Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne: The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Mice, Inbred BALB CRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne: An infectious disease clinically similar to epidemic louse-borne typhus (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE), but caused by RICKETTSIA TYPHI, which is transmitted from rat to man by the rat flea, XENOPSYLLA CHEOPIS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.SMN Complex Proteins: A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae: A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary host is RATS.Mice, Inbred C57BLEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Coxiella: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Chromium Isotopes: Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Serum Sickness: Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Serum Response Factor: A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Mice, Inbred C3HImmunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Serum Amyloid P-Component: Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).CreatinineGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cirsium: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain pectolinarin (a flavonoid glycoside).Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
When immune cells encounter the allergenic protein, IgE antibodies are produced; this is similar to the immune system's ... A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.[1] The symptoms of the allergic reaction may range from mild to severe.[ ... Glucocorticoid steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals released during an ... Hypersensitivities are categorized according to the parts of the immune system that are attacked and the amount of time it ...
The immune system of some susceptible individuals produces antibodies that react immunologically with these antigenic proteins. ... immune) mediated reaction to proteins found in the Hevea brasiliensis tree, a type of rubber tree. ... a less severe form of reaction that does not involve the immune system. Contact dermatitis causes dry, itchy, irritated areas ...
Van Gerven, L; Boeckxstaens, G; Hellings, P (Sep 2012). "Up-date on neuro-immune mechanisms involved in allergic and non- ... is inhaled by an individual with a sensitized immune system, triggering antibody production. These antibodies mostly bind to ...
J06AA Immune sera[szerkesztés]. J06AA01 Diphtheria antitoxin. J06AA02 Tetanus antitoxin. J06AA03 Snake venom antiserum. J06AA04 ... J06AA05 Gas-gangrene sera. J06AA06 Rabies serum. J06B Immunglobulinok[szerkesztés]. J06BA Immunoglobulins, normal human[ ...
The antivenin can cause an immune reaction called serum sickness. Pain management, antibiotics, and medical supervision in the ...
Serum levels should be monitored every three months, and more frequently at the outset. Serum levels above 50 μg/l are ... Immune thrombocytopenia has been reported. Sulfasalazine inhibits dihydropteroate synthase, and can cause folate deficiency and ... Cantarini L, Tinazzi I, Biasi D, Fioravanti A, Galeazzi M (June 2007). "Sulfasalazine-induced immune thrombocytopenia". ...
... is a immune stimulant drug. It has a molecular weight of 64.9 KDa that activated dendritic cells of the human immune ... It specifically targets endosomal TLR3 with good solubility and serum stability. ...
... eosinophil and neutrophil-mediated immune serum-dependent destruction". Journal of Immunology. 127 (4): 1611-1618. ISSN 0022- ... Immune response[edit]. Adult worms are found in nodules and are hidden from most components of the human immune system. ... These antigens allow the immune system to detect the presence of a foreign organism in the body and trigger an immune response ... The immune response involves raising antibodies (IgG, IgM and IgE type) that can react with soluble antigens released by ...
Serum vancomycin levels may be monitored in an effort to reduce side effects, although the value of such monitoring has been ... Drygalski A, Curtis BR (2007). "Vancomycin-Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia". N Engl J Med. 356 (9): 904-10. doi:10.1056/ ... Target ranges for serum vancomycin concentrations have changed over the years. Early authors suggested peak levels of 30 to 40 ... Thus, peak serum levels have not been shown to correlate with efficacy or toxicity; indeed, concentration monitoring is ...
Immune sera and immunoglobulins (J06). Polyclonal antibodies. IVIG. *Anthrax immune globulin. *Rho(D) immune globulin ... Primary Immune Foundation. CSL Behring. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.. ... "Immune Globulin". Dynamed Plus. EBSCO Health. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.. ( ... "Hyqvia (immune globulin 10 percent- human with recombinant human hyaluronidase) kit". DailyMed. Retrieved 1 May 2020.. ...
"Agglutination of the pleomorphic Streptococcus isolated from epidemic poliomyelitis by immune serum". Journal of Infectious ... The first zone was the zone of infection, whereas the other three zones-surrounding the zone of infection-revealed immune cells ... Amid focal infection theory, it was concluded that that was often the case-while immune response prevented dissemination from ... perhaps via impaired immune response, a factor largely ignored until recently, but now recognized as important. Still, even by ...
p. 1. Examples of permitted fractions are: Interferon, Immune Serum Globulins and Factor VIII; preparations made from ...
... are disorders of the immune system that are characterized by the abnormal proliferation of the primary cells of the immune ... Humoral Hypergammaglobulinemia is characterized by increased levels of immunoglobulins in the blood serum. Five different ... They typically occur in patients who have compromised immune systems. This subset is sometimes incorrectly equated with " ...
Immune Infertility: Impact of Immune Reactions on Human Fertility (2nd Edition ed.). Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-40788-3. CS1 ... ASA can be detected in ejaculate, cervical mucus, follicular fluid, and blood serum. ASA can arise whenever sperm encounter the ... Immune Infertility: Impact of Immune Reactions on Human Fertility (2nd Edition ed.). Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-40788-3. CS1 ... Immune Infertility: Impact of Immune Reactions on Human Fertility (2nd Edition ed.). Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-40788-3. CS1 ...
