Spleen Focus-Forming Viruses: Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred C57BLSimian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Mice, Inbred BALB CCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.DNA Virus InfectionsFriend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Mice, Inbred C3HHerpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA Virus InfectionsViral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.

*Dendritic cell

Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... Many other viruses, such as the SARS virus seems to use DC-SIGN to 'hitchhike' to its target cells. However, most work with ... receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a ... The monocytes in turn are formed from stem cells in the bone marrow. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells can be generated in vitro ...

*Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

"Experimental animals and in vitro systems in the study of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus". Bull. World Health Organ. 55 (5 ... However, if a mouse is infected after the neonatal period, when the immune system is responsive, the immune response is active ... In these mice, and some hamsters, vasculitis and lymphocytic infiltrates in many organs and tissues including the liver, spleen ... It was the original model when first studied focused on CD-8 T cells response towards LCMV infection. In addition, a better ...

*Immunology

The important lymphoid organs of the immune system are the thymus and bone marrow, and chief lymphatic tissues such as spleen, ... More recent ecoimmunological research has focused on host pathogen defences traditionally considered "non-immunological", such ... or fluorescent label or with a color-forming enzyme in order to detect it. However, the similarity between some antigens can ... dendritic cells and macrophages by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Clinical immunologists also study ways to prevent ...

*Avian immune system

The highly pathogenic form spreads much more rapidly and can infect multiple tissues and organs. Massive internal bleeding and ... Little is known about the innate immune system of birds. Most research has been focused on chickens due to the increased threat ... Jenkins KA, Bean AG, Lowenthal JW (2007). "Avian genomics and the innate immune response to viruses." Cytogenet. Genome Res. ... Bursa of Fabricius and bone marrow are primary avian lymphoid organs whereas the spleen, mucosal associated lymphoid tissues ( ...

*Cirrhosis

... can cause immune system dysfunction, leading to infection. Signs and symptoms of infection may be nonspecific and are ... Infection with the hepatitis C virus causes inflammation of the liver and a variable grade of damage to the organ. Over several ... The spleen becomes congested, which leads to hypersplenism and the spleen's retention of platelets, which are needed for normal ... due to collateral connections forming between the portal system and the periumbilical veins as a result of portal hypertension ...

*Natural killer cell

Active hexose correlated compound Granzymes Hematopoiesis Immune system Interleukin Lymphatic system Vivier, E., Raulet, D.H., ... Chikungunya virus, HIV, or viral hepatitis. However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK ... Upon release in close proximity to a cell slated for killing, perforin forms pores in the cell membrane of the target cell, ... These specialized NK-cell subsets can play a role in organ homeostasis. For example, NK cells are enriched in the human liver ...

*Chikungunya

In a nonhuman primate model, chikungunya virus was found to persist in the spleen for at least six weeks. Chikungunya virus ( ... as infants lack fully developed immune systems. The likelihood of prolonged symptoms or chronic joint pain is increased with ... Mosquito control focuses on eliminating the standing water where mosquitos lay eggs and develop as larva; if elimination of the ... The structural proteins are the capsid and two envelope glycoproteins: E1 and E2, which form heterodimeric spikes on the viron ...

*Lymphopoiesis

Immuno-Biology, The Immune System in Health and Science. Fundamental Immunology 5th edition Immuno-Biology, The Immune System ... Medical Immunology, p. 117-122) B cells are formed and mature in bone marrow (and spleen). It is a good mnemonic aide that B ... In essence focus has been shifted away from the CLP to the MLP[citation needed] (lymphoid-specified progenitors), which are ... Probably NK cells can develop in a variety of organs but the major site of NK cell development is not known. In humans, the ...

*Pathology

... organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the ... The second kind of complication in the immune system is Autoimmunity, where the immune system would attack itself rather than ... Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either surgical biopsies or sometimes ... viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Damage caused by insects, mites ...

*Lysosome

It is thought that lysosomes participate in this dynamic membrane exchange system and are formed by a gradual maturation ... Peroxisome Cathelicidin Antimicrobial peptides Innate immune system Mindell JA (2012). "Lysosomal Acidification Mechanisms". ... The organs most affected are brain, viscera, bone and cartilage. There is no direct medical treatment to cure LSDs. The most ... By 1949, he and his team had focused on the enzyme called glucose 6-phosphatase, which is the first crucial enzyme in sugar ...

*Sepsis

... conditions that weaken the immune system such as cancer, diabetes, or the absence of a spleen; and major trauma and burns. The ... and which organ systems are thought to be infected. Antibiotic regimens should be reassessed daily and narrowed if appropriate ... Early recognition and focused management may improve the outcomes in sepsis. Current professional recommendations include a ... Most commonly, the infection is bacterial, but it may also be from fungi, viruses, or parasites. Common locations for the ...

*Hepatitis

Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as organ transplant recipients, are also susceptible. Infection is rare in the ... The hepatitis D virus requires that a person first be infected with hepatitis B virus, so prevention efforts should focus on ... Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) in its severe form has a one-month mortality as high as 50%. Most people who develop AH are men but ... 10-20% of people will also experience an enlarged spleen, while some people will also experience a mild unintentional weight ...

*Leukemia

Viruses have also been linked to some forms of leukemia. For example, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell ... This could cause the patient's immune system to be unable to fight off a simple infection or to start attacking other body ... which then spill over into the bloodstream and spread to other organs of the body. Acute forms of leukemia are the most common ... Studies may focus on effective means of treatment, better ways of treating the disease, improving the quality of life for ...

*Immunoglobulin M

Subsequent studies using recombinant DNA expression systems indicated that hexamer is a major form of mouse IgM, when the IgM ... capture IgM-antigen-complement complexes and transport the complexes into areas in the spleen where efficient immune responses ... This article focuses on human and mouse IgM, which are both well studied and have very similar properties. For the most part ... The development of anti-donor IgM after organ transplantation is not associated with graft rejection but it may have a ...

*Lactalbumin

... and of casein on the spleen, liver, and heart glutathione content of C3H/HeJ mice, and on the immune response of their spleen ... 3. Influence Of Dietary Protein Type On The Immune System Of Mice Bounous G., Letourneau L., Kongshavn P.A. J Nutr. Jul;113(7 ... After 20 weeks of dimethylhydrazine treatment, the number of plaque forming cells per spleen, following intravenous inoculation ... 03: 1163-1168 (2003) Background: Chronic iron overload is a major cause of organ failure worldwide, but its pathogenesis ...

*Cancer

... not only through its effect on body weight but also through negative effects on the immune system and endocrine system. More ... Cancer research focuses on the following issues: Agents (e.g. viruses) and events (e.g. mutations) that cause or facilitate ... They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often ... Benign tumors (which are not cancers) are named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root. For example, a benign ...

*Blood transfusion

Also studies shown to us, failure of the immune system caused by blood transfusion can be categorized as one of the main ... The red blood cells are removed by macrophages from the blood circulation into liver and spleen to be destroyed, which leads to ... What's the Shelf Life of Blood? Focus on Whether Older Donations Impair Recovery of Transfusion Recipients. The Wall Street ... The rare and experimental practice of inter-species blood transfusions is a form of xenograft. Arnault Tzanck Blood transfusion ...

