Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Immune System Phenomena: The characteristic properties and processes involved in IMMUNITY and an organism's immune response.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Mice, Inbred C3HHost-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Psychoneuroimmunology: The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Toll-Like Receptor 9: A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Monitoring, Immunologic: Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.HemocyaninBacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hemic and Immune Systems: Organs involved in the production of BLOOD, including the cellular and the molecular components essential in providing defense against foreign organisms or substances.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.

Characterization of a novel mouse cDNA, ES18, involved in apoptotic cell death of T-cells. (1/2732)

Using the modified screening approach in combination with expressed sequence tags, we have identified several novel cDNAs from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, whose expression is tissue-restricted and/or developmentally regulated. One of the cDNAs, ES18, is preferentially expressed in lymph node and thymus, and contains noteworthy features of transcriptional regulator. The expression of ES18 transcript was selectively regulated during the apoptosis of T-cell thymoma S49.1 induced by several stimuli. Interestingly, the ES18 transcript was differently regulated in the mutually antagonistic process, between dexamethasone- and A23187-induced cell death of T-cells. Moreover, the message level of ES18 was selectively enhanced by staurosporine, a broad protein kinase inhibitor, but not by other protein kinase inhibitors such as GF109203X and H89. In addition, ES18 transcript was induced by C2-ceramide, which is a mediator of both dexamethasone- and staurosporine-induced apoptotic signaling. We further showed that transient overexpression of ES18 in mouse T-cell lymphoma increased the apoptotic cell death. These data suggest that ES18 may be selectively involved in specific apoptotic processes in mouse T-cells.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of Smad3 reveals an essential role in transforming growth factor beta-mediated signal transduction. (2/2732)

The Smads are a family of nine related proteins which function as signaling intermediates for the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of ligands. To discern the in vivo functions of one of these Smads, Smad3, we generated mice harboring a targeted disruption of this gene. Smad3 null mice, although smaller than wild-type littermates, are viable, survive to adulthood, and exhibit an early phenotype of forelimb malformation. To study the cellular functions of Smad3, we generated Smad3 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and dermal fibroblasts. We demonstrate that null MEFs have lost the ability to form Smad-containing DNA binding complexes and are unable to induce transcription from the TGF-beta-responsive promoter construct, p3TP-lux. Using the primary dermal fibroblasts, we also demonstrate that Smad3 is integral for induction of endogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. We subsequently demonstrate that Smad3 null MEFs are partially resistant to TGF-beta's antiproliferative effect, thus firmly establishing a role for Smad3 in TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibition. We next examined cells in which Smad3 is most highly expressed, specifically cells of immune origin. Although no specific developmental defect was detected in the immune system of the Smad3 null mice, a functional defect was observed in the ability of TGF-beta to inhibit the proliferation of splenocytes activated by specific stimuli. In addition, primary splenocytes display defects in TGF-beta-mediated repression of cytokine production. These data, taken together, establish a role for Smad3 in mediating the antiproliferative effects of TGF-beta and implicate Smad3 as a potential effector for TGF-beta in modulating immune system function.  (+info)

Immunodeficiency syndrome in a 3-year-old llama. (3/2732)

An adult, castrated male llama was presented for evaluation of a chronic respiratory problem. Complete blood analyses indicated a leukopenia and hypoproteinemia. Radial immunodiffusion, bone marrow core, and lymph node biopsies supported a tentative diagnosis of juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome. This diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem findings.  (+info)

Developmental neurobiology: Alternative ends for a familiar story? (4/2732)

Somatic DNA recombination is essential for production of functional antigen receptor genes of T and B lymphocytes, but it is thought to be unique to the immune system. Recent studies have now shown that recombination-related genes are also necessary for normal neuronal development.  (+info)

Is gliadin mispresented to the immune system in coeliac disease? A hypothesis. (5/2732)

The primary pathogenic trigger in coeliac disease (CD) is still unknown. We present the hypothesis that in CD the enterocytes could metabolize gliadin through an immunogenic pathway instead of a tolerogenic one. The result of this abnormal presentation of gliadin to the immune system would be the activation of lamina propria T cells, followed by the onset of enteropathy.  (+info)

Development of T-B cell collaboration in neonatal mice. (6/2732)

