Pediat. 124, 77 (1977) ...
The term immunity refers to the bodys specific protective response to an invading foreign agent or organism. The human body ... 5. Natural and acquired immunity Natural immunity Acquired immunity1. Is a nonspecific 1. Specific immunity immunity present at ... The capability is called immunity. Page 3 * 4. Types of immunity 1. Natural (Innate) immunity2. Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... Body defense mechanism and immunity The term immunity refers to the bodys specific protective response to an invading foreign ...
  • Passive immunity is provided when a person is given antibodies to a disease rather than producing them through his or her own immune system. (
  • A newborn baby acquires passive immunity from its mother through the placenta. (
  • People can also get passive immunity through antibody-containing blood products such as immune globulin, which may be given when immediate protection from a specific disease is needed. (
  • The major advantage to passive immunity is that protection is immediate, whereas active immunity takes time (usually several weeks) to develop. (
  • However, passive immunity lasts only for a few weeks or months. (
  • Passive immunity is the transfer of antibody-rich substances from an immune subject to a non-immune subject who is susceptible to disease. (
  • Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term immunization by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells. (
  • Naturally acquired passive immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal into the fetal bloodstream. (
  • A second type of response, called cell-mediated immunity, does not yield antibodies but instead generates T lymphocytes that are reactive against specific antigens. (
  • Because this second type of acquired immunity depends on the direct involvement of cells rather than antibodies, it is called cell-mediated immunity. (
  • Fernandes G, Nair M, Onoe K, Tanaka T, FLoyd R, Good RA: Impairment of cell-mediated immunity functions by dietary zinc deficiency in mice. (
  • Though many kinds of food are known to boost immunity, LAB are in a class of their own, now that the mechanism has been clarified of their directly reinforcing the immune activity within the gut, and its effectiveness having been confirmed, according to Professor Kazuyoshi Takeda of Tokyo's Juntendo University Graduate School Center for Biomedical Research Resources (CBRR). (
  • Also they restore the balance of good bacteria, thus helping to normalize digestive function and boost immunity. (
  • immunology ) Immunity to infection due to antibodies , which circulate in the blood and lymph , and which are produced by B cells . (
  • Immunity results from the production of antibodies matching, nearly one-to-one the foreign substances present. (
  • Humoral immunity utilizes antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), produced by B-lymphocytes. (
  • In humoral immunity, B lymphocytes, usually triggered by helper T lymphocytes, make antibodies (proteins that recognize and bind foreign molecules) to the viral protein. (
  • Active immunity: Active immunity means that the individual has responded to an antigen and produced his own antibodies, lymphocytes are activated and the memory cells formed provide long lasting resistance.2. (
  • Immunity to a disease is achieved through the presence of antibodies to that disease in a person's system. (
  • This type of immunity is usually mediated by antibodies and antigens reactions and is known as humoral immunity. (
  • These so-called neutralizing antibodies are associated with protective immunity," Ernst says. (
  • From the very beginning, it seemed pretty likely that a goal of vaccine development and a goal of natural immunity after infection would involve neutralizing antibodies. (
  • The key to this immunity lies in T-cells, a type of white blood cell that helps the immune system fight off viruses, which experts believe may have just as important a role to play as antibodies in fighting off the virus. (
  • Herd immunity, the real thing, requires 70 to 90 percent of the population acquiring resistance to the coronavirus. (
  • Moreover, triggering trained immunity via live vaccines, such as BCG, measles, and oral polio vaccines, can be an effective approach in treating patients with severe infectious diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (
  • For a dose of pre-weekend optimism, check out the Telegraph , which headlines: "UK may already have enough herd immunity to prevent second coronavirus wave, study says. (
  • The UK may have already achieved a sufficient level of herd immunity to stop a second wave of coronavirus, an Oxford University study has suggested. (
  • Leading experts have already suggested that a sizeable number of people may have immunity against coronavirus because of its similarity to viruses including the common cold. (
  • There is probably background T-cell immunity in people before they see the coronavirus, and that may be relevant that many people get a pretty asymptomatic disease," he said. (
  • Dr. Fauci says immunity certificates 'possible' after coronavirus pandemic. (
  • Even America's leading coronavirus expert Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said on CNN's "New Day" last week that immunity certificates are being discussed. (