*Focal infection theory

... that L forms can adhere to red blood cells and thereby disseminate from foci within internal organs such as the spleen, or from ... it was concluded that that was often the case-while immune response prevented dissemination from the focus-but that immunity ... viruses-became the entities expected in the theory of focal infection. Yet until the 1980s, such researchers were scarce, ... Periodontal Medicine and Systems Biology (West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), pp 33-34. Ronald T Lewis, ch 25 "Soft tissue ...

*Visceral leishmaniasis

Worse, their immune systems were defenseless against this new pathogen, foreign to them though it came only from another part ... The parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence "visceral"), and bone marrow, and, if left ... further contained a RNA virus known as Leptomonas seymouri narna-like virus 1 (Lepsey NLV1). So, it appears that a great ... The protozoan is in the smaller of its two forms, called an amastigote, which is round, non-motile, and only 3-7 micrometers in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A weakly pathogenic Rauscher spleen focus-forming virus mutant that lacks the carboxyl-terminal membrane anchor of its envelope glycoprotein. AU - Machida, Curtis. AU - Bestwick, R. K.. AU - Kabat, David. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - A mutant Rauscher spleen focus-forming virus (mutant 4-3) that causes mild splenic erythroblastoma in mice has a 44-base-pair deletion in the 3 region of its envelope glycoprotein (env) gene. The encoded glycoprotein terminates prematurely, lacks a hydrophobic membrane anchor, and has a shortened intracellular lifespan. An active site for causing erythroblast proliferation may occur in the undamaged amino-terminal domain of the env glycoprotein.. AB - A mutant Rauscher spleen focus-forming virus (mutant 4-3) that causes mild splenic erythroblastoma in mice has a 44-base-pair deletion in the 3 region of its envelope ...
Pragnell, I B.; Mcnab, A; Harrison, P R.; and Osterag, W, "Are spleen focus-forming virus sequences related to xenotropic viruses and expressed specifically in normal erythroid cells." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1792 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A friend virus mutant that overcomes Fv-2rr host resistance encodes a small glycoprotein that dimerizes, is processed to cell surfaces, and specifically activates erythropoietin receptors. AU - Kozak, Susan L.. AU - Hoatlin, Maureen E.. AU - Ferro, Frank E.. AU - Majumdar, Manas K.. AU - Geib, Roy W.. AU - Fox, Mary T.. AU - Kabat, David. PY - 1993/5. Y1 - 1993/5. N2 - The env gene of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) encodes a membrane glycoprotein (gp55) that is inefficiently (3 to 5%) processed from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to form a larger dimeric plasma membrane derivative (gp55p). Moreover, the SFFV env glycoprotein associates with erythropoietin receptors (EpoR) to cause proliferation of infected erythroblasts [J.-P. Li, A. D. DAndrea, H. F. Lodish, and D. Baltimore, Nature (London) 343:762-764, 1990]. Interestingly, the mitogenic effect of SFFV is blocked in mice homozygous for the Fv-2r resistance gene, but mutant SFFVs ...
Frankel, A E.; Gilbert, J H.; and Fischinger, P J., "Effect of helper virus on the number of murine sarcoma virus dna copies in infected mammalian cells." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1156 ...
Marcelletti, J and Furmanski, P, "Spontaneous regression of friend virus-induced erythroleukemia. Iii. The role of macrophages in regression." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 4 ...
The generation of high-titer, helper-free retroviruses by transient transfection has been achieved by using the highly transfectable 293T cell line into which are stably introduced constructs that express retroviral packaging functions. The resulting ecotropic virus packaging cell line BOSC 23 produces infectious retrovirus at , 10(6) infectious units/ml of supernatant within 72 hr after CaPO4-mediated transfection. A stringent assay for replication-competent virus showed that no helper virus was present. The system can produce high titers of retroviral vectors expressing genes that are extremely difficult to propagate at high titer in stable producer lines. This method should facilitate and extend the use of helper-free retroviral gene transfer, as well as be useful for gene therapy.. ...
A helper dependent virus also termed a gutless virus is a synthetic viral vector dependent on the assistance of a helper virus in order to replicate. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an example of a replication defective, helper dependent ssRNA virus because it requires Hepatitis B virus (HBV) to provide HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for the encapsidation of its genome. The envelope proteins on the outer surface of HDV are entirely provided by HBV. Since the genome of the gutless virus does not include genes encoding the enzymes and/or structural proteins required to replicate, it is deemed safe for use in gene therapy since an infection cannot occur except in the presence of a suitable helper virus. Well established protocols allow scientists to propagate helper dependent viruses in the lab. However, using an actual helper virus poses problems when it comes to purification of a desired transgenic virus. Therefore, lab methods often utilize minimal fragments of the helper DNA that can serve this ...
The human parvovirus Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) type 2 can only replicate in cells co-infected with a helper virus, such as Adenovirus or Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1); whereas, in the absence of a helper virus, it establishes a latent infection. Previous studies demonstrated that the ternary HSV-1 helicase/primase (HP) complex (UL5/8/52) and the singlestranded DNA-Binding Protein (ICP8) were sufficient to induce AAV-2 replication in transfected cells. We independently showed that, in the context of a latent AAV-2 infection, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein was able to activate rep gene expression. The present study was conducted to integrate these observations and to further explore the requirement of other HSV-1 proteins during early AAV replication steps, i.e. rep gene expression and AAV DNA replication. Using a cellular model that mimics AAV latency and composite constructs coding for various sets of HSV-1 genes, we first confirmed the role of ICP0 for rep gene expression and demonstrated a ...
A method for rapidly producing helper-free murine leukemia virus (MLV) without using packaging cell lines is described. Viruses bearing ecotropic or amphotropic MLV or Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein and containing various retroviral vector genomes have been prepared with titers 30 to 40-fold higher than those produced by transient transfection of standard packaging cells. This system can be used to alter the cellular tropism of MLV by incorporating other envelope glycoproteins and to prepare retroviral vector stocks without establishing stable producer cell lines. This method will be particularly useful for preparing viruses that encode toxic proteins and for the rapid analysis of panels of mutant envelope glycoproteins. ...
We have previously described avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell lines that express gag, pol, and env proteins from two transcomplementing genomes and produce helper-free stocks of retroviral vectors with different host ranges. In this report, we demonstrated that (i) despite the deletion of the psi packaging sequence, the packaging-defective transcomplementing retroviral transcripts were packaged into virions at a level that could reach 2.3% of a wild-type virus packaging level and (ii) despite deletion of the 3 LTR, these genomes were transferred along with the vector to target cells. As these genomes were also bearing a selectable gene, titers of the resulting contaminant particles could be estimated, depending on the cell line to be between 0 and 6 infectious particles/ml of supernatant.
The avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) is an alpha retrovirus responsible for acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) when injected in ovo, or in newly hatched chickens [10]. Early in vitro dose response experiments indicated that the production of virion with leukemogenic potential required a double infection with AMV and a helper virus [11]. The AMV strains that are used and commercially available, are derived from the orignal BAI strain A purified from chicken leukemic plasma [12]. Leukemic plasma containing the BAI strain has been widely distributed for many years by Life Sciences Inc., in Florida which has been the official provider of national agencies in the USA. The Standard AMV-S BAI strain is a complex mixture of viruses that also includes two helper viruses in addition to AMV. The helper viruses Myeoloblastosis Associated Virus (MAV) contained in AMV-S belong to two different serological subgoups (type1 and type2, also called A and B). Both of them are ...