The neonatal immune response is impaired during the first weeks after birth. To obtain a better understanding of this immaturity, we investigated the development of T cell interactions with B cells in mice. For this purpose, we analyzed the immune response to three T-dependent antigens in vivo: (i) the polyclonal antibody response induced by vaccinia virus; (ii) the production of polyclonal and specific antibodies following immunization with hapten-carrier conjugates; (iii) the mouse mammary tumor virus superantigen (sAg) response involving an increase in sAg-reactive T cells and induction of polyclonal antibody production. After vaccinia virus injection into neonates, the polyclonal antibody response was similar to that observed in adult mice. The antibody response to hapten-carrier conjugates, however, was delayed and reduced. Injection with sAg-expressing B cells from neonatal or adult mice allowed us to determine whether B cells, T cells or both were implicated in the reduced immune response. In these sAg responses, neonatal T cells were stimulated by both neonatal and adult sAg-presenting B cells but only B cells from adult mice differentiated into IgM- and IgG-secreting plasma cells in the neonatal environment in vivo. Injecting neonatal B cells into adult mice did not induce antibody production. These results demonstrate that the environment of the neonatal lymph node is able to support a T and B cell response, and that immaturity of B cells plays a key role in the reduced immune response observed in the neonate.  (+info)

Reduced immune function and malnutrition in the elderly. (7/2732)

An important observation in elderly subjects is their susceptibility to infection associated with a decline in host immune function. Nutrition is also an important factor that influences host defense against infection. We, therefore, evaluated the relationship between nutritional status in 155 healthy subjects ranging in age from 20 to 99 years and various immunological parameters, including the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of neutrophils and monocytes, superoxide production and chemotaxis of neutrophils, lymphocyte subsets, blastoid transformation and serum immunoglobulins. Aging was associated with increased phagocytic activity of neutrophils but not bactericidal activity, superoxide production or chemotaxis of neutrophils. Aging was also associated with a significant decrease in the number of lymphocytes as well as a decline in mature T cells and helper/inducer T cells but with increased numbers of activated T cells, suppressor T cells and natural killer cells. In addition, blastoid transformation in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) was significantly reduced in aged subjects. A poor nutritional status was noted in individuals 60 years of age or older. The nutritional status did not influence neutrophil function but correlated significantly with the number of lymphocytes and degree of blastoid formation with PHA and Con A stimulation. Our results suggest that the cell-mediated immunity in elderly subjects is reduced as a result of malnutrition, and that improvement of the nutritional status may enhance the immune function, likely contributing to their successful aging.  (+info)

Differential presentation of an altered peptide within fetal central and peripheral organs supports an avidity model for thymic T cell development and implies a peripheral readjustment for activation. (8/2732)

Altered self peptides may drive T cell development by providing avidity of interactions low enough to potentiate positive selection but not powerful enough to trigger programmed cell death. Since the peptide repertoire in both central and peripheral organs is nearly the same, interactions of these peptides with T cells in the thymus would have to be different from those taking place in the periphery; otherwise, T cell development and maturation would result in either autoimmunity or T cell deficiency. Herein, a self and an altered self peptide were delivered to fetuses, and their presentation as well as the consequence of such presentation on T cell development were assessed. The results indicate that the self peptide was presented in both central and peripheral fetal organs and that such presentation abolished T cell responses to both peptides during adult life. However, the altered peptide, although presented in vivo as well as in vitro by splenic cells, was unable to stimulate a specific T cell clone when the presenting cells were of thymic origin and allowed offspring to be responsive to both peptides. These findings indicate that central and peripheral organs accommodate selection and peripheral survival of T cells by promoting differential altered peptide presentation.  (+info)