  • Some experts argue immunity certificates - documentation verifying a person is immune to the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 - could help reopen the economy by allowing some people to safely return to work, eat at restaurants and partake in activities prohibited by social distancing restrictions. (
  • Sovereign immunity in the United States bars suit against federal, state, and tribal governments, which cannot be sued without their consent. (
  • When receiving diplomats-who formally represent the sovereign-the receiving head of state grants certain privileges and immunities to ensure they may effectively carry out their duties, on the understanding that these are provided on a reciprocal basis. (
  • ST. LOUIS (CN) - An Indian tribe cannot claim sovereign immunity when it makes counterclaims in an arbitration dispute, the 8th Circuit ruled. (
  • That project was the only one without a waiver of sovereign immunity. (
  • If a tribe were to operate under American Arbitration Association rules, and then after an adverse decision assert sovereign immunity and walk away, it would convert sovereignty from a shield into a sword," Rosenbaum ruled. (
  • The transit agency formed by Maryland, Virginia and the District says the protections those governments hold were passed along to Metro as "sovereign immunity" when they formed the agency. (
  • Allergies aren't the only type of immunity gone wrong (they're just among the most annoying). (
  • [16] Individuals who are immunodeficient due to HIV/AIDS , lymphoma , leukemia , bone marrow cancer, an impaired spleen , chemotherapy , or radiotherapy may have lost any immunity that they previously had and vaccines may not be of any use for them because of their immunodeficiency. (
  • Vaccines build immunity against specific diseases. (
  • I also heard from Martin Andanar, the administration's chief propagandist, that with the arrival of the vaccines, there is light at the end of the tunnel and that the country will achieve herd immunity before the end of the year. (
  • The deployment of vaccines, and in particular any "vaccination passport or "immunity passport" or certificate linked to the vaccination, must respect human rights. (
  • Recent events have raised concerns about waning immunity to Tdap vaccines, especially among adolescents, compared with DTP, which included a whole-cell pertussis vaccine. (
  • The current case-control study looked at the effectiveness and duration of immunity conferred by Tdap among the first cohort of adolescents who received acellular vaccines in Washington state. (
  • The most notable forms of legal immunity are diplomatic immunity , judicial immunity , and witness immunity . (
  • Grants of immunity are particularly important in intergovernmental relations, where traditions have arisen to prevent the diplomatic representatives of a country from being harassed by their host countries. (
  • Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments, which ensures that diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws (although they can be expelled ). (
  • Many principles of diplomatic immunity are now considered to be customary law . (
  • Diplomatic immunity as an institution developed to allow for the maintenance of government relations, including during periods of difficulties and even armed conflict . (
  • 4) diplomatic immunity which excuses foreign ambassadors from most U.S. criminal laws. (
  • Diplomatic Immunity ' is a song by Canadian musician Drake . (
  • The song alongside 'God's Plan', debuted in the top ten on the US Billboard Hot 100, where they became Drake 's 21st and 22nd top ten entries on the chart, making him the only artist in Billboard history at the time to debut two songs in the top ten at once twice, with ' Diplomatic Immunity ' debuting at number seven and 'God's Plan' at number one. (
  • Jan 19, 2018 · About " Diplomatic Immunity" " Diplomatic Immunity ' is Drake 's resurgence from a small hiatus from the limelight. (
  • What is diplomatic immunity? (
  • Diplomatic Immunity' is Drake's resurgence from a small hiatus from the limelight. (
  • What does Drake's 'diplomatic immunity' mean? (
  • How was 'Diplomatic Immunity' teased prior to the official release? (
  • Diplomatic immunity , fuck 'em. (
  • Jan 22, 2018 · " Diplomatic Immunity ," the B-side of Drake 's new release, Scary Hours, is the latest chapter in this ongoing saga, a long run-on recap filled with snark, smarm, and airings of grievances. (
  • One of the senior State Department officials, who spoke on condition of anonymity because of a lack of authorization to speak on the matter, said the department's Diplomatic Security branch does not have the right or ability to offer blanket immunity and did not do anything that would inhibit prosecutors if charges are to be pursued. (
  • Their suspect, Salem Al-Mazrooei, was a diplomat from the United Arab Emirates - and therefore covered by "diplomatic immunity. (
  • Some forms of diplomatic immunity are extremely important. (
  • But thanks to diplomatic immunity, the city has no power to collect. (
  • Morozov was protected by diplomatic immunity and let go. (
  • A recent essay by the American Anti-Slavery Group warned of "a growing concern among labor activists that diplomatic immunity has become a convenient cover for slavery. (
