Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Mononuclear Phagocyte System: Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Mice, Inbred C57BLLiposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Inbred BALB CFlow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cell SeparationGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mice, Inbred C3HApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Tuberculosis, Cutaneous: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 22.214.171.124.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.ZymosanOpsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
... equivalent for the central nervous system Lymphangiogenesis Lymphangion Manual lymphatic drainage Mononuclear phagocyte system ... Lymphocytes are concentrated in the lymph nodes. The spleen and the thymus are also lymphoid organs of the immune system. The ... The lymphatic system plays a major role in the body's immune system, as the primary site for cells relating to adaptive immune ... The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of ...
These cells together as a group are known as the mononuclear phagocyte system and were previously known as the ... by recruiting other immune cells such as lymphocytes. For example, they are important as antigen presenters to T cells. In ... but all are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Besides phagocytosis, they play a critical role in nonspecific defense ( ... This provides an environment in which the pathogen is hidden from the immune system and allows it to replicate. Diseases with ...
Lymphocytes are concentrated in the lymph nodes. The spleen and the thymus are also lymphoid organs of the immune system. The ... Mononuclear phagocyte system. *Waldemar Olszewski - discovered fundamental processes in human tissues connected with function ... Immune function. Further information: Immune system. The lymphatic system plays a major role in the body's immune system ... The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a large network of ...
Langermans JA, Hazenbos WL, van Furth R (Sep 1994). "Antimicrobial functions of mononuclear phagocytes". Journal of ... The cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, called lymphocytes. B cells and T cells are the major ... The immune system interacts intimately with other systems, such as the endocrine and the nervous systems. The immune system ... the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or ...
Sistem imun bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th edition (dalam bahasa Inggris).. ... Langermans J, Hazenbos W, van Furth R (1994). "Antimicrobial functions of mononuclear phagocytes". J Immunol Methods. 174 (1-2 ... Boon T, van der Bruggen P (1996). "Human tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes". J Exp Med. 183: 725-29. PMID 8642276.. ... "Understanding the Immune System: How it Works" (PDF). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Diakses ...
Index of immunology articles
... antigen Mitogen Molecular mimicry Monoclonal antibody Monoclonal antibody therapy Monokine Mononuclear phagocyte system ... Immune complex Immune dysregulation Immune network theory Immune privilege Immune receptor Immune repertoire Immune system ... factor Linear epitope Lipid A Lipopolysaccharide binding protein Low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor LPHN1 Lymphocyte ... Immunology is the study of the immune system during health and disease. Below is a list of immunology-related articles. ...
... with many immune system disorders resulting in abnormal inflammation. Non-immune diseases with causal origins in inflammatory ... whereas chronic inflammation is mediated by mononuclear cells such as monocytes and lymphocytes. Various leukocytes, ... Endocytic PRRs on phagocytes reflect these molecular patterns, with C-type lectin receptors binding to mannans and β-glucans, ... The immune system is often involved with inflammatory disorders, demonstrated in both allergic reactions and some myopathies, ...
In this way the infection is progressive, spreading to the host's mononuclear phagocyte system, particularly the spleen and ... Worse, their immune systems were defenseless against this new pathogen, foreign to them though it came only from another part ... All of these lymphocytes act, at least in part, by secreting IL-10 and other suppressive cytokines. ... flaring up in a host whose immune system has been weakened by the L. donovani infection. Progress of the disease is extremely ...
The lack of B-lymphocytes in the testis is significant, since these are the antibody-producing cells of the immune system. ... Hume DA, Halpin D, Charlton H, Gordon S (1984). "The mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical ... B-lymphocytes take part in the adaptive immune response and produce antibodies. These cells are not normally found in the ... Testicular Immunology is the study of the immune system within the testis. It includes an investigation of the effects of ...
Lymphocytes are just one group of cells that function as part of the immune system. More of this group travel around the ... Monocytes: Monocytes are white blood cells that will give rise to all the phagocytes of the mononuclear phagocytic system (see ... Lymphocytes: These are cells responsible for immune responses that circulate in the blood. Normally, only small numbers are ... in particular mononuclear phagocytes. Frequently, the term refers to circulating macrophages and has been used also for ...
The spleen is a center of activity of the mononuclear phagocyte system and can be considered analogous to a large lymph node, ... The spleen plays important roles in regard to red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) and the immune system. It ... Up to a quarter of lymphocytes can be stored in the spleen at any one time. Disorders include splenomegaly, where the spleen is ... As a part of the mononuclear phagocyte system, it metabolizes hemoglobin removed from senescent red blood cells (erythrocytes ...
The complement system is part of the innate as well as the adaptive immune system; it is a group of circulating proteins that ... Quantification of the different types of mononuclear cells in the blood (i.e. lymphocytes and monocytes): different groups of T ... In certain conditions, either the number of phagocytes is reduced or their functional capacity is impaired. Severe Congenital ... This figure does not take into account people with mild immune system defects who have not received a formal diagnosis. Milder ...
These cells together as a group are known as the mononuclear phagocyte system and were previously known as the ... by recruiting other immune cells such as lymphocytes. For example, they are important as antigen presenters to T cells. In ... but all are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Besides phagocytosis, they play a critical role in nonspecific defense ( ... "The lymphocyte story". New Scientist (1605). Retrieved 2007-09-13.. *^ a b c d e Hesketh M, Sahin KB, West ZE, Murray RZ (July ...
... which happens when the immune tolerance of pregnancy is impaired. In many instances the maternal immune system attacks the ... These products are recognized by T-lymphocytes and other mononuclear leukocytes which infiltrate the graft and damage it. A ... Accelerated rejection leads to phagocyte and NK cell activation (not of the complement) through their Fc receptors that bind Fc ... Activation of T-lymphocytes T-lymphocytes are fully activated under two conditions: T-lymphocytes must recognize complex MHC- ...
GCs are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as reduction ... Mononuclear phagocytes functional aspects. The Hague: M. Nijhoff. p. 825. ISBN 978-94-009-8793-7. Glucocorticoids may also ... Glucocorticoids are also shown to play a role in the development and homeostasis of T lymphocytes. This has been shown in ... that promote the immune response. Inhibition of this transcription factor, therefore, blunts the capacity of the immune system ...
