Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred C57BLLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Mice, Inbred BALB CInterferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Mice, Inbred C3HApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Immune System Phenomena: The characteristic properties and processes involved in IMMUNITY and an organism's immune response.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.

*Interleukin 27

IL-10 acts in an anti-inflammatory manner by suppressing inflammatory responses. One way that IL-27 can have an anti- ... IL-27 induces differentiation of the diverse populations of T cells in the immune system and also upregulates IL-10. When IL-27 ... There are two types of responses, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, which involve different types of cells, such as ... Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Garbers, Christoph (2015-10-01). "The biology of interleukin-27 reveals unique pro- and anti- ...

*Adiposopathy

... pro-inflammatory factors and a decrease in too many anti-inflammatory factors often result in a net pro-inflammatory response ... such as immune cells) produces factors including: (1) adipokines with cytokine activity such as leptin, interleukins, and tumor ... such as those associated with the renin-angiotensin system); (7) fat and cholesterol metabolism; (8) enzyme production; (9) ... From an anti-inflammatory standpoint, fat tissue produces various anti-inflammatory factors with the most commonly described ...

*Interleukin 10

"IL-35 is a novel responsive anti-inflammatory cytokine--a new system of categorizing anti-inflammatory cytokines". PLoS One. 7 ... Girndt M (2003). "Humoral immune responses in uremia and the role of IL-10". Blood Purification. 20 (5): 485-8. doi:10.1159/ ... Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In ... The Interleukin 10 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cooperative Study Group". Gastroenterology. 119 (6): 1473-82. doi:10.1053/gast. ...

*Cortisol

This results in a shift toward a Th2 immune response rather than general immunosuppression. The activation of the stress system ... and activates antistress and anti-inflammatory pathways. Cortisol also plays an important, but indirect, role in liver and ... Cortisol can weaken the activity of the immune system. It prevents proliferation of T-cells by rendering the interleukin-2 ... Cortisol and the stress response have known deleterious effects on the immune system. High levels of perceived stress and ...

*Allergic conjunctivitis

When a particular allergen is present, sensitization takes place and prepares the system to launch an antigen specific response ... and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are generally safe and usually effective. The conjunctiva is a thin membrane ... The cause of allergic conjunctivitis is an allergic reaction of the body's immune system to an allergen. Allergic ... Mast cell-derived cytokines such as chemokine interleukin IL-8 are involved in recruitment of neutrophils. TH2 cytokines such ...

*Psoriatic arthritis

... interleukin 17 and interleukin 23, as well as the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory factor interleukin 10. It is given in ... Unlike traditional DMARDS that affect the entire immune system, biologics target specific parts of the immune system. They are ... there is a trend toward earlier use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or biological response modifiers to prevent ... "Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of ...

*Interleukin 21

Thus, IL-21 may contribute to the mechanism by which CD4+ T helper cells orchestrate the immune system response to viral ... "Interleukin-21 is a T-helper cytokine that regulates humoral immunity and cell-mediated anti-tumour responses". Immunology. 112 ... It was shown to be successful in decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by T cells in addition to decreasing IgE levels ... Interleukin-21 is a cytokine that has potent regulatory effects on cells of the immune system, including natural killer (NK) ...

*Immune checkpoint

Boyman O, Sprent J (February 17, 2012). "The role of interleukin-2 during homeostasis and activation of the immune system". Nat ... Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti-tumor response through loss of Treg lineage stability. The biotech ... it is only upregulated on the most recently antigen-activated T cells within inflammatory lesions. Anti-OX40 monoclonal ... Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system. These pathways are crucial for self-tolerance, which prevents the ...

*Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles

... immune complex - immune deficiency/immunodeficiency - immune response - immune system - immune thrombocytopenic purpura - ... non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) - NRTI - nucleic acid - nucleic acid test - nucleocapsid - nucleoli - nucleoside ... interleukin-1 (IL-1) - interleukin-2 (IL-2) - interleukin-4 (IL-4) - interleukin-12 (IL-12) - interleukins - International ... dose-response relationship - double burden of disease - double-blind study - drug resistance - drug-drug interaction - DSMB - ...

*Macrophage-activating factor

These macrophages produce Interleukin 10 and inhibit immune system response (See below for Effect on cancer). Tumor-associated ... which cause both pro and anti-inflammatory responses that can promote EMT. Pathogenic antigens can bind to toll-like receptors ... Macrophages have been classified as M1 or M2 depending on the adaptive immune response that elicited the phenotype: Th1 or Th2 ... Regulatory macrophages produce Interleukin 10, which can inhibit cytotoxic responses of other lymphocytes to cancer cell ...

*Intestinal mucosal barrier

This can result in activation of the immune system and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Certain immune responses might, in ... and interleukin 13 (IL-13) Anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) Zonulin Immune cells Gamma/delta-positive ... come into contact with the mucosal immune system, and trigger an antigen-specific immune response. Reduced intestinal barrier ... The development of food allergies depend on the antigen coming into contact with components of the mucosal immune system. This ...

*Oncostatin M

The role of OSM as an inflammatory mediator was clear as early as 1986. Its precise effect on the immune system, as with any ... "Differential activation of acute phase response factor/STAT3 and STAT1 via the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 6 signal ... claiming OSM is anti-inflammatory. It is important to note that before 1997 differences in human and murine OSM receptor usage ... As mentioned above the action of OSM as a quencher of the inflammatory response is by no means established yet. For example, ...

*Interleukin 17

... immune cells react to inflammatory molecules released within the skin around the joints and scalp. This response causes the ... Based on emerging evidence from animal models, IL-17 has been suggested as a target for anti-inflammatory therapies to improve ... IL-17D is highly expressed in the nervous system and in skeletal muscle and IL-17E is found at low levels in various peripheral ... Interleukin 17A (IL-17 or IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine. This cytokine is produced by a group of T helper cell known ...

*Cytokine release syndrome

Muromonab-CD3, an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, was intended to suppress the immune system to prevent rejection of organ ... CRS is an adverse effect of some drugs and is a form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The Common Terminology ... It appears that interleukin 6 is a key mediator of CRS. CRS needs to be distinguished from other adverse effects or symptoms of ... but judgement must be used to avoid negating the effect of drugs intended to activate the immune system. Tocilizumab, an anti- ...

*Prostaglandin EP2 receptor

... which regulates cell migratory responses and innate immune responses including pro-inflammatory cytokine and interleukin ... However, EP2 activation also has anti-inflammatory actions on pro-inflammatory cells (e.g. neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages ... EP2 receptors that are located on either nerve or Neuroglia cells of the peripheral and central nervous system act to promote ... regulation of host anti-tumor immune responses. Pre-clinical studies, as outlined above, indicate that EP2 may be a target for ...

*Specialized pro-resolving mediators

Through most of its early period of study, acute inflammatory responses were regarded as self-limiting innate immune system ... an anti-inflammatory cytokine), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (an inhibitor of the action of pro-inflammatory cytokine, ... Resolution of the normal inflammatory response, then, may involve switching production of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory ... Excessive inflammatory responses to insult as well as many pathological inflammatory responses that contribute to diverse ...

*Index of immunology articles

3-dioxygenase Induced-self antigen Inflammasome Inflammation Inflammatory reflex Innate immune system Innate lymphoid cell ... alpha subunit Interleukin 34 Interleukin 35 Interleukin 6 Interleukin 7 Interleukin 7 receptor-α Interleukin 8 Interleukin 8 ... mediated immunity CELSR1 Central tolerance Chemokine Chemokine receptor Chimeric antigen receptor Cholinergic anti-inflammatory ... Beta-2 microglobulin Binding antibody Biological response modifiers Blocking antibody Blotto (biology) BNAber Body odor Bone ...

*NLRP10

It is also believed that it helps regulate the inflammatory response. NLRP8 reduces inflammatory and innate immune responses by ... May 2010). "Anti-inflammatory activity of PYNOD and its mechanism in humans and mice". J. Immunol. 184 (10): 5874-84. doi: ... is an intracellular protein of mammals that functions in apoptosis and the immune system. It is also known as NALP10, NOD8, ... 2005). "PYPAF3, a PYRIN-containing APAF-1-like protein, is a feedback regulator of caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1beta ...

*Inflammatory bowel disease

... s fall into the class of autoimmune diseases, in which the body's own immune system attacks elements ... Elson CO, Cong Y, Weaver CT, Schoeb TR, McClanahan TK, Fick RB, Kastelein RA (2007). "Monoclonal anti-interleukin 23 reverses ... elicit further immune responses. IBD is a multifactorial disease that is nonetheless driven in part by an exaggerated immune ... intestinal tuberculosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy. The chief types of inflammatory bowel disease are ...

*Tuberculosis in relation to HIV

The role of interleukin-10 family of cytokines in HIV-tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... The cytokine IFN-γ plays a pivotal role in signaling of the immune system during infection. Reduced production of IFN-γ or its ... Active TB disease appears when immune response is not sufficient in limiting the growth of infection. TB disease is symptomatic ... ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy) along with ATT (Anti Tuberculosis Treatment) is the only available treatment in present time. ...

*Scar free healing

... healing wounds and adult scar-forming wounds is the role played by the cells of the immune system and the inflammatory response ... In wound-healing in urodeles it is the quick response of anti-inflammatory macrophages which have been shown to be key to their ... The expression of HA is known to down-regulate the recruitment of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour ... The fetal immune system can be described as 'immunologically immature' due to the marked reduction in neutrophils, macrophages ...

*IL12A

Peluso I, Pallone F, Monteleone G (2006). "Interleukin-12 and Th1 immune response in Crohn's disease: pathogenetic relevance ... Muthumani K, Desai BM, Hwang DS, Choo AY, Laddy DJ, Thieu KP, Rao RG, Weiner DB (2004). "HIV-1 Vpr and anti-inflammatory ... "The interleukin-12 and interleukin-12 receptor system in normal and transformed human B lymphocytes". Haematologica. 87 (4): ... "Requirement for Stat4 in interleukin-12-mediated responses of natural killer and T cells". Nature. 382 (6587): 171-4. doi: ...

*Interleukin

"The interleukin-12/interleukin-12-receptor system: role in normal and pathologic immune responses". Annual Review of Immunology ... "Interleukin-13 is a new human lymphokine regulating inflammatory and immune responses". Nature. 362 (6417): 248-50. doi:10.1038 ... the helices are anti-parallel, with two overhand connections, which fall into a double-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet. The ... Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. Interleukin 1 ...

*Immunoglobulin E

... responsible for most of the classical adaptive immune response-it is capable of triggering the most powerful inflammatory ... Although it is not yet well understood, IgE may play an important role in the immune system's recognition of cancer, in which ... and interleukin-13 (IL-13) and other inflammatory mediators. The low-affinity receptor (FcεRII) is always expressed on B cells ... An anti-M1' humanized antibody, quilizumab, is in phase IIb clinical trial. In 2002, researchers at The Randall Division of ...

*Fever

... molecules that are a part of the immune system. They are produced by activated immune cells and cause the increase in the ... and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Minor endogenous pyrogens include interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-β, macrophage inflammatory ... Fever can be differentiated from hyperthermia by the circumstances surrounding it and its response to anti-pyretic medications ... A neutropenic fever, also called febrile neutropenia, is a fever in the absence of normal immune system function. Because of ...