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The Retro-X Universal Packaging System, featuring the GP2-293 packaging cell line, allows you to cater the tropism of the packaged virus to your target cell line. The envelope protein of your choice is cotransfected with your retroviral expression vector.
The Retro-X Universal Packaging System, featuring the GP2-293 packaging cell line, allows you to cater the tropism of the packaged virus to your target cell line. The envelope protein of your choice is cotransfected with your retroviral expression vector.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The holiday is less than two weeks away, and if you are still shopping for stocking stuffer gift ideas, there are many opportunities within the world of skin care products for women and men too. When it comes to giving the perfect stocking stuffer gift, you need small items that deliver big results. This is why finding high-quality anti-aging skin care products make for the ideal tiny gifts. If your friends and family care about preserving a youthful glow by removing dark spots under the eyes, reducing wrinkles, and smoothing out the skins texture, these four products will give them something to smile about.. 1 . Lumixyl Brightening Cream. Lumixyl brightening cream is a miracle skin care product that helps minimize the appearance of wrinkles and the signs of hyperpigmentation. The active ingredient are the peptides-molecules that mimic amino acids that occur naturally in the body that have been damaged or have slowed down to help produce collagen. Dermatologists highly recommend skin care ...
To determine the structural requirements for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of chimeric cDNAs. D and S are necrogenic and non-necrogenic prototype variants, respectively, and Y possesses the 3′ conserved necrosis-determining region but does not cause lethal tomato necrosis. Its 5′ half harbours an insertion/deletion region that results in a molecule about 30 nucleotides longer than other variants. Tomato bioassays were conducted with RNA transcripts of all six chimeric combinations of the 5′ and 3′ halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. None of the chimeras containing the 5′ half of Y induced lethal necrosis in tomato even when their 3′ halves were that of the D variant with the conserved necrogenic element. Chimeras with the 3′ half of Y elicited only partial or restricted necrosis which was much
I see posts about 3/8 stuffer tubes for sticks being hard to find. LEM makes several versions for different stuffers, and they constantly seem to be...
Whether you need to design a new packaging line or make the one you have more efficient, Packaging Systems Automation is the name to remember. PSA is a value added integrator with the know-how to provide standard and custom solutions to your product handling needs. From our manufacturing facility in Minneapolis Minnesota, our team of professionals design and build high quality packaging machinery and systems for customers throughout the packaging industry.Because our people have many years of experience, we will save you time and money as your full service partner in packaging.
Viral packaging systems in lentiviral, baculoviral, and retroviral platforms as well as packaging services with high titer products
Virusoids are circular single-stranded RNAs dependent on plant viruses for replication and encapsidation. The genome of virusoids consist of several hundred nucleotides and does not code for any proteins. Virusoids are essentially viroids that have been encapsulated by a helper virus coat protein. They are thus similar to viroids in their means of replication (rolling circle replication), but they differ in that viroids do not possess a protein coat. Virusoids, while being studied in virology, are subviral particles rather than viruses. Since they depend on helper viruses, they are classified as satellites. In the virological taxonomy they appear as Satellites/Satellite nucleic acids/Subgroup 3: Circular satellite RNAs. The term virusoid is also sometimes used more generally to refer to all satellites. Symons RH (1991). "The intriguing viroids and virusoids: what is their information content and how did they evolve?" (PDF). Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 4 ...
Naviaux, R.K., Costanzi, E., Haas, M. and Verma, I.M. (1996) The pCL Vector System Rapid Production of Helper-Free, High-Titer, Recombinant Retroviruses. Journal of Virology, 70, 5701-5705.
Once you start making your own homemade sausage, your going to want to get a sausage stuffer. You will find that most of the homemade sausage recipes you choose to make will require the sausage to be stuffed into casings. When it comes to sausage stuffers there are many kinds to choose from. You can use a small manual type to push the sausage into your casings or you can go with the larger manual stuffer. It all depends on the amount of sausage you are going to be stuffing at a time, and the amount of money you would like to spend.. Small manual sausage stuffers are a great option if your making a small amount of homemade sausage at a time. These can typically make about three pounds of sausage at a time. They are made from stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron which makes them all easy to clean after you make your homemade sausage. The best feature of these small sausage stuffers is the price. They typically can be purchasedfor about $50. Not a bad option, especially if youre just starting ...
DNA fragments (seeds) having the characteristics of amplicons, which are useful for amplifying genes of interest, have been isolated from Mareks disease viruses of poultry. Concatmers of the seeds and the associated genes have potential as vaccines or delivery vectors when cotransfected and replicated in the presence of helper viruses. The amplicons are also useful for inserting associated genes into the helper viruses, which in turn could be used as expression vectors. Candidate genes for use with the subject amplicons include those which encode immunogenic proteins and other beneficial economic traits desired in commercial poultry lines.
We think that AAV2 recognizes that the cancers cells are unusual and destroys them. This suggests that AAV2 has great potential to end up being created as an anti-cancer agent. The analysis was presented June 20, 2005, at the 24th annual conference of the American Society for Virology kept June 18-22 at Penn State, University Park campus. Although the nice reason remains unclear, population-based studies show that folks who carry AAV2 usually do not develop human being papillomavirus - associated cervical cancer. Generally, AAV2 needs association with a helper virus in order to replicate. When it discovers a helper virus, such as for example HPV, AAV2 disrupts the full life cycle of the host and induces apoptosis, a kind of cell death. Actually without co-mingling with another virus, AAV2 appears to be able to infect and communicate itself in other types of malignancy cells also disrupting their ability to survive and inducing cell loss of life, Meyers said. Read More →. ...
AM948961) from Nawab Shah, Pakistan (Fig. 2).. Defective (df) DNAs are often associated with the geminiviral diseases, which are derived from a partial deletion of viral genomes (Patil and Dasgupta, 2006). These defective molecules have nonanucloetide sequence, which suggests that these df molecules are trans-replicated by the helper virus, resulting in reduction of the viral symptoms, thus referred as defective interfering molecules (Patil and Dasgupta, 2006). Reduction in disease symptoms is either due to initiation of host RNAi mechanism (Bach and Jeske, 2014) or by the competition of df molecules with the helper virus for the cellular resources (Stanley et al., 1990). Along with the full-length begomovirus, two defective begomoviruses were also cloned from the sample. Complete sequencing of defective begomoviruses, having nonanucloetide sequence revealed DNA molecules of half and a quarter of the full-length begomovirus, 1459 and 714 nt respectively. The sequences are ...