  • Immunity is the system of defense in the body which gives protection against foreign materials, specifically infectious microorganisms - bacteria , viruses , parasites , and their products (see also immune system ). (
  • Immune deficiency diseases, although rare, have provided models for the separate parts of the immune system, and have led to methods of replacement of absent components of immunity. (
  • Trained immunity is a newly emerging concept that defines the ability of the innate immune system to form immune memory and provide long-lasting protection against foreign invaders. (
  • The innate immunity is characterized by rapid, non-specific responses of the immune system against pathogens and tissue damage. (
  • The ability of the innate immune system to develop adaptive features and provide long-term protection against pathogenic reinfection is termed as trained immunity. (
  • Induction of trained immunity is considered to be a potential therapeutic strategy to manage various health conditions associated with immune system malfunctioning, such as cancer. (
  • For example, hyperactivation of the innate immune system for a prolonged period as well as heightened immune reaction in response to secondary stimuli can link trained immunity with the risk of developing chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. (
  • The second is the cancer immunity cycle, a framework that Dr Daniel Chen and I devised, which helps to describe how a tumour interacts with the human immune system. (
  • Legal immunity , or immunity from prosecution , is a legal status wherein an individual or entity cannot be held liable for a violation of the law, in order to facilitate societal aims that outweigh the value of imposing liability in such cases. (
  • Such legal immunity may be from criminal prosecution , or from civil liability (being subject of lawsuit ), or both. (
  • At least 19 states have enacted laws or issued executive orders that either explicitly grant nursing homes and their workers legal immunity during the pandemic or that appear to do so, according to an AARP tally. (
  • natural immunity Immunity that has been inherited, in contrast to one that has been acquired. (
  • 5. Natural and acquired immunity Natural immunity Acquired immunity1. (
  • Active immunity can be acquired through natural immunity or vaccine-induced immunity. (
  • Natural immunity is acquired from exposure to the disease organism through infection with the actual disease. (
  • This analysis does not apply literally to the official shielded by absolute immunity since even wrongfully motivated actions will not incur liability in his case. (
  • In fact, Presidents from both parties have on occasion tried to claim that close aides had absolute immunity. (
  • Herd immunity (also called herd effect , community immunity , population immunity , or social immunity ) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune. (
  • Herd immunity, or as its sometimes called, community immunity, is a name for a phenomenon in which in a population with high levels of immunity to a disease members susceptible to the disease are protected. (
  • Fine PEM, Mulholland K. Community immunity. (
  • Community Immunity MacDonald's debut on trumpeter Dave Douglas b.1963 trumpet " data-original-title="" title=""> Dave Douglas ' Greenleaf Music highlights Macdonald's unique compositional voice and showcases a fearless artist who is willing to break free of the shackles of expectations. (
  • His saxophone can be a beacon of clarity ("Community Immunity") or a bird of prey ("Second Guessing"), depending on his mood, but his ideas are always intriguing. (
  • With Community Immunity , Curtis Macdonald establishes himself as one who stands apart from the rest but, with a such a unique musical statement, he just might be embraced by the jazz community at large. (
  • [3] Some individuals cannot become immune due to medical reasons and in this group herd immunity is an important method of protection. (
  • [4] [5] Once a certain threshold has been reached, herd immunity gradually eliminates a disease from a population. (
  • [7] Herd immunity does not apply to all diseases, just those that are contagious , meaning that they can be transmitted from one individual to another. (
  • [5] Tetanus , for example, is infectious but not contagious, so herd immunity does not apply. (
  • The term herd immunity was first used in 1923. (
  • [8] Mass vaccination to induce herd immunity has since become common and proved successful in preventing the spread of many infectious diseases . (
  • [9] Opposition to vaccination has posed a challenge to herd immunity, allowing preventable diseases to persist in or return to communities that have inadequate vaccination rates. (
  • High levels of immunity in one age group can create herd immunity for other age groups. (
  • One of the most common tropes used by antivaxers is to attack herd immunity as not being real. (
  • In herd immunity, the transmission of the virus substantially slows because enough people have been protected through infection or vaccination. (
  • Our staff writer James Hamblin set out to try to understand when we'll reach herd immunity-the point at which enough of a population has been infected to ward off more major spikes of a disease. (
