Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.

Evidence suggesting the regulation of a coagulation factor levels in rabbits by a transferable plasma agent. (1/7228)

New Zealand white rabbits were given 30 ml of goat serum intravenously. This procedure resulted in an immediate decrease in platelet count, fibrinogen, and levels of coagulation factors II, V, VII, and X, due to consumption coagulopathy. These factors returned toward baseline levels approximately 12 hr after the injection. Plasma from rabbits who had received goat serum 48 hr previously (donor rabbits) was injected into recipient rabbits. This procedure resulted in a slight rise in the level of coagulation factor II (range, 20%-30%) and a significant rise in factors V (35%-75%), VII (35%-235%), and X (35%-75%) in the recipients. When plasma from control donor rabbits who had not received goat serum was injected into recipients, there was no change in these coagulation factors. It is postulated that the reduction in coagulation factor levels in donor rabbits induces a "coagulopoietin" for each factor or one "coagulopoietin" for all factors which stimulates increased synthesis and/or release of these factors in recipient rabbits.  (+info)

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (2/7228)

In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.  (+info)

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (3/7228)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (4/7228)

Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence of the 27-kilobase virulence related locus (vrl) of Dichelobacter nodosus: evidence for extrachromosomal origin. (5/7228)

The vrl locus is preferentially associated with virulent isolates of the ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus. The complete nucleotide sequence of this 27.1-kb region has now been determined. The data reveal that the locus has a G+C content much higher than the rest of the D. nodosus chromosome and contains 22 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding products including a putative adenine-specific methylase, two potential DEAH ATP-dependent helicases, and two products with sequence similarity to a bacteriophage resistance system. These ORFs are all in the same orientation, and most are either overlapping or separated by only a few nucleotides, suggesting that they comprise an operon and are translationally coupled. Expression vector studies have led to the identification of proteins that correspond to many of these ORFs. These data, in combination with evidence of insertion of vrl into the 3' end of an ssrA gene, are consistent with the hypothesis that the vrl locus was derived from the insertion of a bacteriophage or plasmid into the D. nodosus genome.  (+info)

Chemical and immunochemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity compared. (6/7228)

Radiometric, colorimetric, and two immunochemical methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity are compared. We evaluated the procedures on the basis of precision, applicability to a pediatric population, and accuracy as assessed by analytical recovery of purified transferrin. The immunoephelometric assay for transferrin provides significant advantages over the other methods examined.  (+info)

Ma1, a novel neuron- and testis-specific protein, is recognized by the serum of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders. (7/7228)

The identification of antineuronal antibodies has facilitated the diagnosis of paraneoplastic neurological disorders and the early detection of the associated tumours. It has also led to the cloning of possibly important neuron-specific proteins. In this study we wanted to identify novel antineuronal antibodies in the sera of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders and to clone the corresponding antigens. Serological studies of 1705 sera from patients with suspected paraneoplastic neurological disorders resulted in the identification of four patients with antibodies that reacted with 37 and 40 kDa neuronal proteins (anti-Ma antibodies). Three patients had brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction, and one had dysphagia and motor weakness. Autopsy of two patients showed loss of Purkinje cells, Bergmann gliosis and deep cerebellar white matter inflammatory infiltrates. Extensive neuronal degeneration, gliosis and infiltrates mainly composed of CD8+ T cells were also found in the brainstem of one patient. In normal human and rat tissues, the anti-Ma antibodies reacted exclusively with neurons and with testicular germ cells; the reaction was mainly with subnuclear elements (including the nucleoli) and to a lesser degree the cytoplasm. Anti-Ma antibodies also reacted with the cancers (breast, colon and parotid) available from three anti-Ma patients, but not with 66 other tumours of varying histological types. Preincubation of tissues with any of the anti-Ma sera abrogated the reactivity of the other anti-Ma immunoglobulins. Probing of a human complementary DNA library with anti-Ma serum resulted in the cloning of a gene that encodes a novel 37 kDa protein (Mal). Recombinant Mal was specifically recognized by the four anti-Ma sera but not by 337 control sera, including those from 52 normal individuals, 179 cancer patients without paraneoplastic neurological symptoms, 96 patients with paraneoplastic syndromes and 10 patients with non-cancer-related neurological disorders. The expression of Mal mRNA is highly restricted to the brain and testis. Subsequent analysis suggested that Mal is likely to be a phosphoprotein. Our study demonstrates that some patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders develop antibodies against Mal, a new member of an expanding family of 'brain/testis' proteins.  (+info)

Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary cultures by a slide agglutination test. (8/7228)

Hen antigonococcal lipopolysaccharide hen serum was used in a simple slide agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary isolates.  (+info)

0004]The present invention comprises the method of treating host organisms (i.e. human or animal) in need of a drug having anti-neoplastic activity comprising the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of venom anti-serum either alone or preferably in combination with a Phospholipase C inhibitor of non-toxic nature or monoclonal or polyclonal anti-serum to Phospholipase C enzyme or a vaccine containing in whole or in part venom and/or other components of animal, insect or plant origin showing Phospholipase A2 and/or Phospholipase C activity. This patent presents pharmaceutical formulations containing snake and/or insect venoms, or extracts from such venoms which may contain, total or partial, Phospholipase A2 enzyme activity alone or in combination with animal or plant Phospholipase A2 with or without Phospholipase C inhibiting compounds or Phospholipase C mono or polyclonal anti-serum to Phospholipase C enzyme as therapeutic vaccine candidate for all neoplastic diseases. This ...
Therefore, there may be a complex set of immune responses that are retained in people infected with seasonal H1N1 that can contribute to the reduced rates of H1N1 influenza infection in older populations.
If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, - posted in Immunology: If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, what could be problem? Thanks.
In a previous paper (1) we described rather paradoxical serologic interrelationships between four variant strains of an alkaligenes bacillus that had been derived experimentally from a common ancestor. Three of these strains, namely, K-97, K-84 and K-160, morphologically diverse, were serologically reciprocal and a fourth, K-134 showed a typical group and specific agglutinin interrelationship with strains K-97 and K-84. This is the equivalent of saying that the anti-serum of K-134 apparently did not contain agglutinins for K-97 and K-84 although their antisera contained group agglutinins for K-134.. Inasmuch as such relationships are quite well known they would not have been questioned had not the strain K-160 agglutinated in the supposedly specific K-134 antiserum, but since K-160 was serologically identical with K-97 and K-84 we sought the reason why these latter two strains did not also agglutinate in the specific anti-serum of K-134.. ...
Ongoing studies to develop immunologic or other diagnostic markers as cancer screening tests are described. A test for leukemias and lymphomas involved preparation of heterologous antisera, primarily in rabbits, that reacted against antigens associated with different types of human leukemias. Attempts to improve specificity and develop large amounts of reagents have involved the production of mono
These eight divisions may now be discussed. In the first, I have placed the production of antisera for research, diagnostic, or unspecified purposes. (Much larger numbers of animals yielding directly therapeutic antisera are probably included under the categories of the seventh division, q.v. below.) I have divided it into animals used for antipathogenic or antitoxic sera on one hand, and on the other those injected with materials (e.g. erythrocytes) which can produce no ill-effects in themselves. I have added a third sub-category of unspecified2 antisera: it may include either of the previous categories, which must, therefore, be regarded as minimum returns.. A second small division consists of animals used as sources for whole blood, plasma, blood cells, and so forth. This again may be for many different purposes. It is separated on account of the relatively trivial discomfort it involves, when properly executed--no more, we may presume, than that which we ourselves suffer as blood donors. ...
Antisera definition, definition of antisera, Anagrams of antisera, words that start with Antisera, and words that can be created from antisera
Alles für Ihr Süßwasseraquarium: ✔Zierfischfutter ✔Aquarienzubehör ✔Pflegetipps. ▶ Jetzt die große sera Themenwelt Süßwasseraquarium entdecken!
Alles für Ihr Süßwasseraquarium: ✔Zierfischfutter ✔Aquarienzubehör ✔Pflegetipps. ▶ Jetzt die große sera Themenwelt Süßwasseraquarium entdecken!
Ma il vostro ProGlober blogger preferito non vuole partire per Lucca prima di avervi lasciato ancora qualche piccola anteprima... questa sera riprendiamo la nostra carrellata con lultima fatica di Salvatore Amedei e Alessandro Ferri: ...
Tuesday-Carol, Dad come to tell me that Mom was in the OR. She had it plan. So we went out to eat. Then Carol, Dad went back to the hospital. Mom went home at 3:35PM. ...
Specific anti-T antibody was isolated from rabbit anti-mouse and anti-rat thymocyte antiserum on immunosorbent prepared by fixation of brain homogenate in glutaraldehyde. Conditions of isolation, purity of obtained antibody and cytotoxic activity were followed. The resulting preparation containing immunoglobulin G is contaminated with beta globulin and albumin, contains non-precipitating proteins originating from brain tissue and is cytotoxic for thymocytes. Cytotoxicity for bone marrow cells was not demonstrated. ...
Normal Rabbit Serum, 5 ml. Serum is the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells and remains fluid after clotting.
Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedicals products are for laboratory research use only, not for human or clinical use. For more information, please contact our customer service department ...
Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedicals products are for laboratory research use only, not for human or clinical use. For more information, please contact our customer service department ...
Writes on Wet Surfaces or Under Water This incredible pen will write clearly on wet surfaces, such as marking slots on wet Southern, Northern and Western blots. Use it for marking alignment dots on blotting filters placed containing bacterial colonies or phage plaques. Mark lanes on wet blots prior to cutting the filter into strips to be incubated separately with different antisera or probes. It can be used to correct or write on wet labels that were kept in a water bath, in liquid nitrogen or in a freezer at 0º. The Wet Surface Pen is extremely useful for marking filters during processing under water-based buffers. The pen can, of course, also be used to write on dry paper as a standard ball-point pen.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Neuromi \ P2X2, antiserum, guinea pig, 150 ul. \ GP14106-150 for more molecular products just contact us
Biowest is one of the leaders in the collection of animal sera, offering the widest range of sera and media for cell culture available on the market.
Biowest is one of the leaders in the collection of animal sera, offering the widest range of sera and media for cell culture available on the market.
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Looking for online definition of specific antiserum in the Medical Dictionary? specific antiserum explanation free. What is specific antiserum? Meaning of specific antiserum medical term. What does specific antiserum mean?