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor
"The c-fms proto-oncogene product is related to the receptor for the mononuclear phagocyte growth factor, CSF-1". Cell. 41 (3): ... Praloran V, Chevalier S, Gascan H (May 1992). "Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is produced by activated T lymphocytes in ... Sweet MJ, Hume DA (2004). "CSF-1 as a regulator of macrophage activation and immune responses". Archivum Immunologiae Et ... subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex and a related p85 beta protein by using the baculovirus expression system ...
Mononuclear phagocytes of blood and bone marrow: Comparative roles as viral reservoirs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... her work centers on developing an HIV vaccine and investigating the complex relationship between HIV and the immune system. ... HIV-1 induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the cervix of infected women. J Exp Med. 185(2): 293-303, 1997. L. Musey, J. Hughes, T ... J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 63(3): 263-71, 2013. H. Janes, D.P. Friedrich, A. Krambrink, R.J. Smith, E. Kallas, H. Horton, D.R ...
"Macrophage polarization: tumour-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes." Trends in ... "The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization." Trends in immunology 25.12 (2004): 677-686. ... There are different stimuli for each type - interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13 (M2a), immune complex + Toll-like receptor (TLR) or IL- ... IFN-γ produced by Th1 lymphocytes is the most important cytokine which is responsible for classical macrophage activation. ...
Hume, D.A., Robinson, A.P., MacPherson, G.G., Gordon, S."The mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by ... He is recognized for his "pioneering work" on the modulation of the adaptive immune response by sub-populations of antigen- ... Wykes, M., Pombo, A., Jenkins, C., MacPherson, G.G. "Dendritic cells interact directly with naive B lymphocytes to transfer ...
Gaseous signaling molecules
In this way, the immune system may regulate the resources of phagocytes that play a role in inflammation and immune responses. ... This effect was shown in lymphocyte cell cultures and in human liver biopsy samples. Nitrous oxide does not bind as a ligand to ... NO has been demonstrated to activate NF-κB in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, an important transcription factor in iNOS ... 2005). Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease (6th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4101-6. Jacobs ...
... though the action is joined by components of innate immune response (phagocytes and soluble immune proteins). Different types ... specifically by mononuclear macrophages and T-lymphocytes. The term chronic rejection initially described long-term loss of ... Bone marrow transplant can replace the transplant recipient's immune system with the donor's, and the recipient accepts the new ... and present the donor's self peptides to the recipient's lymphocytes (immune cells residing in lymphoid tissues). Lymphocytes ...
Adenosine A2A receptor
The adenosine A2A receptor has also been shown to play a regulatory role in the adaptive immune system. In this role, A2AR ... Salmon JE, Brogle N, Brownlie C, Edberg JC, Kimberly RP, Chen BX, Erlanger BF (Sep 1993). "Human mononuclear phagocytes express ... The encoded protein (the A2A receptor) is abundant in basal ganglia, vasculature, T lymphocytes, and platelets and it is a ... The receptor's role in immunomodulation in the context of cancer has suggested that it is an important immune checkpoint ...
As a part of the vertebrate innate immune system monocytes also influence the process of adaptive immunity. There are at least ... Agranulocyte Complete blood count Hematopoiesis Lymphocyte Neutrophil granulocyte Phagocyte Nichols, BA; Bainton, DF; Farquhar ... Containing unilobar nuclei, these cells are one of the types of mononuclear leukocytes which shelter azurophil granules. The ... Monocytes and their macrophage and dendritic-cell progeny serve three main functions in the immune system. These are ...
... and present the donor's self peptides to the recipient's lymphocytes (immune cells residing in lymphoid tissues). Lymphocytes ... though the action is joined by components of innate immune response (phagocytes and soluble immune proteins). Different types ... Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the ... It is believed that the process of acute rejection is mediated by the cell mediated pathway, specifically by mononuclear ...
The liver is responsible for immunological effects-the mononuclear phagocyte system of the liver contains many immunologically ... "Amphioxus as a model for investigating evolution of the vertebrate immune system" (PDF). Developmental & Comparative Immunology ... Additionally, intrahepatic lymphocytes are often present in the sinusoidal lumen. The central area or hepatic hilum, includes ... The classification system uses the vascular supply in the liver to separate the functional units (numbered I to VIII), with ...
IL-15 is secreted by mononuclear phagocytes (and some other cells) following infection by virus(es). This cytokine induces cell ... cells of the innate immune system whose principal role is to kill virally infected cells. ... In rodent lymphocytes, IL-15 prevents apoptosis by inducing BCL2L1/BCL-x(L), an inhibitor of the apoptosis pathway. In ... positive regulation of immune response. • inflammatory response. • immune response. • positive regulation of cell proliferation ...
... cells of the innate immune system whose principal role is to kill virally infected cells. IL-15 was discovered in 1994 by two ... IL-15 is secreted by mononuclear phagocytes (and some other cells) following infection by virus(es). This cytokine induces cell ... In rodent lymphocytes, IL-15 prevents apoptosis by inducing BCL2L1/BCL-x(L), an inhibitor of the apoptosis pathway. In humans ... One combines IL-15 and IL-15Rα-Fc (R&D Systems) in vitro to generate the complex. It is referred to as IL-15 SA. A second IL-15 ...
Thus, if the individual's immune system is compromised and is unable to clear the debris from the wound and/or if excessive ... One of the macrophage's roles is to phagocytize other expended phagocytes, bacteria and damaged tissue, and they also ... which are encircled by mononuclear leukocytes, forming granulomas. Usually the wound is closed surgically at this juncture, and ... Granulocyte, macrophage, lymphocyte, fibroblast and smooth muscle cell chemotaxis. *TIMP synthesis. *Angiogenesis ...
Sompayrac, L. How the Immune System Works (3rd edition), Blackwell Publishing, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4051-6221-0. ... Robinson J.P. and Babcock G. F., (editors), Phagocyte Function -A guide for research and clinical evaluation, Wiley-Liss, 1998 ... This distinguishes them from the mononuclear agranulocytes. In common parlance, the term polymorphonuclear leukocyte often ... "University of Virginia Health System. Retrieved 2009-04-10.. *^ a b Baron, Samuel (editor) (1996). Medical Microbiology (4th ...