  • 1. Herd immunity is calculated differently for an uncontrolled virus. (
  • In the context of vaccination, herd-immunity thresholds are relatively fixed and predictable. (
  • In other words, the herd in question determines its immunity. (
  • So, Do We Have Herd Immunity Yet? (
  • Scientists believe the "threshold" of herd immunity may have been lowered because many people may already be immune to the disease without ever having caught it. (
  • Proponents of immunity contend the lawsuits will expose how the nation's spies collect information and say the telecoms responded in good faith to requests for help from the administration. (
  • Republican members of Congress remain divided on the question of reforming qualified immunity for police officers, even as a GOP senator has proposed a bill that would curb the protections from civil lawsuits that officers currently enjoy. (
  • The legal doctrine of qualified immunity arose from several Supreme Court rulings, and protects police officers from being held personally liable in civil lawsuits as long as they do not behave in a manner than flouts "clearly established" law. (
  • The nursing home industry is now lobbying for a sweeping federal immunity order, which would shield all of the nation's 15,600 nursing homes - 70 percent of which are for-profit - from lawsuits. (
  • The U.S. Supreme Court first introduced the qualified immunity doctrine in Pierson v. Ray (1967), a case litigated during the height of the civil rights movement, it is stated to have been originally introduced with the rationale of protecting law enforcement officials from frivolous lawsuits and financial liability in cases where they acted in good faith in unclear legal situations. (
  • In Pierson v. Ray (1967), the Supreme Court first justified the need for qualified immunity from civil rights violation lawsuits for law enforcement officers by arguing that "[a] policeman's lot is not so unhappy that he must choose between being charged with dereliction of duty if he does not arrest when he had probable cause, and being punished with damages if he does. (
  • Qualified immunity frequently arises in civil rights cases, particularly in lawsuits arising under 42 USC § 1983 and Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents (1971). (
  • Senator Mike Braun, an Indiana Republican, last week introduced the Reforming Qualified Immunity Act, which would allow police officers to claim qualified immunity only when their alleged unlawful conduct was previously authorized or required by federal or state law, or if a court found that their conduct was consistent with the Constitution and federal law. (
  • A spokeswoman for Senator Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, a Republican who frequently breaks with her party on high-profile issues, has said that Murkowski feels differently, believing that Congress needs to have "a debate and discussion about reforming qualified immunity," that takes the concerns McConnell expressed into account. (
  • Individual immunity can be gained through recovering from a natural infection or through artificial means such as vaccination . (
  • Some individuals either cannot develop immunity after vaccination or for medical reasons cannot be vaccinated. (
  • If an individual acquires immunity by having the disease in question, as opposed to acquiring it as the result of vaccination, then that individual is said to have natural acquired immunity. (
  • Vaccine-induced immunity is acquired through the introduction of a killed or weakened form of the disease organism through vaccination. (
  • Nussenzweig, M. Study Suggests Lasting Immunity After COVID-19, With A Big Boost From Vaccination. (
  • In humans, BCG vaccination-mediated non-specific protection against secondary infections is believed to be caused by trained immunity. (
  • In addition, immune-modulatory effects of BCG vaccination against several cancer types, such as lymphoma, leukemia, bladder cancer, and melanoma, are associated with the induction of trained immunity in macrophages and monocytes. (
  • Equally familiar examples include the immunities against prosecution granted to representatives (MPs or councillors) and government officials in pursuit of their duties. (
  • With that, the court granted all government officials immunity for violating constitutional and civil rights unless the victims of those violations can show that the rights were "clearly established. (
  • If you've ever wondered why government officials don't seem to care about your rights or the Constitution, qualified immunity is why. (
  • Government officials should have no concern about qualified immunity if they don't infringe on citizens rights. (
  • Court observation: "Of all the immunities enjoyed by government officials the legislative immunity is perhaps the most sweeping and absolute. (
  • Qualified immunity applies only to government officials in civil litigation, and does not protect the government itself from suits arising from officials' actions. (
  • Prior to Harlow v. Fitzgerald, the U.S. Supreme Court granted immunity to government officials only if: (1) the official believed in good faith that their conduct was lawful, and (2) the conduct was objectively reasonable. (