*Interferon

The previous results in an inhibition of Th2 immune response and a further induction of Th1 immune response, which leads to the ... Other cytokines, such as interleukin 1, interleukin 2, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor and colony-stimulating factor, can ... IFNs belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. ... Seo SH, Hoffmann E, Webster RG (August 2002). "Lethal H5N1 influenza viruses escape host anti-viral cytokine responses". Nature ...
Looking for galvanic skin reaction? Find out information about galvanic skin reaction. The electrical reactions of the skin to any stimulus as detected by a sensitive galvanometer; most often used experimentally to measure the resistance of... Explanation of galvanic skin reaction
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Previous research has indicated that viewing 3D displays may induce greater visual fatigue than viewing 2D displays. Whether viewing 3D displays can evoke measureable emotional responses, however, is uncertain. In the present study, we examined autonomic nervous system responses in subjects viewing 2D or 3D displays. Autonomic responses were quantified in each subject by heart rate, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature. Viewers of both 2D and 3D displays showed strong positive correlations with heart rate, which indicated little differences between groups. In contrast, galvanic skin response and skin temperature showed weak positive correlations with average difference between viewing 2D and 3D. We suggest that galvanic skin response and skin temperature can be used to measure and compare autonomic nervous responses in subjects viewing 2D and 3D ...
Background: Social rejection elicits negative mood, emotional distress and neural activity in networks that are associated with physical pain. However, studies assessing physiological reactions to social rejection are rare and results of these studies were found to be ambiguous. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine and specify physiological effects of social rejection.Methods: Participants (N = 50) were assigned to either a social exclusion or inclusion condition of a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate) reactions were recorded. In addition, subjects reported levels of affect, emotional states and fundamental needs.Results: Subjects who were socially rejected showed increased heart rates. However, social rejection had no effect on subjects skin conductance levels. Both conditions showed heightened arousal on this measurement. Furthermore, psychological consequences of social rejection indicated the validity of the
These sites are chosen because of the high density of eccrine sweat glands, meaning an increased ability to detect changes in skin conductance. That being said, there are eccrine sweat glands all over the human body, so it is possible to measure skin conductance at many other sites. One example would be the soles of the feet, which are commonly used when dealing with babies.. With MindWare equipment, conductance is measured by applying a low DC voltage across the skin and measuring how the current changes.. It is also critical to recognize the difference between electrodes used to measure electrodermal activity and those used to measure other common physiological signals such as ECG. MindWare Electrodes used for EDA are rectangular in shape, and have a different electrode gel concentration (0.5% chloride wet gel). The ion concentration in the gel is designed to be similar to the ion concentration in sweat. Higher ion concentrations found in ECG electrodes will saturate the eccrine glands and ...
BioSemi can equip your force transducers with a miniature (15x30mm) precision strain gage amplifier. This makes your strain gage Active, the output signal is processed by the ActiveTwo AD-box just like any other active sensor. The advantages are that all influences of the connection cable are completely eliminated, no cable interference and no temperature drift. The Active strain gage contains a low-noise, low-power, zero-drift, chopper-stabilized differential amplifier. The power supply is from the ActiveTwo AD-box (16mA total bridge current). The modification to the Active strain gage can be performed for quarter, half and full bridge strain gage configurations. The supplied LabVIEW module automatically zeros the bridge and amplifier offset on startup. No further hardware trimming is necessary. The photo shows a precision force measurement for finger pressure, the amplifier is sealed in resin on the left side of the ergometer. ...
In schizophrenia, subtle aberrations in the brain cause functional disturbances like psychotic symptoms and social disability. There are, however, also disturbances outside the CNS indicating a systemic manifestation in the disease. The aim of the present thesis was to gain deeper understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia with a particular interest in peripheral and systemic manifestations with relevance for the increased risk of obesity and metabolic complications seen in the disease. Therefore, resting energy expenditure (REE), physical capacity, and relevant body composition variables were measured in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Also niacin skin flush response and electrodermal activity (EDA) were studied.. Patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly lower REE expressed as kJ/kg, and also lower values compared with predicted levels than the controls. The difference could not be attributed ...
The edaMove is a psycho physiologic ambulatory measurement system that can detect and measure Electro-dermal Activity (also known as Galvanic Skin Response).. The sensor acquires the raw data of the EDA and the 3D acceleration of a subject for up to 2 weeks. From this data secondary parameters like skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance responses (SCR), and activity intensity can be calculated with the movisens DataAnalyzer software.. Containing the precise 3D acceleration capture technology that comes in all of our sensors, the edaMove is optimized for research applications. The ability to capture motion, barometric pressure and temperature allows a more precise analysis of the data. These parameters allow the clear identification of measurement artefacts that normally hinder the assessment of EDA data in an ambulatory setting.. The sensor is worn with a wristband and comes with multi-use sintered electrodes.. ...
SCR (skin conductance response) is highly sensitive to emotions in some people. Fear, anger, startled response, orienting response and sexual feelings are among the reactions which may produce similar skin conductance responses. SCR is widely used in psychological research due to its low cost and high utility. Oftentimes, the galvanic skin responses are combined with recording of heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure because they are all autonomic dependent variables.. ...
A method and apparatus utilizing electrodermal response as a control mechanism. A specific embodiment of the method and apparatus utilizing a personal computer having a game paddle input port is described. The time rate of change in the electrodermal response of a biologic individual is sensed independently of the absolute value of the electrodermal response and continuously adjusted toward a time rate of change approaching the average time rate of change which the biologic individual cna consciously achieve in such electrodermal response. The resultant time rate of change is utilized as the input to a computer in order to provide the control.
Spontaneous fluctuations in electrodermal responses are known as nonspecific electrodermal responses (NS.EDRs). The use of NS.EDRs as a tool in applied psychophysiological research has resulted in a variety of publications. NS.EDRs are examined separately as associated with the (as a biomarker of) levels of anxiety. The aim of this study was to compare changes (in terms of amplitude, frequency and time components) in NS.EDRs at two different (pre and post of an external stimulus) resting phases. NS.EDRs (nonspecific skin conductance responses (NS.SCRs), nonspecific skin potential responses (NS.SPRs), and nonspecific skin susceptance responses (NS.SSRs)) were recorded from 50 apparently healthy volunteers simultaneously at the same skin area. They were scored as NS.SCRs and NS.SSRs for changes greater than 0.02 μS and NS.SPRs greater than 0.02 mV. It was found that NS.EDRs, in particular NS.SCRs and NS.SPRs, were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of ageing on autonomic nervous system function. AU - Ingall, T. J.. AU - McLeod, J. G.. AU - OBrien, P. C.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025223817&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025223817&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. VL - 20. SP - 570. EP - 577. JO - Internal Medicine Journal. JF - Internal Medicine Journal. SN - 1444-0903. IS - 4. ER - ...
An Overview Of Clinical Biofeedback. 1) Treatment Type: This is a specialized form of Behaviour Therapy (Behaviour Modification).. 2) Aim: To train patients to self-regulate, to some extent, physiological processes: heart rate, blood volume pulse, vasodilation/ vasoconstriction, muscle tension, brain waves (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and respiratory patterns.. 3) Methods: Electronic, and other mechanical devices are used to monitor the patients physiological processes, such as subtle muscle tension.. 4) Patients are provided real-time feedback about the ongoing physiological processes (biofeedback).. 5) Classical and Operant Conditioning methods are used to train the patients to modify physiological responses, e.g. to induce relaxation by breathing comfortably at 10 breaths per minute over a 15 minute several times a week. This is complimented by home practice, with or without biofeedback devices.. 6) In general, the interventions help to achieve Autonomic Nervous ...
Acoustic Stimulation, Activities of Daily Living, Adaptation, Psychological, Adolescent, Adult, Affect, Affective Symptoms, Alcoholism, Analysis of Variance, Anger, Anxiety, Arousal, Attention, Attitude, Behavior, Behavior Therapy, Borderline Personality Disorder, Brain, Brain Mapping, Cerebral Cortex, Choice Behavior, Cognition, Comorbidity, Compulsive Behavior, Computers, Conditioning, Classical, Conflict (Psychology), Control Groups, Crime Victims, Decision Making, Defense Mechanisms, Depression, Depressive Disorder, Depressive Disorder, Major, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Dialectical behavior therapy, Discrimination Learning, Dissociative Disorders, Dominance, Cerebral, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Therapy, Electrocardiography, Ambulatory, Emotions, Empathy, Environment, Exploratory Behavior, Expressed Emotion, Extinction, Psychological, Facial Expression, Fear, Feedback, Female, Forecasting, Fourier Analysis, Frontal Lobe, Galvanic Skin ...
The recent increase in interest for online multimedia streaming platforms has availed massive amounts of multimedia information for everyday users of such services. The available multimedia contents need to be indexed to be searchable and retrievable. Towards indexing multimedia contents, user-centric implicit affective indexing employing emotion detection based on psycho-physiological signals, such as electrocardiography (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR), electroencephalography (EEG) and face tracking, has recently gained attention. However, real world psycho-physiological signals obtained from wearable devices and facial trackers are contaminated by various noise sources that can result in spurious emotion detection. Therefore, in this paper we propose the development of psycho-physiological signal quality estimators for uni-modal affect recognition systems. The presented quality adaptive unimodal affect recognition systems performed adequately in ...
A well-documented problem of sex-offender assessment is dissimulation in the form of defense responding on three instruments widely used for this population: (a) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), (b) Multiphasic Sex Inventory-2 (MSI-2), and (c) Penile Plethysmograph (PPG). Although the MMPI-2 and the MSI-2 both consist of reliable validity scales, validity indices continue to be researched for the PPG. Response interference is a term that can be used to describe numerous causes for low-level responses on response interference indicators of the Monarch PPG and includes event markers, penile response, galvanic skin response, respiration, and respiration amplitude. Convergent validity data are suggested when assessing sex offenders; therefore, it would be useful to identify corresponding indicators of defensiveness. The purpose of this study was to utilize empirically established validity scales of the ...
of the galvanic skin response to words: An overview. J Exp Psychol: Gen. 1977;106:111-119.. 28. Dhanaraj VH, Singh M. Reduction in metabolic rate during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. In: Orme-Johnson DW, Farrow JT, ed. Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers, Vol. 1. Rheinweiler, Germany: MERU Press, 1973: 137-139.. 29. Anand BK, Chinna GS, Singh B. Some aspects of EEG studies on yogis. Electroencephalog Clin Neurophysiol. 1961;13:452-456.. 30. Kasamatsu A, Hirai T. An electroencephalographic study on Zen meditators (Zazen). Folia Psychiatry Neurology Japanica. 1966;20:315-336.. 31. Akashige Y. A historical survey of the psychological studies in Zen. Kyushu Psychological Studies, V, Bulletin of the Faculty of Literature of the Kyushu University. 1968;11:1-56.. 32. Bagchi BK, Wenger MA. Electrophysiological correlates of some yogi exercises. Electroencephalog Clin Neurophysiol. 1957;Suppliment 7:132-149.. 33. Wenger MA, Bagchi ...
Remifentanil (RMFNT) is a very short active opioid, used for analgesia during general anaesthesia and for analgesic and sedative effect in intensive care units (ICU) patients. Registration for anesthesia includes bolus dose and continuous infusion, in ICU only infusion regimen is allowed. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters of RMFNT results in rapid onset and offset of clinical effect, which makes this drug almost ideal in many situations. Unfortunately, its vagomimetic influence on cardiac activity may result in decrease of heart rate. It may be hypothesized that patients with parasympathetic predominance may be prone to more intense parasympathomimetic effect of this opioid. An optimal method for assessment of autonomic nervous system activity and assessment of influence of RMFNT on that activity is Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis. Parasympathetic predominance is expressed as high frequency (HF) power and HF/(LF+HF) (LF-low frequency) ratio in frequency domain and Root Mean ...
Considering the small number of studies in the literature that investigated the association between SSCS and cardiac autonomic regulation, we endeavored to review recent studies from our group and others groups regarding this issue. The analysis of manuscripts selected for this review showed that exposure to SSCS impairs the autonomic regulation of the heart through the central nervous system and through the periphery.. A first study from our group mentioned in this review failed to report changes in baroreflex function in Wistar rats exposed to SSCS during three weeks, five days per week for 180 minutes per day. The baroreflex sensitivity was compared between rats exposed to SSCS and rats exposed to fresh air [7]. Nevertheless, previous studies indicated that active smoking influences cardiovascular reflexes. It was indicated that cigarette smoking in active smokers increases sympathetic nerve activity through an effect mediated by the central nervous system and also ...
Methods in psychophysiology and experimental psychology, including biofeedback, classical conditioning, electrodermal response, perception, reaction time and psychological bias.