  • Coronaviruses, the survey found, are masters of mimicry, particularly with proteins involved in coagulation and proteins that make up complement, one of the oldest branches of the human immune system. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The new coronavirus -- by mimicking complement or coagulation proteins -- might drive both systems into a hyperactive state. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends people against germs and microorganisms every day. (kidshealth.org)
  • The immune system, which is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends people against germs and microorganisms every day. (kidshealth.org)
  • The immune system is a network of special cells, tissues, proteins, and organs that work together to protect the body from potentially damaging foreign invaders and disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The innate immune system provides this kind of nonspecific protection through a number of defense mechanisms, which include physical barriers such as the skin , chemical barriers such as antimicrobial proteins that harm or destroy invaders, and cells that attack foreign cells and body cells harbouring infectious agents. (britannica.com)
  • Ingrid Boekhoff from the Walther Straub Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology has now shown that the activity of certain ion-channel proteins in mast cells plays an important role in preventing allergic and anaphylactic reactions and ensuring that immune responses do not overshoot. (eurekalert.org)
  • This means that immune cells must be capable of detecting specific signals that interact with receptor proteins on the cell surface and converting them into clearly defined sets of molecular interactions that result in the activation of the appropriate response at the right time and in the right place. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is clear that cells regulate intracellular levels of these ions principally via proteins called ion channels and ion pumps, but how these flows are controlled in the context of immune responses is not understood in detail. (eurekalert.org)
  • Generating sufficient diversity is a problem because the human body only makes on the order of 10 6 different proteins, which the immune system must use to construct receptors that can recognize potentially 10 16 different proteins or patterns. (unm.edu)
  • If a virus has infected a cell, MHC can carry viral proteins to the cell surface and present them where the immune system can detect the presence of foreign proteins. (unm.edu)
  • Some of these immune-specific signalling proteins are attractive potential targets in the development of therapies to augment T-cell responses to antigen or tumours, and to treat immune cell disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Laboratory tests on human cells showed that the virus caused the immune system to send proteins called cytokines to infected lung cells, a reaction that would end up damaging or destroying the tissues the immune system is meant to defend. (freerepublic.com)
  • Hong Kong scientists studying the virus have discovered that H5N1 attacks its host by overwhelming the immune system in a 'storm' of inflammatory proteins, 10 times more than in the annual 'seasonal' influenza. (freerepublic.com)
  • So the immune system can sometimes ignore proteins if, for example, they are released by B cells. (newscientist.com)
  • According to the National Cancer Institute, this distinction can be made because the cells of your body contain surface proteins that tell the immune system the cells belong there. (hubpages.com)
  • We're seeing alterations in the numbers of immune cells in the blood, reduced function in some of these populations, and changes in the proteins cells make," said Hawley Kunz, an immunologist at KBRwyle. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Haloferax encodes a type I-B CRISPR-Cas system with eight Cas proteins (Cas1-Cas8b) and three CRISPR RNA locis. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Combining sequencing with the detection of important proteins on the surface of the immune cells, allowed us to decipher the changes in the immune system of patients with COVID-19," adds Birgit Sawitzki, Professor at the Institute of Medical Immunology on Campus Virchow-Klinikum. (uni-bonn.de)
  • However, as cells transform into cancer, they do shed proteins that the immune system can recognize as antigens. (breastcancer.org)
  • If you change the way the immune system sees viral proteins, it really can make a dramatic difference," Crotty says. (newswise.com)
  • Prokaryotes with CRISPR-Cas immune systems capture short invader sequences within the CRISPR loci in their genomes, and small RNAs produced from the CRISPR loci (CRISPR (cr)RNAs) guide Cas proteins to recognize and degrade (or otherwise silence) the invading nucleic acids. (nih.gov)
  • Combinations of Cas proteins create diverse CRISPR-Cas systems. (nih.gov)
  • A typical CRISPR-Cas system is comprised of the nearly universal Cas1 and Cas2 proteins, a specific combination of the other core Cas proteins and a set of sub-type specific Cas proteins. (nih.gov)
  • CRISPR-Cas systems of various prokaryotes include three co-evolved components: CRISPR repeats, CRISPR leaders, and associated Cas proteins that function on discrete PAMs (protospacer adjacent elements) present in the viruses and other mobile genetic elements that they encounter. (nih.gov)
  • Since your immune system is made up of proteins and relies on new protein synthesis to function, it's no surprise that getting too little protein in your diet can weaken your immune system. (livestrong.com)
  • Your body uses amino acids found in dietary proteins to help build proteins within your body -- including proteins that help make up your immune system. (livestrong.com)
  • One striking example is that both systems form and communicate via synapses armed with similar sets of proteins. (springer.com)
  • When proteins either are made within a cell or are ingested by phagocytosis, they may be degraded by a variety of systems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although researchers aren't exactly sure how sleep boosts the immune system, it's clear that getting enough - usually 7 to 9 hours for an adult - is key for good health. (webmd.com)
  • altering the immune system to reverse paralysis Researchers have developed an experimental immune system treatment, returning the power of movement to paralyzed mice. (britannica.com)