In this way the infection is progressive, spreading to the host's mononuclear phagocyte system, particularly the spleen and ... Worse, their immune systems were defenseless against this new pathogen, foreign to them though it came only from another part ... April 2010). "Enhanced lesional Foxp3 expression and peripheral anergic lymphocytes indicate a role for regulatory T cells in ... Likewise, patients with abnormal immune systems (e.g., HIV infection) will have false-negative tests. Other tests being ...
PPT - THE IMMUNE SYSTEM PowerPoint Presentation - ID:793228
Cellular components of the immune system. Lymphocytes. Granulocytes. Others. Phagocytes. B-cell. Mononuclear phagocyte. ... THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. The Invaders. The Defender. COMPONENTS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ... Chapter 5 The Immune System The immune system works to : -Chapter 5 the immune system the immune system works to : - protect ... Cellular components of the immune system. Lymphocytes. Granulocytes. Others. Phagocytes. B-cell. Mononuclear phagocyte. ...
Innate immunity lecture Flashcards by Chantelle Smith | Brainscape
3) Mononuclear phagocytes (involved in diff. modality of host defense. 4) Lymphocytes ... Cells of the immune system are? Always found in normal blood. - numbers increase during infection - some cells play dual roles ... Found in tears, saliva, blood and phagocytes. 2) Peroxidase. - Found in saliva, body tissues, & phagocytes. - breaks down ... blood cells including immune cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow * blood cells stimulate to ...
Splenic Injury - Trip Database
The lesion consists of lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes (...) nerve layers may be involved. Occasionally, myelin loss is ... Debate continues as to whether sarcoidosis results from a dysfunctional immune system or a secondary response to environmental ... Other organs systems that may be involved include the heart, the central nervous (...) system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract ... This condition is the most common form of ischemic injury to the digestive system, frequently involves the watershed areas, ...
Neurosarcoidosis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
The lesion consists of lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes surrounding a noncaseating epithelioid cell granuloma. ... Debate continues as to whether sarcoidosis results from a dysfunctional immune system or a secondary response to environmental ... 3] Ma2-Abs have been described in men with testicular cancer and paraneoplastic damage to the limbic system and the ... The lungs are affected most frequently, but the eyes, nervous system, heart, kidneys, bones, and joints also may be affected. ...
Algae as Functional Foods for the Elderly
Moreover, mononuclear phagocyte system and both humoral and cell mediated immune functions were increased. This included an ... Adult T-cell leukaemia is an incurable and fatal malignancy of T lymphocytes caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 ... The immune system reduces its responsiveness with age, in a process known as immunosenescence  . The dysregulation of the ... Bioactive peptides have also been reported for the induction and stimulation of the immune system  . Most peptides are ...
Health Information | Griffin Health - Derby, Connecticut | Health Library
... on murine immune organs and functions of mononuclear phagocyte system. Chin J lntegr Trad West Med. 1985;5:4241. ... Effects of alcoholic extract Cordyceps sinensis on T-lymphocyte subsets. Bulletin of Hunan Medical College. 1987;12:311-314. ... Weak evidence hints that cordyceps may modulate the immune system, which means that it stimulates some aspects of the immune ... Activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system by an orally administered decoction from cultured mycelia of ...
Infections in Patients with Cancer - Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine - NCBI Bookshelf
Cellular Immune Dysfunction. Those aspects of the immune response that are regulated by T lymphocytes or mononuclear phagocytes ... T lymphocytes mediate specific immune functions and also modulate the activity of other cells in the immune system. Activation ... Defects in the T lymphocyte and/or mononuclear phagocytic system result in an increased susceptibility to infection. Cell- ... 16 The mononuclear phagocyte system includes bone marrow precursors (promonocytes) and their end products, the circulating ...
Frontiers | Infections With Extracellular Trypanosomes Require Control by Efficient Innate Immune Mechanisms and Can Result in...
The same system could possibly sense the infection-associated host tissue damage resulting from inflammatory innate immune ... Indeed, trypanosomes use a combination of several independent mechanisms to avoid clearance by the humoral immune system. First ... Indeed, trypanosomes use a combination of several independent mechanisms to avoid clearance by the humoral immune system. First ... antigenic variation and the immuno-destructive effect of trypanosomes on the humoral immune system. Vaccine trials and a ...
Vitamin A supplementation may cause the immune system to 'forget' past infections | EurekAlert! Science News
... lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, and other cells involved in host defense and inflammation. The Journal of Leukocyte ... Vitamin A supplementation may cause the immune system to forget past infections New research published in the Journal of ... Vitamin A supplementation may cause the immune system to forget past infections. Federation of American Societies for ... where improving diet could have dramatic benefits on how the immune system is trained to respond to different infections." ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Interactions with the Immune System | Mauro Bendinelli | Springer
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
Immune system -- Isolation and in vitro culture of mononuclear phagocytes -- T-lymphocyte assays -- B lymphocytes: comparison ... other cell systems -- Hepatocyte and spleen cell systems -- Isolation and culture of hepatic nonparenchymal cells -- ... Neural and neuromuscular systems -- Hippocampal slices -- Organotypic neural cultures -- Reaggregate cultures for ... Respiratory system -- Isolation and culture of type II alveolar epithelial cells -- Isolation of nonciliated bronchiolar (Clara ...
A novel isoform of the Ly108 gene ameliorates murine lupus | JEM
... regulating the removal of circulating immune complexes and apoptotic cells by the mononuclear phagocyte system, or those ... The Ly108-H1 protein was also present in B lymphocytes of B6 mice but not in 129, BALB/c, or NOD B lymphocytes (Fig. 2 D). ... The SLAM and SAP gene families control innate and adaptive immune responses. Adv. Immunol. 97:177-250. doi:10.1016/S0065-2776( ... 2 and 4 E). The overall T and B lymphocyte development was normal in young Sle1b.BACLy108-H1 mice (Fig. S4 B). Collectively, ...
PRIME PubMed | mononuclear phagocyte system journal articles from PubMed
PubMed Journal articles for mononuclear phagocyte system were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or ... and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported as new predictors in inflammatory and immune diseases including ... While the extensive heterogeneity of the cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system is evident, the functional significance of ... While the extensive heterogeneity of the cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system is evident, the functional significance of ...
Effects of gold sodium thiomalate on interferon stimulation of C2 synthesis and HLADR expression by human monocytes.