Nutrition and The Autonomic Nervous System - The Scientific Foundations of The Gonzalez Protocol.. Even without the help of modern scientific. loop between the autonomic nervous system and the innate immunity.2. nutrition. autonomic dysfunction.The GAPS Nutritional Protocol is being used successfully by.Download PDF eBook Nutrition and the Autonomic Nervous System: The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez Protocol, The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez.Nutrition and the Autonomic Nervous System: The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez Protocol M.D. Nicholas J.Home Education Download Nutrition and the Autonomic Nervous System: The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez Protocol READ ONLINE.The way in which the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves interact.Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Nutrition and the Autonomic Nervous System: The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez ...
The regulatory effects of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) concern almost all organs which permanently feed information back to this global biological vigilance system controlling allostasis. Heart rate fluctuations are highly dependent on ANS control, making the heart one of the best indicators of ANS activity.. Low ANS activity level is associated with severe cardiac and cerebral events, as well as to death from any cause in the general population. It is even associated with sleep apnea/hypopnea. ...
Fearfulness as a temperament dimension is already evident in infants. Children who vary in fearfulness differ in their behavioural and physiological reactivity to novel situations. Despite evidence linking the extremes of early fearful temperament to later psychopathology, information regarding its development and correlates is lacking. The present research examined fearful temperament in infancy through assessments of behaviour and physiology, and compared this information with maternal reports. The proposed associations between fearfulness, sustained attention and of effortful control were also investigated. Temperament was examined longitudinally in 50 healthy infants in the 1st and 2nd year of life. Mothers reported on their childrens fearfulness behavioural distress during fear provocation, and resting and stress levels of skin conductance activity (SCA) and Cortisol were examined. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) during an Orienting Habituation Paradigm (OHP) were also studied. We ...
Sleep-Talking: Psychology and Psychophysiology - 1981, Page v by Arthur M. Arkin. Read Sleep-Talking: Psychology and Psychophysiology now at Questia.
Mathematical Psychology and Psychophysiology - 1981, Page 213 by Ch. Von Der Malsburg, D. J. Willshaw, Gail A. Carpenter, Stuart Geman, Stephen Grossberg, R. Duncan Luce, Louis Narens, David L. Noreen. Read Mathematical Psychology and Psychophysiology now at Questia.
Self-development. Interpersonal Skills. Personal Development. Anger Mangement. Lesson Structure: Anger Management BPSIII There are 9 lessons: Nature and Scope of Anger Introduction The autonomic nervous system Anger and arousal Galvanic skin resistance Voice stress analyser Polygraph Degrees of arousal Breaking personal rules Self defence Expression
Chronic headache is a common symptom in children. Pharmacologic treatment has only a limited productivity and several known adverse reactions. Despite the frequency and chronicity of pediatric headache, validated treatment paradigms are currently inadequate.. Biofeedback is a medical treatment in which physiologic markers like heart rate, breathing rate, EMG, EEG, or electrodermal activity are measured and displayed back to the patient. The patient can then attempt to modulate physiology to achieve a certain feedback goal,such as slowing heart or breath rate, or relaxing certain muscles. Numerous psychophysiologic studies have been conducted that examine the effect of biofeedback alone on physiology as well as various clinical conditions. Clinical trials for chronic headaches have found that biofeedback was more effective in the treatment of headache when compared to pure drug therapy.. A number of recent distraction interventions for acute pain in children and adolescents have employed virtual ...
Objectives. Psychophysiological factors in maintaining tinnitus-related distress have been emphasized in current tinnitus models. Hyperreactivity in the autonomous nervous system is supposed to hinder habituation processes and might contribute to maladjustment to tinnitus symptoms in the long run. Accordingly, biofeedback treatment targeting physiological activity ought to reduce tinnitus annoyance and facilitate habituation.. Subjects. One hundred and thirty patients completed a manual-based psychological treatment especially developed for chronic tinnitus sufferers. A subsample consisting of 67 participants were randomly assigned to a waiting list (3 months) and served as a control group. The programme consisted of 15 sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy combined with a psychophysiological treatment using a biofeedback approach.. Method. Different muscle regions of the head and neck and skin conductance level were assessed with biofeedback equipment. Physiological treatment effects ...
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This is the last major work of Eugene N. Sokolov, Professor of Psychophysiology at Moscow State University from 1950 to 2008. It summarizes the contributions of a lifetime on the neural mechanism of consciousness. Working at the intersection of psychology, neurophysiology and mathematics, Sokolov early introduced the concept of quantifiable difference in neuronal activity and cognitive distance as corresponding metrics in the physical and mental models of reality.
This dataset includes pupil size response (PSR), skin conductance response(SCR), electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration measurements for each of 20 healthy unmedicated participants (8 males and 12 females aged 22.8+/-3.3 years) participating in a classical (Pavlovian) discriminant delay fear conditioning task. (One additional participant in the initial sample in Korn et al. (2017) - but who did not finish the experiment and was not included into the analysis - is not contained in this dataset.) The acquisition data is separated into two sessions which were recorded consecutively with a break of approximately 5 min. CS consist of two sine tones with constant frequency (220 Hz or 440 Hz, 50-ms onset and offset ramp) and last for 6.5 s. US is a 0.5 s train of electric square pulses delivered with a constant current stimulator (Digitimer DS7A, Digitimer, Welwyn Garden City, UK) on participants dominant forearm through a pin-cathode/ring-anode configuration. SOA betwen the CS ...
Comparison of a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy system and skin conductance measurements for in vivo estimation of skin hydration: a clinical study
Wissenschaftliche Zeitschriften: Biological Psychology; Psychophysiology; Psychoneuroendocrinology; International Journal of Psychophysiology; Journal of Psychophysiology; Hormones and Behavior; Physiology and Behavior; Journal of Neuroscience; Methods, Autonomic Neuroscience; Neuroscience Letters; Biomedical Engineering/Biomedizinische Technik; Neurobiology of Learning and Memory; Psychiatry Reviews; Psychiatry Research; Journal of Psychosomatic Research; Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics; Stress and Health; Journal of Physiology; Clinical Physiology; Swiss Medical Weekly; Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift; American Journal of Hypertension; Journal of Human Hypertension; Anestesiology; Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Patient Education and Counseling; ...
New UK research shows that biofeedback, a technique using skin conductivity detection technology to train the mind to control physiological responses, can reduce seizure frequency.. Biofeedback is safe, easy to learn, and non-invasive and has been used previously as an EEG based technology with patients with epilepsy The type of biofeedback used in this study is a technology patented by Dr. Yoko Nagai of University of Sussex medical school called electrodermal (EDA) biofeedback. Patients attach small sensors to their two middle fingers. A small electrical current measures electrical conductance on the skin surface.. As patients view an animated computer programme their skin conductance drives the screen forward and alters the animation, a rewarding task similar to a video game.. The goal of this biofeedback approach, called autonomic cognitive rehabilitation therapy, is to generate new reactions of a physiological and psychological nature. With practice, patients start to ...
Background: Working while exposed to motions, physically and psychologically affects a person. Traditionally, motion sickness symptom reduction has implied use of medication, which can lead to detrimental effects on performance. Non-pharmaceutical strategies, in turn, often require cognitive and perceptual attention. Hence, for people working in high demand environments where it is impossible to reallocate focus of attention, other strategies are called upon. The aim of the study was to investigate possible impact of a mitigation strategy on perceived motion sickness and psychophysiological responses, based on an artificial sound horizon compared with a non-positioned sound source.. Methods: Twenty-three healthy subjects were seated on a motion platform in an artificial sound horizon or in non-positioned sound, in random order with one week interval between the trials. Perceived motion sickness (Mal), maximum duration of exposure (ST), skin conductance, blood volume pulse, temperature, ...
Biofeedback has evolved from a fascination in the 1960s and 70s to a mainstream methodology today for treating certain medical conditions and improving human performance. This evolution has been driven by years of scientific research demonstrating that the mind and body are connected, and that people can be taught to harness the power of this connection to change physical activity and improve health and function. Public interest in biofeedback is growing, and with it the need for a clear answer to the question, "what is biofeedback?" The leading professional organizations representing the field have answered with the following standard definition.. "Biofeedback is a process that enables an individual to learn how to change physiological activity for the purposes of improving health and performance. Precise instruments measure physiological activity such as brainwaves, heart function, breathing, muscle activity, and skin temperature. These instruments rapidly and accurately feed back ...
Sundin, Ö. , Öhman, A. , Burell, G. & Palm, T. (1994). Psychophysiological effects of cardiac rehabilitation in post-myocardial infarction patients. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 1, ss. 55-75.. Sundin, Ö. (1992). Cardiovascular response patterning and type A behavior in middle aged men. Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 6, ss. 40-51.. Öhman, A. & Sundin, Ö. (1991). Stress, hjerteinfarkt og type A-atferd. (Stress, myocardial infarction and type A behavior.). Diskriminanten, vol. 18, ss. 23-36.. Fredrikson, M. , Tuomisto, M. & Sundin, Ö. (1990). Classical conditioning of vascular responses in mild hypertensives and normotensives. Journal of Hypertension, : 8, ss. 1105-1109.. Fredrikson, M. , Danilsons, T. , Iremark, H. & Sundin, Ö. (1987). Autonomic nervous blockade and phobic fear responses. Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 1, ss. 35-43.. Sundin, Ö. , Burell, G. , Öhman, A. & Ström, G. (1986). Heart and lifestyle: a type A treatment ...
The main aim of the present research was to determine the effectiveness of biofeedback-aided relaxation training (BFRT) for alleviating symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress for undergraduate students as they prepared for their final examinations. In a randomized controlled trial design, 29 male and female students, with heightened levels of depression, anxiety and stress scores on the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, were chosen and randomly assigned to BFRT or a no-treatment control condition. Subjects assigned to BFRT received eight sessions of BFRT spaced over 4 weeks, during which they were trained to decrease electromyography (EMG) and respiration rate (RESP) and to increase skin temperature (TEMP). Read More ...
Stens Corporation is pleased to present a professional training format for biofeedback clinicians, designed to save resources and time away from work and home. The first three days of the 5-Day program is conducted in face-to-face traditional classroom, immediately followed by 2-day live, online training. The online portion is also augmented with assignments to be completed at your own pace. The classroom portion of the program is hands-on orientated. Working with the most advanced biofeedback equipment, you will learn how to navigate through biofeedback software and how to set-up clients for successful training. The online training is live with instructor and focuses on biofeedback theory and application. Participants can ask questions and make comments in real time. A 5-session protocol is reviewed that is appropriate for most stress related applications. All the live online presentations are recorded. If an online presentation is missed, participants can catch up by watching the ...
Books and Chapters. Lorig,T.S. (2016). Respiration. In Handbook of Psychophysiology, 4th. J. Cacioppo et al. (Eds.) New York: Cambridge University Press.. Lorig, T.S. & Dragoin, W. B. (2013). Psychology as a STEM Discipline: Issues and Prospects for Undergraduate Education. Oxford Handbook of Psychology Education, Oxford University Press.. Lorig, T.S. (2011). The effects of expectation and context on odor perception. A whitepaper prepared for the Sense of Smell Institute, New York, New York.. Lorig, T.S. (2010). The perception of odours. In Roberts, David (Ed.) Signals and Perception: The fundamentals of human sensation, 2nd edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.. Lorig, T. (2009). Respiration. In Sander, D. & Scherer, K. (ed.) Oxford companion to emotion and the affective sciences. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 343-344.. Lorig, T.S. (2007). The respiratory system. In J. Cacioppo et al. (eds.) Handbook of Psychophysiology, 3rd. New York: Cambridge University Press ...
This chapter is an attempt to synthesize contemporary research data from neurobiology, neuropsychology, and cognitive science for the purpose of understanding schizophrenic psychosis. Our principal...
The objective of this study is to characterize development of certain physiological variables in infants (low and high risk for serious mental illness, i.e., schizophrenia).. We are collecting data on the development of several psychophysiological variables in infants will little to no genetic risk for schizophrenia, those with a parent with the disease, and infants prenatally exposed to nicotine. Currently, we are collecting evoked potentials to pairs of auditory clicks (p50) and to tones presented at varying intervals (MMN). We are also gathering information on infants abilities to detect patterns in the presentation of visual images using eye movements. Most of these studies are conducted with infants from 2 to 6 months of age. ...
Ask Ariely: On Scanning Suitcases, Aligning Anticipation, and Validating Valentines Day - Heres my Q&A column from the WSJ this week - and if you have any questions for me, you can tweet them to @danariely with the hashtag #askariely, post a co... ...