  • What researchers do know is that the body continuously makes immune cells that are called white blood cells, or leukocytes, and it generates far more cells of the adaptive system - known as lymphocytes - that mature into B cells and T cells than are needed. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • No direct links have been identified between lifestyle and enhanced immune response, but researchers have investigated the effect of factors, such as exercise, diet, and stress on the response of the immune system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers looked at billions of immune cells to reach this conclusion, doing so with the help of new technology. (mercurynews.com)
  • Researchers at the Salk Institute say they have discovered a key control mechanism on regulatory T cells (Tregs) that determine if they send a halt signal to killer T cells during a pathogenic attack on the immune system. (genengnews.com)
  • Conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS2), a CpG-rich Foxp3 intronic cis -element specifically demethylated in mature Tregs, helps maintain immune homeostasis and limit autoimmune disease development by protecting Treg identity in response to signals that shape mature Treg functions and drive their initial differentiation," wrote the researchers. (genengnews.com)
  • According to a review by researchers from the University of Colorado Cancer Center (CU Cancer Center), viruses can manipulate the human immune system to ensure their survival and even promote cancer. (naturalnews.com)
  • The researchers said that the study's findings underscore the importance of considering the gut and peripheral immune response to GM crop ingestion as well as the age of the consumer when evaluating GM crop safety. (organicconsumers.org)
  • For the first time ever, researchers are comprehensively sequencing the human immune system, which is billions of times larger than the human genome. (news-medical.net)
  • Better understanding white blood cells and the body's immune response may help researchers detect and fight cancer. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • HONG KONG, Nov. 11 (UPI) -- Researchers in Hong Kong say the H5N1 bird flu virus may provoke an excessive immune reaction, explaining why it is deadly even to the young and healthy. (freerepublic.com)
  • When the researchers injected these animals with the foreign protein, there was no immune response. (newscientist.com)
  • The researchers say fasting 'flips a regenerative switch' which prompts stem cells to create brand new white blood cells, essentially regenerating the entire immune system. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In news that may provide advocates of breast-feeding with yet more ammunition, researchers report today that soy-based infant formulas may impair the developing immune system. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In the new work, researchers at the University of Illinois found that genistein, an estrogenlike component of soybeans, compromises both of these vital branches of the immune system in mice. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In light of our present results and other work suggesting potential immune, reproductive, and endocrine effects," the researchers conclude, "the use of soy formula for infant nutrition and high soy/isoflavone intake by adults through the use of supplements needs to be approached with caution. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers have discovered that in many patients hospitalized with the coronavirus, the immune system is threatened by a depletion of certain essential cells, suggesting eerie parallels with HIV. (startribune.com)
  • For breast cancer and other types of cancer, researchers are working to develop treatments that can use the immune response to help the body to better recognize and target cancer cells. (breastcancer.org)
  • The researchers found that the mice exhibited lung inflammation and suppressed immune cell counts within a period of two hours after exposure. (wired.com)
  • Writing in the November 15, 2005, issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), a team of researchers led by HHMI investigator Owen N. Witte at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center reports the results of experiments that enabled the group to tune in to the cellular battles waged by the immune system deep in the body. (medgadget.com)
  • Now, researchers have mapped how the immune system adapts systemically throughout pregnancy, providing a baseline for normal development that may clarify why some women's bodies do not respond in expected ways, increasing their risk of preterm labor and complications. (biotechniques.com)
  • Older people also have a higher incidence of cancer and autoimmune disorders because of their weakened immune systems, he said. (mercurynews.com)
  • Occasionally, the immune system can make a mistake and attack itself, resulting in autoimmune disorders. (healio.com)
  • Health Tips to a Healthier You offers information on alternative and western medicine for multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivities, fibromyalgia, asthma, toxins, and the autoimmune system. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Through a remarkable maturation process sometimes referred to as thymic education, T cells that are beneficial to the immune system are spared, while those T cells that might evoke a detrimental autoimmune response are eliminated. (thebody.com)
  • When the immune system is not functioning properly, or the immune system itself is attacking the body, a variety of health issues can begin to develop, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, colds, flu, and infections that range from mild to life-threatening. (softschools.com)
  • Your lifestyle can affect how well your immune system can protect you from germs, viruses, and chronic illness. (webmd.com)
  • To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worm, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy biological tissue. (wikiversity.org)
  • When the viruses bump into particular cells in the immune system, the viruses' shells pop open and their genes enter the cells. (npr.org)
  • A human (host) protein that weakens the immune response to HIV and other viruses has been identified by scientists. (medindia.net)