  • In this review, we discuss recent advances that describe the roles of individual components during primary and secondary responses to respiratory virus infections and how these discoveries have added to our understanding of antiviral immunity in the lung. (
  • Recent research has focused attention on the importance of intrinsic antiviral immunity, i.e. immunity mediated by factors that are constitutively expressed in many cells. (
  • The Senate moved closer Tuesday morning to approving retroactive immunity for telecoms that helped the Bush administration spy on Americans, denying by a vote of 31-67 an amendment that would have stripped amnesty from a bill expanding the government's spy powers. (
  • Given a choice of two FISA bills, one that provided retroactive immunity to telecoms companies that illegally cooperated with the NSA after 9/11 and one that didn't, Harry Reid decided to bring to the floor the bill that provided immunity. (
  • And because Congress - Republicans and Democrats alike - went along with this even after we had gotten our bearings and had no excuse for continuing to operate on an emergency basis, they're just as happy as anyone to put this whole episode behind them and cave in on the retroactive immunity issue. (
  • Most important, Krebs cycle intermediates such as succinate, fumarate and citrate engage in processes related to immunity and inflammation, in both innate and adaptive immune cells. (
  • State Department spokesman Sean McCormack said Tuesday that while he could not talk about the specifics of the Blackwater case, the kind of immunity being reported in the media were limited protections. (
  • In a normal world, pretty much everyone would agree that if a host country won't cut some kind of immunity deal for military troops in what's still, after all, basically a warzone, then the troops have to come home. (
  • relating to the activation of innate immunity (the first line of defense against infection) in the fly Drosophila . (
  • - The defense of immunity which protects public officials from personal liability in federal civil rights suits, and the government from monetary liability, is discussed. (
  • It is limited in scope to the immunity defense to damages liability. (
  • It is limited in scope to the immunity defense to damages liability and does not treat the many other defenses asserted in section 1983 actions. (
  • 1. Body defense mechanism & Immunity Shrooti Shah M.Sc. (
  • Immunity is your body's defense against foreign organisms. (
  • Innate immunity, with which an organism is born, involves protective factors, such as interferon, and cells, such as macrophages, granulocytes, and natural killer cells, and its action does not depend on prior exposure to a pathogen. (
  • immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. (
  • The term immunity refers to the body's specific protective response to an invading foreign agent or organism. (
  • So far, articles published in the collection include research on fruit flies, an important genetic model organism, addressing the ways in which the demands of mating and reproduction compete with immunity and how immunity changes with age. (
  • Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains the antigen. (
  • Heard" immunity… also known as pang press release lang even as we are getting antsy about vaccine availability. (
  • Another four papers review the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on immunity to parasitic infections, their ligands, and how this knowledge can be translated into PAMP-based adjuvants for novel vaccine strategies. (
  • The benefits of polysaccharides don't end there: There are two stages of immunity-innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • The investigation of pulmonary immunity to respiratory viruses during a primary infection has demonstrated that multiple innate and adaptive immune mechanisms are necessary for efficient antiviral responses, and the inhibition of any single mechanism can have disastrous consequences for the host. (
  • however, unlike innate immunity, adaptive immunity develops slowly and provides highly specific, long-lasting protection against pathogens. (
  • For the past many decades, it was believed that the formation of immune memory was exclusively associated with adaptive immunity. (
  • Alike adaptive immune response, trained immunity is associated with a heightened immune reaction in response to reinfections. (
  • Not to be confused with the evolutionary use of the term 'social immunity' . (
  • Ugelvig and Cremer believe that the ants are using a sort of social immunity, where an infected individual passes on a form of protection to its nestmates. (
  • Social immunity could work in two ways. (
  • The PREP Act provides that, during a public health emergency, the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services may make a declaration regarding the manufacture, testing, development, distribution, administration or use of 'covered countermeasures' and provide immunity from liability to certain businesses and individuals for claims of loss arising out of the administration or use of those covered countermeasures. (
  • Also from the Telegraph , on the same subject: "Exposure to common cold could provide immunity to Covid-19. (
  • In American Immunity , Hagopian places what he calls the "superpower exemption" in the context of a long-standing tension between international law and U.S. sovereignty. (