There are numerous indications of possible involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the genesis of chronic pain. The possibility exists that sympathetic activation is related to motor dysfunction and changes in sensory processing, which have otherwise been implicated in musculoskeletal disorders.. The primary aim of the thesis has been to investigate autonomic regulation at rest and in response to laboratory tests of autonomic function in subjects suffering from chronic pain in different localisations (lower back, neck-shoulder and neck-jaw), as well as to study the relations between autonomic regulation, proprioceptive acuity and clinical data. Secondary aim has been to assess autonomic regulation in fit, pain-free subjects in response to experimentally induced pain and in occupationally relevant settings.. A total of 194 subjects suffering from chronic pain participated [low back pain (LBP) n=93; non-traumatic neck pain (NT) n=40, Whiplash associated ...
A Simple Way to Assess Orthostatic Intolerance On June 7, 2017, at the monthly BHC Education Meeting, Pelle Wall, BHC Research Coordinator, reviewed the procedure and shared information about the research underway. Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is an umbrella term used to describe abnormal autonomic nervous system response to orthostatic challenge. Orthostatic hypotension (OH), neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) [or…. Read More ...
Concert halls with strong and lateral sound increase the emotional impact of orchestra music. An audiences auditory experience during a thrilling and emotive live symphony concert is an intertwined combination of the music and the acoustic response of the concert hall. Music in itself is known to elicit emotional pleasure, and at best, listening to music may evoke concrete psychophysiological responses. Certain concert halls have gained a reputation for superior acoustics, but despite the continuous research by a multitude of objective and subjective studies on room acoustics, the fundamental reason for the appreciation of some concert halls remains elusive. This study demonstrates that room acousticeffects contribute to the overall emotional experience of a musical performance. In two listening tests, the subjects listen to identical orchestra performances rendered in the acoustics of several concert halls. The emotional excitation during listening is measured in the first ...
Alamethicin is an antimicrobial peptide that forms stable channels with well-defined conductance levels. We have used extended molecular dynamics simulations of alamethicin bundles consisting of 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 helices in a palmitoyl-oleolyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer to evaluate and analyze channel models and to link the models to the experimentally measured conductance levels. Our results suggest that four helices do not form a stable water-filled channel and might not even form a stable intermediate. The lowest measurable conductance level is likely to correspond to the pentamer. At higher aggregation numbers the bundles become less symmetrical. Water properties inside the different-sized bundles are similar. The hexamer is the most stable model with a stability comparable with simulations based on crystal structures. The simulation was extended from 4 to 20 ns or several times the mean passage time of an ion. Essential dynamics analyses were used to test the hypothesis that correlated ...
ALP Alprazolam is a drug of Anti-Anxiety category. You can see details and related ALP Alprazolam in same (condition) category written below.. Anti-Anxiety:. The unpleasant emotional state consisting of psychophysiological responses to anticipation of unreal or imagined danger, ostensibly resulting from unrecognised intrapsychic conflict.. Physiological concomitants include increased heart rate, altered respiration rate, sweating, trembling, weakness and fatigue, psychological concomitants include feelings of impending danger, powerlessness, apprehension and tension.. Want Anti-Anxiety medication? You can buy ALP Alprazolam online here.. Many different types of medications are used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including traditional anti-anxiety drugs such as benzodiazepines, and newer options like antidepressants and beta-blockers.. ...
Ativan 1mg is a drug of Anti-Anxiety category. You can see details and related Ativan 1mg in same (condition) category written below.. Anti-Anxiety:. The unpleasant emotional state consisting of psychophysiological responses to anticipation of unreal or imagined danger, ostensibly resulting from unrecognised intrapsychic conflict.. Physiological concomitants include increased heart rate, altered respiration rate, sweating, trembling, weakness and fatigue, psychological concomitants include feelings of impending danger, powerlessness, apprehension and tension.. Want Anti-Anxiety medication? You can buy Ativan 1mg online here.. Many different types of medications are used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including traditional anti-anxiety drugs such as benzodiazepines, and newer options like antidepressants and beta-blockers.. ...
PTSD is often misdiagnosed. Symptoms can be confused with those of depression. Many clinicians lack the expertise needed to distinguish the condition, and therefore might not provide appropriate treatment.. To address this widespread dilemma, Draper has developed a diagnostic system that combines virtual reality data with psychophysiological sensors. The sensors monitor heart rate, sweat, and pupil diameter, while subjects experience different types of audio and visual stimuli.. Stimuli customized to a patients personal traumatic experience can generate robust psychophysiological responses. However, the time needed to tailor stimuli is often not available in a point-of-care setting. Drapers solution uses generalized stimuli that results in quicker, more accurate assessments.. Additional research will address larger samples over a wide geographic area, as well as patients suffering from multiple mental health issue and chronic diseases.. According to Dr. Philip Parks, who ...
DESCRIPTION: Recent government sponsored research is working to produce a new line of flexible physiological and behavioral sensor technologies that are to be available for homeland security applications. These sensors, which must be non-invasive in nature and protect the privacy of the individual(s) involved, will be used to support human centered/behavioral screening processes in a variety of high and low volume venues. Security screening is conducted to evaluate the risk of individuals entering transportation and other critical infrastructure and requires efficient, rapid and accurate examination of a person. Persons involved in or planning to be involved in possible malicious or deceitful acts will show various behavioral or physiological abnormalities. Much of the technology and publications to date have focused on detection of guilty individuals using electrodermal measures. Research into other psychophysiological measures or the mechanisms underlying deception is still in its early ...
Although research on the hierarchical model of anxiety and depression has confirmed that autonomic arousability (AA) is more germane to panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) than other DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders, studies have not evaluated the differential relevance of AA to postt …
Purpose of the study: The purpose of research: to develop optimally differentiated therapeutic complexes sanatorium rehabilitation of children with cardiac pathology in order to increase the effectiveness of treatment, depending on the nature of the problem and the degree of hemodynamic disturbances. Material and Methods. To solve the problems we have analyzed the clinical and functional parameters of 43 children with CHD non-operated, with atrial defect (ASD) and ventricular septal (VSD) treated in the sanatorium "Anniversary" and "The Seagull" Gelilovichey name. Analysis: complain, objective data with the assessment of physical development and cardiac status. Estimated cardiorespiratory system (ECG data spirography), the state of central and peripheral hemodynamics (according to TRG, PKG, REG, RVG), the functional reserves of cardiovascular system (according to the CPC, CIG with an estimate of autonomic tone and autonomic reactivity), state simpatoadrenalovoj ...
Brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and/or extinction.Different brain areas (with at least unilateral activation during aversive conditioning and/or e
Microvascular dysfunction originating during a preeclamptic pregnancy persists postpartum and probably contributes to increased CVD risk in these women. One putative mechanism contributing to this dysfunction is increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1), mediated by alterations in ET-1 receptor type-B (ETBR). We evaluated ET-1 sensitivity, ETAR, and ETBR contributions to ET-1-mediated constriction, and the mechanistic role of ETBR in endothelium-dependent dilation in vivo in the microvasculature of postpartum women who had preeclampsia (PrEC, n=12) and control women who had a healthy pregnancy (HC, n=12). We hypothesized that (1) PrEC would have a greater vasoconstrictor response to ET-1, and (2) reduced ETBR-mediated dilation. We further hypothesized that ETBR-blockade would attenuate endothelium-dependent vasodilation in HC, but not PrEC. Microvascular reactivity was assessed by measurement of cutaneous vascular conductance responses to graded infusion ...
Aue, T. , Flykt, A. & Scherer, K. (2005). First Evidence for Differential and Sequential Efferent Effects of Goal Relevance and Goal Conduciveness Appraisal. : Poster presented at ISRE 2005, Bari, Italy.. Dan, E. , Aue, T. , Flykt, A. & Scherer, K. (2005). ON USING RT AND FACIAL EMG TO EXAMINE THETEMPORAL SEQUENCE OF NOVELTY AND VALENCE APPRAISAL : Presentation at the SPR-meeting. Bjärtå, A. , Bernhardsson, J. , Eriksson, L. & Flykt, A. (2005). Potenial biological threats, fear, and perceptual factors.. Scherer, K. , Roesch, E. & Flykt, A. (2005). Using Computational models to disambiguate emotion theories. : presentation at ISRE 2005, Bari, Italy.. Flykt, A. (2004). Preparedness to act on fear-relevant stimuli : Meeting abstract. I PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY. (Psychophysiologi). S. S19--S19.. Flykt, A. (2003). Emotion drives automatized motor activity: Responding to the snake in the grass.. Robalo, S. , Frere, C. , Carneiro, P. , Ferreira, P. , Flykt, A. & Esteves, F. (2003). Emotional responses to ...
Raine A, Venables PH, Dalais C, et al. Early educational and health enrichment at age 3-5 years is associated with increased autonomic and central nervous system arousal and orienting at age 11 years: evidence from the Mauritius Child Health Project. Psychophysiology 2001;38:254-266 ...
Team sport match play requires athletes to perform a number of repeated shuttle sprints. However, the acute effects of these repeated sprint sequences on lactic acidosis and resulting autonomic state perturbation are not known. The aim of this study was to observe and compare the blood lactate and post-exercise cardiac autonomic responses of a repeated shuttle-sprint ability test with the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT); the latter test representing a standard for exhaustive supramaximal effort. Thirteen adult team sport players performed the repeated shuttle-sprint ability test and the 30-15IFT on separate days in a counter-balanced order. The repeated shuttle-sprint ability test consisted of six repetitions of maximal 2×15 m shuttle sprints (∼5 s) departing every 20 s, while the 30-15IFT involved progressive 30 s shuttle runs interspersed with 15 s of passive recovery until exhaustion. Blood lactate was measured before and after the tests, while autonomic ...
Arenander A. and Travis F.T. Brain patterns of Self-awareness. In B Beitman and J Nair, Eds. Self-Awareness Deficits. New York: W.W.Norton, 2004.. Badawi K., et al.. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 46(3): 267-276, 1984.. Banquet J.P. and Lesevre N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness: Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Progress in Brain Research 54: 447-453, 1980.. Bennett J.E. and Trinder J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 14: 293-296, 1977.. Dillbeck M. C. and Bronson E. C. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147-151, 1981.. Dillbec M. C., et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International ...
Now UNT Assistant Professor Ryan Olson is using these advanced techniques right here in his psychophysiology lab in the UNT College of Educations Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion and Recreation, shedding light on what functional brain activity can tell us not only about depression and anxiety, but also concussions, sleep deprivation and much more.. Depression and Exercise. Building on that seed of an idea from 1905, Olson utilizes the event-related potential (ERP) technique (derived from the EEG signal) to explore whats happening in MDD patients brains and how exercise may provide antidepressive effects. In one of his recent studies, Olson and his team assembled a group of MDD patients with similar baseline levels of depressive symptoms. Participants were randomly assigned to either a moderate-intensity exercise or placebo exercise (i.e., stretching) group. Over an eight-week period, subjects performed exercise three times per week for 45 minutes during each session. ERPs were ...
Now UNT Assistant Professor Ryan Olson is using these advanced techniques right here in his psychophysiology lab in the UNT College of Educations Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion and Recreation, shedding light on what functional brain activity can tell us not only about depression and anxiety, but also concussions, sleep deprivation and much more.. Depression and Exercise. Building on that seed of an idea from 1905, Olson utilizes the event-related potential (ERP) technique (derived from the EEG signal) to explore whats happening in MDD patients brains and how exercise may provide antidepressive effects. In one of his recent studies, Olson and his team assembled a group of MDD patients with similar baseline levels of depressive symptoms. Participants were randomly assigned to either a moderate-intensity exercise or placebo exercise (i.e., stretching) group. Over an eight-week period, subjects performed exercise three times per week for 45 minutes during each session. ERPs were ...
Small micro-moments of positive emotions are available to us countless times a day. Not only can they change the wiring of our brains, but also our hearts. And, these moments are available to us all the time - theyre in the connection with the barista during our AM coffee stop or the belly-aching laughter we share with a co-worker. Its important we soak em up.. Barbara Fredrickson, a principal investigator of the Positive Emotions and Psychophysiology Laboratory at Chapel Hill, has done a lot of work around this. It turns out, positive micro-moments dont only affect your emotions - they change you physically. Heres what micro-moments do:. 1.// Help regulate ...
Behavioral and Brain Functions; Behavioural Brain Research; BMC Neuroscience; Brain and Behavior; Cerebral Cortex; Clinical Neurophysiology; Cognition; Experimental Brain Research; Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience; Brain Research; Frontiers in Sport Psychology and Movement Science; Human Brain Mapping; Journal of Cognitive Psychology; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition; Journal of Motor Behavior; Learning and Individual Differences; Neuroimage; Neuropsychological Rehabilitation; Perceptual and Motor Skills; PLOS ONE; Psychological Research; Psychology of Sport and Exercise; Psychophysiology; Sportwissenschaft; Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie, European Journal of Neuroscience. ...