  • In that time, the innate system keeps the pathogen at bay and prevents it from multiplying. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this way, a small number of genes can lead to an incredible diversity of receptors, allowing the immune system to recognize almost any new pathogen. (news-medical.net)
  • The adaptive immune system creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. (wikiversity.org)
  • Innate immune cells express pattern recognition receptor s (PRRs) which recognize components that are conserved among broad groups of microorganisms called as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), or substances released by damaged and dying cells called as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). (wikiversity.org)
  • When you get sick, your immune cells team up to clear the pathogen. (newswise.com)
  • Scharschmidt and her lab team now have found that early-life exposure to a multi-drug-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus the leading cause of skin infections in the U.S., a frequent aggravator of eczema, and a rare source of flesh-eating necrotizing fasciitis does not result in immune tolerance to the pathogen. (webwire.com)
  • Michael Dustin, Professor of Immunology at Oxford University's Kennedy Institute explained: 'While an overwhelming T-cell response might on the face of it sound effective, it brings risks of immunopathology, where an over-active immune system destroys healthy human tissue, not just the invading disease-causing pathogen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response. (wikipedia.org)
  • This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • and the nature of the immune response in the mucosal tissues and immunological memory. (google.com)
  • The immune system is made up of cells, tissues, organs, and processes that identify a substance as abnormal or foreign and prevent it from harming the body. (faqs.org)
  • The immune system is a network of cells, tissues and organs dispersed throughout the body and charged with the task of defending the body against invading organisms. (hubpages.com)
  • In contrast, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. (wikiversity.org)
  • therefore, the immune cells themselves are spread throughout your tissues and can travel quickly when called upon. (whfoods.com)
  • It's a crucial discovery for future vaccine strategies - Hobit and Blimp1 would be key to placing immune cells in the tissues, which we know are really important for protection. (medindia.net)
  • A continuing challenge in the human immunology and vaccine development fields has been that we do not have comprehensive reference data for what the normal healthy human immune system looks like,' says James E. Crowe, Jr., MD, Director of the Vanderbilt Vaccine Center of Vanderbilt University Medical Center, senior author on the new paper, which was published online in Nature on Feb. 13. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) have discovered that delivering an HIV vaccine in small doses over a series of days leads to a stronger immune response than when the same vaccine is given all at once. (newswise.com)
  • Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) are adaptive systems, inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models, which are applied to problem solving. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIS is distinct from computational immunology and theoretical biology that are concerned with simulating immunology using computational and mathematical models towards better understanding the immune system, although such models initiated the field of AIS and continue to provide a fertile ground for inspiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunology is a science that examines the structure and function of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are found in practically all organs in the body and regulate the initiation and resolution of inflammatory reactions mounted by the immune system as a means of combating infections and metabolic dysregulation. (eurekalert.org)
  • The purpose of this article is to review the organs, cell types and interactions between cells of the immune system as a commentary on their importance and interdependence on the T helper subset. (thebody.com)
  • In addition, the immune system plays a role in rejecting transplanted organs or tissue. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We are investigating the possibility that these effects are applicable to many different systems and organs, not just the immune system,' added Prof Longo. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The thymus gland, the spleen and other internal organs produce the Immune system cells. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This research will help us understand how immune cells adapt, survive and respond within the organs they protect. (medindia.net)
  • The Doherty Institute's Dr Laura Mackay, who is also an associate investigator with the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, said the factors that control the 'tissue-residency' of immune cells - their ability to locally reside in different organs of the body - was previously unknown. (medindia.net)
  • As a natural ingredient derived from the cell walls of a highly purified, proprietary strain of yeast, SmartMune activates billions of innate immune cells, which are part of the body's natural defenses. (prweb.com)
  • SmartMune activates billions of innate immune cells that are part of the body's natural defenses, to prime the immune defenses without over stimulating the immune system. (prweb.com)
  • Whey protein can help you fight off colds and flu because it contains beta-glucans and immunoglobulins, which protect your immune system and support your body's natural detoxification processes. (mercola.com)
  • Whenever the lymphatic system of the body is shown on anatomy websites, it seems that the artists have invariably forgotten to draw in a lymphatic channel to drain the brain. (extremetech.com)
  • Besides the cells, another component of the immune system is the lymphatic system which is a network of nodes and vessels that runs throughout the body. (hubpages.com)
  • The "immune system" comprises many biological structures and biological process within an organism that protects against disease. (wikiversity.org)