Livestockreview.com, Tokoh. Kepala Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), Rusman Heriawan menegaskan bahwa sebenarnya jika pemerintah tidak mengimpor sapi untuk kebutuhan daging dalam negeri tidak menjadikan persoalan. Pasalnya sumber daya sapi dalam negeri terbilang sudah mencukupi. "Suplai sapi dalam negeri bisa diartikan mencapai 90%. Ini tingkat konsumsi yang aman tidak akan terjadi kekacauan jika daging sapi tidak ada," katanya, akhir pekan lalu. Merujuk hasil perhitungan sementara sensus ternak, BPS mencatat jumlah sapi potong ada 14,43 juta, kerbau ada 1,27 juta, dan sapi perah ada 574 ribu. Sehingga berdasarkan jumlah itu, potensi menghasilkan dari sekitar 16,3 juta. "Berdasarkan hitungan ini menambah keyakinan soal swasembada," katanya. Menurut Rusman, jika diartikan swasembada itu mampu memenuhi kebutuhan sendiri 100%. Indonesia saat ini sudah 90% dan tinggal 10%. Meski demikian, Rusman mengungkapkan dalam jangka pendek masih perlu mendatangkan sapi dari luar negeri. "Ini untuk memenuhi 10% ...
There are 350 calories in 1 serving, 1/4 piece of DoubleDaves Pizzaworks Chicken Parmesan Stuffer. Youd need to walk 92 minutes to burn 350 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
In addition, there are specific warnings for products in the following categories:. Electrical Cords (may be found on some travel accessories). California requires the following notice:. WARNING: The wires of some products may contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling.. Beauty Products (containing progesterone). California requires the following notice on beauty and skin care products that contain progesterone:. WARNING: Certain beauty products may contain progesterone, a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer. Consult with your physician before using this product.. This is not a complete description of California Prop 65. For a complete listing, visit www.oehha.org/prop65.html ...
Good things really do come in small packages! Posh Beauty Blog is bringing you last minute holiday stocking stuffer ideas for the beauty lover.
A method and an apparatus for stuffer box crimping a spun multifilament yarn, wherein the yarn is packed in a crimping device to form a yarn plug. After cooling the yarn plug, it is unraveled into a yarn. In so doing, the position of the unraveling point is adjusted by varying the withdrawal speed of the yarn. At the same time when the withdrawal speed is varied, a signal is generated for controlling at least one of the parameters of the crimping device, which influences the formation of the yarn plug, so that it is possible to produce a uniformly crimped yarn.
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We always get excited when we receive big gifts but hey mini stocking stuffers are where the real fun is at. Today Ive rounded up some treats...
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A key role of signal transduction pathways is to control transcriptional programs in the nucleus as a function of signals received by the cell via complex post-translational modification cascades. This determines cell-context specific responses to environmental stimuli. Given the difficulty of quantitating protein concentration and post-translational modifications, signaling pathway studies are still for the most part conducted one interaction at the time. Thus, genome-wide, cell-context specific dissection of signaling pathways is still an open challenge in molecular systems biology. In this manuscript we extend the MINDy algorithm for the identification of post-translational modulators of transcription factor activity, to produce a first genome-wide map of the interface between signaling and transcriptional regulatory programs in human B cells. We show that the serine-threonine kinase STK38 emerges as the most pleiotropic signaling protein in this cellular context and we biochemically ...
O88697: Serine/threonine-protein kinase 16; 2.7.11.1; Embryo-derived protein kinase; Edpk; Myristoylated and palmitoylated serine/threonine-protein kinase; MPSK; Protein kinase Krct; Protein kinase PKL12; TGF-beta-stimulated factor 1; TSF-1; Tyrosine-protein kinase STK16; 2.7. ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
A new packaging system for the aerial release of phytoseiids was designed and tested in the laboratory and in the field. The observed escapes before and after release, mortality during all stages of release, and fecundity after release indicated that the system was suitable for transporting and distributing phytoseiids. Other evaluated properties of the packaging system included container opening efficiency, container dispersion over the field at several fly-over altitudes, and the probability of containers to be lodged in the cassava canopy. Aerial release trials followed by recoveries of viable adult female phytoseiids from the target fields demonstrated the feasibility of aerial releases as a means for distributing phytoseiid natural enemies.
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Stefan Monnier ,[email protected], writes: ,, Is this a bug in package.el or is it an oversight in the Elisp manual? , , I think its a bug. OK, Ill write a bug report. Thanks Dieter -- Best wishes H. Dieter Wilhelm Zwingenberg, Germany ...
This FEMC System is designed to place different products into specific compartments in this multi-compartment tray at up to 40 trays per minute. These TV d...
AAV is a single stranded DNA virus which has shown great promise as a gene therapy vector. Recombinant AAV vectors delivering RPE65 gene have been demonstrated...
Retroviral (MLV-based) and lentiviral (HIV-1-based) vectors were harvested once at 1.5 days and again at 2.5 days post-transfection. Retroviral genomic particles pseudotyped with VSVGs (gMLV-VSVG) were produced at a higher titer during the first harvest than during the second harvest (Fig. 1A). However, more retroviral transducing particles (functional ones, tMLV-VSVG) were produced during the second harvest than during the first harvest. The number of gMLV-VSVG particles required for the transduction of a single cell (genomic to transducing particle ratio) can be calculated to be 2,200 for the first harvest, but 1,200 for the second harvest. This result indicates that gMLV-VSVG particles assembled at later time points post-transfection are more infectious than the ones assembled earlier.. In contrast, both lentiviral genomic and transducing particles pseudotyped with VSVGs (gHIV1-VSVG and tHIV1-VSVG, respectively) were produced at a higher titer during the first harvest than during the second ...
Satellites are subviral agents that differ from viroids because they depend on the presence of a helper virus for their propagation.
Sprent, J, "Restricted helper function of f1 hybrid t cells positively selected to heterologous erythrocytes in irradiated parental strain mice. I. Failure to collaborate with b cells of the opposite parental strain not associated with active suppression." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1860 ...
Занятие за границей: первопричины да перспективы Во сегодняшний день про работодателя не так важен диплом, который заверяет об полученном образовании, а теоретические да утилитарные навыки, который Вы смогли купить в ходе обучения. Как не прискорбно, Университеты в нашей стране как правило никак не готовы дать те знания да искусства, что требует настоящий рабочий рынок. Оттого ...
Looking for helper cells? Find out information about helper cells. see battery, electric battery, electric, device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy, consisting of a group of electric cells that are... Explanation of helper cells
Hi, I wonder if anybody can give me a clue to make ssDNA of pET-based plasmid with good yield. We have tried Novablue and XL1-blue as host cells and USC-M13 as a helper phage without success. I was told to use Promegas R408 helper phage instead. Any input ? Thanks in advance. Yee-yung Charng yccharng at ucdavis.edu ...
But if we keep ,,, helper running, who will be communicating with it via these open ,,, pipes? The process that is calling finish_command() on fast-import ,,, and disconnecting from the helper wont be, as read/write to the ,,, pipe, even if we do not disconnect from here, will result in errors ,,, if the helper has already exited at this point. ,, ,, Nobody will send any further input, but in theory we could redirect ,, the pipe and send more commands. Thats how it was designed. , , Who does the redirection to whom? The one that is doing all the redirections, transport-helper. , How would the process tree and , piping constructed around the current system? I cannot parse that correctly, but transport-helper is already receiving the output from the remote-helper. , I am not trying to say it is just theoretical mental exercise (which , I have seen you do not do at all on this list). I am trying to find , out what the practical use case is that you have in mind, because , disconnecting will ...