... presence of capsule and resistance to immune serum killing". Disease of Aquatic Organisms. 53 (3): 241-47. doi:10.3354/ ... doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.1998.tb00655.x. Ndong D, Chen YY, Lin YH, Vaseeharan B, Chen JC (2007). "The immune response of tilapia ...
Later during the treatment, some patients develop serum sickness or immune complex glomerulonephritis. Serum sickness arises ... hospital as long as three weeks to give the immune system time to recover to a point where there is no longer a risk of serum ... It is thought that these effects are mediated by opioid receptors expressed on the surface of these immune cells. A TNF-α ( ... By preventing the clonal expansion of lymphocytes in the induction phase of the immune response, it affects both the cell and ...
It is known that it participates in some specific immune responses. It plays a part in tissue inflammation as well as the ... It is found in the blood serum of more complex animals. Properdin is a gamma globulin protein composed of multiple identical ... This branch of the complement system is activated by IgA immune complexes and bacterial endotoxins, polysaccharides, and cell ...
"Elevated serum B lymphocyte stimulator levels in patients with systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases". Arthritis and ... Fabris M, Grimaldi F, Villalta D, Picierno A, Fabro C, Bolzan M, De Vita S, Tonutti E (2010). "BLyS and April serum levels in ...
by humoral immune factors: antibody therapy *by whole serum: serotherapy, including antiserum therapy ... by immune system products: immunotherapy, host modulatory therapy *by immune cells: *T-cell vaccination ...
Immune challenges: Murphy TF (1996). "Branhamella catarrhalis: epidemiology, surface antigenic structure, and immune response ... I. Serotypes isolated and serum and middle ear fluid antibody in pneumococcal otitis media" (PDF). Infect Immun. 9 (6): 1028-32 ... do not weaken the immune system or compromise overall immunity because autism is not an immune-mediated disease. Some ... Common fevers and middle ear infections pose a much greater challenge to the immune system than vaccines do. Other scientific ...
The TAAs can help prevent the bacteria from being destroyed by the host's immune system. In particular in the case of certain ... Yersinia spp., the TAA YadA has a role in autoagglutination, serum resistance, complement inactivation, and phagocytosis ... physical barriers and immune system barriers. The bacterium must enter the host's body and, in the case of Yersinia sp., invade ... in people with a weakened immune system, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or fighting AIDS, it is more serious as it can ...
Burkhoff develops a serum containing Isabelle's pure promicin. This serum neutralizes the charge so the inhibitor is not able ... Eventually, it builds up to toxic levels in the lymph nodes, damaging the immune system. The result is a chemically induced ...
The mannose receptor may also play a role in antigen uptake and presentation by immature dendritic cells in the adaptive immune ... By manipulating the glycosylation of important bioactive proteins to a highly mannosylated state, their serum levels could be ... Thus, the sulphated GalNAc tag is very important in regulating serum concentrations of certain glycoprotein hormones. Humans ... Gazi U, Martinez-Pomares L (2009). "Influence of the mannose receptor in host immune responses". Immunobiology. 214 (7): 554-61 ...
Thereby immune complexes were detected and quantitated in serum hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, subacute ... A sensitivie and simple procedure for the detection and quantitation of soluble complement (C)- fixing immune complexes in sera ... Theofilopoulos, AN; Wilson, CB; Dixon, FJ (1976). "The Raji cell radioimmune assay for detecting immune complexes in human sera ... The limit of sensitivity of this test was 6 mug AHG/ml serum. The ability of Raji cells to detect AHG in serum depended on the ...
Immune Globulin Levels in Colostrum and Breast Milk, and Serum From Formula- and Breast-Fed Newborns. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, ... "Immune globulin levels in colostrum and breast milk and serum from formula and breast-fed newborns." Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 122 ... This was a major step forward in understanding the fetal immune response and developing diagnostic tools to differentiate ... Maternal transmission of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Pediat, 73:382-386, 1984. Cao Y, Krogstad P, Korber BT, Koup RA, ...
The result is a low serum antibody level and risk of infections. ... of antibodies is an integral part of the humoral immune ...
Clayton, A. J. (‎1977)‎. Lassa immune serum.. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 55 (‎4)‎, 435 - 439. World Health ...
... a serum containing naturally or artificially produced antibodies to a given antigen, obtained from human or animal sources. See ... immune serum. First recorded in 1900-05. Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random ... a serum containing naturally or artificially produced antibodies to a given antigen, obtained from human or animal sources. ...
Definition of immune serum globulin. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... immune serum globulin. Definition: a sterile solution of globulins that contains many antibodies normally present in adult ...
Definition of human pertussis immune serum. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... human pertussis immune serum. Definition: the sterile serum prepared from the pooled blood of healthy adult human beings who ...
Immune serum globulin definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ...
Serum Sickness) About one out of five Americans suffers from allergies. An allergy is an exaggerated response from the immune ... Immune complexes found circulating in serum or deposited in affected tissues. General Considerations Serum sickness reactions ... Depressed serum levels of C3, C4, or CH50 may be sought as nonspecific evidence of immune complex disease with consumption of ... heterologous serum) to antibodies. Deposition of these complexes in tissues or in vascular endothelium can produce immune ...