Recombinant immune interferon increases immunoglobulin G Fc receptors on cultured human mononuclear phagocytes. J Clin Invest ... Gold salts suppress many elements of the immune system, although their effects on lymphokinemediated events have not been ... without lymphocytes) stimulated with antigen incorporated 159 f 22 cpm. Lymphocytes alone stimulated with antigen incorporated ... Histopathologic studies have shown that gold accumulates within lysosomes of mononuclear phagocytes (17-20). After prolonged ...
Pharmacological Properties of Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against Interleukins | IntechOpen
... of which using either biological or small chemical agents could contribute to suppression of excessive activated immune system ... multifunctional group of proteins that carry out communication between various immune cells and control their gene expression. ... Although monokines can be elicited directly by microbes, they can be also secreted by mononuclear phagocytes in response to ... It works by binding to ε (epsilon) - chain of the CD3-proteins expressed on T-lymphocytes, inhibits CD3-associate effects and ...
The Innate Mononuclear Phagocyte Network Depletes B Lymphocytes through Fc Receptor-dependent Mechanisms during Anti-CD20...
The role of the innate immune system in B cell depletion by anti-CD20 mAb treatment was assessed using FcγR-deficient mice (37 ... The Innate Mononuclear Phagocyte Network Depletes B Lymphocytes through Fc Receptor-dependent Mechanisms during Anti-CD20 ... The Innate Mononuclear Phagocyte Network Depletes B Lymphocytes through Fc Receptor-dependent Mechanisms during Anti-CD20 ... These studies reveal that the phagocytic network of the innate immune system is primarily responsible for eliminating ...
Full text] Immune function after major surgical interventions: the effect of post | JPR
We performed a pilot study to investigate postoperative immune function by analyzing peripheral blood mononuclear cells ... We did not find any differences within the two groups between 24 and 48 hours in terms of morphine consumption and immune ... We evaluated lymphoproliferation and cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells at the end of surgery and at 24 ... Morphine is considered a major contributor to immune modulation. Patients and methods: ...
Researchers take step toward eliminating cancer recurrence | EurekAlert! Science News
... lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes and other cells involved in host defense and inflammation. The Journal of Leukocyte Biology ... Now, instead of our drugs targeting only diseased cells, we can target the immune system and provoke cells of the immune system ... Then, they treated the dormant cells with a product of the immune system, they found that dormant cells were susceptible to ... "This new study demonstrates the importance of this concept of exploiting the immune system in cancer to target residual disease ...
Malay Haldar | Faculty | Members | Penn Institute for Immunology | Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Specifically, we study the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) with an emphasis on their role in the tumor microenvironment. MPS ... Research in our laboratory is at the intersection of innate immune system and solid tumor biology. ... Additionally, the ability of these cells to regulate lymphocyte function makes them an important determinant in the success of ... is part of the innate immune system and comprises of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DC). These cells are ...
Macrophages and Lymphocytes | Springer for Research & Development
The Mononuclear Phagocyte System and Hemopoiesis M. Rachmilewitz, B. Rachmilewitz, M. Chaouat, H. Zlotnik, M. Schlesinger ... of the Congress was placed on the nature and function of macrophages and other cells of the RE System with reference to immune ... Mononuclear phagocytes include tissue rnacrophages as well as cir- culating monocytes and their precursors. Although ... The Congress had as its scientific objec,tive a wide range of sub- jects concerning the RE System, especially as related to ...
Lymphatic system - Wikipedia
... equivalent for the central nervous system Lymphangiogenesis Lymphangion Manual lymphatic drainage Mononuclear phagocyte system ... Lymphocytes are concentrated in the lymph nodes. The spleen and the thymus are also lymphoid organs of the immune system. The ... The lymphatic system plays a major role in the bodys immune system, as the primary site for cells relating to adaptive immune ... The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of ...
Smoking decreases MAIT cells, implicated in the pathology of autoimmune diseases | EurekAlert! Science News
... lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes and other cells involved in host defense and inflammation. The Journal of Leukocyte Biology ... "These new studies shed like on how smoking can also influence the immune system, an effect that may have implications in ... "We believe that our study represents an important contribution to the understanding of systemic immune cell alterations in ... To make their discovery, scientists investigated circulating immune cells from cohorts of healthy individuals and patients with ...
IMMUNOLOGY | Portale di Ateneo - En.Unibs.it
1) The immune response. Cells and tissues of the immune system. Lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, granulocytes. The lymphoid ... 1) The immune response. Cells and tissues of the immune system. Lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, granulocytes. The lymphoid ... The course will also focus on the main alterations of the immune system involved in autoimmunity, allergy and tolerance to ... Complement, pathways of activation, immune functions of complement proteins.. 4) Adaptive immune response, humoral response, ...
Scientists reveal important clues to how bacteria and viruses are identified as enemies - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
... lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes and other cells involved in host defense and inflammation. The Journal of Leukocyte Biology ... "Viruses and bacterial have evolved many strategies to avoid immune responses, but the immune system counters with additional ... "The more information we have about how this process works, the more likely we are to be able to help our immune systems fight ... "Our study helps us to understand exactly how the immune system is activated when it comes across infection from bacteria or ...
Search | Global Index Medicus
T, B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and mononuclear phagocytes. Recent studies suggest an important role of interferon ... Interferons [IFNs] are important immune system mediators that could impact the initiation or amplification of autoimmunity and ... The gene expression profiles seems to be the molecular basis of the diverse immune phenotype of SLE. Defining the nature of the ... It is concluded from the present study that 6-MFA like other interferon inducers depresses MFO system in rats. Its possible ...
Introduction to the Immune Response and Inflammation - Nursing Buddy
Introduction to the Immune Response and Inflammation Bodys Defenses Barrier defenses Cellular defenses Inflammatory response ... Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) *Composed of: *Thymus gland. *Lymphatic tissue. *Leukocytes. *Lymphocytes ... Immune Response. *Specific invasions stimulate specific responses through the immune system *Lymphocytes produced in the bone ... mononuclear phagocyte system, nerve endings, organs of the body, types of white blood cells, vasoconstriction, vasodilation, ...