PU.1 antibody, Internal (spleen focus forming virus (SFFV) proviral integration oncogene spi1) for WB. Anti-PU.1 pAb (GTX88620) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Plasmid pCVL SFFV Sbf-Sal linker from Dr. Andrew Scharenbergs lab is published in Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Nov 26. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
This document describes a simple helper class intended for making easy to initialize the grid parameters of a BSplineDeformableTranform. This paper is
Helper for rendering a template fragment in its own variable scope; iterates over data provided and renders for each iteration.. ...
We know the term "nosy friends" seems to be a contradiction. Nonetheless, they do exist. Such friends ask too many personal questions. They want to know the minutest details of your movements. They give you unsolicited advice. Such friends just dont seem to understand when to stop intruding into your life. This can be quite annoying for you. How do you deal with such a situation? There are a few tips that you can follow to handle nosy friends.. How to handle nosy friends?. Change the subject: In case someone asks a question you dont intend to answer, just change the subject and hope that the person will get the message.. Lay down the rules:. Strictly demarcate how much is too much. Tell your friend politely what kind of questions you find acceptable and what makes you uncomfortable. This will help you handle nosy friends effectively.. Silence is golden:. If you dont want to answer an intruding question, remain silent and smile.. Be stern:. Tell assertively, but not aggressively, that you ...
The central part of ClassLaws is defined in the .Core, .Partial and .TestingEquality. Some more helper functions and examples reside in Test.ClassLaws.*. Finally, laws for the Monoid, Monad and MonadState classes live under their definitions in the hierarchy: Data.Monoid.Laws, Control.Monad.Laws, etc. ...
Management to Host Conference Call Today at 4:30 p.m. ET CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
Management to Host Conference Call Today at 4:30 p.m. ET CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
friends are like memories.... some are short term.... ...some are long term and help define who yo ...Find answers to the question, Do You Really Make Friends Or Simply Go On Adding Friends? from people who know at Ask Experience.
Daily Prompt: Imaginary Friend Many of us had imaginary friends as young children. If your imaginary friend grew up alongside you, what would his/her/its life be like today? (Didnt have one? write about a non-imaginary friend you havent seen since childhood.) The driver nosed the limo to the curb and I stepped out. It…
friends, fun, tagging! Free forum : Welcome To The Best Of Friends~H Private community of long-time friends in recovery This site is for our HATR FAMILY to come to and visit with other Friends and Family. We are all about enjoying the outdoors. Hunting Target Shooting, Gun Collecting
Jody Olsen, PhD, MSW, explains why she turned to a friend for help following surgery and emphasizes the value of support from friends and family throughout the cancer journey. Jody also provides recommendations for friends and family members that want to help a loved one who has become diagnosed with cancer ...
Is there anything worse than a friend stabbing you in the back? Heres how to tell youre a loyal friend, and how to spot the signs your friends are about to...
У нас вы найдете best friends перевод, видео клип и музыку в мп3 песни Виктория Джастис - my best friends brother.
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Some people cope by cutting themselves. This article helps friends understand why people cut and gives some tips on what you can to help your friend - and yourself.
Do you want to have more best friends in life? This guide will teach you how to have best friends and create more meaningful relationships.
Super Friends" The new girl next door learns its hard to be best friends with superheroes and soon starts hanging out with the wrong kind of kid-Princess. (22 Minutes ...
We went to visit Rainies best friend today. As Rainie and Molly were playing on the grass, I sat talking with my human friend. Suddenly, Rainie came charging up from the lower yard, stopping in front of me to alert. My blood sugar was 85.
Promotions dont happen all the time, so when they do happen, its a time to celebrate. Make your friend feel special by giving flowers.Telling your friend who got ...
Stephanie Culleys best friend, Beth, was dying of cancer and begged Stephanie to look after Beths 6 kids. In an act of true love and friendship Stephanie said yes. The Culley family is now 6 kids richer a little louder and full of love!
Convince a Friend to Stop Smoking on Stop Smoking Tips | Usually things are more fun when done with a friend. I am not necessarily saying that stopping…
Some people cope by cutting themselves. This article helps friends understand why people cut and gives some tips on what you can to help your friend - and yourself.
The period for making B.F.F.s, the way you did in your teens or early 20s, is pretty much over. Its time to resign yourself to situational adult friends.
The period for making B.F.F.s, the way you did in your teens or early 20s, is pretty much over. Its time to resign yourself to situational adult friends.
Read 34 responses to: I recently found out that a friends 4-year old son... Find the best answer on Mamapedia - mom trusted since 2006.
So me and my friends find ourselves getting bored of doing the same stuff over and over again and we often end up sitting around doing nothing. So lis...
hi my friend just called me and told me her dog might be having puppies she has two chihuahuas and while she was waiting for her female to be fixed...
Natalya (iyunn2019), 39 Sagittarius, Reutov ищет a man aged 37 to 58 for starting a family. Эта и множество других РЕАЛЬНЫХ анктет на сайте friend.sarat.ru
As some of you know,I have a very good friend Dave.Dave struggles constantly with his addictions,and sometimes emerges victorious and sometimes (usually) has to start once again. Dave is a very...
Three stories of some of the antics of our four legged friends and their attempts to let us into their world. Everything from the racetrack in the lounge to teaching us to hunt.
I thought Id bring this up coz Im finding it rather intersting and Im wondering what your thoughts are on this. I gained an imaginary friend when I was four (as.....
2 Answers (question resolved) - Posted in: parnate, depression - Answer: Im so sorry to hear about your friend. I dont have a direct answer for ...
I kissed my best friend and I dont know? i dont know what else to do has this ever happen to you before? She has a boyfriend and today we were talking about relationships and she was saying how...... asked under Dating
Selena Gomez attended her best friends bachelorette weekend at the beach, and she posted some photos to Instagram. Theyre stunning, naturally.
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Oh yeah! They sure come in all shapes and sizes. They couldve been presented in irregular shapes too. But certainly reminds me of all the kinds of friends I have. Simply Super ...
The part that is the most difficult about being here though, is being so far away from family and friends. When it comes to celebrating the engagement and sharing the excitement? Were sort of stumped, or at least on pause for the time being. We both have made some great friends through living and working here, and they do seem legitimately pleased for us, but its not quite the same. My work friends dont know Jason, Jasons work friends dont really know me, so the idea of holding some sort of engagement dinner freaks me out a tiny, tiny bit ...
Question - We have bought a Toshiba Regza from a friend and all works - 89. Find the answer to this and other TV questions on JustAnswer
Its amazing how quickly your famous friends will dump you when youre accused of stealing ... from famous people. Nick Prugo (right), who cops believe…
Originally Posted by RandomINTP My dad says Im an INTJ My mom agrees with me My friends would type me as an ENTP - - - Updated - - - Are you an INTJ?
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Pacing, I pace, a lot. Here is the deal with me. I have gotten a lot of shit from friends, family, ex-wife, ex-girlfriends and others, for pacing too much. Why the hell are you pacing so...
that ive sunk this low in my life........ i am 26 and have nothing , i am staying with a friend who as of recently has grown alittle tired of me , i cant find a...
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Cocoon immunity | Article about cocoon immunity by The Free DictionaryCocoon immunity | Article about cocoon immunity by The Free Dictionary