Delayed hepatitis after treatment with hepatitis B immune serum globulin. Br Med J 1976; 2 :19 ... Delayed hepatitis after treatment with hepatitis B immune serum globulin.. Br Med J 1976; 2 doi: ...
The serum protects skin from oxidative stress and supplied with moisture, leaving skin smoother, softer and more radiant. ... The Pro-Immune Serum strengthens the skinrsquo;s natural barrier and reduces wrinkles caused by dryness. ... The Pro-Immune Serum strengthens the skins natural barrier and reduces wrinkles caused by dryness. The serum protects skin ... Vitamin E in this serum also benefits skin by neutralizing cell-damaging free radicals and preventing premature photo-aging. ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
... ... Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a type of drugs that block certain proteins in order to release the "brakes" on certain immune ... PD-L1 is a protein that plays a role in immune suppression, and some immune checkpoint inhibitors target the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. ... The investigators studied serum samples collected before and within three months of treatment initiation from 48, 43, and 43 ...
... immune sera include Immunization of Alpacas (Lama Pacos) with Protein Antigens and Production of Antigen-specific Single ... Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by Antigen injection ...
Immune Shield Vitamin E Skin Serum penetrates deeply and helps correct sun exposure, address acne, aid in the healing of scars ... Immune Shield Vitamin E Skin Serum penetrates deeply and helps correct sun exposure, address acne, aid in the healing of scars ...
Serum neopterin, an immune activation marker, independently predicts disease progression in advanced HIV-1 infection.. Mildvan ... Soluble markers of immune activation add prognostic information to CD4 counts and viral load for risk of disease progression in ... Our objective was to assess the independent prognostic value for disease progression of soluble markers of immune system ... The robust performance of neopterin, an inexpensive and reliably measured serum marker, supports its potential suitability for ...
Humoral immune responses to testis antigens in sera from patients with prostate cancer.. Hoeppner LH1, Dubovsky JA, Dunphy EJ, ... most are not natural targets of an immune response in patients with cancer. Using sera from cancer patients, several research ... In the current study, we hypothesize that prostate CT antigens can be identified using a SEREX screening method with sera from ... These proteins, so-called cancer-testis (CT) antigens, are appealing targets for immune-based therapies because they are ...
WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization; World Health Organization (‎Genève : Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 1968)‎ ...
Human pertussis immune serum The sterile serum prepared from the pooled blood of healthy adult human beings who have received ... Retrieved from "" ...
Serum Profile of Inflammatory Factors, Immune and Angiogenic in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. The safety and scientific validity of ... Serum Profile of Inflammatory Factors, Immune and Angiogenic in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: New Targets for Diagnosis and ... an analysis by large-scale expression profiling of serum factors involved in inflammation, immunity and angiogenesis ...
Serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a fetal glycoprotein produced by the yolk sac and fetal liver1 that is routinely used as a marker ... Serum alpha-foetoprotein level predicts treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis C. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:797-803.. * Cited Here ... Baseline serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA level and response at week 4 are the best predictors of relapse after treatment with ... Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:2452-2456. ...
... on the serum concentration of cortisol and the humoral immune response in cattle as well as the correlation between serum ... and rabies antibody titers were determined using a serum neutralization test with BHK21 cells (RFFIT). Both serum cortisol ... Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, ... Effects of primovaccination and booster vaccination on serum cortisol and humoral immune response in cattle () ...
... fixing immune complexes in sera of patients with various disease states has been developed by utilizing C receptors on Raji ... The Raji cell radioimmune assay for detecting immune complexes in human sera J Clin Invest. 1976 Jan;57(1):169-82. doi: 10.1172 ... Thereby immune complexes were detected and quantitated in serum hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, subacute ... A sensitivie and simple procedure for the detection and quantitation of soluble complement (C)- fixing immune complexes in sera ...
... anti aging serums, anti aging lotions, beauty products. Honest reviews and testimonials by our Truth in Aging staff. ... Home Reviews Reader Review: Sustainable Youth Immune Performance Revitalizing Serum and Elasticity Cream ... The serum was nice, the cream…nice. By the end of two weeks I came home from a girls night out and almost dropped my ... Encouraging this immune response seems to make sense, but…. NF-Kb can get out of hand. Many kinds of tumors and different ...
Serum, Immune explanation free. What is Serum, Immune? Meaning of Serum, Immune medical term. What does Serum, Immune mean? ... Looking for online definition of Serum, Immune in the Medical Dictionary? ... immune serum. (redirected from Serum, Immune). Also found in: Encyclopedia. serum. [se´rum] (pl. serums, se´ra) (L.) the clear ... Synonym(s): immune serum. serum. pl. sera, serums [L.] the clear portion of any animal or plant fluid that remains after the ...
... immune splenic T cells. These immune protected mice... ... Sequential analysis of serum immune complexes and blocking ... Tumour Size Sarcoma Nude Mouse Immune Complex Spleen Cell Abbreviations. Blocking. inhibition by test sera of cell mediated ... The Raji cell radioimmune assay for detecting immune complexes in human sera.Journal of Clinical Investigation,57, 169-182. ... immune splenic T cells. These immune protected mice were randomly divided to provide smaller groups for serial exsanguination. ...