2010 Lecture 23 - Embryology
mononuclear phagocytes do not mature until after birth. Immune System. *maternal placenta transfer of IgG not other ... fetal lymphocytes (mature T and B cells) produced not activated. MH - see Postnatal lecture - maternal milk IgG and IgA ... Links: Neural System - Fetal , Neuroscience - Regional specification of the developing brain. Fetal Cardiovascular. MH - ... Underdeveloped Systems - particularly respiratory, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease (see respiratory development lecture) ...
2010 Lab 12 - Embryology
mononuclear phagocytes do not mature until after birth. Immune System. * maternal placenta transfer of IgG not other ... fetal lymphocytes (mature T and B cells) produced not activated. MH - see Postnatal lecture - maternal milk IgG and IgA ... For example, the brain continues to grow and develop extensively during this period (and postnatally), the respiratory system ... is a time of extensive growth in size and mass as well as ongoing differentiation of organ systems established in the embryonic ...
Medical Division - Part 1848
Lymphocytes, monocytes and phagocytes are three examples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lymphocytes are white blood ... They are critical to immune system functioning; they fight infection and foreign intruders in the body. ... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which are also called PBMCs or PB-MNCs, are blood cells that have round nuclei. ... What Are Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC)?. ArticlesBy admin. 25.06.2016. ...
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Immunometabolism in Obese Asthmatics: Are We There Yet? | HTML
This review examines proposed multilevel interactions between metabolic and immune systems in obese asthmatics that underlie ... In addition to adipocytes, the key adipose tissue resident immune cells are macrophages and mast cells. Immunometabolism, as an ... emerging field of investigation, explores the pivotal role of these immune cells in translating immunological changes to ... There is now strong evidence for infiltration of immune and inflammatory cells into adipose tissue that drives systemic ...
MonocytesDendritic cellsGranulocytesNeutrophilsCytokinesImmunologyAntibodiesIntraepithelial lymphocytesReceptorsSpleenImmunityInflammationInflammatoryPathogensMoleculesMechanismsAntigens to lymphocytesTissueComplement SystemResponseCytotoxic T-lymphocytMicroorganismsLymphaticMonocyteLeukocytesCellularDefenseBasophilSubsetsMurineLymph nodesAntibodyOrgansAdaptive immunePhenotypeApoptosisReticuloendothelial System
- These factors, synthesized by activated lymphocytes or monocytes, amplify the inflammatory cascade by stimulating other effector cells. (docme.ru)
- MPS is part of the innate immune system and comprises of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DC). (upenn.edu)
- Lymphocytes, monocytes and phagocytes are three examples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (dp.ua)
- The Inflammatory Cell Dynamics Section ( Dr. Romina Goldszmid ) studies the underlying mechanisms regulating the functional maturation and dynamics of mononuclear phagocytes (e.g., dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages) in pathological situations such as cancer and infectious diseases with particular emphasis on the role of the microbiota. (cancer.gov)
- Glucocorticoids (GC) are potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents that act on a variety of immune cells, including monocytes and macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
- Monocytes and macrophages belong to the main effector cells of the immune system, because they play a central role in the initiation, development, and outcome of the immune response ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- any of the large, mononuclear, highly phagocytic cells derived from monocytes , occurring in the walls of blood vessels (adventitial cells) and in loose connective tissue (histiocytes, phagocytic reticular cells). (thefreedictionary.com)
- In response to damage, epithelial wounds repair by a series of events that integrate epithelial responses with those of resident and infiltrating immune cells including neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. (jci.org)
- Mononuclear phagocytes arise primarily from the marrow and are released into the blood as monocytes. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Monocytes form a link to the specific immune system by processing antigen for presentation to lymphocytes and by producing substances such as interleukin-1, which initiates fever and lymphocyte activation and stimulates early hematopoietic progenitors. (merckvetmanual.com)
- a large, phagocytic, mononuclear lymphocyte found in tissues but derived from blood monocytes. (metaglossary.com)
- Interferons [IFNs] are important immune system mediators that could impact the initiation or amplification of autoimmunity and tissue damage through their diverse actions on dendritic cells. (bvsalud.org)
- We recently reported the existence of antigen-presenting mononuclear phagocytes in zebrafish, namely macrophages and dendritic cells, but have been impaired in further characterizing the biology of these cells by the lack of a specific transgenic reporter line. (zfin.org)
- Utilizing regulatory elements of a Class II major histocompatibility gene, we generated a zebrafish reporter line expressing GFP in all antigen-presenting cells: macrophages, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. (zfin.org)
- Transgenic MacReporter birds were used expressing a reporter gene ( eGFP or mApple ) under the control of the CSF1R promoter and enhancer in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) lineage to visualize the ontogeny of the lymphoid tissue, macrophages and dendritic cells, in the trachea, lung and air sac of birds from embryonic day 18-63 weeks of age. (springer.com)
- On the left, fragments of antigens are presented by the dendritic cells to the T CD4 lymphocytes which trigger an immune response which incites killer T CD8 lymphocytes to destroy the infected cells and memory T CD8 lymphocytes to be stored in case of a new attack. (sciencephoto.com)
- These dendritic cells were immunostimulatory, in that they induced proliferation of allogenic and tetanus toxoid-specific T lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
- Along with dendritic cells, they are foremost among the cells that present antigens, a crucial role in initiating an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
- Within the tumor microenvironment, the capture of apoptotic tumor cells by macrophages and dendritic cells may trigger tolerance networks that contribute to immune suppression, whereas the uptake of necrotic cancer cells may engender inflammatory pathways that fuel antitumor cytotoxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
- These antigens enters the body or system and start circulating in the body fluids and trapped by the APCs (Antigen processing cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, etc. (davidmichaelhairsalon.com)
- Macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer cells (NK) will be mediators in this primary non-specific immune response. (hipra.com)
- The Journal of Leukocyte Biology publishes peer-reviewed manuscripts on original investigations focusing on the cellular and molecular biology of leukocytes and on the origins, developmental biology, biochemistry, and functions of granulocytes, lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, and other cells involved in host defense and inflammation. (eurekalert.org)
- Lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, granulocytes. (unibs.it)
- I'm fairly sure that Neutrophils, mononuclear phagocytes, and lymphocytes accumulate vitamin C to high concentrations, which can protect these cell types from oxidative damage. (curezone.org)
- The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. (biomedcentral.com)