  • In humans, the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and similar fluid-brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system, which protects the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to low levels of TCE has been associated with decreased thymus weights and a decreased immune response in animal but not human studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Mice injected with genistein exhibited an up to 80 percent decrease in the size of the thymus, the center of immune cell development, education and proliferation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cytokines produced by macrophages and other cells of the innate immune system mediate the inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • They learned that the bacterium itself, using a protein called porin (PorB), can also bind multiple human Siglecs on both immune cells and female genital tract cells, including anti-inflammatory Siglec-11 and pro-inflammatory Siglec-16. (umassmed.edu)
  • fortifying juice by Gourmande in the Kitchen has four root vegetables that'll help your immune system and decrease inflammatory symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • The first, already noted, is that soluble fiber has direct anti-inflammatory effects and builds up the immune system. (emaxhealth.com)
  • What's really interesting, beyond the general immune-boosting effects and the COVID-specific protein effects, many of these same nutrients or other nutrients blunt or soften this excessive inflammatory response that's really what's causing deaths in COVID. (organicconsumers.org)
  • We want to understand the mucosal immune system better and the factors that increase a person's susceptibility to illness. (eurekalert.org)
  • Is it any wonder that the average child has 12 colds a year?Your first choice should be to build your child's immune system up as easily as possible, but with the hectic pace of modern life it's not easy! (emaxhealth.com)
  • Your part in protecting you and your child's immune system encompass many aspects since many factors play a role in your health. (emaxhealth.com)
  • People with certain health conditions may need to take medications with side effects that can weaken your immune system and put you at risk for fungal infections. (cdc.gov)
  • If you live in or visit these areas and are taking medications that weaken the immune system, you're more likely to get these infections than the general population. (cdc.gov)
  • As part of the immune system, you would expect to see complement activated, but it seems over and above what you'd see in other infections like the flu. (sciencecodex.com)
  • In most cases, the immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. (kidshealth.org)
  • Diets that are high in fat seem to depress the immune response and thus increase the risk of infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The immune system is composed of many interdependent cell types that collectively protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal, viral infections and from the growth of tumor cells. (thebody.com)
  • When this coordination breaks down, people are at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs) and cancers that usually do not harm people with healthy immune systems . (thebody.com)
  • It's well recognized that as we age our immune systems become weaker, and less effective at beating chronic infections and, critically, responding to potentially life-saving vaccination. (genengnews.com)
  • If your immune function is weakened your body is subject to fatigue and illness and cannot ward off infections then illness happens whether it be everyday illnesses such as colds and allergies or serious ones, produced by prolonged immune system distress? (emaxhealth.com)
  • Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. (wikiversity.org)
  • In the immune system it is the white blood cells that travel around in the blood and lymph to fight infections. (softschools.com)
  • Poor nutrition has been shown to result in increased infections, to slow healing from injury and infections, and to increase susceptibility to symptoms and complications from immune system dysfunction. (whfoods.com)
  • These are immune cells that are at the very forefront of the immune response, i.e. they are mobilized at a very early stage to defend against infections. (uni-bonn.de)
  • A deficiency of vitamin C can lead to delayed wound healing, inability to properly fight infections, and impaired immune response. (healthline.com)
  • In a study of young mice, UC San Francisco scientists found that an early-life window of immune tolerance available to a normally harmless bacterial species is firmly closed to another, often pathogenic species one that is a leading cause of drug-resistant skin infections in the U.S. and occasional source of flesh-eating necrosis. (webwire.com)
  • Dr Kallies said identifying how immune cells remain in the part of the body where they are needed most was critical to developing better ways to protect us from infections such as malaria or HIV. (medindia.net)
  • A unique immune-system functioning in bats that keeps them away from deadly infections could provide clues to help protect humans. (medindia.net)
  • Microbial infections are recognized by the innate immune system both to elicit immediate defense and to generate long-lasting adaptive immunity. (nih.gov)
  • On its own, vitamin C helps defend against infections, but, combine it with zinc, and together they produce new immune cells. (net-a-porter.com)
  • It is well documented that GM can interact with non-enteral cells such as immune cells, dendritic cells, and hepatocytes, producing molecules such as short-chain fatty acids, indole derivatives, polyamines, and secondary bile acid. (springer.com)
  • It also indicated that healthy people with strong immune systems could fare worse than others if they became infected. (freerepublic.com)
  • Contrary to what has been generally assumed so far, a severe course of COVID-19 does not solely result in a strong immune reaction - rather, the immune response is caught in a continuous loop of activation and inhibition. (uni-bonn.de)
  • A strong immune system is a key factor for healthy living. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The amount of sleep that's required to achieve a strong immune system is seven to eight hours of sleep each night. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Having a strong immune system requires a well-balanced diet containing proper amounts of all essential nutrients -- including protein. (livestrong.com)