Immune serum globulin - Also known as: Ig; Antibody; Immune serum globulin; Immune globulin; Gamma globulin1) Special proteins produced by the body in response to f...
Sell, Stewart, Ruth A. Mascari, and Stephanie J. Hughes. Studies on Rabbit Lymphocytes in Vitro. The Journal of Immunology 105.6 (1970): 1400-1405. Web. 21 Feb. 2018. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro and in vivo properties of antimacrophage sera.. AU - Hirsch, M. S.. AU - Gary, G. W.. AU - Murphy, F. A.. PY - 1969/3. Y1 - 1969/3. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 5773315. AN - SCOPUS:0014477484. VL - 102. SP - 656. EP - 661. JO - Journal of Immunology. JF - Journal of Immunology. SN - 0022-1767. IS - 3. ER - ...
Looking for polyclonal antiserum? Find out information about polyclonal antiserum. Pertaining to cells or molecules that arise from more than one clone Explanation of polyclonal antiserum
In an assay for a target nucleotide sequence employing hybridization with a target probe nucleotide sequence, cross reaction between the target probe and a non-target nucleotide sequence, capable of hybridizing with the target probe, is prevented or diminished by introducing, at some point during the hybridization, a non-target probe which hybridizes preferentially with the non-target nucleotide sequence. The melting temperature for the non-target probe/non-target nucleotide sequence hybrid is preferably greater than that of the target probe/non-target sequence hybrid. The hybridization can be carried out under isothermal conditions or preferentially with gradual cooling.
3041.2.4 Ski Cross Reaction Time For the ski cross qualification and final, a reaction time will be measured and displayed at the start. The time will be measured from when the start gate is opened until a point 10 meters from the Start Gate. The reaction time will be measured and displayed to the 1/100ths of a second. This is required for World Cups, World Championships and Olympic Winter Games. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Serum Response Factor SRF Antibody (2G2) [DyLight 680]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Vredevoe, D L. and Hays, E F., Effect of antilymphocytic and antithymocytic sera on the development of mouse lymphoma. (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 1606 ...
Effect Diluent™ for dilution of bio samples, to avoid Hook Effects, reduce matrix effects and ensure that the signal response is within the standard curve.
Kinetics of Indonesia VLP elicited antisera binding to H5N1 rHA antigens.Kinetics of antisera binding to homologous, Indonesia clade 2 rHA (black square) and he
Product Name: Antiserum to-Dia1Formula: MW: Appearance: MedchemexpressPurity: Specification: Synonyms: Polyclonal Antibody to Dia1CAS NO:646502-53-6 VcMMAE
indirect radioimmunoassay中文間接放射免疫測定…,點擊查查權威綫上辭典詳細解釋indirect radioimmunoassay的中文翻譯,indirect radioimmunoassay的發音,音標,用法和例句等。
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천연마루와 강화마루의 장점을 접목시킨 신개념 마루 (특징 : 다양한 패턴의 HPM사용으로 찍힘과 눌림, 스크레치에 강함). ...
PURPOSE: To examine by indirect immunofluorescence the distribution of an endogenous 16-kd S-lac lectin (soluble lactose binding lectin) during development of the chicken retina. METHODS: Cryosections of retinal tissue at different developmental stages and cultured retinal cells (either not permeabilized or permeabilized with acetone) were incubated with a rabbit antiserum that specifically reacts with the retinal 16-kd S-lac lectin. After incubation with a fluorescent-labeled secondary antibody, tissue sections and cultured cells were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Retina was weakly stained with the antiserum on early embryonic day 7, whereas on embryonic days 13 and 18 it showed a restricted granular staining in the outer retina. At embryonic day 18, in addition, there was widespread staining in all retinal layers. This pattern was maintained by postnatal day 5 and in the adult retina, although the intensity of the staining of the outer retina was weaker. In retinal cell ...
Product Name: Amyloid beta-Protein (Human, 34-40) Antiserum (50 ul vial) Product Number: NAB-14356-v Synonym(s): Amyloid beta-Protein (1-40) Specific Antiserum (Rabbit) Antiserum Application: Our undiluted antisera are suitable for immuno-histochemical use, for application to radioimmunoassay (RIA), or other non-isotop
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Parola on low serum globulin levels: Must get on a higher dose of synthroid (thyroxine). This can be life threatening, get treated asap, ! other thyroid tests need to be done to know what needs to be done, and to come to a diagnosis.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Immune serum globulin mass prophylaxis of hepatitis due to virus A in epidemic surroundings. by C H Laverdant et al.
At 07:23 7/09/98 -0700, you wrote: ,Question ,Our group is working about G-protein coupled prostaglandin rceptors ,and our aim is to detect receptor proteins by western-blotting using ,polyclonal rabbit antisera against the receptors. Unfortunatly, if we ,reduce our protein samples to denaturate the receptors we see a very ,prominant band with a molecular weight around 67 kd after treatment of ,our blots with rabbit antisera wich is not vissible if we do not reduce ,our samples. ,I would like to ask if someone have also observed this phenomenon and ,have overcome this problem? ,Thank you very much. , ,Dr. Frank Neuschaefer-Rube ,Dept. of Biochemistry ,Georg-August-University, Goettingen, Germany ,Email: fneusch at ,Tel: xx49 551 39 5950 / 5978 Fax: /5960 ,------------------------------------------ , ,Possible solution: , ,We sometimes have detected the same problem with reduced ,protein samples, although we work on bacteria. It has to do something ,with the quality of the mercaptoethanol ...
Antigen-Antibody Pen Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET
Anti-Glutamate Decarboxylase 1/2 Antibody , Rabbit Anti-Rat Polyclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P, IHC-F, IF, E (ABD11280), Abgent
Thank you for your feedback regarding our Whats Your Type? program. We appreciate your taking the time to share your opinion with us.. We do make reference to selected aspects of ketsueki-gata within the Whats Your Type program and our intention is for this to be a light-hearted way to involve potential new donors in the typing process.. However, we view it as only a minor part of the process. Once the initial contact with a potential new donor is made, we use the Whats Your Type program to discuss the science of blood typing. This includes explaining in detail the ABO categories of blood types as well as the use of anti-serum during the typing process. Once the participants blood type has been determine, we explain the importance of knowing ones type, as well as the number of people within the Canadian population that have that same type. The conversation then moves to the idea of donating blood and the reasons why it is an important thing to do. While the typing is done in a mobile ...
It is shown in this paper that homologous immune sera are able to neutralize the B. typhosus skin-preparatory factors. The neutralization experiments were performed on a large number of rabbits, at least ten rabbits which showed positive control reactions being used for the titration of each serum. The rabbits into which the mixtures of B. typhosus culture filtrates with immune sera were injected can be divided into the following categories: those showing complete neutralization in highest dilutions (HN), those showing complete neutralization only in lower dilutions (LN) and those showing no neutralization (NN). The results indicate that the potency of a given serum as measured by the method outlined above has a direct relation to the reactions obtained in these groups of rabbits. For practical purposes the highest dilution of the serum which gives complete neutralization of the B. typhosus skin-preparatory factors (HN titer) may be taken as the actual titer of the serum as expressed in terms of ...
Determination of protein spots detected by BEI sera on iRBC membrane protein extracts by 2-D immunoblotting. A 2-D immunoblot using a fluorescence-based method
References for Abcams Goat Anti-Rabbit IgA alpha chain (DyLight® 488) (ab96975). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
There are no specific protocols for Goat Anti-Rabbit IgA alpha chain (HRP) (ab97190). Please download our general protocols booklet
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about HLA-ABC Mouse anti-Bovine, Human, Non-human primate, Rodent, Clone: W6/32, 500 µg; Unconjugated.
The subject invention provides a means for the immunological detection of an entire class of microorganisms in clinical samples. The detection is accomplished by reaction of the clinical sample iwth a class-specific immunological reagent. This reagent is an antiserum either monoclonal or polyclonal in nature, and the detection is based upon reaction of the antiserum with an antigenic determinant which is shared among all members of the detectable class of microorganisms. The presence of the resulting immunological reaction product (e.g. the antigen-antibody complex) may be detected by well-known immunological detection-systems.
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General The IgG fraction is prepared by chromatographic separation of the IgGs of standard antisera. This procedure removes most of the non-specific proteins
ABO subgroups represent phenotypes that demonstrate weaker or variable reactions when tested with polyclonal antisera, such as anti-A and anti-B. For example, the antisera generally used for A forward typing is polyclonal, containing both anti-A and anti-A1. Therefore, it can detect various subgroups of A, with the most commonly encounter group being A1 ...
Support successful cell growth with Corning sera products such as BVA, hormones, growth factors, enzymes, lipids, trace elements, minerals, and nutrients.
Support successful cell growth with Corning sera products such as BVA, hormones, growth factors, enzymes, lipids, trace elements, minerals, and nutrients.
We easily explain batch to batch variations in the results of these tests by the fact that these reagents are not chemically defined substances. This is the reason why selecting procedures must be undergone upon each batch changing. We have frozen occasionally used antisera, in order to prevent repeated polluting risks, and never repeated unfreezing/re-freezing to avoid a significant loss of activity. While choosing an anti-total protein antiserum for IEP, we have preferred equine producers, because of their precipitation curve shape (10). As a matter of fact, the equivalence zone being broader, it is easier to find it out, which is a real advantage as one tries to get optimal arcs for many proteins. Moreover, the non-reactivity zone observed for low concentrations of antigen raises the detection limit of the reaction, which is not a disadvantage here, considering the screening use and the clinical relevance of this test. We usually mix different anti-total protein antisera from various brands, ...
The Sera Lilly app has been amazing. My doctor has been pushing for me to have weightloss surgery and if I can prove that I can get down to a healthy weight naturally I wont need it. Ive lost 5kgs so in only 4 weeks so far using the Sera Lilly app.. ...
Evidence for a Nonspecific Factor Interfering in the Radioimmunoassay of Somatoliberin-Like Immunoreactivity in Human Seminal ...
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) ist eine Methode, die die Menge eines Antigens in einer Probe mit hoher Empfindlichkeit messen kann. Prinzipiell kann jede biologisc...
This headline-only article is meant to show you why a stock is moving, the most difficult aspect of stock trading. Every day we publish hundreds of ...
اطلاعات مندرج در این پایگاه فقط جهت مطالعه کاربران با رعایت شرایط اعلام شده است. نسخه‌برداری و بازنشر اطلاعات به هر روش، در هر نوع رسانه و با هر هدفی ممنوع و پیگرد قانونی دارد. ...