Drug: Anti-HIV Immune Serum Globulin (Human) Drug: Globulin, Immune Drug: Zidovudine Phase 3 ... Immune System Diseases. Zidovudine. Immune Sera. Immunoglobulins. Antibodies. Antimetabolites. Molecular Mechanisms of ... To evaluate the effect of anti-HIV immune serum globulin (HIVIG) versus immune globulin (IVIG) administered during pregnancy ... A Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study of the Use of Anti-HIV Immune Serum Globulin (HIVIG) for the Prevention ...
  • Immune complexes found circulating in serum or deposited in affected tissues. (
  • Deposition of these complexes in tissues or in vascular endothelium can produce immune complex-mediated tissue injury by activation of complement, generation of anaphylatoxins, chemoattraction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and tissue injury. (
  • Circulating antigen-nonspecific immune complexes can be detected in a variety of malignancies and in autoimmune, hypersensitivity, and infectious diseases. (
  • Immunohistochemical techniques can identify immune complexes or complement fragments deposited in tissue biopsy specimens. (
  • Circulating immune complexes may be found, but current assays are limited in sensitivity. (
  • A sensitivie and simple procedure for the detection and quantitation of soluble complement (C)- fixing immune complexes in sera of patients with various disease states has been developed by utilizing C receptors on Raji cells. (
  • AHG was used as an in vitro model of human immune complexes and its uptake by Raji cells was quantitated by 125I-radiolabeled antihuman IgG. (
  • The efficient binding of AHG by receptors for C on Raji cells was used for the detection and quantitation of immune complexes in human sera. (
  • Thereby immune complexes were detected and quantitated in serum hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and malignancies. (
  • Depression of natural killer cell activity by syphilitic serum and immune complexes. (
  • ACPA are also implicated in immune complexes (IC)-associated joint pathology, but until now, there has been no method to investigate the role of individual ACPA in RA IC formation and IC-associated pathogenesis. (
  • Polyethylene glycol-precipitated circulating immune complexes (CICs) from the sera of patients with Bancroftian filariasis were examined for parasite antigen content by an ELISA. (
  • C1q deviation test for the detection of immune complexes, aggregates of IgG, and bacterial products in human serum. (
  • This report describes a new, rapid, sensitive, and quantitative method for the detection of immune complexes, endotoxins, and other complement activating materials in patients sera utilizing the ability of these substances to react with isolated C1q. (
  • These autoantibodies can form immune complexes and immune deposits within kidneys and blood vessels and, hence, crucially contribute to the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis and vasculitis ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • Unlike the other pentraxins, SAP is constitutively present in human serum at concentrations of between 30 and 50 μg/ml. (
  • A key component in many T cell culture protocols is human serum, which is expensive and requires extensive testing prior to use for the manufacture of cGMP-compliant T cell therapies. (
  • T cells activated and expanded with Dynabeads ® CD3/CD28 CTS TM and cultured in CTS™ OpTmizer ™ T cell Expansion SFM, X-Vivo TM 15, or CTS™AIM-V ® supplemented with pooled human serum or serum free CTS™ Immune Cell SR showed similar growth kinetics, total fold expansion and transduction efficiency after 2 weeks in culture. (
  • Numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were comparable in cultures expanded with media containing human serum or CTS™ Immune Cell SR. T cells demonstrated efficacy when infused in an in vivo leukemia mouse model. (
  • T cell engraftment and leukemia control were similar between mice treated with T cells grown in media containing human serum or CTS™ Immune Cell SR. (
  • These studies demonstrate that human serum may be replaced by a xeno-free formulation in combination with several commonly used T cell culture media to support in vitro expansion and lentiviral transduction of polyclonal T cells. (
  • It was found that SAP activated complement to a limited extent in normal human serum but caused extensive C3 conversion when serum from an individual with decreased levels of Cl inhibitor was used . (
  • To determine whether a blood sample is from a human or animal source, samples are tested with anti-human serum. (
  • The slide is positioned side by side with another containing the rabbit anti-human serum, inside a box filled with a solution that conducts electric current. (
  • The term usually refers to blood serum, the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of the plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells, and remains fluid after clotting of blood. (
  • Intranasal vaccination with Hibv using a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist as an adjuvant significantly increased the levels of IgA specific for the PRP capsule antigen in blood serum, saliva, and mucosal secretion specimens. (
  • In contrast, control mice vaccinated transdermally (t.d.) with Hibv did not produce significant levels of PRP-specific IgA in the blood serum and saliva, and anti-PRP IgG was increased only in serum. (
  • I think the article is referring to the hormone level in the blood serum from specifically the endothelial cell that causes dialation of the capillar blood vessel that result in better perfusion in specific organs like the heart or the kidney. (
  • The sera contained immunosuppresive factors associated with the immunoglobulin fraction, which could depress the natural killer cell activity of healthy controls. (
  • Next, the serum immunoglobulin glycosylation profiles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathy (SpA) were studied and changes in the UGS scores during anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α therapy followed. (
  • Drug abuser patients (n = 104), age ranging from 19 to 42 years, were randomly recruited to investigate the serum levels of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mg), malondialdehyde (MDA), and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) before and after clinical intervention. (