Although all animals have some immune capabilities,... Explanation of cocoon immunity ... which ultimately destroys the immune system, is caused by a retrovirus called the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which was ... and spleenspleen,. soft, purplish-red organ that lies under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The spleen ... Normal and immune antibodies and phagocytosis play an important role in fixing and destroying microorganisms at the focus of ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/cocoon+immunity

IAVI Report - When Ebola Returns, Will the World be Ready?IAVI Report - When Ebola Returns, Will the World be Ready?

It then moves through the lymph system into the liver, spleen, and adrenal glands, eventually leading to organ failure. All ... the major surface protein on the virus. This protein induces antibody and cellular immune responses, both of which are thought ... Intense focus, pressure, and funding put wind in the sails of these partnerships. During late summer 2014 the WHO convened the ... Vaccine developers, public agencies, and governments formed partnerships to rapidly accelerate the clinical development of ...
more infohttps://www.iavireport.org/vol-19-no-4-2015/1857-when-ebola-returns-will-the-world-be-ready

Castleman Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and MoreCastleman Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and More

... which are immune system cells called lymphocytes. Scientists dont know exactly why the immune system malfunctions. ... The HHV-8 virus is also linked to Kaposi sarcoma, a cancerous tumor that forms in blood vessel walls. Kaposis sarcoma may ... It can also cause the enlargement of certain organs, such as your liver and spleen. ... Instead, treatment focuses on managing the cell overgrowth through medication or other therapies. ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/health/castleman-disease

Direct Analysis of the Dynamics of the Intestinal Mucosa CD8 T Cell Response to Systemic Virus Infection | The Journal of...Direct Analysis of the Dynamics of the Intestinal Mucosa CD8 T Cell Response to Systemic Virus Infection | The Journal of...

In the secondary lymphoid organs, the anti-VSV CD8 response was focused in the spleen, where 17% of CD8 cells were N specific ... As this surface can serve as a target or entry point for myriad pathogens, it places enormous demands on the immune system. In ... Intraepithelial lymphocytes: anatomical site, not T cell receptor form, dictates phenotype and function. J. Exp. Med. 170: 1569 ... Replication of vesicular stomatitis virus in murine spleen cells: enrichment of the virus-replicating lymphocytes and analysis ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/166/4/2348?ijkey=70663e5aa328033698f253a60de17521b91d003a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

WINDS - Human Guinea Pigs Used for Involuntary ExperimentsWINDS - Human Guinea Pigs Used for Involuntary Experiments

These mycoplasmas have the capacity to invade cells and to be potent immunomodulators [altering the immune system]. ... a protein on the envelope of the virus, into live but weakened smallpox virus.... ... The organs of patients with...M. fermentans infection exhibit extensive necrosis [dead tissue]. Necrosis is most pronounced in ... Krugman and his colleagues injected some of them with a mild form of hepatitis serum. The researchers justified their work on ...
more infohttp://www.gulfwarvets.com/winds.htm

Typhoid Fever - A race against time - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comTyphoid Fever - A race against time - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

The infected hosts immune system detects Salmonella and activates immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. These cells ... With time, abscesses form around the new infection foci but again some Salmonella bacteria can manage to escape. "This drives ... Once inside the intestine, Salmonella crosses the gut mucosa and spreads to other organs such as the spleen and liver. Growing ... Protection from Zika virus may lie in a protein derived from mosquitoes ...
more infohttps://www.healthcanal.com/infections/46641-typhoid-fever-a-race-against-time.html

Immunology and Microbiology Seminars & Lectures | Scripps Research
		Immunology and Microbiology Seminars & Lectures | Scripps Research

Our research is focused on defining the molecular mechanisms of how these viruses activate and evade host innate immune ... The formation of the immune system is entirely dependent on the ability of numerous cell types to arise from a common ... For example, immature B cells bearing a self-reactive BCR may be eliminated in the bone marrow (check-point I) or spleen (check ... By a mechanism that is not clear, foreign antigens are retained in their native form and made available to cognate B cells over ...
more infohttps://www.scripps.edu/science-and-medicine/research-departments/immunology-and-microbiology/seminars-and-lectures/

Autoimmunity | Immune Deficiency FoundationAutoimmunity | Immune Deficiency Foundation

Many times, abnormalities in the immune system that lead to primary immunodeficiency diseases also result in immune ... Primary immunodeficiency diseases are characterized by abnormalities in specific components of the immune system that lead to ... The immune system is a complex set of organs, cells, proteins and other substances that function to prevent infection. ... dysregulation, which is an immune response that is not properly controlled or restrained. ...
more infohttps://primaryimmune.org/about-primary-immunodeficiencies/relevant-info/autoimmunity

Autoimmunity | Immune Deficiency FoundationAutoimmunity | Immune Deficiency Foundation

Many times, abnormalities in the immune system that lead to primary immunodeficiency diseases also result in immune ... Primary immunodeficiency diseases are characterized by abnormalities in specific components of the immune system that lead to ... The immune system is a complex set of organs, cells, proteins and other substances that function to prevent infection. ... dysregulation, which is an immune response that is not properly controlled or restrained. ...
more infohttps://www.primaryimmune.org/node/8692

Correlation of Severity of Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Disease and Pathogenicity in Mice - Volume 24, Number 9...Correlation of Severity of Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Disease and Pathogenicity in Mice - Volume 24, Number 9...

We compared 2 tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from 2 different foci that cause different symptoms in tick-borne ... We injected mice with 100 focus-forming units of virus directly into cerebral cortex through the intracranial route. Torö-2003 ... We characterized the pathogenesis and immune response of 2 European isolates of TBEV from infection foci that coincide with ... TBEV burden in central nervous system (CNS) of mice. A-E) Five 6-10-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were infected subcutaneously ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/9/17-1825

10 Things To Know About Lymphocytes10 Things To Know About Lymphocytes

... and help the immune system in different ways. ... Lymphocytes are white blood cells that come in different forms ... To reduce the spleen to its role in the immune system would be unfair, however, as this organ does many things simultaneously, ... of the immune system. One part of the immune system-the more B-cell dominant territory-is focused on making antibodies that can ... There, lymphocytes form an important part of the immune system by monitoring bacteria that live in the gut, preventing the ...
more infohttps://www.verywellhealth.com/what-are-lymphocytes-4140826

Frontiers | Differential Expression of Woodchuck Toll-Like Receptors 1-10 in Distinct Forms of Infection and Stages of...Frontiers | Differential Expression of Woodchuck Toll-Like Receptors 1-10 in Distinct Forms of Infection and Stages of...