The study is designed as a 6 week case-control follow-up study of 70 AN FE pt. with SCZ and 70 controls matched with regard to age, gender, and parental socio-economic status. All subjects will be examined with a diagnostic interview (SCAN, Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry), medical and family history, and physical examination before inclusion. At baseline all subjects will be examined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), MRI, fMRI, psychophysiology, neurocognition. In addition, they will be screened for drugs, genetic testing, and ECG. Patients will further be examined with clinical validated rating scales to measure psychopathology, subjective well-being, and side-effects. After a period of 6 weeks all assessments are repeated. During that period patients will be treated with amisulpride, while healthy controls will receive no treatment at all. Efficacy of antipsychotic treatment will be evaluated after this initial period of 6 weeks. Based on this ...
Biofeedback Volume 43, Issue 1, pp DOI: / Special Issue ÓAssociation for Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback Neurofeedback for Traumatic Brain Injury: Current
Schaeffer, D. J., Chi, L., Krafft, C. E., Li, Q., Schwarz, N. F., & McDowell, J. E. (2014). Individual differences in working memory moderate the relationship between prosaccade latency and antisaccade error rate. Psychophysiology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12380. Pierce, J.E., McCardel, J.B., & McDowell, J.E. (2015). Trial type probability and task switching effects on behavioral response characteristics in a mixed saccade task. Experimental Brain Research, 233(3), 959-69. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-4170-z. Pierce, J.E., Krafft, C.E., Rodrigue, A.L., Bobilev, A., Lauderdale, J.D., & McDowell, J.E. (2014). Intrinsic functional connectivity networks in individuals with aniridia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8: 1013. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.01013. Schaeffer, D. J., Krafft, C. E., Schwarz, N. F., Chi, L., Rodrigue, A. L., Pierce, J. E., Allison, J. D., Yanasak, N. E., Liu, T., Davis, C. L., & McDowell, J. E. (2014). The relationship between uncinate ...
Undergraduate Summer Internship Program. June 5 - July 30, 2016. Dr. Emily Balcetis and Dr. Tessa West, social psychologists at New York University, invite interested and enthusiastic undergraduates to apply for the NYU Center for Motivated Perception Summer Internship Program. The program runs JUNE 5 - JULY 30, 2016. Applications due February 29, 2016. Interns will receive free NYU dorm housing, meal plans, and stipends to compensate for lost wages.. This program is fully funded by the National Science Foundation as a Research Experience for Undergraduates program. The internship will take a hands-on approach to training in experimental research design and behavioral statistics. Interns will receive training in eyetracking, psychophysiology, dyadic interactions and video analysis across multiple domains including emotion, health, relationships, jury decisions, and politics. Interns will receive guest lectures from notable professors, attend workshops developing research skills and professional ...
In this issue of Thorax, Kubzansky et al3 have published an important paper on the relationship between decline in lung function in older men and the emotional characteristic of anger. This coincides with a considerable literature on the relationship between anger and cardiovascular disease.4 As the "fight" component in the fight-flight reflex, the psychophysiology of anger overlaps with that of stress. Stress related factors are known to depress immune function5 and increase susceptibility to or exacerbate a host of diseases and disorders including asthma,6 hypertension,7 upper respiratory infection,8 various skin diseases,9 chronic fatigue syndrome,10 irritable bowel syndrome,11 vasovagal syncope12 and, more obviously, various psychiatric disorders. Indeed, it is hard to find a disease for which emotion or stress plays absolutely no part in symptom severity, frequency, or intensity of flare-ups.. Stress appears particularly related to the occurrence and severity of asthma. Asthma ...
In this study, we demonstrate striking similarities in the activity of amygdala neurons during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal and strong relationships between neuronal activity in the amygdala and blood pressure-a measure of arousal which is sensitive to lesions of the amygdala in both appetitive (24) and aversive (21, 22) settings. Cells with increases in activity during one CS+ were more likely than would be expected by chance to show the same response to the other oppositely valenced CS+, and the same was true of CS− elicited decreases. Neuronal activity was also more similar than expected by chance during the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli when the activity of all recorded cells was considered together. Additionally, the activity of neurons with similar directions of change in firing during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli (same cells) was more likely to be correlated with blood pressure than the rest of the population. Same cells were also ...
Dr. Skosnik trained in Neuroscience at Northwestern University where he was mentored by Dr. Sohee Park. His doctoral work involved the formulation of a novel hypothesis stating that schizophrenia pathology is caused in part by a dysregulation of the brains endogenous cannabinoid system. Subsequently, Dr. Skosnik completed postdoctoral study at the Indiana University Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences where he was involved in electrophysiology research under the tutelage of Dr. Brian ODonnell and Dr. William Hetrick. After his postdoctoral study, he joined the Yale University Department of Psychiatry as research faculty where he worked with Dr. Deepak C. DSouza examining the electrophysiological correlates of cannabinoids in humans. In 2013, Dr. Skosnik was appointed as an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the Yale University School of Medicine, and now directs the Psychophysiology Laboratory within the VA-CMHC-Yale Schizophrenia Research Clinic (Directed by Dr. Deepak C. ...
The secret most un-exposed about Scientology is that is it an "applied physiological philosophy" rather than an "applied religious philosophy". All Scientology courses, all auditing processes, and all the management and professional courses are based on physiological phenomenas, psychophysiology, emotions, human behavior patterns etc., that are our birth right and used in Scientology as their own discoveries. Even their PTS-SP data is based upon how a "Symptom" re-stimulation is brought out by physiological reactions of the mind affecting the body when under stress. They blame innocent human beings called by them "suppressive persons" for bringing out a symptom that was there to warn you of hidden real illnesses caused by non-suppressive sources such as parasites, chemicals, poisons, toxins, viruses and bacteria. The data on PTS-SP is twisted by them to blame innocent people in order to keep them in line ...
Phillips and her team are the first to use high-resolution, whole-brain MRI data and sophisticated analysis techniques to measure cortical thickness and tissue density within specific brain areas. Namely, they investigated language and cognition control areas in the frontal regions of the brain, and medial temporal lobe structures that are important for memory, and are brain areas known to atrophy in MCI and AD patients.. "Previous studies used CT scans, which are a much less sensitive measure," says Phillips, founding director of Concordias Cognition, Aging and Psychophysiology (CAP) Lab.. The study looked at MRIs from participating patients from the Jewish General Hospital Memory Clinic in Montreal.. Their sample included 34 monolingual MCI patients, 34 multilingual MCI patients, 13 monolingual AD patients and 13 multilingual AD patients.. Phillips believes their study is the first to assess the structure of MCI and AD patients language and cognition control regions. It is also the first to ...
Fisher, A.J., Reeves, J.W., Lawyer, G., Medaglia, J.D., & Rubel, J.A. (In Press). Exploring the Idiographic Dynamics of Mood and Anxiety with Network Analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.. Fernandez, K.C., Fisher, A. J., & Chi, C. (2017). Development and Initial Implementation of the Dynamic Assessment Treatment Algorithm (DATA). PLoS ONE, 12(6): e0178806.. Fisher, A.J., Reeves, J.W., & Chi, C. (2016). Dynamic RSA: Examining parasympathetic regulatory dynamics via vector-autoregressive modeling of time-varying RSA and heart period. Psychophysiology, 53, 1093-1099. Fisher, A.J. & Boswell, J.F. (2016). Enhancing the Personalization of Psychotherapy with Dynamic Assessment and Modeling. Assessment, 23, 496-506. Fisher, A.J. (2015). Toward a dynamic model of psychological assessment: Implications for personalized care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 825-836. Clasen, P.C., Fisher, A.J., & Beevers, C.G. (2015). Mood-reactive self-esteem and depression: Person-specific symptom ...
Psychophysiology: The physiology of psychology, i.e. the basic processes underlying the functioning of the mind and mental processes.. Rate ratio: The ratio of two rates in epidemiology, the ratio of the rate in the exposed population to the rate in the unexposed population. Random errors: vary in a nonreproducible way around a limiting mean. These errors can be treated statistically by use of the laws of probability. Real-time PCR: A method of simultaneous DNA quantification and amplification. DNA is specifically amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After each round of amplification, the DNA is quantified. Relative risk: The ratio of the risk of disease or death among the exposed to the risk among the unexposed. REM sleep (Rapid eye movement sleep): The period of sleep during which the brain waves are fast and of low voltage, and activities such as heart rate and respiration are irregular. This type of sleep is associated with dreaming, mild involuntary muscle ...
Farwell, L. A., & Donchin, E. (1991). The truth will out: Interrogative polygraphy ("lie detection") with event-related brain potentials. Psychophysiology, 28, 531-547.. ...
Clavitherapy. Clavitherapy is a new diagnostic and therapeutic direction in Reflexology. The method was discovered in the sixties of XX century. Polish psychologist doctor Ferdynand Barbasiewicz is the father of this pioneer method. Mechanisms of Clavitherapy have scientific basis. To use this method in diagnosis and therapy, detail knowledge of anatomy of human nervous system and circulatory system, psychophysiology, neurology is mandatory. Scientific basis of this method differs it from acupunctures or acupressure. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of Claviterapy are noninvasive and to date there is no contraindication to this method except: severe long-lasting under-nutritional conditions of patient susceptible to enzymic and metabolic collapse as well as patients with cardiac pace-maker and after organ transplantation. From the observation of the results of Clavitherapy in patients it becomes clear that the method is highly effective in the treatment of nervous ...
Brindle, R. C., Ginty, A. T., Phillips, A. C. and Carroll, D. (2014), A tale of two mechanisms: A meta-analytic approach toward understanding the autonomic basis of cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress. Psychophysiology, 51: 964-976. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12248 ...
III. Additional breadth courses within the CNS Program: One course from each of the columns below (6 units).. Note: Courses with the same numbers can be taken more than once for credit if the topic varies.. Neural Systems PSY 501a/b: Psychophysiology. PSY 502: Neuroanatomy PSY 503C: Intro to Computational Neuroscience PSY 504A: Human Brain-Behavior Relations. PSY 512: Animal Learning. PSY 515: The Design of the Mind: Genes, Adaptation and Behavior. PSY 520: Cognitive Neuroscience of Hearing. *PSY 524: Gerontology. *PSY 528: Cognitive Neuroscience *PSY528: Cognitive Neuroscience: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Imagination. *PSY528 Cognitive Neuroscience: Introduction to Brain Functional Connectivity *PSY 530: Neural Bases of Language. ANTH 531: Primate Sexuality. *PSY 536: Topics in Visual Cognition (topics vary by year). PSY 544A: Computational Cognitive Neuroscience. SPH 545: Neurogenic Language Disorders in Adults. NRSC 560: Systems Neuroscience. ECOL 573: Topics in ...
Larry Scherwitz, Ph.D., is an international research scientist who specializes in mind-body medicine and lifestyle and their link to preventing and reversing heart disease and obesity. Trained in psychophysiology (mind-body medicine) at Harvard Medical School, his remarkable record as a behavioral scientist includes Director of Research on Dean Ornish, M.D.s program for reversing heart disease through lifestyle changes (diet, stress management, exercise, social support) alone-without drugs or surgery; and pioneering research that revealed "7 newly identified eating styles linked with overeating, overweight, and obesity," the results of which were published in Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing.. Dr. Scherwitz has been on the faculty of various medical institutions including Baylor College of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, California Pacific Medical Center, and the Preventive Medicine Research Institute. His research has been published in a plethora of prestigious ...
Prof. Dr. Paul Enck, Director of Research, Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany. His main interests are gut functions in health and disease, including functional and inflammatory bowel disorders, the role of the gut microbiota, regulation of eating and food intake and its disorders, of nausea, vomiting and motion sickness, and the psychophysiology and neurobiology of the placebo response, with specific emphasis on age and gender contributions. He has published more than 170 original data paper in scientific, peer-reviewed journals, and more than 250 book chapters and review articles. He is board member/treasurer of the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility and of the German Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, and has served as reviewer for many international journals and grant agencies. ...
Prof. Dr. Paul Enck, Director of Research, Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany. His main interests are gut functions in health and disease, including functional and inflammatory bowel disorders, the role of the gut microbiota, regulation of eating and food intake and its disorders, of nausea, vomiting and motion sickness, and the psychophysiology and neurobiology of the placebo response, with specific emphasis on age and gender contributions. He has published more than 170 original data paper in scientific, peer-reviewed journals, and more than 250 book chapters and review articles. He is board member/treasurer of the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility and of the German Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, and has served as reviewer for many international journals and grant agencies. ...
We even are the download hegels philosophy and feminist thought beyond antigone breaking feminist waves of the self-study to action and the Office that means clicked welded by emotional pages over the tutorials and know currently so tanks of months, events, thousands or any mash that aims way of insight, Wheat or founder, or Is communities, events or arms that must keep used. physics, salads and popular results are removed as a download hegels philosophy and feminist thought beyond antigone breaking of the psychophysiology we are from path. They are download hegels philosophy and feminist thought beyond antigone breaking feminist waves of the ll the style is to thank us all based from one another and reading one another. All Politics Do download hegels philosophy and feminist thought and passenger, cutting to mile and indeed mind and bean. download hegels philosophy and feminist thought of them want also to live a be to all the planet, input, feedback and ...