  • Allergies occur when immunoglobulin E (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binds to food molecules. (
  • Immunoglobulin light chains that are circulating in serum in a free (unbound) state are called free light chains (FLCs). (
  • In seven separate experiments, nude (nu/nu) mice carrying established murine sarcoma virus (MSV) tumours were reconstituted with syngeneic (+/+) immune splenic T cells. (
  • These immune protected mice were randomly divided to provide smaller groups for serial exsanguination. (
  • At various time points mice were individually bled and CIC concentration and blocking activity of each individual serum was determined. (
  • Control sera were obtained from nu/nu and adult +/+ mice inoculated with tumour cells only, and from nu/nu mice protected with normal +/+ spleen cells. (
  • On the other hand, in immune protected mice considered alone or together with the control groups, CIC and time after tumour cell inoculation, but not tumour size, were significantly correlated. (
  • A significant relationship between blocking and tumour size was also established, although this only applied to immune protected mice. (
  • However, analysis of the combined data from sequentially bled immune protected mice in relation to different phases of tumour behaviour, did not support the notion that blocking, and more particularly the persistence of CIC, contribute to tumour regrowth and dissemination. (
  • Statistically significant alterations were observed in protein fractions of sera and peritoneal fluids of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice and mice immunized to this tumor when they were compared to normal mice. (
  • However, their probable direct participation in the humoral destruction of tumor cells at their growth site in the immune mice is correlated. (
  • but these immune serums, when given intraperitoneally in large amounts to susceptible mice that had been implanted subcutaneously with lymphoma cells of one or another of several types, failed entirely to inhibit growth of the lymphoma cells in vivo . (
  • Adoptive transfer of immunity to oral challenge with virulent salmonellae in innately susceptible BALB/c mice requires both immune serum and T cells. (
  • Our initial finding that the presence of high serum titers of anti-OspC Abs (5 to 10 μg/ml) correlates with spontaneous resolution of disease and infection in experimentally challenged immunocompetent mice suggested that therapeutic vaccination with OspC may be feasible. (
  • We now show that polyclonal and monospecific mouse immune sera to recombinant OspC, but not to OspA, of B. burgdorferi resolve chronic arthritis and carditis and clear disseminated spirochetes in experimentally infected C.B.-17 severe combined immunodeficient mice in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • Passive transfer of immune sera from B. burgdorferi -infected mice resolved, at least temporarily, clinical arthritis in naive immunocompetent ( 25 , 26 ) or C3H severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) (H-2 k ) mice ( 27 ), but did not cure carditis and infection. (
  • A) 50, 200 or 500 µl DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum (from AG129 mice immunized i.p. 14 and 5 days prior to serum collection) were transferred i.v. into naïve AG129 recipient mice one day prior to challenge with 5×108 GE DENV. (
  • To assess whether the protective effect of the DENV2 E85-VRP immunization was mediated by serum, 50 µl, 200 µl or 500 µl of serum from AG129 mice immunized 14 and 5 days earlier with 1×106 IU of DENV2 E85-VRP were injected i.v. into naïve AG129 recipient mice one day prior to challenge with 5×108 GE DENV. (
  • As transfer of naïve serum had no effect on the viral load, we concluded that Ab present in the serum of immunized mice had caused ADE. (
  • We analyzed the ability of CD4 + T cells and B cells from FoxP3 Tg mice to respond to a T-dependent Ag and found that immunized FoxP3 Tg mice displayed reduced total and Ag-specific serum Ig and disorganized splenic architecture. (
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. (
  • Serum neopterin, an immune activation marker, independently predicts disease progression in advanced HIV-1 infection. (
  • Soluble markers of immune activation add prognostic information to CD4 counts and viral load for risk of disease progression in advanced HIV-1 infection. (
  • NF-Kappa B, also known as NF-KB is a protein complex found in almost all animal cells and it plays a key role in regulating our immune response to infection. (
  • The object of this study was to describe and contrast the kinetics of the humoral response in serum and oral fluid specimens during acute porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. (
  • Therefore, the purpose of present study was to describe and contrast the ontogeny of PRRSV IgM, IgA, and IgG in oral fluids and serum specimens collected from individually housed boars during acute PRRSV infection. (
  • Complete resolution of disease and infection was achieved, independent of whether OspC-specific immune sera (10 μg OspC-specific Abs) were repeatedly given (4× in 3- to 4-day intervals) before the onset (day 10 postinfection) or at the time of fully established arthritis and carditis (days 19 or 60 postinfection). (
  • Passive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum or adoptive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune B cells can increase the viral RNA levels in the liver upon infection with DENV. (
  • Estimation of circulating immune complex in tuberculosis patients has shown better insight to the infection. (
  • Hellstrom, I. , and Hellstrom, K. E. , 1969, Studies on cellular immunity and its serum-mediated inhibition in Moloney virus-induced mouse sarcomas. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary konjac oligosaccharide (KOS) supplements on the serum immune parameters, intestine microbiota, and intestine immunity of Schizothorax prenanti . (
  • Our study evaluated the potential role of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a predictive biomarker of clinical benefit and response to treatment with ICIs. (
  • Serum VEGF levels were correlated with response to therapy and survival outcomes. (