These findings are of importance to the understanding of immune process operating at different sites targeted by virus in the ... and in selected organs during experimental WHV infection. Among others, liver biopsies from acute hepatitis (AH) and CH showed ... and virus induced-primary liver cancer. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important mediators of immune responses playing pivotal ... and virus induced-primary liver cancer. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important mediators of immune responses playing pivotal ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03007/full

Polarized Scorpion Venom Solution and a Method for Making Polarized Scorpion Venom Solution - Mikaelian, ArthurPolarized Scorpion Venom Solution and a Method for Making Polarized Scorpion Venom Solution - Mikaelian, Arthur

... a wide range of other auto-immune conditions; and supporting appropriate immune system response to organ transplants. ... For example: cells infected with viruses. Indeed, one of the methods by which cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill virus- ... Currently, scorpion venom solutions are not available in a polarized liquid form. Thus, there is a need in the art for a ... In recent years, a tremendous amount of pharmaceutical research has turned its focus to natural venoms. Venoms of any kind are ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2009/0123558.html

JCI -
2019 Lasker Basic Research Award celebrates immunologists Jacques Miller and Max CooperJCI - 2019 Lasker Basic Research Award celebrates immunologists Jacques Miller and Max Cooper

As a PhD student at the University of London, Jacques Miller became intrigued by a form of virus-induced murine lymphocytic ... "Goods environment was a good fit for me because he was interested in immune system development, immunodeficiency diseases, ... However, though immunologists had clearly demonstrated the spleens and lymph nodes contributions to immune function, the ... Cooper focused on an avian model to examine this paradox. In addition to the thymus, birds have the bursa of Fabricius, a ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/132854

Hodgkins disease facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Hodgkins diseaseHodgkins disease facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Hodgkins disease

Thymus- An organ of the lymphatic system, located behind the breast bone, that produces the T lymphocytes of the immune system. ... including viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells. The spleen, in the upper left abdomen, removes old cells and debris from the ... The Lymphatic System. Lymph is usually a clear, colorless liquid that forms in the space between cells throughout the body. It ... Some patients have their spleens removed during this surgery, both to help with staging and to remove a focus of the disease. ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/hodgkins-disease

Frontiers | Efficacy of a Virus-Like Nanoparticle As Treatment for a Chronic Viral Infection Is Hindered by IRAK1 Regulation...Frontiers | Efficacy of a Virus-Like Nanoparticle As Treatment for a Chronic Viral Infection Is Hindered by IRAK1 Regulation...

Moreover, PapMV is also very efficient when used as an immune adjuvant in an immunotherapeutic setting at slowing down the ... Thus we identified a possible pitfall in the use of virus-like particles for the systemic treatment of chronic viral infections ... Moreover, PapMV is also very efficient when used as an immune adjuvant in an immunotherapeutic setting at slowing down the ... We have recently demonstrated that the papaya mosaic virus-like (PapMV) nanoparticle can be used as a prophylactic vaccine ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01885/full

Longevity Meme Newsletter, December 24 2007 - Fight Aging!Longevity Meme Newsletter, December 24 2007 - Fight Aging!

Weve seen a lot of ingenuity in bioengineering attacks on cancer with viruses or the immune system. Heres an example of a ... Researchers found that once the T-cells returned to the lymph nodes and spleen, the virus detached itself from the T-cells, ... Once the band structures form, the researchers apply a commonly used gel that induces cells to form three-dimensional tubes. ... One focus of SENS and SENS-like research is to cut this process short at the damaged mitochondria phase. Eliminate the ...
more infohttps://www.fightaging.org/archives/2007/12/longevity-meme-newsletter-december-24-2007/

Core Concept: Tissue resident memory cells emerging as key player in health and disease | PNASCore Concept: Tissue resident memory cells emerging as key player in health and disease | PNAS

Much of our understanding of the immune system has come from studying immune cells drawn from blood. Such samples are minimally ... The classic paradigm of immunology entails two forms of immune defense. Innate immunity, a mix of antimicrobial chemicals and ... to kill the virus. Clearly TRMs had to be considered when evaluating total immune response. ... However, they were not found in other types of tissue, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, or blood, Turk explains. "So when we ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/114/46/12092

Diseases caused by spirochetes - Things You Didnt KnowDiseases caused by spirochetes - Things You Didn't Know

Secondary raynauds is a more severe form that is part of an autoimmune disease. Its not well documented that any infections ... The bodys immune system reacts to these abnormal cells in the lymph nodes and causes the nodes to swell. The disease can also ... The majority also have had some form of physical or sexual molestation or abuse. In my opinion, the best treatments focus on ... involve the spleen, liver, bone marrow, and other organs when advanced. The treatment is usually curative. ...Read more ...
more infohttps://www.healthtap.com/topics/diseases-caused-by-spirochetes

miR-155 as a Biomarker in B-Cell MalignanciesmiR-155 as a Biomarker in B-Cell Malignancies

miR-155 is constitutively expressed in several tissues and has a crucial role in the function of the immune system [16, 17]. ... SMZL is a rare form of small B-cell malignancy infiltrating the spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. Three studies ... Epstein-Barr virus positive; EBV−, Epstein-Barr virus negative. ... However, studies often focused on different prognostic factors ... examined the distribution and intracellular uptake of fluorescence marked LNA anti-miR-155 in hematopoietic organs in wild type ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9513037/

What Are B Cells? - Function and Types - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.comWhat Are B Cells? - Function and Types - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well ... These cells are part of the adaptive immune system. This part of your immune system is involved in forming specific responses ... However, if you are ever re-infected with the same strain of virus, you will now have memory cells at your disposal that formed ... This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well ...
more infohttps://study.com/academy/lesson/what-are-b-cells-function-and-types.html

Massage Therapy | Bodys Organ Systems | CerebralPalsy.orgCerebralPalsy.orgMassage Therapy | Body's Organ Systems | CerebralPalsy.orgCerebralPalsy.org

Learn how massage therapy affects the bodys 11 major organ systems and benefits those with cerebral palsy. Pain, digestion, ... lymphatic system, kidneys, spleen, urinary system, and veins. Massage can impact the circulatory system by:. *increasing blood ... complementing some forms of cancer treatments. Muscular system. The bodys muscular system is comprised of over 650 muscles, ... The primary focus of the integumentary system is to provide the first line of defense between the body and its external ...
more infohttps://www.cerebralpalsy.org/about-cerebral-palsy/treatment/therapy/massage-therapy/massage-organ-systems

Agent-Based Modeling of the Immune System: NetLogo, a Promising FrameworkAgent-Based Modeling of the Immune System: NetLogo, a Promising Framework

... this can apply to organs, e.g., the spleen). In different situations, that is, where target cells are sparse and unmoving (this ... In this review we will focus on the use of NetLogo to model the immune system processes and features. ... In the adaptive immune response to a virus of an intracellular bacterium, the presentation of the antigen on the surface of the ... A particular form of inflammation is characterized from the acute inflammatory response that arises initially in response to ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/907171/