J06AA Immune sera[szerkesztés]. J06AA01 Diphtheria antitoxin. J06AA02 Tetanus antitoxin. J06AA03 Snake venom antiserum. J06AA04 ... J06AA05 Gas-gangrene sera. J06AA06 Rabies serum. J06B Immunglobulinok[szerkesztés]. J06BA Immunoglobulins, normal human[ ...
Immune sera and immunoglobulins (J06). Polyclonal antibodies. IVIG. *Anthrax immune globulin. *Rho(D) immune globulin ... Serum therapy, also known as serotherapy, describes the treatment of infectious disease using the serum of animals that have ... Horses proved to be the best serum producer, as the serum of other large animals is not concentrated enough, and horses were ... Above the rouleaux formation which contained the red blood cells, the serum was visible. The color of the serum varied from ...
Immune sera and immunoglobulins (J06). Polyclonal antibodies. IVIG. *Anthrax immune globulin. *Rho(D) immune globulin ... Primary Immune Foundation. CSL Behring. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.. ... "Immune Globulin". Dynamed Plus. EBSCO Health. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.. ( ... "Hyqvia (immune globulin 10 percent- human with recombinant human hyaluronidase) kit". DailyMed. Retrieved 1 May 2020.. ...
... eosinophil and neutrophil-mediated immune serum-dependent destruction". Journal of Immunology. 127 (4): 1611-1618. ISSN 0022- ... Immune response[edit]. Adult worms are found in nodules and are hidden from most components of the human immune system. ... These antigens allow the immune system to detect the presence of a foreign organism in the body and trigger an immune response ... The immune response involves raising antibodies (IgG, IgM and IgE type) that can react with soluble antigens released by ...
The product is manufactured from the serum of hyper-immune horses . The company has a strategic agreement with Kedrion ... in the framework of which it established a GMP standard for the production of serum against snake venom. ...
Immune serum can be an effective specific treatment. Prophylaxis of sweating sickness is based upon the elimination of the ...
"Isothiocyanate Compounds as Fluorescent Labeling Agents for Immune Serum". The American Journal of Pathology. 34 (6): 1081-1097 ... Downs conducted groundbreaking microbiology research surrounding the animal immune responses to tularemia, commonly known as ...
Riggs JL, Seiwald RJ, Burckhalter JH (1958). "Isothiocyanate Compounds as Fluorescent Labeling Agents for Immune Serum". The ...
Later during the treatment, some patients develop serum sickness or immune complex glomerulonephritis. Serum sickness arises ... hospital as long as three weeks to give the immune system time to recover to a point where there is no longer a risk of serum ... S Roy; HH Loh (1996). "Effects of opioids on the immune system". Neurochem Res. 21 (11): 1375-1386. doi:10.1007/BF02532379. ... By preventing the clonal expansion of lymphocytes in the induction phase of the immune response, it affects both the cell and ...
Immune sera and immunoglobulins for human use are in the ATC group J06. Vaccines for human use are in the ATC group J07. "The ...
"An Agglutinable Factor in Human Blood Recognized by Immune Sera for Rhesus Blood". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 43: 223. ... In an RhD negative mother, Rho(D) immune globulin can prevent temporary sensitization of the maternal immune system to RhD ... immune globulin. With successful mitigation of this disease by prevention through the use of anti-Rho(D) immune globulin, other ... The use of Rh immune globulin to prevent the disease in babies of Rh negative mothers has become standard practice, and the ...
Landsteiner, K.; Weiner, A. (1940). "An Agglutinable Factor in Human Blood Recognized by Immune Sera for Rhesus Blood". Exp ... "An agglutinable factor in human blood recognized by immune sera for rhesus blood". Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 43: 223-4. doi: ... The serum that led to the discovery was produced by immunizing rabbits with red blood cells from a rhesus macaque. The antigen ... In May 1941, the third anti-Rh serum (M.S.) of Group O became available. Based on the serologic similarities, Rh factor was ...
The antivenom can cause an immune reaction called serum sickness. Pain management, tetanus immunization, laboratory evaluation ...
"Serum-circulating His-tRNA synthetase inhibits organ-targeted immune responses". Cellular & Molecular Immunology: 1-13. doi: ...
with Karl Landsteiner: An agglutinable factor in human blood recognized by immune sera for rhesus blood. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med ...
Immune sera, immunoglobulins and vaccines for veterinary use are in the ATCvet group QI. "ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical ...
"Agglutination of the pleomorphic Streptococcus isolated from epidemic poliomyelitis by immune serum". Journal of Infectious ... The first zone was the zone of infection, whereas the other three zones-surrounding the zone of infection-revealed immune cells ... Amid focal infection theory, it was concluded that that was often the case-while immune response prevented dissemination from ... perhaps via impaired immune response, a factor largely ignored until recently, but now recognized as important. Still, even by ...
After delivering the Immune children and the serum to Brenda, Gally returns to WCKD headquarters to find Thomas. Brenda is ... Gally looks after the Immune children and stays to find a serum that slows the Flare. Thomas, Teresa, and Newt go to find Minho ... Brenda and the Immune children escape WCKD with Frypan's help. Meanwhile, Lawrence rallies his rebels outside the city before ... The group reunites with the rest of the Immunes and the Right Arm and escapes to a safe haven, where the remaining population ...
October 2014). "Dengue viruses are enhanced by distinct populations of serotype cross-reactive antibodies in human immune sera ... Complements in the presence of HIV-1 positive sera have been found to enhance the infection of MT-2 T-cell line. The Fc- ... It has been emphasized that much research needs to be done in the field of the immune response to HIV-1, information from these ... The virus "deceives" the process of phagocytosis of immune cells and uses the host's antibodies as a Trojan horse. ADE may ...
... presence of capsule and resistance to immune serum killing". Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 53 (3): 241-47. doi:10.3354/ ... doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.1998.tb00655.x. Ndong D, Chen YY, Lin YH, Vaseeharan B, Chen JC (2007). "The immune response of tilapia ...
Later during the treatment, some patients develop serum sickness or immune complex glomerulonephritis. Serum sickness arises ... hospital as long as three weeks to give the immune system time to recover to a point where there is no longer a risk of serum ... It is thought that these effects are mediated by opioid receptors expressed on the surface of these immune cells. A TNF-α ( ... By preventing the clonal expansion of lymphocytes in the induction phase of the immune response, it affects both the cell and ...
"Specific Complement-Fixation with Shope's Fibroma Virus and its Relationship to Virus-Neutralizing Properties of Immune Sera". ...
Response elements to fatty acids, acute phase, serum and to the immune factor NFkB were also observed. The presence of such a ... Ayrault Jarrier M, Levy G, Polonovski J (August 1963). "[Study of Human Serum Alpha-Lipoproteins by Immunoelectrophoresis]". ...
"Identification of karyopherin β as an immunogenic antigen of the malaria parasite using immune mice and human sera". Parasite ...
I. Demonstration and isolation of a new serum protein, properdin, and its role in immune phenomena". Science. 120 (3112): 279- ...
p. 1. Examples of permitted fractions are: Interferon, Immune Serum Globulins Archived January 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ...
Desensitization therapy, involving the repetitive administration of allergy injection serum, may help desensitize the immune ... The primary cause is due to the flea's saliva that is injected into the feeding site, triggering an immune response in the dog ... Atopy is a genetic disorder that predisposes the immune system of a dog to react to tree pollens, grass pollens, weed pollens, ... A dog that is repeatedly exposed to a particular allergen becomes sensitized to it, and the immune system overreacts to a ...
They are involved in various biological activities, ranging from cell-cell adhesion, serum glycoprotein turnover, to immune ...
Immune Globulin Levels in Colostrum and Breast Milk, and Serum From Formula- and Breast-Fed Newborns. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, ... "Immune globulin levels in colostrum and breast milk and serum from formula and breast-fed newborns."[permanent dead link] Proc ... This was a major step forward in understanding the fetal immune response and developing diagnostic tools to differentiate ... Maternal transmission of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Pediat, 73:382-386, 1984. Cao Y, Krogstad P, Korber BT, Koup RA, ...
The result is a low serum antibody level and risk of infections. ... of antibodies is an integral part of the humoral immune ...
Elevation of serum, plasma, or tissue SP and/or its receptor (NK1R) has been associated with many diseases: sickle cell crisis; ... Fehder WP, Sachs J, Uvaydova M, Douglas SD (1997). "Substance P as an immune modulator of anxiety". Neuroimmunomodulation. 4 (1 ... Anichini M, Cesaretti S, Lepori M, Maddali Bongi S, Maresca M, Zoppi M (Jan 1997). "Substance P in the serum of patients with ... Michaels LA, Ohene-Frempong K, Zhao H, Douglas SD (Nov 1998). "Serum levels of substance P are elevated in patients with sickle ...
Obviously you will also have people who formed stronger immune responses to COVID to begin with, and as such are producing more ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.02: Convalescent serum (i.e. antibodies in blood from people previously infected) of people who had ... TLDR: antibodies in convalescent serum are about 4-fold less neutralizing against delta than against other variants - but we ... doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03777-9: Similar results - convalescent serum (i.e. antibodies in blood from people previously infected ...
... burgdorferi antibodies by the immune system.[88] The spirochetes may avoid the immune response by decreasing expression of ... Benach supplied him with more ticks from Shelter Island and sera from people diagnosed with Lyme disease. University of Texas ... The immune system takes some time to produce antibodies in quantity. After Lyme infection onset, antibodies of types IgM and ... the immune system produces antibodies against Lyme inside the intrathecal space, which contains the CSF.[30][34] Demonstration ...
Serum amiloid P komponenta • Sialoglikoprotein (CD43, Glikoforin, Glikoforin C) • Trombopoetin • Tiroglobulin • Tiroksin- ... "BLyS and APRIL form biologically active heterotrimers that are expressed in patients with systemic immune-based rheumatic ...
... and AR NTD antagonists are immune to gain-of-function mutations in the AR LBD that convert AR antagonists into AR agonists and ... "Effects of norgestrel and ethinyloestradiol ingestion on serum levels of sex hormones and gonadotrophins in men". Clinical ...
Auto-immune and inflammatory kidney disease, such as vasculitis or transplant rejection, may be treated with immunosuppression ... The serum creatinine concentration can be used to estimate the function of the kidney, called the creatinine clearance or ...