  • Serum VEGF samples were collected from a total of 130 patients treated with ICI therapy (pembrolizumab 73, ipilimumab 15, and ipilimumab/nivolumab combination 42). (
  • The results of our study confirm previous observations that that high pre-treatment serum VEGF levels in advanced melanoma patients may predict poor response to ipilimumab. (
  • However, serum VEGF is not predictive of outcome in patients treated with anti-PD-1 agents alone or in combination with ipilimumab. (
  • One such marker is serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ( 9 ). (
  • 9 ) have previously demonstrated that pre-treatment serum VEGF levels were associated with poor clinical response and overall survival in advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab. (
  • To this end, we have developed a xeno-free serum replacement, CTS™ Immune Cell SR, with defined components that can be used in combination with multiple cell culture media to support in vitro expansion of functionally intact T cells. (
  • Depressed serum levels of C3, C4, or CH50 may be sought as nonspecific evidence of immune complex disease with consumption of soluble factors. (
  • PHILADELPHIA - Serum levels of ANGPT2, a protein related to angiogenesis (blood vessel formation), was found to predict response to and influence the outcomes of treatment with a class of immunotherapeutics called immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with advanced melanoma, according to a study published in Cancer Immunology Research , a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (
  • The researchers found that among patients treated with ipilimumab alone, the median overall survival (OS) in those with high versus low levels of pretreatment serum ANGPT2 was 12.2 months and 28.2 months, respectively. (
  • In order to understand how changes in serum ANGPT2 levels with treatment influenced clinical outcomes, the researchers computed the fold change of the protein levels before and during treatment and found that in patients who received ipilimumab alone, those with ANGPT2 levels below and above the fold-change cutoff of 1.25 had OS of 12.4 and 28.1 months, respectively. (
  • This retrospective marker-validation study utilized previously obtained clinical and laboratory data, including CD4+ cell counts, and made use of stored frozen serum samples to assay for levels of beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, endogenous interferon, triglycerides, interleukin-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor- alpha receptor II, and HIV-1 RNA, and to determine HIV genotypic reverse-transcriptase inhibitor resistance. (
  • Serum α-Fetoprotein Levels Predict Early Virologic Response. (
  • 8 To date, no study has evaluated the association between serum AFP levels and early virologic response (EVR) to anti-HCV treatment in the HIV-positive population. (
  • Results The majority of individual ACPA reactivities were enriched in SF as compared with in serum, and levels of ACPA in IC were regulated independently of levels in serum and SF. (
  • We investigated the clinical significance of serum galectin-3 levels in SSc. (
  • Serum galectin-3 levels were determined by a specific ELISA in 58 patients with SSc and 19 healthy controls. (
  • Serum s-CD95L levels in 51 patients with advanced ovarian cancer were tested by ELISA. (
  • The level of cytotoxicity in these patients increase to baseline levels after surgery and the serum suppressor factor disappeared in six of the seven patients in whom it was present before surgery. (
  • The results showed that P. multocida B:2 is highly resistant to positive serum, containing high levels of IgG and IgM obtained from calves after vaccination, and complement activity in normal fresh calf serum. (
  • Methods: Thirty children were enrolled in this study (sixteen with chronic ITP and fourteen with newly diagnosed ITP) to assess serum Vitamin D levels. (
  • 716910 - Selenium, Serum/Plasma is a lab test to measure levels of the mineral selenium in the body. (
  • Viral RNA levels in the liver were significantly higher in all groups that had received DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum compared to the baseline group. (
  • Serum levels of the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor in individuals exposed to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh. (
  • Levels of the EGFR ECD were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum samples from 574 individuals with a range of arsenic exposures from drinking water in the Araihazar area of Bangladesh. (
  • Specific aspects of tumor cells, immune cells, and other components of the tumor microenvironment contribute to the complexity of the biology of cancer, which make identifying tissue biomarkers that can predict response to immune checkpoint inhibitors a huge challenge, Hodi explained. (
  • One way to tackle this is by identifying serum biomarkers that can be measured and monitored with ease, he said. (
  • The development of biomarkers predictive of response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies in advanced melanoma is an area of great interest in oncology. (
  • Use of these biomarkers may be examined in combination with other immune health parameters to assess the health of wild shark populations and relate these to ecological conditions in the environments they inhabit. (
  • Precipitin is now a generic name for the resulting agglutinated complex formed when antibodies present in the serum of a species agglutinate the proteins in the blood of a different species. (
  • The neutralizing antibodies used in these experiments were produced in rabbits vaccinated by electroporation with a previously described ANDV M gene-based DNA vaccine, pWRG/AND-M. Hamsters that were administered immune serum on days −1 and +5 relative to challenge were protected against intranasal challenge (21 LD 50 ). (
  • Animals immunized 2 to 3 months earlier with the S. typhimurium SL3261 aroA live vaccine were used as donors of serum, spleen cells, and mesenteric lymph node cells for naive recipients which were challenged orally with the virulent C5 strain. (
  • We examined i.n. vaccination in a mouse immune-response model with a commonly used Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hibv) composed of the polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) capsule antigen conjugated to tetanus toxoid. (