- Healthy neutrophils and macrophages (types of white blood cells in the immune system) contain 1 mM concentrations of vitamin Cthats 50-100 times higher than the concentration of vitamin C in the plasma (liquid part of the blood). (antiagingmedicine.tv)
- Group 3 ILCs (ILC3s), which are an example of type 3 immunity, produce IL-17 and/or IL-22, activate mononuclear phagocytes, recruit neutrophils, and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, all of which help protect against extracellular fungal and bacterial infections . (docplayer.net)
- Intense inflammation occurs in synovial joints, with infiltration of the synovial membrane by mononuclear phagocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils, causing significant joint pain. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- To make this discovery, Netea and colleagues stimulated immune cells, isolated from volunteers, with Vitamin A and saw that the cells produced fewer cytokines, key proteins that help ward off microbes, upon stimulation with various mitogens and antigens. (eurekalert.org)
- To coordinate this process, there are a number of mechanisms for communication between immune cells, including a plurality of immunomodulating signaling molecules, such as cytokines. (intechopen.com)
- Cytokines are a group of regulatory molecules with protein or glycoprotein structure (relatively small molecular mass ~10-35 kDa) that carry intercellular signals between immune system cells. (intechopen.com)
- In natural immunity, the effector cytokines are mostly produced by mononuclear phagocytes and therefore often called monokines. (intechopen.com)
- Most cytokines in specific immunity are made by activated T-lymphocytes, and these molecules are often called lymphokines. (intechopen.com)
- T-cells produce several cytokines that function primarily to regulate the growth and differentiation of various lymphocytes and play important roles in the activation phase of immune response. (intechopen.com)
- Regulation and functions of the main cytokines of the immune system. (unibs.it)
- Mononuclear phagocytes were found in all hematolymphoid organs but were most abundant in the intestine and spleen, where they upregulate expression of inflammatory cytokines upon bacterial challenge. (zfin.org)
- Helper T-cells (T H ) release a variety of cytokines that enhance the activity and proliferation of other components of the immune system. (ispub.com)
- The Cytokines and Immunity Section ( Dr. Scott Durum ) is investigating the role of cytokines such as IL7 in the development of T lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell lineages and their role in promoting cell survival, terminal differentiation and apoptotic cell death. (cancer.gov)
- The major immunomodulating effects of these active substances derived from mushrooms include mitogenicity and activation of immune effector cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells, resulting in the production of cytokines, including interleukins (ILs), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)- α , and interferon gamma (INF)- γ . (anushveda.com)
- The killing mechanism is activated by cytokines released by virus-infected cells, tissue cells, lymphocytes and NK cells themselves. (pocketdentistry.com)
- Beyond increasing inflammation and stimulating the immune system, macrophages also play an important anti-inflammatory role and can decrease immune reactions through the release of cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
- While AMs exert their regulatory effects via non-specific lines of defence (such as high phagocytic ability, the secretion of antimicrobials, nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ), it has been suggested that IMs have a greater propensity to release specific cytokines associated with the adaptive immune response, such as interleukin (IL) 10. (bmj.com)
- The recent discovery of human innate lymphoid cells capable of rapidly producing large amounts of cytokines upon activation and the mouse data pointing to an essential role for these cells in asthma models have emphasized the important role of the innate immune system in asthma and have provided a new means of better understanding asthma mechanisms and differentiating its phenotypes. (docplayer.net)
- Keywords: Asthma, Innate immunity, Airways, Phenotype, Cytokines Introduction The immune system is classically divided into two categories, innate and adaptive immunity, according to the speed and the duration of the response, and they collaborate with each other to target different agents and perform effector functions. (docplayer.net)
- In general, ILCs constitute a distinct element of the innate immune system, providing an initial host response via specific cytokines after sensing external stimuli on the frontline. (docplayer.net)
- The initial priming of immune responses to pathogenic challenges is executed by ILCs with the capacity to rapidly secrete effector cytokines. (docplayer.net)
- Secretory viral and mobile items from HIV-1-contaminated and immune experienced human brain MPs are recognized to induce neuronal dysfunction and damage.7-9 Included in these are virotoxins such as for example Tat, Nef, and gp120 and mobile toxins such as for example proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, arachidonic acid and its own metabolites, platelet activating factor, nitric oxide, and quinolinic acid. (mglur.info)
- In conclusion, our findings suggest that infection of mononuclear phagocytes is critical, triggering a cascade of events involving cytokines/chemokines and oxygen free radicals. (utmb.edu)
- Macrophages are phagocytes with cytotoxic activity that produce cytokines which mediate in the inflammatory response. (hipra.com)
- These reactions are mediated by soluble mediators or cytokines produced by either host immune cells or tumor cells themselves. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- in addition to IL-2 cytokines family, which is known to promote tumor eradication by immune cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Nevertheless, the spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in humans, so the cytokines secreted by lymphocytes cannot be underestimated [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- The Molecular Immunology Section ( Dr. Steve Anderson ) investigates the mechanisms controlling selective gene activation in the immune system. (cancer.gov)
- Agnello, V., Winchester, R. J. and Kunkel, H. G., 1970, Precipitin reactions of the Clq component of complement with aggregated 'Y-globulin and immune complexes in gel diffusion, Immunology 19:909. (indigo.ca)
- On the right, the antigens are presented to the B lymphocytes which recognize them, triggering an immune response producing antibodies capable of destroying the antigen and memory B lymphocytes to be stored in case of a new attack. (sciencephoto.com)
- armed m's those capable of inducing cytotoxicity as a consequence of antigen binding by cytophilic antibodies on their surfaces or by factors derived from T lymphocytes . (thefreedictionary.com)
- The data suggest that these antibodies may be bound in immune complexes. (indigo.ca)
- There are several immunotherapies in initial clinical trials, including checkpoint inhibitors/immune modulators, monoclonal antibodies, adoptive cell transfer, and oncolytic virus therapy. (cancertutor.com)
- The role of antibodies is negligible in the immune response to Eimeria spp despite being abundantly synthesized after contact with the parasite, whilst the role of cell-mediated immunity is vital. (hipra.com)
- B lymphocytes differentiate into plasmocytes, which produce antibodies under antigenic stimulation, and then participate in the humoral immune response. (omicsonline.org)
- Here we show that the gut epithelium of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(35-55)-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice contains environmental stimuli-induced intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis on transfer. (nature.com)