Immune system * sw:Immune system. Imperialism * sw:Imperialism. India * sw:India. Indian Ocean * sw:Indian Ocean. Indonesia * ...
It is probably due to the genetic morphology of the immune system. Another possible side effect is an infection of the nervous ... It was the first illness shown to be transmissible by filtered human serum and transmitted by mosquitoes, by Walter Reed around ... This is believed to be due to fewer people being immune, more people living in cities, people moving frequently, and changing ...
DOCK8 - DOCK8 Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DIDS) presents primarily with immune effects including HEIS.[9] Eczema is prominent, ... described two boys with similar symptoms as well as coarse facies, eosinophilia, and elevated serum IgE levels. These two ... and very high concentrations of the serum antibody IgE. Inheritance can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive.[3] Many ... is a heterogeneous group of immune disorders. Job's is also very rare at about 300 cases currently in the literature. ...
Kirby RW, Anderson JW, Sieling B, Rees ED, Chen WJ, Miller RE, Kay RM (1981). "Oat-bran intake selectively lowers serum low- ... Volman, Julia J (20 November 2007). "Dietary modulation of immune function by β-glucans". Physiology & Behavior. 94 (2): 276- ... where they begin to interact with macrophages to activate immune function.[18] Radiolabeled studies have verified that both ... as well as the immune system and other systemic functions.[14][16] ...
MGN is caused by immune complex formation in the glomerulus. The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to ... Within membranous glomerulonephritis, especially in cases caused by viral hepatitis, serum C3 levels are low.[7] ... The immune complex serves as an activator that triggers a response from the C5b - C9 complements, which form a membrane attack ... Immune complexes (black) are deposited in a thickened basement membrane creating a "spike and dome" appearance on electron ...
... slow the transport of immunomodulatory proteins to the surface of infected cells and protect against innate and acquired immune ... "Identification by immunoprecipitation of cauliflower mosaic virus in vitro major translation product with a specific serum ...
Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... Immune disorders. *HIV *AIDS. Central. nervous system. Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal ...
... and injecting this serum into the person for whom immunity is desired. This is known as passive immunity, and the serum that is ... The use of simple molecules such as toxoids for immunization tends to produce a low response by the immune system, and thus ... Artificial induction of immunity is the artificial induction of immunity to specific diseases - making people immune to disease ... This was first performed (and is still sometimes performed) by taking blood from a subject who is already immune, isolating the ...
... immune deficiency/immunodeficiency - immune response - immune system - immune thrombocytopenic purpura - immunity - ... serum - serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) - serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) - sexually transmitted ... idiopathic - idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura - IHS - immune complex - ...
To test the serum two groups of children were chosen from two different hospitals: in the first one, which received the serum, ... The search for a stronger remedy against this disease was made more difficult because most animals are immune to it: it was ... The anti-diphtheria serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse ... Back in France, he acquired enough snakes to continue his work and create serum for the local population.[1]:98 ...
Another group found that high serum levels of IL-6 correlated with poor outcome in breast cancer tumors. Their research showed ... Interleukin 6 ACRONYM (IL-6) is a cytokine that is important for many aspects of cellular biology including immune responses, ...
Struyf S, Proost P, Van Damme J (2004). "Regulation of the immune response by the interaction of chemokines and proteases". Adv ... "Changes in serum interleukin-2, -6, and -8 levels before and during treatment with risperidone and haloperidol: relationship ...
The gluten found in all of these grains has been identified as the component capable of triggering the immune-mediated disorder ... Screening with serum antibodies for celiac disease is not sensitive enough to detect people who react to pure oats and the ...
In males, the monitoring of treatment normally requires the measurement of serum testosterone, inhibin B, haematocrit and ... Immune. *Chronic granulomatous disease (CYBB). *Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. *X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency ...
Kidney: 25 percent develop signs of nephrotoxicity ranging from mild, asymptomatic azotemia (increased serum creatinine and ... in people with poor immune function.[1] In African trypanosomiasis it is used for early disease before central nervous system ...
Role in the immune systemEdit. The proteasome plays a straightforward but critical role in the function of the adaptive immune ... multiple myeloma has been observed to result in increased proteasome-derived peptide levels in blood serum that decrease to ... Ben-Neriah Y (January 2002). "Regulatory functions of ubiquitination in the immune system". Nature Immunology. 3 (1): 20-6. doi ... These proteins whose expression increases during the immune response include the 11S regulatory particle, whose main known ...
immune response. • positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process. • signal transduction. • negative ... I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ...
... function of the immune system (ID 134), function of the immune system during and after extreme physical exercise (ID 144), non- ... Simple tests are available to measure the levels of vitamin C in the urine and in serum or blood plasma. However these reflect ... Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH (2006). "Immune-enhancing role of vitamin C and zinc and effect on clinical conditions". ... Vitamin C distributes readily in high concentrations into immune cells, has antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, ...
Examples of permitted fractions are: Interferon, Immune Serum Globulins and Factor VIII; preparations made from Hemoglobin such ...
The theory of an anti-tumoral response of the immune system in vivo was recognized by the physician William B. Coley. In 1968, ... "An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72 (9): 3666-70. Bibcode ... immune response. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. • positive regulation of chemokine production. • cellular extravasation. • ... The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. TNF, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, ...
Do common childhood infections 'teach' the immune system not to be allergic?»։ Immunology Today 21 (3): 118-20։ March 2000։ ... Kerkhof M, Dubois AE, Postma DS, Schouten JP, de Monchy JG (September 2003). "Role and interpretation of total serum IgE ... "Effector and potential immunoregulatory roles of mast cells in IgE-associated acquired immune responses". Current Opinion in ...
Serum Collagen IV concentrations correlate with hepatic tissue levels of collagen IV in subjects with alcoholic liver disease ... The alpha-3 subunit (COL4A3) of collagen IV is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture syndrome, wherein the immune ... Yabu, K; Kiyosawa, K; Mori, H; Matsumoto, A; Yoshizawa, K; Tanaka, E; Furuta, S (2009). "Serum Collagen Type IV for the ... Tsutsumi, Mikihiro; Takase, Shujiro; Urashima, Sachio; Ueshima, Yasuhiro; Kawahara, Hiromu; Takada, Akira (1996). "Serum ...
This may include the "pill-free" week where lamotrigine serum levels have been shown to increase twofold.[36] ... "Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products - Lamictal (lamotrigine): Drug Safety Communication - Serious Immune System Reaction" ... Ethinylestradiol, the ingredient of such contraceptives, has been shown to decrease serum levels of lamotrigine.[46] Women ... Reimers A, Helde G, Brodtkorb E (September 2005). "Ethinyl estradiol, not progestogens, reduces lamotrigine serum ...
Action and Immune Serum Prevent Measles Epidemic By Science News. June 20, 1936. ...
Clayton, A. J. (‎1977)‎. Lassa immune serum.. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 55 (‎4)‎, 435 - 439. World Health ...
... a serum containing naturally or artificially produced antibodies to a given antigen, obtained from human or animal sources. See ... immune serum. First recorded in 1900-05. Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random ... a serum containing naturally or artificially produced antibodies to a given antigen, obtained from human or animal sources. ...
Definition of immune serum globulin. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... immune serum globulin. Definition: a sterile solution of globulins that contains many antibodies normally present in adult ...
Definition of human pertussis immune serum. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... human pertussis immune serum. Definition: the sterile serum prepared from the pooled blood of healthy adult human beings who ...
... immune sera include Immunization of Alpacas (Lama Pacos) with Protein Antigens and Production of Antigen-specific Single ... Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by Antigen injection ...
Immune serum globulin definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ...
Serum Sickness) About one out of five Americans suffers from allergies. An allergy is an exaggerated response from the immune ... Immune complexes found circulating in serum or deposited in affected tissues. General Considerations Serum sickness reactions ... Depressed serum levels of C3, C4, or CH50 may be sought as nonspecific evidence of immune complex disease with consumption of ... heterologous serum) to antibodies. Deposition of these complexes in tissues or in vascular endothelium can produce immune ...
Humoral immune responses to testis antigens in sera from patients with prostate cancer.. Hoeppner LH1, Dubovsky JA, Dunphy EJ, ... most are not natural targets of an immune response in patients with cancer. Using sera from cancer patients, several research ... In the current study, we hypothesize that prostate CT antigens can be identified using a SEREX screening method with sera from ... These proteins, so-called cancer-testis (CT) antigens, are appealing targets for immune-based therapies because they are ...
Delayed hepatitis after treatment with hepatitis B immune serum globulin. Br Med J 1976; 2 :19 ... Delayed hepatitis after treatment with hepatitis B immune serum globulin.. Br Med J 1976; 2 doi: ...
WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization; World Health Organization (‎Genève : Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 1968)‎ ...
... fixing immune complexes in sera of patients with various disease states has been developed by utilizing C receptors on Raji ... The Raji cell radioimmune assay for detecting immune complexes in human sera J Clin Invest. 1976 Jan;57(1):169-82. doi: 10.1172 ... Thereby immune complexes were detected and quantitated in serum hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, subacute ... A sensitivie and simple procedure for the detection and quantitation of soluble complement (C)- fixing immune complexes in sera ...
The serum protects skin from oxidative stress and supplied with moisture, leaving skin smoother, softer and more radiant. ... The Pro-Immune Serum strengthens the skinrsquo;s natural barrier and reduces wrinkles caused by dryness. ... The Pro-Immune Serum strengthens the skins natural barrier and reduces wrinkles caused by dryness. The serum protects skin ... Vitamin E in this serum also benefits skin by neutralizing cell-damaging free radicals and preventing premature photo-aging. ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
... ... Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a type of drugs that block certain proteins in order to release the "brakes" on certain immune ... PD-L1 is a protein that plays a role in immune suppression, and some immune checkpoint inhibitors target the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. ... The investigators studied serum samples collected before and within three months of treatment initiation from 48, 43, and 43 ...
Immune Shield Vitamin E Skin Serum penetrates deeply and helps correct sun exposure, address acne, aid in the healing of scars ... Immune Shield Vitamin E Skin Serum penetrates deeply and helps correct sun exposure, address acne, aid in the healing of scars ...
Serum neopterin, an immune activation marker, independently predicts disease progression in advanced HIV-1 infection.. Mildvan ... Soluble markers of immune activation add prognostic information to CD4 counts and viral load for risk of disease progression in ... Our objective was to assess the independent prognostic value for disease progression of soluble markers of immune system ... The robust performance of neopterin, an inexpensive and reliably measured serum marker, supports its potential suitability for ...