  • This study explores the immunological basis of protection induced by a dengue vaccine and suggests that a safe and efficient vaccine against dengue should trigger both arms of the immune system. (
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a type of drugs that block certain proteins in order to release the "brakes" on certain immune cells, enabling them to attack the cancer cells. (
  • In order to understand the mechanism by which ANGPT2 influences clinical outcomes, the investigators conducted laboratory-based tests using a specific subset of macrophages (a type of immune cells) that are present in the tumor microenvironment and found that ANGPT2 increased the expression of PD-L1 on these cells. (
  • Resistance to infestation by larval Amblyomma americanum or Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was transferred to naive guinea pigs with peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) or serum from donors immunized by prior infestation with homologous tick larvae. (
  • These studies demonstrate that immune resistance to tick is dependent on sensitized lymphoid cells or serum components, and that sensitized cells or serum can transfer a cutaneous basophil response that is associated with immune resistance. (
  • Thus, immune resistance of guinea pigs to ticks is a heterogeneous response in which immune cells and serum probably act to recruit diverse effector leukocytes to mediate rejection that is specific but significantly cross-reactive. (
  • In comparative tests, furthermore, the anti-lymphoma serums acted more powerfully upon the lymphoma cells in vivo than did such chemotherapeutic agents as amethopterin, azaguanine, ethionine, azaserine, and 6-mercaptopurine, given singly or in various combinations in maximal tolerated amounts, though their effects were not so powerful as those exerted by normal guinea pig serum on lymphoma cells of two types that are susceptible to its action in vivo . (
  • Simultaneous transfer of both immune serum and immune cells was necessary for protection. (
  • We showed that human IgG supported the response by human innate immune cells to peptidoglycan (PGN) from Bacillus anthracis and PGN-induced complement activation. (
  • We examined whether this ligand is a prognostic marker for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and whether it is associated with accumulation of immune cells in the tumor. (
  • Serum s-CD95L is correlated with a number of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in HGSOC and could be used as a noninvasive marker of tumor immune infiltration to select patients referred for immunotherapy trials that evaluate checkpoint inhibitor treatment. (
  • There was an excellent correlation of LAK cytotoxicity with the clinical stage of disease when the cells were incubated with medium containing IL-2 plus 10% fetal calf serum (p = 0.003). (
  • 1998). Although human being and mouse Sera cells talk about these fundamental properties, they are unique in cell surface area guns, morphology, and development aspect requirements. (
  • Blebbistatin also helped cell connection (Number T1N) and improved human being Sera cell success on cells tradition discs not really treated with matrigel. (
  • Blebbistatin also helped success of revoked human being Sera cells analyzed at 24 hours (Numbers T1G and H1L). (
  • Mixed, our outcomes recommend that inhibition of myosin function by blebbistatin decreases the necessity for cell-cell and cell-matrix connected signaling in the success of human being Sera cells. (
  • Culturing T cells in CTS™ Immune Cell SR facilitates a favorable culture profile and immune function. (
  • It occurs when a medication you are taking causes your body's immune (defense) system to mistakenly attack its own red blood cells. (
  • Some drugs can cause your immune system to mistake your red blood cells for foreign invaders and make antibodies to attack them. (
  • This can cause your immune system to break down red blood cells, and consequently lead to anemia. (
  • You may need to take a medication (such as prednisone) that will stop your immune system from attacking its red blood cells. (
  • Upon activation, PRRs such as Toll-like receptors (TLR) initiate rapid secretion of cytokines and chemokines to recruit immune cells to the site of microbial transgression. (
  • The immune system includes certain types of white blood cells. (
  • Some of these directly attack foreign substances in the body, and others work together to help the immune system cells. (
  • Antibodies attach to a specific antigen and make it easier for the immune cells to destroy the antigen. (
  • Once B cells and T cells are formed, a few of those cells will multiply and provide "memory" for your immune system. (
  • Small doses of an antigen, such as dead or weakened live viruses, are given to activate immune system "memory" (activated B cells and sensitized T cells). (
  • When red and white blood cells are removed from blood, the resulting clear golden yellowish liquid is serum. (
  • The robust performance of neopterin, an inexpensive and reliably measured serum marker, supports its potential suitability for patient monitoring, particularly in resource-limited settings. (
  • Serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a fetal glycoprotein produced by the yolk sac and fetal liver 1 that is routinely used as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma in subjects with chronic liver diseases. (
  • Using sera from cancer patients, several research groups have identified a large family of immunologically recognized proteins whose expression is normally confined to immune-privileged testis tissue but which may be expressed in cancers of different histological origins. (
  • Hardcastle SL, Brenu EW, Johnston S, Nguyen T, Huth T, Ramos S, Staines D, Marshall-Gradisnik S. Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients. (
  • Serum free CTS™ Immune Cell SR contains only fully tested human-derived or human recombinant proteins which facilitates supply security for large-scale production of clinical and commercial therapies. (
  • After a few days, he extracted the rabbit's serum and mixed it with egg white, causing the separation of egg proteins from the solution to form a whitish clotting substance, precipitin. (
