Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.

Evidence suggesting the regulation of a coagulation factor levels in rabbits by a transferable plasma agent. (1/7228)

New Zealand white rabbits were given 30 ml of goat serum intravenously. This procedure resulted in an immediate decrease in platelet count, fibrinogen, and levels of coagulation factors II, V, VII, and X, due to consumption coagulopathy. These factors returned toward baseline levels approximately 12 hr after the injection. Plasma from rabbits who had received goat serum 48 hr previously (donor rabbits) was injected into recipient rabbits. This procedure resulted in a slight rise in the level of coagulation factor II (range, 20%-30%) and a significant rise in factors V (35%-75%), VII (35%-235%), and X (35%-75%) in the recipients. When plasma from control donor rabbits who had not received goat serum was injected into recipients, there was no change in these coagulation factors. It is postulated that the reduction in coagulation factor levels in donor rabbits induces a "coagulopoietin" for each factor or one "coagulopoietin" for all factors which stimulates increased synthesis and/or release of these factors in recipient rabbits.  (+info)

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (2/7228)

In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.  (+info)

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (3/7228)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (4/7228)

Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence of the 27-kilobase virulence related locus (vrl) of Dichelobacter nodosus: evidence for extrachromosomal origin. (5/7228)

The vrl locus is preferentially associated with virulent isolates of the ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus. The complete nucleotide sequence of this 27.1-kb region has now been determined. The data reveal that the locus has a G+C content much higher than the rest of the D. nodosus chromosome and contains 22 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding products including a putative adenine-specific methylase, two potential DEAH ATP-dependent helicases, and two products with sequence similarity to a bacteriophage resistance system. These ORFs are all in the same orientation, and most are either overlapping or separated by only a few nucleotides, suggesting that they comprise an operon and are translationally coupled. Expression vector studies have led to the identification of proteins that correspond to many of these ORFs. These data, in combination with evidence of insertion of vrl into the 3' end of an ssrA gene, are consistent with the hypothesis that the vrl locus was derived from the insertion of a bacteriophage or plasmid into the D. nodosus genome.  (+info)

Chemical and immunochemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity compared. (6/7228)

Radiometric, colorimetric, and two immunochemical methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity are compared. We evaluated the procedures on the basis of precision, applicability to a pediatric population, and accuracy as assessed by analytical recovery of purified transferrin. The immunoephelometric assay for transferrin provides significant advantages over the other methods examined.  (+info)

Ma1, a novel neuron- and testis-specific protein, is recognized by the serum of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders. (7/7228)

The identification of antineuronal antibodies has facilitated the diagnosis of paraneoplastic neurological disorders and the early detection of the associated tumours. It has also led to the cloning of possibly important neuron-specific proteins. In this study we wanted to identify novel antineuronal antibodies in the sera of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders and to clone the corresponding antigens. Serological studies of 1705 sera from patients with suspected paraneoplastic neurological disorders resulted in the identification of four patients with antibodies that reacted with 37 and 40 kDa neuronal proteins (anti-Ma antibodies). Three patients had brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction, and one had dysphagia and motor weakness. Autopsy of two patients showed loss of Purkinje cells, Bergmann gliosis and deep cerebellar white matter inflammatory infiltrates. Extensive neuronal degeneration, gliosis and infiltrates mainly composed of CD8+ T cells were also found in the brainstem of one patient. In normal human and rat tissues, the anti-Ma antibodies reacted exclusively with neurons and with testicular germ cells; the reaction was mainly with subnuclear elements (including the nucleoli) and to a lesser degree the cytoplasm. Anti-Ma antibodies also reacted with the cancers (breast, colon and parotid) available from three anti-Ma patients, but not with 66 other tumours of varying histological types. Preincubation of tissues with any of the anti-Ma sera abrogated the reactivity of the other anti-Ma immunoglobulins. Probing of a human complementary DNA library with anti-Ma serum resulted in the cloning of a gene that encodes a novel 37 kDa protein (Mal). Recombinant Mal was specifically recognized by the four anti-Ma sera but not by 337 control sera, including those from 52 normal individuals, 179 cancer patients without paraneoplastic neurological symptoms, 96 patients with paraneoplastic syndromes and 10 patients with non-cancer-related neurological disorders. The expression of Mal mRNA is highly restricted to the brain and testis. Subsequent analysis suggested that Mal is likely to be a phosphoprotein. Our study demonstrates that some patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders develop antibodies against Mal, a new member of an expanding family of 'brain/testis' proteins.  (+info)

Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary cultures by a slide agglutination test. (8/7228)

Hen antigonococcal lipopolysaccharide hen serum was used in a simple slide agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary isolates.  (+info)

Prevention includes good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food. Vaccines are also available for people traveling to areas where the infection is common. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The term "immune complex disease" was first used in the 1960s to describe a group of conditions that were thought to be caused by the formation of immune complexes. These diseases include:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): an autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple organ systems and is characterized by the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints and can lead to joint damage.
3. Type III hypersensitivity reaction: a condition in which immune complexes are deposited in tissues, leading to inflammation and tissue damage.
4. Pemphigus: a group of autoimmune diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against desmosomal antigens.
5. Bullous pemphigoid: an autoimmune disease that affects the skin and is characterized by the formation of large blisters.
6. Myasthenia gravis: an autoimmune disorder that affects the nervous system, causing muscle weakness and fatigue.
7. Goodpasture's syndrome: a rare autoimmune disease that affects the kidneys and lungs, characterized by the presence of immune complexes in the glomeruli of the kidneys.
8. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and waste products accumulate in the kidneys, leading to kidney failure.

Immune complex diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and exposure to certain drugs or toxins. Treatment options for these diseases include medications that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, and plasmapheresis, which is a process that removes harmful antibodies from the blood. In some cases, organ transplantation may be necessary.

In conclusion, immune complex diseases are a group of disorders that occur when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues and organs, leading to inflammation and damage. These diseases can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and its severity, but may include medications that suppress the immune system and plasmapheresis.

1. Autoimmune diseases: These occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues in the body. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes.
2. Allergies: An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to a harmless substance, such as pollen, dust mites, or certain foods. Symptoms can range from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.
3. Immunodeficiency disorders: These are conditions that impair the immune system's ability to fight infections. Examples include HIV/AIDS and primary immunodeficiency diseases.
4. Infectious diseases: Certain infections, such as tuberculosis or bacterial meningitis, can cause immune system dysfunction.
5. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as lymphoma, affect the immune system's ability to fight disease.
6. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack and destroy platelets, leading to bleeding and bruising.
7. Guillain-Barré syndrome: This is a rare autoimmune disorder that occurs when the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
8. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): This is a condition characterized by persistent fatigue, muscle pain, and joint pain, which is thought to be related to an immune system imbalance.
9. Fibromyalgia: This is a chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances, which may be linked to immune system dysfunction.
10. Autoimmune hepatitis: This is a condition in which the immune system attacks the liver, leading to inflammation and damage to the liver cells.

It's important to note that a weakened immune system can increase the risk of infections and other health problems, so it's important to work with your healthcare provider to identify any underlying causes and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several different types of malaria, including:

1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.

The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:

1. Fever
2. Chills
3. Headache
4. Muscle and joint pain
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Diarrhea
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:

1. Seizures
2. Coma
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:

1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.

Falciparum malaria can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can lead to anemia, organ failure, and death.

Diagnosis of falciparum malaria typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of parasites in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment usually involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) or quinine, which can effectively cure the disease if administered promptly.

Prevention of falciparum malaria is critical to reducing the risk of infection, and this includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and preventive medications for travelers to high-risk areas. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the number of mosquitoes and the spread of the disease.