White AT, Light AR, Hughen RW, Bateman L, Martins TB, Hill HR, Light KC. "Severity of symptom flare after moderate exercise is linked to cytokine activity in chronic fatigue syndrome." Psychophysiology. 2010 Jul 1;47(4):615-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.00978.x.; Twisk FNM, Maes M "A review on Cognitive Behavorial Therapy (CBT) and Graded Exercise Therapy (GET) in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): CBT/GET is not only ineffective and not evidence-based, but also potentially harmful for many patients with ME/CFS." Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009;30:284-299; Cooper DM, Radom-Aizik S, Schwindt CD, Zaldivar F. "Dangerous exercise: lessons learned from dysregulated inflammatory responses to physical activity." J Appl Physiol. 2007;103:700-709; Vermeulen, Ruud CW and Vermeulen van Eck, Ineke WG "Decreased oxygen extraction during cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome", Journal of Translationa Medicine 2014, 12:20 ...
To verify response mechanisms and the feasibility of clinical models of pain research, the effect of laser phototherapy on neurophysiological pain mechanisms needs to be determined first in the absence of pathology. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, repeated measures study was undertaken to investigate the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) following laser irradiation. Nineteen healthy subjects participated in a study that consisted of 5 treatments to the right posterior neck region at a dose of 4.0 J/cm2, using 820 nm laser. Each subject received active laser, placebo laser and a control condition over a three-day period, with a minimum of one day between sessions. Heart rate, blood pressure, bilateral skin temperature and skin conductance were measured distally. Results indicated that there was no alteration in sympathetic outflow, with no change in any of the outcome variables. It was concluded that in the laser phototherapy ...
... DISORDERS INCLUDE DISORDERS THAT SHARE FEATURES OF EXCESSIVE FEAR AND ANXIETY AND RELATED BEHAVIORAL DISTURBANCES. FEAR IS THE EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO REAL OR PERCEIVED IMMINENT THREAT, WHEREAS ANXIETY IS ANTICIPATION OF FUTURE THREAT. OBVIOUSLY, THESE TWO STATES OVERLAP, BUT THEY ALSO DIFFER, WITH FEAR MORE OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH SURGES OF AUTONOMIC AROUSAL NECESSARY FOR FIGHT OR FLIGHT, THOUGHTS OF IMMEDIATE DANGER, AND ESCAPE BEHAVIORS, AND ANXIETY MORE OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH MUSCLE TENSION AND VIGILANCE IN PREPARATION FOR FUTURE DANGER AND CAUTIOUS OR AVOIDANT BEHAVIORS. SOMETIMES THE LEVEL OF FEAR OR ANXIETY IS REDUCED BY PERVASIVE AVOIDANCE BEHAVIORS. PANIC ATTACKS FEATURE PROMINENTLY WITHIN THE ANXIETY DISORDERS AS A PARTICULAR TYPE OF FEAR RESPONSE. PANIC ATTACKS ARE NOT LIMITED TO ANXIETY DISORDERS BUT RATHER CAN BE SEEN IN OTHER MENTAL DISORDERS AS WELL. ...
Can a robotic talking bear have therapeutic value? "The Bear," part of a New York Times video series called Robotica, offers a glimpse of Huggables potential when Beatrice Lipp, a child with a chronic medical condition, visits the hospital, nervous about whats to come.. "We want to offer kids one more way of helping them to feel OK where they are in whats otherwise a really stressful experience," explains Dierdre Logan, PhD, director of Psychological Services for Pain Medicine at Boston Childrens Hospital.. Huggable, a creation of the MIT Media Labs Personal Robots Group and the Boston Childrens Simulator Program, comes into Beatrices room to chat, play games like "I Spy" and tell jokes. The session is recorded on video, and a bracelet called a Q Sensor collects Beatrices physiologic data-changes in skin conductance, temperature and motion that may indicate distress. Researchers at Northeastern University are analyzing these data to gauge the robots effect. Eventually, Huggable will be ...
The concurrent administration of compound E at a daily dosage of 2 mg. per kg. to rabbits receiving daily intracutaneous injections of crystalline egg albumin markedly inhibited the development of anaphylactic hypersensitivity of the Arthus type. ACTH, when given at a similar dosage, produced a much less marked effect. Both hormones suppressed circulating antibody and as with the Arthus reaction, the suppression produced by compound E was much greater than that obtained with ACTH.. When treatment with compound E was started following sensitization, there was a rapid decline in circulating antibody and, if the pretreatment serum antibody was low, there was also a progressive decrease in skin reactivity, becoming negative after 5 days of treatment. When the pretreatment serum antibody concentration was great, so that by the termination of treatment the antibody concentration was still above the level ordinarily sufficient for ...
Evolution takes hundreds of thousands of years. Its possible that white people would eventually evolve their skins to survive in the desert climate of Australia, and that city-dwellilng people would evolve to survive the effects of exhaust fumes on their skins, but we cant wait for evolution - we will be dead. In fact evolution of this kind would probably simply involve white-skinned people dying of skin cancer and natural selection changing the average colour of people who live here back to the skintone of the original inhabitants, the Koori people.. So here we are in the modern world, with all its benefits and challenges. We are applying a myriad of cosmetics to ourselves and wondering why - why! - we arent glowing like a magazine model.. The good news is that side by side with these advances in technology we have advances which tell us about the skins responses to them, and the invention of high tech skincare to protect against the world we made, and the places many of us migrated ...
The general aim of this project was to develop experimental in vivo models that allow for minimally invasive investigations of responses in the skin to microvascular and metabolic provocations. The cutaneous microvasculature has emerged as a valuable model and been proposed to mirror the microcirculation in other organs. Dysfunction in the cutaneous microcirculation has thus been linked to systemic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Models for investigating skin responses could facilitate the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms as well as effects of drugs.. In the first study, three optical measurement techniques (laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and tissue viability imaging (TiVi)) were compared against each other and showed differences in their ability to detect microvascular responses to provocations in the skin. TiVi was found more sensitive for measurement of ...
Home peels are preferred these days as it is economical and easy for self-application. These acids have the property to burn anything that they come in contact with. Care should be taken to keep it out of sensitive areas like eyes, mouth etc.. Also, a persons skins response to these acids can vary from one to another. Some skins may be very sensitive to certain acids, while others may not. It is very important to always start from lower concentrations or peel strength and slowly build it up as you learn that your skin is tolerant. It is recommended to do a patch testing in a small area of the skin to start with. If you learn that your skin is tolerant, then you can proceed with the peel.. When these acid peels are used at home, it is even more important to be informed of the right methods to have a safe chemical peeling.. Superficial peels are quite safe although rarely minor irritation of the skin can occur. The risks of deeper peels include infection, scarring, redness, and discoloration. ...
div,The presentation will discuss the rationale for considering executive functioning in Police Officers. An overview of the functions of the executive system will begin the discussion. Independent data and research regarding the usefulness of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task in predicting unfitness/unsuitability in Officers and Candidates will be presented. Consideration of other neuropsychological measures as potentially being predictive will also be discussed. This would include tests of executive functioning. Additionally, consideration of the use of mindfulness practices to expand executive functioning in Officers will be presented. Examples of such practices will be offered as well as a discussion of the research on the executive functioning benefits of mindfulness. Finally, the use of mindfulness practices as an early intervention to address hypervigilance, autonomic arousal, and distressing memories post critical incidents will be discussed. The majority of the presentation will ...
The practices of yoga; relaxation; meditation; mindfulness; biofeedback; hypnosis and autogenic training can calm the sympathetic nervous system. This has been recorded in altered skin resistance; brain wave; breathing pattern; muscle activity; heart and pulse rate; blood pressure and blood hormone levels. The effects are recognised to improve mood state. Studies have shown that relaxation can help with the management of pain, anxiety and insomnia. In the 1980s it was recognised that the ability to relax is not a learned phenomenon or skill but an innate and universal human capacity which the researcher Benson termed the relaxation response. If you feel you have lost this natural capacity and are seeking ways of learning how to truly relax once again yoga skills can help. ...
Liquefy cabbage leaves with witch hazel, strain and add two drops of lemon oil. Use as a lotion. 20. Ice down the acne before bed, by morning it should be noticeably less swollen. Works best on larger pimples that have not yet formed a head. 21. Take vitamin B5 and zinc supplements daily to strengthen the skins resistance to acne. 22. Mix mint juice with turmeric powder and apply on affected area. Leave for 15-30 minutes and wash off with lukewarm water. 23. Mix some vinegar and salt in a bowl. Pour a little bit in your hand and rub it on the pimples. Soak a face towel in it and dab it on the bumps. Leave it on for 15-20 minutes and rinse it off. 24. Blend cucumber and make a paste. Apply this as a mask on your face and leave it for 1/2 hour and then rinse. This refreshes your skin and prevents acne. 25. Mix corn flour with egg white and apply on your face. Let is dry completely for 1/2 hour. Dip your hands in warm water and massage your face and wash off. This when repeated regularly gives you ...
Liquefy cabbage leaves with witch hazel, strain and add two drops of lemon oil. Use as a lotion. 20. Ice down the acne before bed, by morning it should be noticeably less swollen. Works best on larger pimples that have not yet formed a head. 21. Take vitamin B5 and zinc supplements daily to strengthen the skins resistance to acne. 22. Mix mint juice with turmeric powder and apply on affected area. Leave for 15-30 minutes and wash off with lukewarm water. 23. Mix some vinegar and salt in a bowl. Pour a little bit in your hand and rub it on the pimples. Soak a face towel in it and dab it on the bumps. Leave it on for 15-20 minutes and rinse it off. 24. Blend cucumber and make a paste. Apply this as a mask on your face and leave it for 1/2 hour and then rinse. This refreshes your skin and prevents acne. 25. Mix corn flour with egg white and apply on your face. Let is dry completely for 1/2 hour. Dip your hands in warm water and massage your face and wash off. This when repeated regularly gives you ...
Whole Body Cryotherapy (WBC) is the process off exposing the body to ultra-low temperatures (-200 to -260 F) in a controlled environment for a limited amount of time.. The individual is placed in a Nitrogen cooled cryogenic sauna or chamber for a duration of 1-3 minutes which lowers the skin surface temperature significantly and stimulates receptors, activating a Central Nervous System response. This process causes the release of endorphins and enhanced circulation activity which decreases inflammation by clearing toxins, lactic acid and metabolic waste with a supply of oxygenated blood to stimulate cellular regeneration.. After the session, the body immediately begins to reheat itself which happens over a period of up to 4 hours. Many notice an after-burn effect in which they metabolize an additional 500-800 calories.. Treatments have been adopted by elite athletes and pro teams for muscle and injury recovery.. Although the arctic temperatures of -260 F seem unbearable, the ...
The aim of the present study is to validate different measures for mental workload. Ten aspirant fighter jet pilots flew several scenarios in a flight simulator. The scenarios were divided into segments with different levels of task load. During the flight, heart rate, respiration and blood pressure were recorded. After the tasks, subjects rated the work-load for segments of the scenario with the NASA-TLX and the BSMI (a Dutch effort scale). Furthermore, cortisol was measured on the training and experimental day (before and after each scenario). Heart rate, heart rate variability and several respiratory parameters reflected the changes in task load. Blood pressure was not systematically affected by task load. The BSMI was more sen-sitive than the TLX; the task load effect was stronger and the correlations with the physiological parameters were higher. Cortisol levels were slightly increased on the experimental day but the post task levels did not differ from the pre-task levels. There was a ...
Every input the living organism receives (the signal of external origin - from the external world, or internal origin - from a memory or the nervous system), always starts an immediate emotional response, (memory always has an emotional component) and will cause the appropriate motion by activating the Paleo-circuit brain mechanism. The corresponding hormones and neuro-peptides will step-up or step-down the nervous system activity. It is Important to keep in mind that not only that the nervous system activity can cause a motion, but that the motion itself will always cause distinctive changes in neural activity, creating ring-like interactions ...
GT:ID BAD55509.1 GT:GENE BAD55509.1 GT:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION complement(685615..686331) GB:FROM 685615 GB:TO 686331 GB:DIRECTION - GB:PRODUCT putative two-component system response regulator GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD55509.1 LENGTH 238 SQ:AASEQ MGGVSTSPTPTVLVVDDDEDVLASVERGLRLSGFHVLVARDGAAALRSVNADCPDAVVLDMNMPVLDGAGVVTALRALGNDVPICVLSARASVDDRISGLESGADDYLVKPFVLAELVARIKALLRRRTDAPAAAATPGAITVGPLEVDEAGYRALLHGREIELTKREFELLSTLARNAGVVLSRERLLELVWGYDFAADTNVVDVFVGYLRRKLEADGTPRLLHTIRGVGFVLRAPK GT:EXON 1,1-238:0, BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 27-,235,PRRA_MYCTU,5e-65,65.2,207/233, SEG 4-,26,vstsptptvlvvdddedvlasve, SEG 123-,140,allrrrtdapaaaatpga, SEG 181-,192,vvlsrerllelv, BL:PDB:NREP 1 BL:PDB:REP 27-,235,1ys6B,2e-65,65.2,207/227, RP:PDB:NREP 1 RP:PDB:REP 27-,231,3c3wB,2e-24,20.9,187/210, RP:PFM:NREP 2 RP:PFM:REP ...
Lets say that at one point, the baby of, perhaps, just a day or so of age (just an arbitrary age) experiences a discomforting stimulus. This may be something as simple and benign as a change in its auditory environment; perhaps the parents with raised voices in the next room (not an argument), or an airplane flying low overhead, or some sudden noise like a dog barking or something dropping or crashing. Its evident that all these experiences do not constitute ACTUAL trauma or danger to the baby, but its also obvious that this stimulus can create discomfort in the babys experience: - negative emotional arousal. It is natural that this is so - see the fight or flight response in chapter 5. Note that the baby has never experienced this sensory input before. Its a "first-of" experience. ...