Clinical relevance of serum antibodies to GD1b in immune-mediated neuropathies. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or ... "Clinical Relevance of Serum Antibodies to GD1b in Immune-mediated Neuropathies." Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System : ... Clinical Relevance of Serum Antibodies to GD1b in Immune-mediated Neuropathies. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2018;23(4):227-234. ... Clinical relevance of serum antibodies to GD1b in immune-mediated neuropathies.. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2018 12; 23(4):227-234. ...
... complements and circulating immune complexes in oral lichen planus. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Serum immune complexes in erythema nodosum leprosum reactions of leprosy.. *Circulating immune complex studies on patients with ... Serum immunoglobulins, complements and circulating immune complexes in oral lichen planus. Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji ... Serum Immunoglobulins, Complements and Circulating Immune Complexes in Oral Lichen Planus. Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji ...
Human pertussis immune serum The sterile serum prepared from the pooled blood of healthy adult human beings who have received ... Retrieved from "" ...
Serum Profile of Inflammatory Factors, Immune and Angiogenic in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. The safety and scientific validity of ... Serum Profile of Inflammatory Factors, Immune and Angiogenic in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: New Targets for Diagnosis and ... an analysis by large-scale expression profiling of serum factors involved in inflammation, immunity and angiogenesis ...
Serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a fetal glycoprotein produced by the yolk sac and fetal liver1 that is routinely used as a marker ... Serum alpha-foetoprotein level predicts treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis C. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:797-803.. * Cited Here ... Baseline serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA level and response at week 4 are the best predictors of relapse after treatment with ... Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:2452-2456. ...
... on the serum concentration of cortisol and the humoral immune response in cattle as well as the correlation between serum ... and rabies antibody titers were determined using a serum neutralization test with BHK21 cells (RFFIT). Both serum cortisol ... Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, ... Effects of primovaccination and booster vaccination on serum cortisol and humoral immune response in cattle () ...
... anti aging serums, anti aging lotions, beauty products. Honest reviews and testimonials by our Truth in Aging staff. ... Home Reviews Reader Review: Sustainable Youth Immune Performance Revitalizing Serum and Elasticity Cream ... The serum was nice, the cream…nice. By the end of two weeks I came home from a girls night out and almost dropped my ... Encouraging this immune response seems to make sense, but…. NF-Kb can get out of hand. Many kinds of tumors and different ...
Serum, Immune explanation free. What is Serum, Immune? Meaning of Serum, Immune medical term. What does Serum, Immune mean? ... Looking for online definition of Serum, Immune in the Medical Dictionary? ... immune serum. (redirected from Serum, Immune). Also found in: Encyclopedia. serum. [se´rum] (pl. serums, se´ra) (L.) the clear ... Synonym(s): immune serum. serum. pl. sera, serums [L.] the clear portion of any animal or plant fluid that remains after the ...
An experimental approach was used to assess immunological biomarkers in the sera of young rats exposed in utero and postnatal ... In utero and early-life exposure of rats to a Wi-Fi signal: screening of immune markers in sera and gestational outcome ... On day 35 after birth, all pups were sacrificed and sera collected. The screening of sera for antibodies directed against 15 ... An experimental approach was used to assess immunological biomarkers in the sera of young rats exposed in utero and postnatal ...
In addition, the sera of 10 of the patients treated with diethyl carbamazine were also examined. These assays were devised ... from the sera of patients with Bancroftian filariasis were examined for parasite antigen content by an ELISA. Of the 227 ... Abstract Polyethylene glycol-precipitated circulating immune complexes (CICs) ... Detection of Microfilarial Antigen in Circulating Immune Complex from Sera of Wuchereria bancrofti-Infected Individuals * ...
The proteins bound by human sera with high and low in vitro inhibitory capacities were compared by SDS-PAGE. The human sera ... Some variance was seen in the ability of a given serum to inhibit different strains of the parasite. The significance of this ... In general there was a good correlation between fluorescence titer and the ability of a serum to inhibit parasite growth in ... Abstract Human and monkey sera from individuals exposed to Plasmodium falciparum were characterized by indirect ...
The Effect of Experimental Immune Complex Nephritis on Rat Serum Proteins C. H. W. Horne ; C. H. W. Horne ... C. H. W. Horne, P. G. Toner; The Effect of Experimental Immune Complex Nephritis on Rat Serum Proteins. Clin Sci 1 June 1972; ... rat serum, albumin, transferrin, slow α1- and α2-globulin, γ2-globulin, radial immunodiffusion assay ... 1. A radial immunodiffusion technique was used to determine the concentrations of five rat serum proteins, slow α1- and α2- ...
  • a serum containing naturally or artificially produced antibodies to a given antigen, obtained from human or animal sources. (
  • Serum sickness reactions occur when immune complexes are formed by the binding of antigens (eg, drugs, heterologous serum) to antibodies. (
  • Antibodies to the ganglioside GD1b have been reported in various forms of immune-mediated neuropathy, but their clinical relevance for diagnosis and prognosis is unknown. (
  • We investigated the prevalence of anti-GD1b antibodies in acute and chronic immune-mediated neuropathies, and the clinical presentation and outcome in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher-GBS overlap syndrome (MF-GBS). (
  • In conclusion, testing for anti-GD1b antibodies may identify a specific group of immune-mediated neuropathies and (MF-)GBS patients with only anti-GD1b antibodies tend to recover faster. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of one or two doses of the anti-rabies vaccination on the serum concentration of cortisol and the humoral immune response in cattle as well as the correlation between serum cortisol concentrations and the titers of rabies-neutralizing antibodies. (
  • The screening of sera for antibodies directed against 15 different antigens related to damage and/or pathological markers was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • Antibodies directed against citrullinated peptides (anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies, ACPA) are found in sera of 60%-80% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (
  • The neutralizing antibodies used in these experiments were produced in rabbits vaccinated by electroporation with a previously described ANDV M gene-based DNA vaccine, pWRG/AND-M. Hamsters that were administered immune serum on days −1 and +5 relative to challenge were protected against intranasal challenge (21 LD 50 ). (
  • Serum containing neutralizing antibodies protected hamsters from lethal HPS when it was administered before or up to 5 days after challenge with 250 50% lethal doses (LD 50 ) of ANDV ( 6 ). (
  • Absorption of anti-type III serum by quantitative precipitation of antibodies with type III polysaccharide completely removed the passive protective activity of the serum. (
  • Human macrophages were able to adhere to and trap A suum larvae in the presence of either human or pig serum containing Ascaris-specific antibodies and other factors. (
  • The results indicate that progression of chronic disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis was associated with the development of T-cell suppressor activity for Con A responses of PBL, and that DTH responses to antigen were depressed by the administration of serum with specific high titer antibodies. (
  • Delayed hepatitis after treatment with hepatitis B immune serum globulin. (
  • Wauters J P , Leski M . Delayed hepatitis after treatment with hepatitis B immune serum globulin. (
  • used for postexposure prophylaxis against rabies if rabies immune globulin is unavailable. (
  • 1. A radial immunodiffusion technique was used to determine the concentrations of five rat serum proteins, slow α 1 - and α 2 -globulin, transferrin, albumin and γ 2 -globulin before and after the induction of immune complex nephritis. (
  • To evaluate the effect of anti-HIV immune serum globulin (HIVIG) versus immune globulin (IVIG) administered during pregnancy and to the newborn, in combination with zidovudine (AZT) administered intrapartum and to the newborn, on incidence of HIV infection in infants born to HIV-infected women who received AZT during pregnancy for medical indications. (
  • Of special interest is the increased γ-globulin fraction found in immune mouse sera and peritoneal fluid. (
  • The blood serum is processed in various ways, depending on the type of immune serum and its intended purpose: it is purified to remove neutral substances and isolate the active (chiefly globulin) protein fractions and is then concentrated. (
  • These complications are almost never caused by concentrated immune serums from human blood, called gamma globulins, or, more precisely, immunoglobulins, since they retain the various globulin fractions. (
  • Antibacterial serums, such as antianthrax gamma globulin, combat microorganisms. (
  • Those plasmas with high titers of such antibody can be pooled and fractionated to give hyperimmune serum globulin. (
  • This invention relates to and has amont its objects to a novel immune serum globulin and novel methods for its production. (
  • Particularly, the invention is concerned with an immune serum globulin having a high titer of naturally occurring antibody to cytomegalovirus (CMV). (
  • Zaia et al in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 137, No. 5, 601-604 (1978) disclosed a practical method for preparation of Varicella-Zoster (VZ) Immune Globulin. (
  • Those plasmas with antibody titers greater than about 1:60,000, determined by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), can be pooled and then fractionated to give a CMV hyperimmune serum globulin. (
  • Humoral immune responses to testis antigens in sera from patients with prostate cancer. (
  • Although many prostate-specific proteins are being tested as target antigens for prostate cancer vaccines, most are not natural targets of an immune response in patients with cancer. (
  • These proteins, so-called cancer-testis (CT) antigens, are appealing targets for immune-based therapies because they are essentially tumor-restricted antigens and there is less risk of preexisting immune tolerance. (
  • In the current study, we hypothesize that prostate CT antigens can be identified using a SEREX screening method with sera from patients with prostate cancer and probing with a human testis cDNA expression library. (
  • Human and monkey sera from individuals exposed to Plasmodium falciparum were characterized by indirect immunofluorescence, in vitro parasite growth inhibition, and immunoprecipitation of 125 I-labeled parasite antigens followed by analytical sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). (
  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can not only effectively kill hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumour cells but also release tumour antigens that can provoke an immune response. (
  • However, there is no consensus regarding which antigens could constitutively be generated after RFA and could potentiate the immune response. (
  • The aim of this study was to identify these immune-potentiating antigens. (
  • In preparing immune serum, blood serum is taken from animals, human donors, or convalescents that have been immunized by specific antigens against a particular disease. (
  • Diagnostic immune serums are made from different antigens, depending on the nature of the reaction for which they are used. (
  • Immune serums used in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in animals are obtained from animals that have been immunized with chemically treated antigens. (
  • This research addressed this relationship between CFS/ME severity subgroups, assessing serum immunoglobulins and serum cytokines in severe and moderate CFS/ME patients. (
  • Many studies have assessed the levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) although even with conflicting and inconsistent results, this may suggest potential shifts in immune regulations in the illness [ 2 ]. (
  • Improved DNA sequencer-aided fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (DSA-FACE) technology was used to monitor the changes in the galactosylation status of serum immunoglobulins during the immune response and therapy of autoimmune arthritis. (
  • Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in susceptible DBA/1 mice and the undergalactosylation status (UGS) of serum immunoglobulins was determined using the improved DSA-FACE technology. (
  • These findings demonstrate that the UGS of serum immunoglobulins changes during the disease course of CIA and that this UGS is inhibited by antigen-specific and antigen-independent treatment procedures. (
  • Vaccines, sera, immunoglobulins : a practical handbook / Michael Pontecorvo. (
  • Serum immunoglobulins and white blood cells status of drug addicts: influence of illicit drugs and sex habit. (
  • This study covers the latent demand outlook for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States. (
  • Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each state and city, latent demand estimates are created for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics. (
  • This study gives, however, my estimates for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics in the United States. (
  • In order to estimate the latent demand for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States, I used a multi-stage approach. (
  • Hyperimmune serum globulins, i.e., immune serum globulins having high titers of a particular antibody, are thereapeutically useful in treating patients deficient or in need of that particular antibody. (
  • It is well known that hyperimmune serum globulins can be produced from plasma or serum obtained from selected donors who have significantly higher titers for a specific antibody than is normally found in the average population. (
  • Immune complexes found circulating in serum or deposited in affected tissues. (
  • Deposition of these complexes in tissues or in vascular endothelium can produce immune complex-mediated tissue injury by activation of complement, generation of anaphylatoxins, chemoattraction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and tissue injury. (
  • Circulating antigen-nonspecific immune complexes can be detected in a variety of malignancies and in autoimmune, hypersensitivity, and infectious diseases. (
  • Immunohistochemical techniques can identify immune complexes or complement fragments deposited in tissue biopsy specimens. (
  • Circulating immune complexes may be found, but current assays are limited in sensitivity. (
  • A sensitivie and simple procedure for the detection and quantitation of soluble complement (C)- fixing immune complexes in sera of patients with various disease states has been developed by utilizing C receptors on Raji cells. (
  • AHG was used as an in vitro model of human immune complexes and its uptake by Raji cells was quantitated by 125I-radiolabeled antihuman IgG. (
  • The efficient binding of AHG by receptors for C on Raji cells was used for the detection and quantitation of immune complexes in human sera. (
  • Thereby immune complexes were detected and quantitated in serum hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and malignancies. (
  • Serum IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, C4 concentrations and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were measured in a series of 46 patients with oral lichen planus (LP). This investigation revealed a significant increase in the level of serum IgG in patients with oral LP as compared with 36 healthy subjects. (
  • Polyethylene glycol-precipitated circulating immune complexes (CICs) from the sera of patients with Bancroftian filariasis were examined for parasite antigen content by an ELISA. (
  • Depression of natural killer cell activity by syphilitic serum and immune complexes. (
  • ACPA are also implicated in immune complexes (IC)-associated joint pathology, but until now, there has been no method to investigate the role of individual ACPA in RA IC formation and IC-associated pathogenesis. (
  • C1q deviation test for the detection of immune complexes, aggregates of IgG, and bacterial products in human serum. (
  • This report describes a new, rapid, sensitive, and quantitative method for the detection of immune complexes, endotoxins, and other complement activating materials in patients sera utilizing the ability of these substances to react with isolated C1q. (
  • Detection & characterization of immune complexes in the sera of ankylosing spondylitis patients. (
  • Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and rabies antibody titers were determined using a serum neutralization test with BHK 21 cells (RFFIT). (
  • Both serum cortisol concentrations and antibody titers increased after the second (booster) vaccination (P (
  • In all the groups, the serum cortisol concentrations increased after the cattle were handled in the corral (P (
  • No correlation was observed between the serum cortisol concentrations and the antibody titers with any treatment or on any observation day. (
  • The present study examines serum zinc concentrations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) versus normal volunteers. (
  • We assessed the association between indicators of swimming in a chlorinated pool and changes in serum immune marker concentrations using linear regression with bivariate normal distributions and adjusted for multiple comparisons by applying the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure. (
  • Serum concentrations of macro and trace elements in heroin addicts of the Canary Islands. (
  • We decided to evaluate serum Vitamin D levels in a cohort of children with immune thrombocytopenia in order to discover if Vitamin D concentrations may predict ITP duration. (
  • Cutaneous basophil responses and immune resistance of guinea pigs to ticks: passive transfer with peritoneal exudate cells or serum. (
  • The i.n. and t.d. vaccinations resulted in equivalent bactericidal antibody responses in blood serum, suggesting that vaccine-derived IgG is protective against infection. (
  • We conclude that i.n. vaccination aided by a TLR4 agonist results in robust immune responses to both the carrier protein and bacterial polysaccharide components of the Hibv. (
  • Concerns that repeated anti-helminthic treatment may lead to drug resistance render it important that vaccines are developed but will require increased understanding of the immune-mediated cellular and antibody responses to helminth infection. (
  • Statistically significant differences in viral replication and antibody responses were observed among the three trials in both serum and oral fluid specimens. (
  • Kinetics of PRRSV antibody isotypes (IgM, IgA, and IgG) in serum based on responses in 72 boars inoculated with 3 different PRRSV isolates. (
  • 11 The exact molecular mechanisms of the innate and adaptive immune cell responses are not fully understood for any of this virulence factors. (
  • Immunoregulation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to antigen by serum from infected animals was studied in mice 1 week after intranasal (i.n.) infection, a time when DTH responses were maximal. (
  • Vaccine-induced humoral responses had the potential to either protect from or exacerbate dengue disease upon challenge, whereas cellular immune responses were beneficial. (
  • PHILADELPHIA - Serum levels of ANGPT2, a protein related to angiogenesis (blood vessel formation), was found to predict response to and influence the outcomes of treatment with a class of immunotherapeutics called immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with advanced melanoma, according to a study published in Cancer Immunology Research , a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (
  • In order to understand how changes in serum ANGPT2 levels with treatment influenced clinical outcomes, the researchers computed the fold change of the protein levels before and during treatment and found that in patients who received ipilimumab alone, those with ANGPT2 levels below and above the fold-change cutoff of 1.25 had OS of 12.4 and 28.1 months, respectively. (
  • NF-Kappa B, also known as NF-KB is a protein complex found in almost all animal cells and it plays a key role in regulating our immune response to infection. (
  • Immunological dysregulation can be caused or influenced by changes in serum immune protein levels, which play a key role in living cells by allowing specific interactions with other molecules [ 1 ]. (
  • Statistically significant alterations were observed in protein fractions of sera and peritoneal fluids of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice and mice immunized to this tumor when they were compared to normal mice. (
  • A targeted multiplexed proteomic investigation identifies ketamine-induced changes in immune markers in rat serum and expression changes in protein kinases/phosphatases in rat brain. (
  • Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, serum albumin, and C reactive protein (CRP) have been evaluated for their prognostic significance ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • The specific antibody content of the sera, expressed in micrograms of antibody protein per milliliter, was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in conjunction with quantitative precipitin analysis. (
  • We found that serum zinc was significantly and negatively correlated to the increase in the alpha2 protein fraction and positively correlated to decreases in the expression of mitogen-induced CD69+ (a T cell activation marker) on CD3+ as well as CD3+CD8+ T cells. (
  • Galectin-3 is a multifunctional protein implicated in a variety of biological processes including fibrosis, angiogenesis, and immune activation, all of which are associated with the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). (
  • Twelve decreased and 6 increased proteins after RFA were identified by MS. Three proteins, including clusterin, Ficolin-3, and serum retinol binding protein-4, were further verified by ELISA on the 52 HCC patients. (
  • Using sera from cancer patients, several research groups have identified a large family of immunologically recognized proteins whose expression is normally confined to immune-privileged testis tissue but which may be expressed in cancers of different histological origins. (
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a type of drugs that block certain proteins in order to release the "brakes" on certain immune cells, enabling them to attack the cancer cells. (
  • The proteins bound by human sera with high and low in vitro inhibitory capacities were compared by SDS-PAGE. (
  • Hardcastle SL, Brenu EW, Johnston S, Nguyen T, Huth T, Ramos S, Staines D, Marshall-Gradisnik S. Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients. (
  • Serum free CTS™ Immune Cell SR contains only fully tested human-derived or human recombinant proteins which facilitates supply security for large-scale production of clinical and commercial therapies. (
  • Overview and network analysis of identified serum proteins. (
  • Type-specific protection of neonatal rats from lethal group B streptococcal infection by immune sera obtained from human volunteers vaccinated with type III-specific polysaccharide. (
  • Sera obtained from human volunteers at 6 weeks after vaccination with highly purified type III polysaccharide antigen prepared from a group B Streptococcus, strain M732, were found to protect neonatal rats from otherwise lethal infection by the homologous strain. (
  • A key component in many T cell culture protocols is human serum, which is expensive and requires extensive testing prior to use for the manufacture of cGMP-compliant T cell therapies. (
  • T cells activated and expanded with Dynabeads ® CD3/CD28 CTS TM and cultured in CTS™ OpTmizer ™ T cell Expansion SFM, X-Vivo TM 15, or CTS™AIM-V ® supplemented with pooled human serum or serum free CTS™ Immune Cell SR showed similar growth kinetics, total fold expansion and transduction efficiency after 2 weeks in culture. (
  • Numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were comparable in cultures expanded with media containing human serum or CTS™ Immune Cell SR. T cells demonstrated efficacy when infused in an in vivo leukemia mouse model. (
  • T cell engraftment and leukemia control were similar between mice treated with T cells grown in media containing human serum or CTS™ Immune Cell SR. (
  • These studies demonstrate that human serum may be replaced by a xeno-free formulation in combination with several commonly used T cell culture media to support in vitro expansion and lentiviral transduction of polyclonal T cells. (
  • The term usually refers to blood serum, the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of the plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells, and remains fluid after clotting of blood. (
  • Intranasal vaccination with Hibv using a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist as an adjuvant significantly increased the levels of IgA specific for the PRP capsule antigen in blood serum, saliva, and mucosal secretion specimens. (