  • Because a variety of foods are rich in protein, most people in developed countries such as the United States get the protein they need for a strong immune system by eating a well-balanced diet. (livestrong.com)
  • Prof. Dustin said: 'This knowledge could be applied in vaccine development, where you are looking to cause a strong immune reaction but with minimum risk. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Immune System, Third Edition emphasizes the human immune system and synthesizes immunological concepts into a comprehensible, up-to-date, and reader-friendly account of how the immune system works. (google.com)
  • October 25, 1995, Wednesday An article in Science Times yesterday about the human immune system misspelled the given name of an immunologist at the University of Maryland in Baltimore who commented on a new mathematical model of how the system works. (nytimes.com)
  • While the Human Genome Project sequenced the human genome and led to the development of novel genomics tools, it did not tackle the size and complexity of the human immune system. (news-medical.net)
  • Due to recent technological advances, we now have an unprecedented opportunity to harness the power of the human immune system to fundamentally transform human health,' says Wayne Koff, Ph.D., CEO of the Human Vaccines Project. (news-medical.net)
  • Technological advances are enabling more comprehensive studies of the human immune system than ever before possible. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The Human immune system is the body's protection system. (softschools.com)
  • Vitamin D has emerged as a pleiotropic regulator of human physiology, and recent work has revealed that it has several roles in control of human immune system function. (springer.com)
  • Study collaborators at Yerkes National Primate Research Center tested the strategies in rhesus monkeys, the best animal model for studying how the human immune system reacts to HIV. (newswise.com)
  • In this way, the immune system works in a coordinated manner to monitor the body for germs or substances that might cause problems. (kidshealth.org)
  • Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • All of these specialized cells and parts of the immune system offer the body protection against disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Chronic stress exposes your body to a steady stream of stress hormones that suppress the immune system. (webmd.com)
  • Both systems work together to thwart organisms from entering and proliferating within the body. (britannica.com)
  • The research published in "Cell" on Wednesday compared the immune cells of young people and older adults, looking specifically at their DNA - the instruction manual carried by every cell in the body. (mercurynews.com)
  • As these changes accumulate in our immune cells, he said, they might leave the body less equipped to ward off disease. (mercurynews.com)
  • SmartMune , a unique new product that is clinically proven to safely prime immune cells that keep the body healthy year round, is launching a national TV campaign to unveil the new brand on March 31, 2012 to consumers across the United States. (prweb.com)
  • SmartMune is clinically proven to activate immune cells that help keep the body healthy, particularly during periods of stress," said Don Cox, Ph.D., senior vice president of research and development for Biothera. (prweb.com)
  • This combinatorial explosion allows the immune system to make potentially 10 15 different kinds of receptors, although the actual number of distinct receptors present in the body at any given time is far less than this. (unm.edu)
  • Any type of major surgery can stress the body and suppress the immune system. (breastcancer.org)
  • If you had lymph nodes removed, your immune system may not work as well on that side of your body. (breastcancer.org)
  • The immune system works to keep germs out of the body and destroy any that get in. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • When the immune system does not work properly, it leaves the body at risk for disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The main purpose of the immune system is to assist the body in its struggle to maintain optimal health. (bartleby.com)
  • The immune system can protect the body in three different ways, in which are: 1. (bartleby.com)
  • Feeding your body certain foods may help keep your immune system strong. (healthline.com)
  • And the good news is that the body got rid of the parts of the system that might be damaged or old, the inefficient parts, during the fasting. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The result is that the body may be signaling T cells almost at random, confusing the immune response. (startribune.com)
  • Your immune system is like a finely tuned orchestra whose purpose is to defend your body from unhealthy insults from the world around you. (whfoods.com)
  • Like an orchestra, your immune system contains many different instruments that work harmoniously together with one goal, protecting you from foreign insults that can cause damage to your body. (whfoods.com)
  • The main parts of your immune system are the immune cells, the structural barriers in your body in which the majority of these cells are localized, and the specific messenger molecules that call the cells to action or tell them to stop. (whfoods.com)
  • Your immune system also relies upon specific structures in your body that provide a foundation for defense. (whfoods.com)
  • Healthy foods play a big part in boosting the immune system and contribute to general body wellness. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Your immune system is constantly active, figuring out which cells belong to your body and which don't. (healthline.com)
  • The fact that we can visualize the cellular immune response without invading the body is an important advantage," Witte noted. (medgadget.com)
  • We can see immune reactions in the body that would otherwise not be easy to see. (medgadget.com)
  • With this technique, the sensitivity for monitoring the immune system is incredible because you're seeing the whole body. (medgadget.com)
  • The immune system provides the body with resistance to disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 4Life Transfer Factor - This is an immune system modulator, which means that the key ingredients are able to go into the body to adjust the immune system either up or down depending on the issue. (constantcontact.com)