Dendritic cell - WikipediaDendritic cell - Wikipedia

Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... Many other viruses, such as the SARS virus seems to use DC-SIGN to hitchhike to its target cells. However, most work with ... receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a ... The monocytes in turn are formed from stem cells in the bone marrow. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells can be generated in vitro ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dendritic_cell
  • Additionally, they can also be found scattered all over the body in the spleen, tonsils, intestines, and in the lining of the airways, for instance. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In Rheumatoid Arthritis the dysregulation of the immune system causes the joint lining to form invasive tissue that degrades cartilage and bone. (sec.gov)
  • Autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus, Crohn's, Insulin-Dependent Diabetes, and Multiple Sclerosis result when this self-recognition goes awry and the immune system mistakenly identifies normal tissue as foreign. (sec.gov)
  • Your doctor may remove a small piece of tissue from the affected node or organ to test. (healthline.com)
  • The new protein, functioning as a key to give it the capacity to act like the AIDS virus, 'can now go to virtually any cell, any tissue, any organ and enter cells and interfere with metabolism and kill them. (gulfwarvets.com)
  • Virus-specific tissue-resident memory cells (red) patrol a mouse's small intestine. (pnas.org)
  • In 2001, as a graduate student under the direction of the late Leo Lefrancois, chair of immunology at University of Connecticut, Masopust identified a group of immune cells that remain in the tissue after their encounter with a pathogen ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • That theoretical construct of the immune system, in which the T cell component only migrated and did not reside in tissue, began to change with Masopust's 2001 article. (pnas.org)
  • Using a green florescent protein marker and skin transplantation, the group found that one component of the adaptive immune system, CD8 T cells, not only remained in the transplanted tissue, but when exposed again to herpes, the cells dramatically expanded their numbers and released chemicals (cytokines) to kill the virus. (pnas.org)
  • The endocrine system is comprised of glands that produce and secrete hormones released from the endocrine system into the bloodstream to regulate the body's growth, cholesterol, metabolism, mood, temperature, sexuality, diabetic conditions, thyroid, and tissue function. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • The spleen acts as a filter against foreign organisms that infect the bloodstream, and also filters out old red blood cells from the bloodstream and decomposes them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Its causative agent is the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a member of the family Arenaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benign lymphocytic meningitis Lymphocytic meningoencephalitis Serous lymphocytic meningitis La Maladie d'Armstrong LCMV is a spherical enveloped virus with a diameter between 60 and 300 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), was isolated in 1933 by Charles Armstrong during a study of an epidemic in St. Louis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unicentric Castleman disease typically doesn't cause any symptoms unless your lymph nodes become large enough to interfere with other organs. (healthline.com)
  • We compared 2 tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from 2 different foci that cause different symptoms in tick-borne encephalitis patients, from neurologic to mild gastrointestinal symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, a focus of TBE in southeastern Germany was identified with 5 patients (2005-2011), who showed only mild gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms, without neurologic symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Many times, abnormalities in the immune system that lead to primary immunodeficiency diseases also result in immune dysregulation, which is an immune response that is not properly controlled or restrained. (primaryimmune.org)
  • The focus of this chapter is to provide an overview of the types of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity that can occur in various primary immunodeficiency diseases. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Secondary raynaud's is a more severe form that is part of an autoimmune disease. (healthtap.com)
  • Yes X No Check if there is no disclosure of delinquent files in response to Item 405 of Regulation S-B is not contained in this form, and no disclosure will be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-KSB or any amendment to this Form 10-KSB. (sec.gov)
  • They generally target specific products of the immune response that are formed well after the system has lost its ability to self-regulate. (sec.gov)
  • Much of this attention is focused either on improving the response to the next epidemic or developing ways to prevent another outbreak of this scale from ever occurring in the first place. (iavireport.org)
  • Furthermore, the response was characterized by a protracted effector phase in which cytolytic activity in the lamina propria, but not in the spleen, was maintained. (jimmunol.org)
  • analyzed CTL induction in response to an HIV combinatorial peptide and showed that intrarectal immunization led to primary and memory CTL within the LP, IEL, and spleen ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • One of the ironies of this situation is that the treatment for autoimmune conditions is the use of immune suppression to shut down the inappropriate immune response that is causing the problem. (primaryimmune.org)
  • The polarized dilute scorpion venom solution relieves pain, improves immune-system response, treats cancer, prevents cancer, improves quality of sleep, reduces inflammation, and minimizes negative biological response to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Research has also shown that subjects with advanced cancer showed a two to three fold increase in the strength of their immune response after being given astragalus. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • A second study showed that astragalus boosted immune response, even in animals that were treated with an immunosuppressive drug, cyclophosphamide. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • This variant potentiates a less vigorous CTL response in the immune system, and thus can ultimately persist in the host organism indefinitely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Put another way, it is when the immune system attacks the body in which it resides. (primaryimmune.org)
  • The Gastrointestinal system is responsible for the ingestion, digestion, propulsion, absorption and defecation of food and nutrients in the body. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Lymphoma can affect all those areas as well as other organs throughout the body. (drugs.com)
  • The body can develop a tolerance to an immune-stimulating herb such as astragalus if it is taken over long stretches of time. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • Other drugs used to treat lymphoma include targeted drugs that focus on specific abnormalities within your cancer cells that allow them to survive. (drugs.com)
  • ITEM I - DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS Overview Protalex, Inc. ("Protalex" or the "Company") is a development stage company engaged in developing a class of human pharmaceuticals from organic molecules which in pre-clinical trials have demonstrated effectiveness in regulating the immune system with persisting effects. (sec.gov)
  • Vaccine developers, public agencies, and governments formed partnerships to rapidly accelerate the clinical development of these candidates. (iavireport.org)
  • Of the at least a half-dozen preventive vaccine candidates in different stages of clinical trials, the two candidates furthest along in development are the products of recently formed partnerships among public research institutions and large private pharmaceutical manufacturers. (iavireport.org)
  • Today's cancer diagnostics are typically based on clinical findings, morphology, histology, cytogenetic, immune-phenotyping, and molecular genetic data, but still identification of the molecular pathways driving tumorigenesis often fails [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • During the last decades many mathematical and computational models have been developed to model and describe the immune system processes and features. (hindawi.com)
  • What many people don't realize is that getting a massage can provide several benefits for the body's organs by improving digestion, blood circulation, and other bodily functions. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Astragalus is used by practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine to strengthen or tone the body's overall vitality, improve digestion, and support the spleen. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • ChAd3-ZEBOV is a one-dose vaccine that uses a non-replicating, live-attenuated chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 3 (ChAd3) vector to express part of the Ebola glycoprotein, the major surface protein on the virus. (iavireport.org)
  • This gene, called the gp120 or 'envelope' gene, only codes for creating the surface protein of the virus. (gulfwarvets.com)
  • In treating mild to moderate cases of Crohn's, a practitioner of TCM is going to recommend a few things: immunomodulatory herbs to help regulate the immune system that is otherwise autoimmune so the immune system is not functioning properly. (ehealthdirectory.net)
  • The use of immunomodulatory herbs is very helpful in treating Crohn's disease and in regulating the immune system rather than simply suppressing it with an immunosuppressant drug. (ehealthdirectory.net)
  • The virus causes fever , muscle aches and headache for about 7-10 days, then produces the characteristic "slapped cheek" appearing rash on the face. (healthtap.com)