  • American Immunity is comprehensive but concise, impressively documented by primary sources (in sixty pages of footnotes) and clearly written. (
  • The question of whether the rule of law applies to America's own military is at the heart of Patrick Hagopian's searing study American Immunity . (
  • His palpable outrage makes American Immunity a compelling read. (
  • This type of response, called humoral immunity, is active mainly against toxins and free pathogens (those not ingested by phagocytes) in body fluids. (
  • Careful regulation of innate immunity is essential to ensure effective clearance of pathogens and to avoid detrimental inflammatory disease. (
  • The discovery of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) devoted to detection of pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) fostered a vibrant research in the past decade, identifying new receptors, new ligands on pathogens, and key signaling pathways inducing innate immunity [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Despite providing long-term benefits in fighting harmful pathogens, trained immunity can have detrimental effects in certain conditions. (
  • But immunity involves more than just the immune cells that recognize and hunt down pathogens. (
  • The principle of immunity as it is now interpreted by the courts maintains that there should be no liability without fault to the public official who is required to make decisions and act upon them in an arena in which the rights of citizens are frequently affected. (
  • However, since this complete immunity does not extend to conduct clearly outside the scope of the official's authority, his error in so acting is implicitly treated as culpable by the imposition of liability. (
  • Immunity would have no significance if it did not mean that the public official is more protected from liability than is a private citizen. (
  • Drawing on this variation and exploiting exogenous shocks to care location choices stemming from base-hospital closures, we find suggestive evidence that liability immunity reduces inpatient spending by 5% with no measurable negative effect on patient outcomes. (
  • Also relied on common law immunity of state legislators from liability for legislative acts, as recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court. (
  • and other Republican lawmakers have made liability immunity a priority as more businesses reopen. (
  • Some states are providing immunity from COVID-related liability for a wide range of businesses. (
  • Friday morning, Trump urged Flynn to ask for immunity to protect himself from a "witch hunt. (
  • Three former Trump aides who are at the center of the federal investigation into Russia's interference in the US elections have already come forward and said they would testify freely -- without the promise of immunity. (
  • This immunity is intended to allow lawmakers to do their work without the threat of interference from other branches of government. (
  • However, these days, lawmakers tread into the immunity arena with trepidation. (
  • Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras yesterday (25 July) called for the abolition of parliamentary immunity for lawmakers and for more referendums to boost direct democracy. (
  • A great challenge to research in immunology and parasitology is the development of strategies that favor immunity against protozoan parasites and prevent their evasion, chronic, or recurrent infections and associated pathologies. (
  • Researchers have taken particular note of the collaboration between the two as they try to find ways the intestinal environment can be enlisted to boost our immunity more effectively. (
  • Contained in large amounts in yogurt, LAB regulates intestinal function and has long been associated with boosting immunity. (
  • In the 1980s, grants of congressional immunity to Oliver North and John Poindexter wound up ruining the Justice Department's efforts to prosecute the Iran-Contra players. (
  • Tajik President Emomali Rahmon has signed into law a bill that gives him the title 'Leader of the Nation' and grants him lifelong immunity from prosecution. (
  • Immunity to respiratory viruses. (
  • One chapter discusses how intrinsic immunity and viral countermeasures to intrinsic immune effectors drive both pathogen and host evolution, and finally the emerging evidence that DNA damage response proteins restrict infection by DNA viruses is highlighted. (
  • In the case of Covid-19, we must recognise that immunity passports are not the silver bullet to the socio-economic challenges we are facing as a result of the pandemic. (
  • That's particularly true in New York, whose immunity order absolves nursing homes of responsibility for keeping certain records during the pandemic. (
  • Innate Immunity relies on germline-encoded receptors, which sense microbial products and endogenous danger signals. (
  • Other PRRs, such as Nod-like receptors (NLR), only recently came into spotlight in immunity to protozoan parasites [ 5 ]. (
  • The journal welcomes manuscripts from researchers actively working on all aspects of innate immunity including biologically active bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, and plant components, as well as relevant cells, their receptors, signaling pathways, and induced mediators. (