In summary, falciparum malaria is a severe and life-threatening form of malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is responsible for the majority of malaria-related deaths worldwide. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and death from this disease. Prevention measures include the use of bed nets, indoor spraying, and preventive medications, as well as reducing standing water around homes and communities.

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.

There are several subtypes of LES, including:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.

There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.

It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.

Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.

The condition is characterized by an exaggerated immune response, which can cause inflammation in various parts of the body, including the skin, eyes, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. IRIS can manifest as a range of symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, pain, and swelling in the affected areas.

The exact cause of IRIS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the restoration of immune function after being suppressed by HIV. When ART is initiated, the immune system begins to recover, and the body mounts an immune response against previously latent viral reservoirs. This can lead to inflammation and tissue damage in some individuals.

The diagnosis of IRIS is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications, and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention strategies for IRIS include careful monitoring of patients on ART, early detection and treatment of opportunistic infections, and the use of corticosteroids to prevent or treat inflammation. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the risk of IRIS and to monitor patients closely, particularly during the early stages of ART. With appropriate management, most cases of IRIS resolve without long-term complications.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

There are several types of hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Type I hypersensitivity: This is also known as immediate hypersensitivity and occurs within minutes to hours after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from immune cells, leading to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Examples of Type I hypersensitivity reactions include allergies to pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Type II hypersensitivity: This is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and occurs within days to weeks after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against specific proteins on the surface of cells, leading to their destruction. Examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions include blood transfusion reactions and serum sickness.
3. Type III hypersensitivity: This is also known as immune complex hypersensitivity and occurs when antigens bind to immune complexes, leading to the formation of deposits in tissues. Examples of Type III hypersensitivity reactions include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
4. Type IV hypersensitivity: This is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity and occurs within weeks to months after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

The diagnosis of hypersensitivity often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and elimination diets or challenges. Treatment depends on the specific type of hypersensitivity reaction and may include avoidance of the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory therapy.

The main symptoms of PTI include:

* Purple spots or bruises (purpura) on the skin, which may be caused by minor trauma or injury.
* Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), typically less than 50,000 platelets/mm3.
* Mild anemia and reticulocytosis (increased immature red blood cells).
* Elevated levels of autoantibodies against platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) and other platelet proteins.
* No evidence of other causes of thrombocytopenia, such as bone marrow disorders or infections.

The exact cause of PTI is unknown, but it is believed to involve an immune-mediated response triggered by a genetic predisposition. Treatment options for PTI include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and splenectomy in severe cases. The prognosis for PTI is generally good, with most patients experiencing resolution of symptoms and normalization of platelet counts within a few months to a year after treatment. However, some individuals may experience recurrent episodes of thrombocytopenia and purpura throughout their lives.

Examples of Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes include:

1. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PIDDs): These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the immune system's ability to function properly. Examples include X-linked agammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency, and severe combined immunodeficiency.
2. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): This is a condition that results from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which destroys CD4 cells, a type of immune cell that fights off infections.
3. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP): This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack and destroy platelets, which are blood cells that help the blood to clot.
4. Autoimmune Disorders: These are conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages healthy cells and tissues in the body. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis.
5. Immunosuppressive Therapy-induced Immunodeficiency: This is a condition that occurs as a side effect of medications used to prevent rejection in organ transplant patients. These medications can suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infections.

Symptoms of Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes can vary depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the immune system dysfunction. Common symptoms include recurrent infections, fatigue, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for these syndromes range from medications to suppress the immune system to surgery or bone marrow transplantation.

In summary, Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes are a group of disorders that result from dysfunction of the immune system, leading to recurrent infections and other symptoms. There are many different types of these syndromes, each with its own set of symptoms and treatment options.

The symptoms of glomerulonephritis can vary depending on the underlying cause of the disease, but may include:

* Blood in the urine (hematuria)
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Reduced kidney function
* Swelling in the legs and ankles (edema)
* High blood pressure

Glomerulonephritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as staphylococcal or streptococcal infections
* Autoimmune disorders such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
* Allergic reactions to certain medications
* Genetic defects
* Certain diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and sickle cell anemia

The diagnosis of glomerulonephritis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and kidney biopsy.