- Avian GALT includes the bursa of Fabricius, the caecal tonsils, Meckel´s diverticulum, Peyer patches and intraepithelial lymphocytes. (hipra.com)
- The Leukocyte Signaling Section ( Dr. Daniel McVicar ) dissects the signaling cascades of leukocyte regulatory receptors including the TREM, KIR, and Ly49s toward an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the innate immune system role in the development of, and subsequent response to, cancer. (cancer.gov)
- We have shown that the three TGF-β isoforms and their receptors are differently expressed throughout the organ, suggesting various roles in epididymal physiology, in addition to sperm tolerance.These studies have shown the diverse potential mechanisms involved in epididymal immune balance and offer many avenues for research to improve treatments of male infertility of immunological origin. (uca.fr)
- Products of C3 activation, C3b and inactivated C3b (iC3b) bind to microorganisms and are recognized by complement receptors (CRs) on phagocytes. (pocketdentistry.com)
- In contrast to the activating receptors, FcγRIIb elicits negative intracellular signals that down-regulate immune cell function. (aacrjournals.org)
- Secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs, which include lymph nodes and the spleen, maintain mature naive lymphocytes and initiate an adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
- The spleen is the largest organ of the lymphatic system. (3d4medical.com)
- Previous research has demonstrated that the absence of commensal bacteria in germ-free mice caused developmental defects in the immune system, resulting in hypoplastic Peyer patches, relatively structureless spleen and lymph nodes, and hypogammaglobulinemic serum. (aacrjournals.org)
- Too much vitamin A shuts down the body's trained immunity, opening the door to infections to which we would otherwise be immune. (eurekalert.org)
- B lymphocytes are the origin of humoral immunity, represent a substantial portion of hematopoietic malignancies, and contribute to autoimmunity. (rupress.org)
- The two major branches of the immune system are nonspecific innate immunity and adaptive or specific acquired immunity. (ispub.com)
- The investigators in this section are also studying the immunostimulating antitumor effects of alarmins when used as vaccine adjuvants in conjunction with inhibitors of the immunosuppressive components of the immune response to promote antitumor immunity. (cancer.gov)
- Adaptive immunity is dependent upon exposure to specific antigens Antigen: Any molecule that stimulates an immune response Innate immunity is first line of defense Non-selective: works against all foreign invaders Provided by 1. (healthdocbox.com)
- SEM 1, 250 Active Versus Passive Immunity Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). (healthdocbox.com)
- Activation of innate immunity is crucial for transition to specific immunity and for its orientation, and to assist the specific immune response in the recognition of pathogens and their destruction. (waterstones.com)
- Innate immunity is regularly involved in the arrest of bacterial, mycotic, viral and parasitic infections, giving the specific immune response time to become effective. (waterstones.com)
- Increasing evidence points to a role of gamma/delta T lymphocytes in antibacterial immunity, although their precise function remains to be elucidated. (nih.gov)
- Type 1 immunity includes the IFN-γ-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1s) that cope with intracellular pathogens through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. (docplayer.net)
- The 2 arms of the immune system: innate immunity and adaptive immunity (click to enlarge the image). (allergycases.org)
- Adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) appeared in jawed vertebrates (sharks) and is superimposed on innate immunity to improve host defense. (allergycases.org)
- On the other hand, adaptive immunity is generally represented by B and T lymphocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- These events can also be regulated by local conditions, such as cytokine production during inflammation, Ag sensitization in the immune response, and secretion of chemokines ( 23 , 24 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Complement proteins, a system of factors important in inflammation and destruction of microorganisms. (tomhsiung.com)
- Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a syndrome of excessive immune activation characterized by various clinical symptoms of extreme inflammation. (alliedacademies.org)
- Macrophage have specialized phagocytic capabilities including release of substances related to the immune response, anaphylaxis, and inflammation. (metaglossary.com)
- This study helps to explain the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin A and by doing so opens the door to identifying novel ways to modulate the immune response and restore its function in situations in which it is dysregulated," said Mihai G. Netea, M.D., Ph.D., a researcher involved in the work from the Department of Internal Medicine at Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (eurekalert.org)
- In this study, we established anti-inflammatory effect of Scallops water extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 mononuclear macrophage. (unboundmedicine.com)
- These new studies shed like on how smoking can also influence the immune system, an effect that may have implications in autoimmunity and also in other settings such as cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. (eurekalert.org)
- The Immune Modulation Section ( Dr. Dennis Klinman ) studies immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive agents, their ability to alter the immune milieu, and their impact on the development of inflammatory and oncogenic processes. (cancer.gov)
- The immune system is primarily designed to defend from germs and this response triggers inflammatory reactions which must be regulated in order not to generate damage to healthy tissue. (hindawi.com)
- Eosinophils, while having a role as phagocytes, also have more specific functions that include providing a defense against metazoan parasites and modulating the inflammatory process. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Each subdivision has humoral and cellular elements which allow the immune system to protect the body from foreign pathogens and cancer. (ispub.com)
- Therefore, the epididymis must develop an efficient immune response against pathogens while establishing effective tolerance towards sperm. (uca.fr)
- In the initial stages of an immune response, the innate immune system recognizes the presence of pathogens and provides the first line of defense. (allergycases.org)
- A type of large immune cell that devours invading pathogens and other intruders. (metaglossary.com)
- Their functions include phagocytosis and pinocytosis , presentation of antigens to T and B lymphocytes, and secretion of a variety of products, including enzymes, several complement components and coagulation factors, some prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and several regulatory molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The main function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is to present processed antigens, which are derived primarily from exogenous sources, to CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. (davidmichaelhairsalon.com)
- MHC class II molecules thereby are critical for the initiation of the antigen-specific immune response. (davidmichaelhairsalon.com)
- Through co-evolution with the mammalian immune system, trypanosomes have developed defense mechanisms that allow them to thrive in blood, lymphoid vessels, and tissue environments such as the brain, the fat tissue, and testes. (frontiersin.org)
- Indeed, trypanosomes use a combination of several independent mechanisms to avoid clearance by the humoral immune system. (frontiersin.org)