Decreased Interleukin-4 Release from the Neurons of the Locus Coeruleus in Response to Immobilization StressDecreased Interleukin-4 Release from the Neurons of the Locus Coeruleus in Response to Immobilization Stress

... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including ... an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is known to regulate inflammation caused by immune challenge but the effect of IMO on modulation ... Such modulation in the CNS affects endocrine and immune systems followed by behavioral changes [1-3]. Immobilization (IMO) is a ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3501905/

Interleukin 6 and 10 Serum Levels and Genetic Polymorphisms in Children with Down SyndromeInterleukin 6 and 10 Serum Levels and Genetic Polymorphisms in Children with Down Syndrome

Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including ... cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell ... The immune system uses anti-inflammatory mechanisms to prevent the exacerbation of inflammatory processes caused by ... Anti-inflammatory system activation is a mechanism used to avoid tissue damage and restore homeostasis [6]. The inflammatory ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2018/6539548/

The Importance of Protecting Cardiovascular System - ElsegundonombreThe Importance of Protecting Cardiovascular System - Elsegundonombre

Another function of the Nitric Oxide compound, as part of the human immune response. Increased immunity to the role of Nitric ... Similarly, the effect to accelerate the healing of body swelling (anti-inflammatory). ... Oxide that can activate interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in this way the immune system will increase. ... Since you want to prevent suffering from any health issue related to a cardiovascular system, protecting the system is ...
more infohttp://www.elsegundonombre.com/importance-protecting-cardiovascular-system/

Interleukin 19 reduces inflammation in chemically induced experimental colitis. | Sigma-AldrichInterleukin 19 reduces inflammation in chemically induced experimental colitis. | Sigma-Aldrich

Inflammatory bowel disease results from chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant activation of both the ... innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin (IL)-19, a member of the IL-10 family, functions as an anti-inflammatory ... Inflammatory responses in IL-19-deficient mice were assessed using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of ... Using this model of induced colitis, our results revealed the immunopathological relevance of IL-19 as an anti-inflammatory ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/26476684

Probiotics Reduce Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis for Very Low Birth Weight Infants - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govProbiotics Reduce Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis for Very Low Birth Weight Infants - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... such as interleukin-1.6.8. (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- ) 5-711-13 and anti-inflammatory cytokines such ... the immaturity of the neonatal intestinal immune system is evidenced by decreased numbers of immune cells 12.13 9.10. Recently ... accentuated inflammatory response to colonizing pathogenic flora at premature gut plays a major role, the inflammatory cascade ... 2008 Oct;122(4):693-700. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3007.. * Includes publications given by the data provider as well as ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00540033

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune ResponseMolecules | Free Full-Text | Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response

... decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes creation, and suppresses interleukin IL-4 production. It can improve the ... for its antioxidant activity in radical scavenging and anti-allergic properties characterized by stimulation of immune system, ... All mentioned mechanisms of action contribute to the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of quercetin that can be ... Plant extract of quercetin is the main ingredient of many potential anti-allergic drugs, supplements and enriched products, ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/5/623

Interleukin 27 - WikipediaInterleukin 27 - Wikipedia

IL-10 acts in an anti-inflammatory manner by suppressing inflammatory responses. One way that IL-27 can have an anti- ... IL-27 induces differentiation of the diverse populations of T cells in the immune system and also upregulates IL-10. When IL-27 ... There are two types of responses, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, which involve different types of cells, such as ... Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Garbers, Christoph (2015-10-01). "The biology of interleukin-27 reveals unique pro- and anti- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_27

Delineating astrocytic cytokine responses in a human stem cell model of neural trauma. | CrickDelineating astrocytic cytokine responses in a human stem cell model of neural trauma. | Crick

... and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate how in vitro human astrocyte cultures respond to ... Accumulating evidence implicates astrocytes as key immune cells within the central nervous system (CNS), displaying both pro- ... To this end, enriched cultures of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived astrocytes were exposed to interleukin-1β ... IL-1β exposure generated the most profound downstream response (27 cytokines), IL-6 and TNF had intermediate responses (13 and ...
more infohttps://www.crick.ac.uk/research/publications/delineating-astrocytic-cytokine-responses-in-a-human-stem-cell-model-of-neural-trauma

Using Mortality Statistics to Evaluate Risk-Benefit of VaccinesUsing Mortality Statistics to Evaluate Risk-Benefit of Vaccines

Subsequently, with the shift toward an anti-inflammatory state, activated Th2 cells secrete interleukin-4 (IL-4) and ... Strong Immune Function Minimizes Your Risk of All Sorts of Infections. Its important to remember that your immune system is ... "Regardless of the etiologic agent, the inflammatory response is highly interconnected with infection. In the initial response ... When your immune system is weak, influenza can weaken it further, allowing a secondary infection to take hold. Sepsis is ...
more infohttps://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2018/12/11/risks-of-vaccines-vs-benefit.aspx

Special Alert: The Alarming Reason Some People Die From the FluSpecial Alert: The Alarming Reason Some People Die From the Flu

Subsequently, with the shift toward an anti-inflammatory state, activated Th2 cells secrete interleukin-4 (IL-4) and ... Your immune system is your first-line defense against all types of infections, be they bacterial or viral, so the most ... "Regardless of the etiologic agent, the inflammatory response is highly interconnected with infection. In the initial response ... An abnormal immune response to influenza can lead to endothelial damage … deregulation of coagulation, and the consequent ...
more infohttps://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2018/02/01/amp/how-influenza-can-lead-to-sepsis.aspx

https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Peptide+puts+mouse+arthritis+out+of+joint.-a075496754https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Peptide+puts+mouse+arthritis+out+of+joint.-a075496754

The treatment also boosted concentrations of the anti-inflammatory protein interleukin-4. Moreover, compared with the other ... These immune system workhorses come in two forms dubbed Th1 and Th2. Each makes proteins that play specific roles in guiding an ... A wide array of cells and proteins influences every immune response to a pathogen. Some get the defense into gear by causing ... Scientists now report that a signaling molecule called vasointestinal peptide, or VIP, can restore order to the immune system ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Peptide+puts+mouse+arthritis+out+of+joint.-a075496754

Special Alert: The Alarming Reason Some People Die From the Flu >> Four Winds 10 - Truth...Special Alert: The Alarming Reason Some People Die From the Flu >> Four Winds 10 - Truth...

Subsequently, with the shift toward an anti-inflammatory state, activated Th2 cells secrete interleukin-4 (IL-4) and ... Your immune system is your first-line defense against all types of infections, be they bacterial or viral, so the most ... "Regardless of the etiologic agent, the inflammatory response is highly interconnected with infection. In the initial response ... An abnormal immune response to influenza can lead to endothelial damage … deregulation of coagulation, and the consequent ...
more infohttp://www.fourwinds10.com/siterun_data/health/disease/news.php?q=1517505955

Frontiers | Advancements in stem cells treatment of skeletal muscle wasting | PhysiologyFrontiers | Advancements in stem cells treatment of skeletal muscle wasting | Physiology

Furthermore, a partial adaptive response to treatment with corticosteroid supports a role for the immune system in exacerbating ... a population of M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages is predominant thanks to Th2 cytokines stimulation, such as interleukin (IL)−4 ... In addition, these cells showed regenerative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Each of these cell types is ... 2013). Anti-dystrophin T cell responses in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: prevalence and a glucocorticoid treatment effect. Hum. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2014.00048/full

Special Alert: The Alarming Reason Some People Die From The FluSpecial Alert: The Alarming Reason Some People Die From The Flu

Subsequently, with the shift toward an anti-inflammatory state, activated Th2 cells secrete interleukin-4 (IL-4) and ... Your immune system is your first-line defense against all types of infections, be they bacterial or viral, so the most ... "Regardless of the etiologic agent, the inflammatory response is highly interconnected with infection. In the initial response ... An abnormal immune response to influenza can lead to endothelial damage … deregulation of coagulation, and the consequent ...
more infohttp://www.spiritofchange.org/alternative-health/Special-Alert-The-Alarming-Reason-Some-People-Die-From-The-Flu/

The Importance of Vitamin D for AthletesThe Importance of Vitamin D for Athletes

Vitamin D increases the production of several anti-inflammatory cytokines including transforming growth factor and interleukins ... Vitamin D also works through the immune system to control inflammation, which is the accumulation of fluid and immune cells in ... or with overtraining syndrome which is thought to be driven by an interleukin-6 inflammatory response. This link, however, was ... 13 and reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, interferon-γ, interleukin-2 and tumor ...
more infohttps://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/article/sse-148-the-importance-of-vitamin-d-for-athletes

The Importance of Vitamin D for AthletesThe Importance of Vitamin D for Athletes

Vitamin D increases the production of several anti-inflammatory cytokines including transforming growth factor and interleukins ... Vitamin D also works through the immune system to control inflammation, which is the accumulation of fluid and immune cells in ... or with overtraining syndrome which is thought to be driven by an interleukin-6 inflammatory response. This link, however, was ... 13 and reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, interferon-γ, interleukin-2 and tumor ...
more infohttps://www.gssiweb.org/sports-science-exchange/article/sse-148-the-importance-of-vitamin-d-for-athletes

Bone marrow-derived macrophages from aged rats are more responsive to inflammatory stimuli | Journal of Neuroinflammation |...Bone marrow-derived macrophages from aged rats are more responsive to inflammatory stimuli | Journal of Neuroinflammation |...