Treatment for glomerulonephritis depends on the underlying cause of the disease and may include:

* Antibiotics to treat infections
* Medications to reduce inflammation and swelling
* Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body
* Immunosuppressive medications to suppress the immune system in cases of autoimmune disorders
* Dialysis in severe cases

The prognosis for glomerulonephritis depends on the underlying cause of the disease and the severity of the inflammation. In some cases, the disease may progress to end-stage renal disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant. With proper treatment, however, many people with glomerulonephritis can experience a good outcome and maintain their kidney function over time.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

During convalescence, patients may be advised to follow specific dietary restrictions, engage in gentle exercise, and avoid strenuous activities that can exacerbate their condition or slow down the healing process. They may also receive medical treatment, such as physical therapy, medication, or other forms of supportive care, to aid in their recovery.

The duration of convalescence varies depending on the individual and the nature of their illness or injury. In general, convalescence can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity and complexity of the condition being treated.

Overall, the goal of convalescence is to allow the body to heal and recover fully, while also minimizing the risk of complications and promoting optimal functional outcomes.

The symptoms of AIDS can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Cancer and other opportunistic infections.

AIDS is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies or the virus itself. There is no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

In summary, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe and life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is characterized by a severely weakened immune system, which makes it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. While there is no cure for AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

Types of Infection:

1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

Symptoms of Infection:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Headache
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
8. Coughing
9. Diarrhea
10. Vomiting

Treatment of Infection:

1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.

Prevention of Infection:

1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.