  • In contrast, control mice vaccinated transdermally (t.d.) with Hibv did not produce significant levels of PRP-specific IgA in the blood serum and saliva, and anti-PRP IgG was increased only in serum. (
  • In general there was a good correlation between fluorescence titer and the ability of a serum to inhibit parasite growth in vitro. (
  • The human sera which did not inhibit parasite growth in vitro well differed from those which did by failing to efficiently bind certain parasite components having molecular weights in the range of 200,000, 70,000-85,000, and 45,000. (
  • Gene expression analysis of serum-activated macrophages revealed that CCL24, a potent eosinophil attractant, was the most upregulated gene following culture with A suum larvae in vitro, and human eosinophils displayed even greater ability to adhere to, and trap, A suum larvae. (
  • To this end, we have developed a xeno-free serum replacement, CTS™ Immune Cell SR, with defined components that can be used in combination with multiple cell culture media to support in vitro expansion of functionally intact T cells. (
  • Immune serum obtained from a volunteer who received type II polysaccharide vaccine was not protective against type III infection. (
  • Animals immunized 2 to 3 months earlier with the S. typhimurium SL3261 aroA live vaccine were used as donors of serum, spleen cells, and mesenteric lymph node cells for naive recipients which were challenged orally with the virulent C5 strain. (
  • We examined i.n. vaccination in a mouse immune-response model with a commonly used Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hibv) composed of the polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) capsule antigen conjugated to tetanus toxoid. (
  • In the case of the Hib vaccine, multiple parenteral vaccinations are required to induce a robust and long-lasting immunity, which is dominated by high levels of serum anti-PRP IgG and little or no mucosal antibody ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • This high degree of polymorphism in the field is likely to be a parasite strategy to evade the immune system ( 11 ), thus presenting a serious challenge for the development of effective Pf AMA1-based vaccine candidates. (
  • Severe dengue disease is associated with sub-protective levels of antibody, which exacerbate disease upon re-infection.A dengue vaccine should generate protective immunity without increasing severity of disease.This study explores the immunological basis of protection induced by a dengue vaccine and suggests that a safe and efficient vaccine against dengue should trigger both arms of the immune system. (
  • This study explores the immunological basis of protection induced by a dengue vaccine and suggests that a safe and efficient vaccine against dengue should trigger both arms of the immune system. (
  • Specific aspects of tumor cells, immune cells, and other components of the tumor microenvironment contribute to the complexity of the biology of cancer, which make identifying tissue biomarkers that can predict response to immune checkpoint inhibitors a huge challenge, Hodi explained. (
  • One way to tackle this is by identifying serum biomarkers that can be measured and monitored with ease, he said. (
  • An experimental approach was used to assess immunological biomarkers in the sera of young rats exposed in utero and postnatal to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. (
  • The development of biomarkers predictive of response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies in advanced melanoma is an area of great interest in oncology. (
  • But Negative sera does not show same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen. (
  • In seven separate experiments, nude (nu/nu) mice carrying established murine sarcoma virus (MSV) tumours were reconstituted with syngeneic (+/+) immune splenic T cells. (
  • These immune protected mice were randomly divided to provide smaller groups for serial exsanguination. (
  • At various time points mice were individually bled and CIC concentration and blocking activity of each individual serum was determined. (
  • Control sera were obtained from nu/nu and adult +/+ mice inoculated with tumour cells only, and from nu/nu mice protected with normal +/+ spleen cells. (
  • On the other hand, in immune protected mice considered alone or together with the control groups, CIC and time after tumour cell inoculation, but not tumour size, were significantly correlated. (
  • A significant relationship between blocking and tumour size was also established, although this only applied to immune protected mice. (
  • However, analysis of the combined data from sequentially bled immune protected mice in relation to different phases of tumour behaviour, did not support the notion that blocking, and more particularly the persistence of CIC, contribute to tumour regrowth and dissemination. (
  • However, their probable direct participation in the humoral destruction of tumor cells at their growth site in the immune mice is correlated. (
  • but these immune serums, when given intraperitoneally in large amounts to susceptible mice that had been implanted subcutaneously with lymphoma cells of one or another of several types, failed entirely to inhibit growth of the lymphoma cells in vivo . (
  • Adoptive transfer of immunity to oral challenge with virulent salmonellae in innately susceptible BALB/c mice requires both immune serum and T cells. (
  • Our initial finding that the presence of high serum titers of anti-OspC Abs (5 to 10 μg/ml) correlates with spontaneous resolution of disease and infection in experimentally challenged immunocompetent mice suggested that therapeutic vaccination with OspC may be feasible. (
  • We now show that polyclonal and monospecific mouse immune sera to recombinant OspC, but not to OspA, of B. burgdorferi resolve chronic arthritis and carditis and clear disseminated spirochetes in experimentally infected C.B.-17 severe combined immunodeficient mice in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • Passive transfer of immune sera from B. burgdorferi -infected mice resolved, at least temporarily, clinical arthritis in naive immunocompetent ( 25 , 26 ) or C3H severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) (H-2 k ) mice ( 27 ), but did not cure carditis and infection. (
  • A) 50, 200 or 500 µl DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum (from AG129 mice immunized i.p. 14 and 5 days prior to serum collection) were transferred i.v. into naïve AG129 recipient mice one day prior to challenge with 5×108 GE DENV. (
  • To assess whether the protective effect of the DENV2 E85-VRP immunization was mediated by serum, 50 µl, 200 µl or 500 µl of serum from AG129 mice immunized 14 and 5 days earlier with 1×106 IU of DENV2 E85-VRP were injected i.v. into naïve AG129 recipient mice one day prior to challenge with 5×108 GE DENV. (
  • As transfer of naïve serum had no effect on the viral load, we concluded that Ab present in the serum of immunized mice had caused ADE. (
  • The sera contained immunosuppresive factors associated with the immunoglobulin fraction, which could depress the natural killer cell activity of healthy controls. (
  • Next, the serum immunoglobulin glycosylation profiles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathy (SpA) were studied and changes in the UGS scores during anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α therapy followed. (
  • Drug abuser patients (n = 104), age ranging from 19 to 42 years, were randomly recruited to investigate the serum levels of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mg), malondialdehyde (MDA), and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) before and after clinical intervention. (
  • Our study evaluated the potential role of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a predictive biomarker of clinical benefit and response to treatment with ICIs. (
  • Serum VEGF levels were correlated with response to therapy and survival outcomes. (
  • Serum VEGF samples were collected from a total of 130 patients treated with ICI therapy (pembrolizumab 73, ipilimumab 15, and ipilimumab/nivolumab combination 42). (
  • The results of our study confirm previous observations that that high pre-treatment serum VEGF levels in advanced melanoma patients may predict poor response to ipilimumab. (
  • However, serum VEGF is not predictive of outcome in patients treated with anti-PD-1 agents alone or in combination with ipilimumab. (
  • One such marker is serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ( 9 ). (
  • 9 ) have previously demonstrated that pre-treatment serum VEGF levels were associated with poor clinical response and overall survival in advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab. (
  • serum sickness syndrome a serum sickness-like hypersensitivity reaction occurring after the administration of certain drugs. (
  • The introduction of immune serum from animal blood into the human body may cause such complications as serum sickness and anaphylactic shock. (
  • Serum neopterin, an immune activation marker, independently predicts disease progression in advanced HIV-1 infection. (
  • Soluble markers of immune activation add prognostic information to CD4 counts and viral load for risk of disease progression in advanced HIV-1 infection. (
  • The results of this study did not support the suggestion that a humoral immunodeficiency underlies oral LP. Elevated serum level of IgM may be considered to represent secondary oral infection during mucosal erosion. (
  • There was a trend toward a significant negative correlation between serum zinc and the severity of CFS and there was a significant and negative correlation between serum zinc and the subjective experience of infection. (
  • These data suggest that immune serum-activated macrophages can recruit eosinophils to the site of infection, where they act in concert to immobilize tissue-migrating Ascaris larvae. (
  • The object of this study was to describe and contrast the kinetics of the humoral response in serum and oral fluid specimens during acute porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. (
  • Therefore, the purpose of present study was to describe and contrast the ontogeny of PRRSV IgM, IgA, and IgG in oral fluids and serum specimens collected from individually housed boars during acute PRRSV infection. (
  • Complete resolution of disease and infection was achieved, independent of whether OspC-specific immune sera (10 μg OspC-specific Abs) were repeatedly given (4× in 3- to 4-day intervals) before the onset (day 10 postinfection) or at the time of fully established arthritis and carditis (days 19 or 60 postinfection). (
  • Highest serum levels of IgM, TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-8, IL-12 and IL-18 were found in severe HFMD patients with EV71 infection. (
  • Patients with cytomegalovirus infection or at risk to such infection, may receive the present product to raise serum titers of cytomegalovirus antibody. (
  • Passive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum or adoptive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune B cells can increase the viral RNA levels in the liver upon infection with DENV. (
  • Hellstrom, I. , and Hellstrom, K. E. , 1969, Studies on cellular immunity and its serum-mediated inhibition in Moloney virus-induced mouse sarcomas. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary konjac oligosaccharide (KOS) supplements on the serum immune parameters, intestine microbiota, and intestine immunity of Schizothorax prenanti . (
  • Serum galectin-3 levels were determined by a specific ELISA in 58 patients with SSc and 19 healthy controls. (
  • Serum s-CD95L levels in 51 patients with advanced ovarian cancer were tested by ELISA. (
  • Serum levels of IgM, TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-8, IL-12 and IL-18 were detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). (
  • antilymphocyte serum (ALS) antiserum derived from animals that have been immunized against human lymphocytes, a powerful nonspecific immunosuppressive agent that causes destruction of circulating lymphocytes. (
  • Multiplex immunoassay profiling of serum identified altered levels of interleukin 4, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and fibroblast growth factor 9, suggesting a link between ketamine exposure and peripheral inflammation and growth factor dysregulation. (
  • These results show that CFS is accompanied by a low serum zinc status and that the latter is related to signs of inflammation and defects in early T cell activation pathways. (
  • Trials indicate a reduction in immune-derived inflammation, improving scaling, erythema & pruritus. (
  • This retrospective marker-validation study utilized previously obtained clinical and laboratory data, including CD4+ cell counts, and made use of stored frozen serum samples to assay for levels of beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, endogenous interferon, triglycerides, interleukin-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor- alpha receptor II, and HIV-1 RNA, and to determine HIV genotypic reverse-transcriptase inhibitor resistance. (