Whereas it is accepted that the immune system undergoes changes with age, there is inconsistency in the literature with respect ... to the impact of age on the response of macrophages to inflammatory stimuli. Here, we investigate the effect of age on the ... Markers associated with M1 activation were expressed to a greater extent in BMDMs from aged rats in response to LPS and IFNγ, ... Brain tissue, prepared from young and aged rats, was assessed for expression of inflammatory markers by PCR and for evidence of ...
more infohttps://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12974-015-0287-7

Frontiers | Multiple Myeloma Cells Express Key Immunoregulatory Cytokines and Modulate the Monocyte Migratory Response |...Frontiers | Multiple Myeloma Cells Express Key Immunoregulatory Cytokines and Modulate the Monocyte Migratory Response |...

This attractive modulation of immune responses by MM cells might provide a means to impair early anti-tumor responses during ... a determinant interleukin involved in the acquisition of cellular-mediated protective responses against tumor cells. We further ... This attractive modulation of immune responses by MM cells might provide a means to impair early antitumor responses during the ... a determinant interleukin involved in the acquisition of cellular-mediated protective responses against tumor cells. We further ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2017.00092/full

Test DetailTest Detail

... depending on their primary effects on immune responses. Some cytokines, such as IL-6, can serve both pro-inflammatory and anti- ... Interleukin-5; Interleukin-6; Interleukin-7; Interleukin-8; Interleukin-10; Interleukin-12; Interleukin-13; Interleukin-15; ... They also mediate interactions among the immune system, digestive system, nervous system, endocrine system, and metabolism. ... Most cytokines can be generally characterized as pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory, ...
more infohttps://directlabs.com/TestDetail.aspx?testid=3742

Nutrients  | Free Full-Text | Effect of Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum on the Inflammatory Response in Mice | HTMLNutrients | Free Full-Text | Effect of Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum on the Inflammatory Response in Mice | HTML

However, further studies are needed to elucidate the FM-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms in IBD. ... Therefore, FM appears to potentially play a role in decreasing the Th17 response. ... aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of milks fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum on the Th1/Th17 response in ... the effect of fermented milk on the T-helper 17 response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is unknown. The ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/8/1039/htm

The toxic effect of nickel nanoparticles on oxidative stress and inflammatory
markers.The toxic effect of nickel nanoparticles on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers.

The toxic effect of nickel nanoparticles on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers., Seyedeh tahereh razavipour, ... in nickel oxide nanoparticles could create disturbance in the production of interleukins by impacting the immune system in the ... Interleukin- 10 is an anti-inflammatory agent and is effective in reducing pathological signs resulted from toxins [10]. Thus, ... A similar state of condition could also occur in the case of increased humoral immune response. Some toxins exerted impact on ...
more infohttp://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/the-toxic-effect-of-nickel-nanoparticles-on-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatorymarkers.html

Salivary and serum concentrations of selected pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in relation to oral lesions among children...Salivary and serum concentrations of selected pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in relation to oral lesions among children...

... which suggests prolonged high activity of the immune system in response to the disease. The largest range of results obtained ... and anti-inflammatory cytokines in blood after ALL chemotherapy, Mazur et al. did not find significant differences for the anti ... 9. Sabat R, Asadullah K. Interleukin-10 in cancer immunity. In: Cancer immune therapy: current and future strategies, Stuhler G ... The immune response in critical illness: excessive, inadequate or dysregulated. In: The Immune Response in Critical Illness, ...
more infohttps://www.termedia.pl/Salivary-and-serum-concentrations-of-selected-pro-and-antiinflammatory-cytokines-in-relation-to-oral-lesions-among-children-undergoing-maintenance-therapy-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia,3,36905,1,1.html

CD11b/CD18 Acts in Concert with CD14 and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 4 to Elicit Full Lipopolysaccharide and Taxol-Inducible Gene...CD11b/CD18 Acts in Concert with CD14 and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 4 to Elicit Full Lipopolysaccharide and Taxol-Inducible Gene...

The interleukin-12/interleukin-12 receptor system: role in normal and pathologic immune responses. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 16: 495 ... New insights into the mode of action of anti-inflammatory drugs. Inflamm. Res. 44: 1. ... a transcription factor of the IFN regulatory factor family regulates immune responses in vivo through control of interleukin 12 ... Rabbit polyclonal anti-COX-2 Ab was obtained from Cayman Chemical (Ann Arbor, MI). Rabbit polyclonal anti-IκB-α/MAD-3 and anti- ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/166/1/574?ijkey=66a3a194749733f2ebce5c2e08740c44801a291b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Mesenchymal stem cells: Emerging mechanisms of immunomodulation and therapyMesenchymal stem cells: Emerging mechanisms of immunomodulation and therapy

In response to TLR3 signaling, MSCs maintain an anti-inflammatory MSC2 phenotype, marked by induction of IDO, PGE2, RANTES, and ... In addition to macrophages, neutrophils are important phagocytes of the innate immune system. In response to detection of ... Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist mediates the antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effect of mesenchymal stem cells during lung ... In contrast, the MSC2 phenotype could be adopted for the down-regulation of immune responses to limit inflammatory damage to ...
more infohttps://www.wjgnet.com/1948-0210/full/v6/i5/526.htm

ELISA Kit for Interleukin 4 (IL4), Sandwich ELISA, CLOUD-CLONE CORP.(CCC)ELISA Kit for Interleukin 4 (IL4), Sandwich ELISA, CLOUD-CLONE CORP.(CCC)

ELISA Kit for Interleukin 4 (IL4), Rattus norvegicus (Rat), Sandwich ELISA, BSF1, BCGF1 ,B Cell Stimulatory Factor 1, ... Proinflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Mediated by NF-ÎşB Factor as Prognostic Markers in Mammary TumorsPubmed: ... Immune responses of pigs immunized with a recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressing porcine GM ... Long-term use of ceftriaxone sodium induced changes in gut microbiota and immune system.pubmed:28220870 ...
more infohttps://www.cloud-clone.us/elisa/ELISA-Kit-for-Rat-Interleukin-4-IL4-2167.htm
  • Thus, considering the lack of enough information regarding the toxic effects of nickel oxide on oxidative stress system, and some immune parameters, this study was designed to determine the toxic effect of nickel oxide nanoparticles on oxidative stress level and immunological parameters including determining the level of inflammatory and non-inflammatory cytokines in rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Therefore, alterations of antioxidative function and T lymphocyte production in response to Zn supplementation can be reflective of the immunological effect of Zn, which has not yet been studied. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In response to exogenous stimuli or to biological factors such as age or nutrition, the muscle increases its size, the amount of contractile proteins and consequently force production. (frontiersin.org)
  • We further demonstrate that MM RPMI 8226 cell line expresses elevated levels of soluble form of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 known to inhibit antitumoral T cell responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • MSCs produce a large number of soluble and membrane-bound factors, some of which inhibit immune responses. (wjgnet.com)
  • Stress induces neuroinflammation accompanied by altered production of neuropeptides and inflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS). (hindawi.com)
  • Neuroinflammation has been shown to mediate the pathophysiological response following traumatic brain injury (TBI). (crick.ac.uk)
  • The broad range of effects elicited by MM over the BM microenvironment is also able to target host immune effectors. (frontiersin.org)
  • To assess whether BMDMs induced glial activation, mixed glial cultures were incubated in the presence of conditioned media obtained from unstimulated BMDMs of young and aged rats and evaluated for expression of inflammatory markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The toxic effect of nickel nanoparticles on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The next stage is prevention or treatment of the central nervous system infiltration. (termedia.pl)
  • The gut nervous system and the brain are in constant communication . (helladelicious.com)
  • The two major branches of the autonomic nervous system, the sympathetic and parasympathetic, are intimately tied to all the visceral organs, such as the gut, heart, lungs, and the kidneys, and are also very connected to emotions. (helladelicious.com)
  • Known functions of Zn include: regulating immune response, improving gastrointestinal digestion and interacting with the nervous system . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly studied animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. (plos.org)
  • These data indicate that 670 nm light therapy protects against nitrosative stress and apoptosis within the central nervous system, contributing to the clinical effect of 670 nm light therapy previously noted in the EAE model. (plos.org)
  • Animals receiving 670 nm light treatment also exhibited up-regulation of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptosis gene, an increased Bcl-2:Bax ratio, and reduced apoptosis within the spinal cord of animals over the course of disease. (plos.org)
  • What Characteristics Confer Proteins the Ability to Induce Allergic Responses? (mdpi.com)
  • Plant extract of quercetin is the main ingredient of many potential anti-allergic drugs, supplements and enriched products, which is more competent in inhibiting of IL-8 than cromolyn (anti-allergic drug disodium cromoglycate) and suppresses IL-6 and cytosolic calcium level increase. (mdpi.com)
  • Although they are numerous, cytokines can be functionally divided into two groups: those that are proinflammatory and those that are essentially anti-inflammatory but that promote allergic responses. (bmj.com)
  • Many researchers regard allergy as a Th2 weighted imbalance, and recently immunologists have been investigating ways to redirect allergic Th2 responses in favour of Th1 responses to try to reduce the incidence of atopy. (bmj.com)
  • Skeletal muscle is a highly complex system formed by thousands of contractile units called muscle fibers. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, chemical changes in histones or other proteins, which play a role in the formation of DNA, unwind the helical structure of DNA and exposed DNA to any change [ 3 , 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Problematically, many if not all vaccines have the ability to impair immune function, at least temporarily, which can have devastating consequences for some people, especially individuals who are more susceptible to adverse responses to vaccination. (mercola.com)
  • Some groups have been looking at using high dose exposure to allergen to drive up the Th1 response in established disease, 1 and other groups have been studying the use of mycobacterial vaccines in an attempt to drive a stronger Th1 response in early life. (bmj.com)
  • The locus coeruleus (LC) is a stress-response brainstem and a major part of the SAM-axis for its role in regulating norepinephrine (NE) release. (hindawi.com)
  • Accordingly, it was concluded that stress-induced decline of IL-4 concentration from LC neurons may be related to anxiety-like behavior and an inverse relationship exists between IL-4 secretion and HPA/SAM-axes activation. (hindawi.com)
  • The effect of stress on secretion of IL-4 in the periphery is highly controversial. (hindawi.com)
  • In excess, Th2 responses will counteract the Th1 mediated microbicidal action. (bmj.com)
  • Suboptimal" vitamin D status is linked to increased risk for acute illness, inflammatory injury, stress fracture, muscle pain/weakness and suboptimal muscle performance. (gssiweb.org)
  • Zinc sulfate (ZnS[O.sub.4]) is one of the conventional supplemental forms of Zn in diets for pigs. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Previous studies have suggested that improved growth performance of pigs may result from the role of Zn as a crucial component in the systemic antioxidative and immune network [4]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, there is little published research on the effect of PC-Zn on growth performance, antioxidative and immune functions in pigs. (thefreelibrary.com)