- In order to put these concepts together, this review summarizes current knowledge on the interaction between trypanosomes and the mammalian innate immune system, the mechanisms involved in population growth regulation, antigenic variation and the immuno-destructive effect of trypanosomes on the humoral immune system. (frontiersin.org)
- IMMUNE SYSTEM, ILLUSTRATION An organism's defense mechanisms. (sciencephoto.com)
- however, immune cell mechanisms are unclear. (nature.com)
- The shortcoming to get rid of HIV-1 shows that negative-regulatory (tolerogenic) indicators may shield HIV-1 from adaptive immune system clearance.4,5 However, the precise mechanisms where the virus might defend itself from clearance stay unresolved. (mglur.info)
- To check this notion, we utilized humanized NOD/SCID mice treated with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan (1-MT), a competitive inhibitor of IDO.30 We show that effective elimination of HIV-1-infected MDMs by adaptive immune mechanisms (CTLs) parallels inhibition of IDO. (mglur.info)
- Other mechanisms of the innate immune response will be activated following exposure to the sporozoites. (hipra.com)
Antigens to lymphocytes1
- My first objective was to identify and quantify the mononuclear phagocyte and lymphocyte populations present, at steady state, in the tissue. (uca.fr)
- The immune system detects a wide variety of agents and distinguishes them from healthy tissue. (antiagingmedicine.tv)
- The paternal genes that it expresses are seen as antigens by the mothers immune system and are expected to cause the rejection of the foetus as a semi-allogenic tissue graft(2). (ukessays.com)
- In this Review we focus on epithelial and innate immune cell interactions that mediate wound healing and restoration of tissue homeostasis in the skin and intestine. (jci.org)
- A lymphocyte that has left the circulation and settled and matured in a tissue. (metaglossary.com)
- Debate continues as to whether sarcoidosis results from a dysfunctional immune system or a secondary response to environmental antigens. (medscape.com)
- Finally, trypanosomes engage in the active destruction of the mammalian humoral immune response. (frontiersin.org)
- An initiating stimulus, whether endogenous or exogenous, apparently triggers a self-sustaining immune response (1). (docme.ru)
- Thus, an immune response-suppressing isoform of Ly108 can regulate the pathogenesis of lupus. (rupress.org)
- An effective immune response is possible only through the interaction of several cell types. (intechopen.com)
- 1) The immune response. (unibs.it)
- 4) The adaptive immune response. (unibs.it)
- Together, these findings suggest that mhc2dab:GFP and cd45:DsRed transgenic lines will be instrumental in elucidating the immune response in the zebrafish. (zfin.org)
- The primary candidates include the HLA class I and II genes located within the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC), because of their central role in the immune response. (cancer.gov)
- Those metabolites which appear to stimulate the human immune response are being sought for the treatment of cancer, immunodeficiency diseases, or for generalized immunosuppression following drug treatment, for combination therapy with antibiotics, and as adjuvants for vaccines. (anushveda.com)
- Macrophages recognize and engulf foreign materials and present fragments or epitopes on their membranes to initiate an immune response. (thefreedictionary.com)
- First step in the immune response. (angelfire.com)
- An agent that binds specifically to an antibody but may not evoke the immune response. (angelfire.com)
- Research on the immune response against intracellular bacteria not only helps us to better understand how the immune system deals with "viable antigens" in constant trans-mutation, it also forms the basis for the rational design of control measures for major health problems. (nih.gov)
- Specific protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens. (brainscape.com)
- An overview of the immune response. (allergycases.org)
- Intro The pathogenesis of HIV-1 disease is associated with dysfunction and depletion of Compact disc4+ T lymphocytes.1-3 The disease persists and disseminates more than years, despite an apparently unchanged host immune system response. (mglur.info)
- Involved in the immune response to antigens, the macrophages process antigens and present them to the lymphocytes. (metaglossary.com)
- A large number of oocysts is generally required to generate a good immune response so the use of attenuated Eimeria lines in a vaccine is crucial to avoid the problems associated with non-attenuated lines. (hipra.com)
- However, chronic immune response promotes tumor growth and invasion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Only some are [ 11 ], and all other classes may support tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and escape from the host immune response and conventional anti-cancer therapy [ 12 , 13 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- With respect to the immune system of mammals, these changes have a lot to do with the interactions that occur continuously with other living species, especially microorganisms. (hindawi.com)
- The "second memory" is the adaptive immune system, which is cumulative information about dangerous microorganisms with which the individual interacts and through this interaction acquires the ability to defend itself from subsequent exposure with high efficiency. (hindawi.com)
- The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart. (wikipedia.org)
- The lymphatic system was first described in the seventeenth century independently by Olaus Rudbeck and Thomas Bartholin. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike the circulatory system, the lymphatic system is not a closed system. (wikipedia.org)
- Lymph is the fluid that is formed when interstitial fluid enters the initial lymphatic vessels of the lymphatic system. (wikipedia.org)
- Play media The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic organs, a conducting network of lymphatic vessels, and the circulating lymph. (wikipedia.org)
- 1 The Chapter 13 Lymphatic and Immune Systems 1 The Lymphatic Vessels Lymphoid Organs Three functions contribute to homeostasis 1. (healthdocbox.com)
- Kay N E, Douglas S D. Monocyte-erythrocyte connections in immune system hemolytic anemias. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
- To test this notion we utilized a mouse style of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE) where nonobese diabetic-severe mixed immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice are reconstituted with individual peripheral-blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL-NOD/SCID) and intracranially injected with HIV-1-contaminated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to induce viral encephalitis. (mglur.info)
- Cellular components of the immune system. (slideserve.com)
- The Immuno Dynamics Section ( Dr. Grégoire Altan-Bonnet ) builds quantitative models of the process of cellular decision making in the immune system. (cancer.gov)
- The work carried out during this PhD. aimed to strengthen the available knowledge on cellular and molecular actors involved in the maintenance of the immune balance in the murine epididymis. (uca.fr)
- Part II: Influence on a Local Defense System. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The other main function is that of defense in the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- The human species, which is at a high level of evolutionary immunological accumulation, have multiple immune defense strategies which, in turn, are highly regulated. (hindawi.com)
- The tonsils are lymphoid organs that are also associated with the digestive system. (wikipedia.org)
- Mature lymphocytes recirculate between the blood and the peripheral lymphoid organs until they encounter their specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
- Several organs system Produce urine and excrete it from the body Maintenance of homeostasis. (healthdocbox.com)