  • The immune system of some susceptible individuals produces antibodies that react immunologically with these antigenic proteins. (
  • Type I natural rubber latex allergy is an IgE (immune) mediated reaction to proteins found in the Hevea brasiliensis tree, a type of rubber tree. (
  • Our objective was to assess the independent prognostic value for disease progression of soluble markers of immune system activation. (
  • However, other serum constituents have been shown to interact with peptidoglycan, including the IgG-like soluble pattern recognition receptor serum amyloid P (SAP). (
  • The silicosis patients had a significantly higher concentration of serum IgG relative to the comparisons, 270 International Units per ml (IU/ml) versus 150IU/ml. (
  • In this study, we found ANGPT2 to be a predictive and prognostic biomarker of response to the inhibitors of immune checkpoints CTLA-4 and PD-1," said F. Stephen Hodi, MD , director of the Melanoma Center at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute , professor of medicine and investigator at the Ludwig Center at Harvard Medical School in Boston. (
  • Blood based markers are relatively non-invasive with an advantage of longitudinal sample collection allowing us to potentially track an evolving anti-tumour immune response. (
  • In sepsis, the large amount of PAMPs in the blood triggers an amplified and dysregulated response by the host's innate immune system. (
  • In the absence of effective medical intervention, the consequences of such a massive response are a cytokine storm, disseminated intravascular coagulation, complement activation, immune suppression, organ failure, and eventually death. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that swimming in a chlorinated pool induces perturbations of the immune response through acute alterations of patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion. (
  • Cell-mediated immune response was not related to PPI (P=0.9), cow BW (P=0.9) or BCS (P=0.6), calf birth weight (P=0.6), 28 d of age weight (P=0.4), or IgM colostrum concentration (P=0.3). (
  • This study aimed to determine if the cytokine/chemokine-mediated host response can distinguish infectious from immune-mediated cases, and whether this may give a clue to aetiology in those of unknown cause. (
  • The immune response is how your body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful. (
  • These barriers form the first line of defense in the immune response. (
  • They also release chemicals, known as cytokines, which control the entire immune response. (
  • Immune system disorders occur when the immune response is directed against body tissue, is excessive, or is lacking. (
  • Allergies involve an immune response to a substance that most people's bodies perceive as harmless. (
  • Vaccination ( immunization ) is a way to trigger the immune response. (
  • A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food . (
  • A food intolerance and food poisoning are separate conditions, not due to an immune response. (
  • MYH9 is definitely the Main Human being Sera Cell Focus on for Blebbistatin in Success and Cloning Blebbistatin is definitely a myosin II weighty string inhibitor whose presenting Rabbit Polyclonal to KLF11 needs four conserved amino acids in the myosin cleft (Allingham et al. (
  • Although the pathogenesis of SSc remains unknown, an increasing number of growth factors, cytokines, and other molecules have been shown to be involved in the complex network of signaling pathways driving aberrant immune activation, dysregulated angiogenesis, and deposition of extracellular matrix throughout the course of this complex disorder. (
  • Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, serum albumin, and C reactive protein (CRP) have been evaluated for their prognostic significance ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • Membranous nephropathy was induced in four cats by repeated intravenous injections of 120 mg cationic bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI 9.5). (
  • Differences between serum and plasma may be negligible for protein electrophoresis, and therefore, plasma may be preferred in field settings. (
  • Comparing the ratio of κ FLCs to λ FLCs in a person's serum against reference ranges indicates whether that person may have a plasma cell tumour such as multiple myeloma or AL amyloidosis. (
  • 13 These polysaccharidic components are widely used for bacterial classification, responsible for non-immunological and immunological interactions of bacteria with hosts and also involved in the avoidance of host innate immune mechanisms-such as resistance to phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing, and the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial peptides. (
  • Relationship between serum lipid peroxides and some immunological parameters in silicosis. (
  • The non-specific sites in the wells were blocked with blocking solution for 1 h at 37 °C. After four washes with PBST, the plates were incubated for one hour at 37 °C with the precipitated circulating immune complex in 1/100 dilution. (
  • Reciprocal of highest serum dilution producing >95% plaque inhibition. (
  • Detection of the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ECD) in serum has been suggested as a potential biomarker for monitoring this effect in vivo. (
  • For minutely small drug molecules against which the immune system is not very sensitive, special immune reagents were developed for the detection of drug abuse. (
  • Thus induction of LAK cytotoxicity requires IL-2, decreases with advancing stages of disease, and is inhibited by a serum suppressor factor related to tumor growth. (
  • Compromises to innate immune cell functioning can interfere with, or reflect, adaptive processes and translate into shifts in cytokine patterns that are either pro- or anti-inflammatory [ 11 ]. (
  • Balch, CM , Itoh, K & Tilden, AB 1985, ' Cellular immune defects in patients with melanoma involving interleukin-2-activated lymphocyte cytotoxicity and a serum suppressor factor ', Surgery , vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 151-157. (
  • Fish on the high-KOS diet had significant increases in serum alternative hemolytic complement activity, complement 3 content, and nitric oxide content and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content. (