  • The robust performance of neopterin, an inexpensive and reliably measured serum marker, supports its potential suitability for patient monitoring, particularly in resource-limited settings. (
  • Serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a fetal glycoprotein produced by the yolk sac and fetal liver 1 that is routinely used as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma in subjects with chronic liver diseases. (
  • We examined whether this ligand is a prognostic marker for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and whether it is associated with accumulation of immune cells in the tumor. (
  • Serum s-CD95L is correlated with a number of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in HGSOC and could be used as a noninvasive marker of tumor immune infiltration to select patients referred for immunotherapy trials that evaluate checkpoint inhibitor treatment. (
  • This was combined with measurement of 19 individual ACPA in serum, SF and in the IC fractions from serum and SF. (
  • We found that serum zinc was significantly lower in the CFS patients than in the normal controls. (
  • Serum cesium was significantly lower in schizophrenia patients as compared with controls. (
  • This study enhanced our knowledge of the PRRSV humoral immune response and provided a broader foundation for the development and application of oral fluid antibody-based diagnostics. (
  • The results showed that P. multocida B:2 is highly resistant to positive serum, containing high levels of IgG and IgM obtained from calves after vaccination, and complement activity in normal fresh calf serum. (
  • This organism also grew rapidly in the normal fresh calf serum and the mixture of positive serum as well as normal fresh calf serum. (
  • Results were indicative of the presence of inhibitory mechanism(s) in P. multocida B:2 against bactericidal activity of immune calf serum and complement system. (
  • There was an excellent correlation of LAK cytotoxicity with the clinical stage of disease when the cells were incubated with medium containing IL-2 plus 10% fetal calf serum (p = 0.003). (
  • Compromises to innate immune cell functioning can interfere with, or reflect, adaptive processes and translate into shifts in cytokine patterns that are either pro- or anti-inflammatory [ 11 ]. (
  • 13 These polysaccharidic components are widely used for bacterial classification, responsible for non-immunological and immunological interactions of bacteria with hosts and also involved in the avoidance of host innate immune mechanisms-such as resistance to phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing, and the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial peptides. (
  • In this study, Hodi and colleagues studied the role of the angiogenic factor ANGPT2 in immune regulation and its potential role as a biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitors. (
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved the survival of advanced melanoma patients with a 5 year survival rate of about 50% ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • In order to understand the mechanism by which ANGPT2 influences clinical outcomes, the investigators conducted laboratory-based tests using a specific subset of macrophages (a type of immune cells) that are present in the tumor microenvironment and found that ANGPT2 increased the expression of PD-L1 on these cells. (
  • Thus induction of LAK cytotoxicity requires IL-2, decreases with advancing stages of disease, and is inhibited by a serum suppressor factor related to tumor growth. (
  • MYH9 is definitely the Main Human being Sera Cell Focus on for Blebbistatin in Success and Cloning Blebbistatin is definitely a myosin II weighty string inhibitor whose presenting Rabbit Polyclonal to KLF11 needs four conserved amino acids in the myosin cleft (Allingham et al. (
  • Membranous nephropathy was induced in four cats by repeated intravenous injections of 120 mg cationic bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI 9.5). (
  • More than 20 years ago it was reported that serum IgG molecules isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) carry an oligosaccharide chain lacking a terminal galactose residue at the conserved N -glycosylation site of the Fc domain, compared to the IgG oligosaccharide chain from healthy individuals. (
  • Such serums include antianthrax serum, Aujeszky's disease serum, swine erysipelas serum, lamb dysenteric serum, trivalent serum against hemorrhagic septicemia, and antitoxic serums against salmonellosis and colibacillosis. (
  • Thus, the failure of passive immunization to transfer protection indicates that serum components alone are not sufficient to mediate the potent protection obtained using live attenuated vaccines. (
  • Lower serum zinc in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): relationships to immune dysfunctions and relevance for the oxidative stress status in CFS. (
  • Results The majority of individual ACPA reactivities were enriched in SF as compared with in serum, and levels of ACPA in IC were regulated independently of levels in serum and SF. (
  • These results had been also verified with a distinct arranged of siRNAs (Desk T2, Figures S3CCD and R547 S2E, and additional support that MYH engines are included in human being Sera cell cell and blebbing loss of life, and that the engines are governed through MLC. (
  • 7,8 Similar results have been reported by other studies and serum resistance has been considered as a tool to assess the virulence in FC-associated strains. (
  • Moreover, there were significant inverse associations between serum cesium levels and the BPRS, FF, HAM-D and SANS scores and positive correlations between cesium and neurocognitive probe results including the Tower of London, Symbol Coding, Controlled Word Association, Category Instances, Digit Sequencing Task, and List Learning tests. (
  • The results suggest that lowered serum cesium levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of SCZ, specific symptom domains including negative, depressive and fatigue symptoms, neurocognitive impairments (spatial working, episodic and semantic memory and executive functions) and neuro-immune pathways as well. (
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Immune sera. (
  • Cell-mediated immune response was not related to PPI (P=0.9), cow BW (P=0.9) or BCS (P=0.6), calf birth weight (P=0.6), 28 d of age weight (P=0.4), or IgM colostrum concentration (P=0.3). (
  • In this study, we found ANGPT2 to be a predictive and prognostic biomarker of response to the inhibitors of immune checkpoints CTLA-4 and PD-1," said F. Stephen Hodi, MD , director of the Melanoma Center at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute , professor of medicine and investigator at the Ludwig Center at Harvard Medical School in Boston. (
  • Serum α-Fetoprotein Levels Predict Early Virologic Response. (
  • 8 To date, no study has evaluated the association between serum AFP levels and early virologic response (EVR) to anti-HCV treatment in the HIV-positive population. (
  • These studies demonstrate that immune resistance to tick is dependent on sensitized lymphoid cells or serum components, and that sensitized cells or serum can transfer a cutaneous basophil response that is associated with immune resistance. (
  • Thus, immune resistance of guinea pigs to ticks is a heterogeneous response in which immune cells and serum probably act to recruit diverse effector leukocytes to mediate rejection that is specific but significantly cross-reactive. (
  • Blood based markers are relatively non-invasive with an advantage of longitudinal sample collection allowing us to potentially track an evolving anti-tumour immune response. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that swimming in a chlorinated pool induces perturbations of the immune response through acute alterations of patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion. (
  • As an alternative approach along this line, we decided to use Pf Ron2L in combination with three Pf AMA1 diversity covering variants (DiCo) to investigate the potential of this complex to induce more potent parasite growth inhibitory immune response in combination with better cross-strain-specific efficacy. (
  • Our objective was to assess the independent prognostic value for disease progression of soluble markers of immune system activation. (
  • This was due to a serum suppressor factor that inhibited the induction of cytotoxic activity in LAK precursors. (
  • The level of cytotoxicity in these patients increase to baseline levels after surgery and the serum suppressor factor disappeared in six of the seven patients in whom it was present before surgery. (
  • Balch, CM , Itoh, K & Tilden, AB 1985, ' Cellular immune defects in patients with melanoma involving interleukin-2-activated lymphocyte cytotoxicity and a serum suppressor factor ', Surgery , vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 151-157. (
  • Resistance to infestation by larval Amblyomma americanum or Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was transferred to naive guinea pigs with peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) or serum from donors immunized by prior infestation with homologous tick larvae. (
  • Here, we investigated proteomic changes in brain and serum after acute treatment of rats with ketamine using two targeted proteomic profiling methods. (
  • High doses of simvastatin administered over a period of one month following an acute coronary syndrome were associated with a significant decrease in serum PDGF levels without influence on the activation of serum immune markers. (
  • Methods We have developed a new technique based on IC binding to C1q-coated magnetic beads to purify and solubilise circulating IC in sera and synovial fluids (SF) from 77 patients with RA. (
  • Methods: Thirty children were enrolled in this study (sixteen with chronic ITP and fourteen with newly diagnosed ITP) to assess serum Vitamin D levels. (
  • The Pro-Immune Serum strengthens the skin's natural barrier and reduces wrinkles caused by dryness. (
  • It PROTECTS the skin's immune system to help FIGHT against signs of advanced ageing by helping the skin DEFEND itself. (
  • Unlike other anti-ageing products, Serum Age Immune acts on the skin's immune defense system , by protecting Langerhans cells and repairing DNA and damaged cells, particularly light-induced skin damage. (
  • The ability of Raji cells to detect AHG in serum depended on the amount of radioactive antibody used and the size of aggregates. (
  • the amount of radioactivity bound to the washed cells was determined and referred to a standard curve of radioactive antibody uptake by cells previously incubated with increasing amounts of AHG in serum. (
  • In comparative tests, furthermore, the anti-lymphoma serums acted more powerfully upon the lymphoma cells in vivo than did such chemotherapeutic agents as amethopterin, azaguanine, ethionine, azaserine, and 6-mercaptopurine, given singly or in various combinations in maximal tolerated amounts, though their effects were not so powerful as those exerted by normal guinea pig serum on lymphoma cells of two types that are susceptible to its action in vivo . (
  • Simultaneous transfer of both immune serum and immune cells was necessary for protection. (
  • 1998). Although human being and mouse Sera cells talk about these fundamental properties, they are unique in cell surface area guns, morphology, and development aspect requirements. (
  • Blebbistatin also helped cell connection (Number T1N) and improved human being Sera cell success on cells tradition discs not really treated with matrigel. (
  • Blebbistatin also helped success of revoked human being Sera cells analyzed at 24 hours (Numbers T1G and H1L). (
  • Mixed, our outcomes recommend that inhibition of myosin function by blebbistatin decreases the necessity for cell-cell and cell-matrix connected signaling in the success of human being Sera cells. (
  • Culturing T cells in CTS™ Immune Cell SR facilitates a favorable culture profile and immune function. (
  • Depressed serum levels of C3, C4, or CH50 may be sought as nonspecific evidence of immune complex disease with consumption of soluble factors. (
  • Fish on the high-KOS diet had significant increases in serum alternative hemolytic complement activity, complement 3 content, and nitric oxide content and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content. (
  • In the present study, the possible bactericidal activity of immune calf sera in the presence and absence of complement system was investigated. (
  • As a control test an E. coli strain was subjected to the same experiment and found completely sensitive to the bactericidal activity of complement in calf and guinea pig fresh sera. (
  • The study also demonstrated a significant reduction in serum C4 in both variants of oral LP, but the C3 level was normal. (
  • In both systems, immune serum conferred significant but weaker resistance (20 to 29% rejection). (