  • Body brushing and deep-breathing techniques can help, but Brindle is a fan of gua sha (the practice involves scraping a flat, rounded tool, usually made of jade, over the skin, which stimulates the immune system via connective tissue). (net-a-porter.com)
  • In addition to protein deficiency, other nutrient deficiencies may also weaken your immune system. (livestrong.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that interleukin-1beta can upset the dopamine system in rats in a similar way to schizophrenia in humans. (redorbit.com)
  • It is known that the hypermutation mechanism in germinal centers of the dark zone stops functioning in old rats, and Dr. Kelsoe believes the same thing may happen in humans, decreasing the effectiveness of the immune system. (nytimes.com)
  • To humans, having a healthy immune system is essential. (bartleby.com)
  • What if the good results are linked to the host being a mouse, and in humans the same treatment would end up becoming some kind of auto-immune disease instead? (slashdot.org)
  • Replacing bad health habits with good ones can help keep your immune system healthy. (webmd.com)
  • To date, most studies show that supplements do not stimulate immune response in healthy, well-nourished individuals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tregs are like the surveillance system of the immune response, noted Dr. Zheng, adding that this surveillance system is "key to healthy immune reactions, but it can be kicked into overdrive or turned entirely off. (genengnews.com)
  • Before and after breast cancer surgery, it's a good idea to follow the common-sense ways to take care of your immune system , such as getting enough rest, eating a healthy diet, exercising, and reducing stress as much as you can. (breastcancer.org)
  • A good diet, healthy lifestyle and exercise will usually be enough to do this, but if you have any concerns about your pet's immune system it is always a good idea to ask your vet for advice. (vetinfo.com)
  • I'm interested if the HIV virus itself has been proven to destroy the immune system of an otherwise healthy person? (thebody.com)
  • The study suggests that the young and healthy may be more susceptible to an avian-influenza pandemic, as their immune systems put up more of a fight against the disease, leading to the 'storms' outlined in the report. (freerepublic.com)
  • Besides boosting your immune system, vitamin C may help maintain healthy skin. (healthline.com)
  • When it comes to preventing and fighting off colds, vitamin E tends to take a backseat to vitamin C. However, vitamin E is key to a healthy immune system. (healthline.com)
  • We have collected samples from large cohorts of healthy individuals to study how common alleles impact the immune response. (broadinstitute.org)
  • It is estimated that 20 minutes of laughter each day helps to keep the immune system healthy because laughing releases hormones that decrease stress. (softschools.com)
  • Your ability to interact with the world around you and remain healthy is dependent to a large extent on the healthy functioning of your immune system. (whfoods.com)
  • Medical science has established that one of the most important factors in supporting a healthy, balanced immune system is good nutrition. (whfoods.com)
  • Research studies show that healthy eating can help in keeping your immune system ready and capable of functioning properly when necessary. (whfoods.com)
  • This means the immune system needs a healthy dose of vitamins and minerals to keep its energy up and going. (healthline.com)
  • They found that Tregs were enriched in neonatal skin compared to adult skin, suggesting that the immune system could learn which bacterial species are normal and thus likely healthy based on which species Tregs encounter immediately after birth. (webwire.com)
  • Harvard Health Publications suggests consuming a variety of whole grains, fruits and vegetables daily to help keep your immune system strong. (livestrong.com)
  • This most extensive organ system has the skin and accessory structures, including hair, nails, glands (sweat and sebaceous), and specialized nerve receptors for stimuli (changes in internal or external environment) such as touch, cold, heat, pain, and pressure. (smore.com)
  • Addressing Parents' Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant's Immune System? (aappublications.org)
  • Implicit in this concern is that the infant's immune system is inadequately developed to handle vaccines safely or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system. (aappublications.org)
  • As a possible consequence of these trends, recent national surveys found that 23% of parents questioned the number of shots recommended for their children, 1 and 25% were concerned that vaccines might weaken the immune system. (aappublications.org)
  • This article will provide health care professionals with information about the effect of vaccines on the infant's immune system and the capacity of the immune system to respond safely to multiple vaccines. (aappublications.org)
  • National Cancer Institute: "Cancer Vaccines," "Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor," "Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment. (webmd.com)
  • Results, Look for the Following Discussion The Bottom Line Introduction The goal of HIV vaccines is to teach the immune system new and hopefully better ways to win the battle against the virus. (thebody.com)
  • In a new study published in Nature from the Human Vaccines Project, scientists have sequenced a key part of this vast and mysterious system -- the genes encoding the circulating B cell receptor repertoire. (news-medical.net)
  • The goal is to continue to interrogate the shared components of the immune system to develop safer and highly targeted vaccines and immunotherapies that work across populations. (news-medical.net)
  • Old people particularly need vaccines since it's usually harder for their immune systems to fight off illnesses as they age. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Statovci D, Aguilera M, MacSharry J, Melgar S (2017) The impact of western diet and nutrients on the microbiota and immune response at mucosal interfaces. (springer.com)
  • Cancers affecting the cells of the immune system are named based on the type of immune cell that is proliferating abnormally. (hubpages.com)
  • One of the most promising avenues is a kind of gene therapy that would block HIV's entry into cells of the immune system. (npr.org)