  • Such legal immunities may be suspect as potential violations of the rule of law, or regarded as quite proper, as necessary protections for the officers of the state in the rightful pursuit of their duties. (
  • To encourage self-evaluation, Part 148 of Michigan's Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act (NREPA) gives organizations incentive to conduct and disclose the results of environmental audits by offering special protections and immunities against violation, fines, and penalties. (
  • Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell has gone even farther, indicating that he believes weakening qualified-immunity protections would deter people from becoming police officers. (
  • Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response. (
  • there are two types: nonspecific, innate immunity and specific, acquired immunity. (
  • If a parasite enters the colony, contact-based immunity would rapidly create a ring of resistant individuals around the infected one, shielding the rest of the colony from the spread of disease. (
  • The mission of the Immunity and Disease Prevention Research Unit is to determine how diet and individual dietary factors affect immune function to maintain health. (
  • The Immunity and Disease Prevention Research is located in Davis, CA and is part of the Pacific West Area . (
  • On Friday, his lawyer said that Bolton's willingness to testify depends on what the courts have to say about immunity. (
  • The state's highest court said immunity depends on whether the suit stems from a governmental decision grounded in policy, such as when to mop floors, or was part of a so-called proprietary function that involves discretion, such as failing to stop a speeding bus for a red light, causing a crash. (
  • Therefore, the application of qualified immunity no longer depends upon an official's subjective state of mind, but on whether or not a reasonable person in the official's position would have known their actions were in line with clearly established legal principles. (
  • Former national security adviser Michael Flynn is willing to testify before federal and congressional investigators in their ongoing probe into Russian meddling in the US elections, but only if he is granted immunity. (
  • Assuming that the attorney general (or the independent counsel in his place) does not exercise statutory authority to delay by 20 days issuance of the court order granting immunity, the congressional initiative to obtain immunity for North would guarantee that the American people would have the full story by the end of next month. (
  • What is congressional immunity? (
  • This is why we are concerned and ready to challenge the push from government and industry to deploy immunity passports. (
  • Immunity passports are essentially restricting the liberties of individuals on the basis of their "immunity" status, or lack of it. (
  • The concerns we've observed when it comes to identity including exclusion and discrimination, the exploitation of people's data, surveillance of people, and mission creep all apply to the concept of immunity passports. (
  • The decision of Chile to not deploy immunity passports out of concerns it would lead to discrimination and disadvantage those applying for jobs clearly illustrates what could potentially go wrong, and the need to weigh the benefits and harms. (
  • The array of proposals to develop and implement immunity passports right now are all of the more concerning given that the World Health Organisation and immunologists have consistently maintained the position that given the lack of evidence about the effectiveness of antibody-mediated immunity there is no guarantee the accuracy of an "immunity passport" or "risk-free certificate. (
  • Italy's special commissioner for the virus emergency Domenico Arcuri said exit from the lockdown will include increased virus testing, the deployment of a voluntary contact-tracing app and mandatory antibody blood tests as the country seeks to set up a system of "immunity passports. (
  • once immunity has been thus primed, the easy and rapid availability of antibody protects against further infection. (
  • Hear two experts discuss the origins of legislative privilege and immunity and recent cases that illustrate what you should know if you find yourself in court. (
  • The European Parliament on Tuesday (25 October) voted to lift Jean-Marie Le Pen's parliamentary immunity . (
  • Charged with libel for comments about Qatar, the MEP and vice president of the French National Front has had his parliamentary immunity confirmed by a vote this afternoon (Tuesday 2 February). (
  • The court ultimately ruled in favor of Saucier, due to qualified immunity. (
  • As for the presidential contenders, Senator Hilary Clinton (D-New York) did not vote, Sen. Barack Obama (D-Illinois) voted against immunity, and Sen. John McCain (R-Arizona) voted for it. (
  • Obama opposed immunity but voted for it because it was included in a new spy bill that gave the Bush administration broad warrantless-surveillance powers . (
  • A wide range of stimuli, such as beta-glucan (fungal ligand) and BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin), are known to induce trained immunity. (
  • Hoffmann's work provided a vital foundation for subsequent breakthroughs in scientists' understanding of mammalian immunity. (