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"Isothiocyanate Compounds as Fluorescent Labeling Agents for Immune Serum". The American Journal of Pathology. 34 (6): 1081-1097 ... Downs conducted groundbreaking microbiology research surrounding the animal immune responses to tularemia, commonly known as ...
Riggs JL, Seiwald RJ, Burckhalter JH (1958). "Isothiocyanate Compounds as Fluorescent Labeling Agents for Immune Serum". The ...
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"An Agglutinable Factor in Human Blood Recognized by Immune Sera for Rhesus Blood". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 43: 223. ... In an RhD negative mother, Rho(D) immune globulin can prevent temporary sensitization of the maternal immune system to RhD ... immune globulin. With successful mitigation of this disease by prevention through the use of anti-Rho(D) immune globulin, other ... The use of Rh immune globulin to prevent the disease in babies of Rh negative mothers has become standard practice, and the ...
Landsteiner K, Wiener AS (1940). "An Agglutinable Factor in Human Blood Recognized by Immune Sera for Rhesus Blood". Exp Biol ... "An agglutinable factor in human blood recognized by immune sera for rhesus blood". Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 43: 223-4. doi: ... The serum that led to the discovery was produced by immunizing rabbits with red blood cells from a rhesus macaque. The antigen ... In May 1941, the third anti-Rh serum (M.S.) of Group O became available. Based on the serologic similarities, Rh factor was ...
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Shah C, Hari-Dass R, Raynes JG (Sep 2006). "Serum amyloid A is an innate immune opsonin for Gram-negative bacteria". Blood. 108 ... "Serum amyloid A binding to CLA-1 (CD36 and LIMPII analogous-1) mediates serum amyloid A protein-induced activation of ERK1/2 ... Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAA1 gene. SAA1 is a major acute-phase protein mainly ... Sun L, Zhou H, Zhu Z, Yan Q, Wang L, Liang Q, Ye RD (May 2015). "Ex vivo and in vitro effect of serum amyloid a in the ...
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Myung SK, Ju W, Kim SC, Kim H (October 2011). "Vitamin or antioxidant intake (or serum level) and risk of cervical neoplasm: a ... Other risk factors include smoking, a weak immune system, birth control pills, starting sex at a young age, and having many ... Gadducci A, Barsotti C, Cosio S, Domenici L, Riccardo Genazzani A (August 2011). "Smoking habit, immune suppression, oral ...
The supposed HIT is a mixture derived from blood serum, including at least one opioid-like substance. DADLE is an opioid that ... "Periodic arousal from hibernation is necessary for initiation of immune responses in ground squirrels". American Journal of ... 2020). "Hibernating bear serum hinders osteoclastogenesis in-vitro". PLOS ONE. 15 (8): e0238132. Bibcode:2020PLoSO..1538132N. ... of high body temperature during hibernation allow the animal to restore its available energy sources or to initiate an immune ...
Granulysin plays a role in a myriad of diseases, where it can be a positive or negative influence on the immune response. In ... Patients with high levels of Granulysin in blood serum are better able to fight off metastasis, and generally progression of ... Its expression is restricted to cytotoxic immune cells such as cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Orthologs ... 15 kDa plays other roles in immunological processes, such as in antigen-presenting cell maturation and in immune cell migration ...
Cases may be severe, especially in children, pregnant women or people with suppressed immune systems. The disease is caused by ... "Internationalt udbrud af abekopper (monkeypox)". Statens Serum Institut (in Danish). Retrieved 18 October 2022. "Denmark ... A short review suggests supportive care may typically be sufficient and that several antivirals and vaccinia immune globulin ... Antiviral drugs, cidofovir and tecovirimat, vaccinia immune globulin and the smallpox vaccine may be used during outbreaks. The ...
Stage three tests of the Valneva COVID-19 vaccine find it to be very effective in priming the immune system against COVID-19. ... reports that the EU's vaccine passport scheme does not recognise the AstraZeneca vaccine manufactured by India's Serum ... "Covid: Immune therapy from llamas shows promise". BBC News. 22 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021. "BP closes some ... Older people, those with Down's Syndrome, and weakened immune systems are among those identified as at high risk of illness ...
When Kat finds an infected baby in a medical waste bin, Wong injects her with a serum of the virus to test if she is immune to ... Realizing she is immune to the virus, Wong calls for a military helicopter, intending to take her to a safe location. He warns ...
However, since a decrease in the serum concentration is only detectable after long-term or severe depletion, serum zinc is not ... Rink L, Gabriel P (November 2000). "Zinc and the immune system". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 59 (4): 541-52. doi: ... Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal ... In 1950 a normal serum zinc level was first defined, and found to be 17.3-22.1 micromoles/liter. In 1956 cirrhotic patients ...
At the time, chronic infectious hepatitis was not known, so when human serum was used in vaccine preparation, serum drawn from ... It should not be given to those with very poor immune function. Yellow fever vaccine came into use in 1938. It is on the World ... It was safer but involved the use of large amounts of human serum, which limited widespread use. Both vaccines were in use for ... June 2008). "Immune response during adverse events after 17D-derived yellow fever vaccination in Europe". The Journal of ...
This infection largely occurs in the lungs of immune compromised patients but infection may also occur in the skin or other ... Immunotoxicity Studies in fish showed aflatoxin B1 to have significant immunosuppressive effects including reduced serum total ...
The production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and interferon-gamma, all crucial components of normal immune responses, ... Additionally, people with COVID‑19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have classical serum biomarkers of CRS, ... The N and E protein are accessory proteins that interfere with the host's immune response. Human angiotensin converting enzyme ... Rates of cardiovascular symptoms are high, owing to the systemic inflammatory response and immune system disorders during ...
The TAAs can help prevent the bacteria from being destroyed by the host's immune system. In particular in the case of certain ... Yersinia spp., the TAA YadA has a role in autoagglutination, serum resistance, complement inactivation, and phagocytosis ... physical barriers and immune system barriers. The bacterium must enter the host's body and, in the case of Yersinia sp., invade ... in people with a weakened immune system, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or fighting AIDS, it is more serious as it can ...
It is discovered that the serum allows the aliens to control both Abraham and a giant Gila monster that ingested the serum, ... It is equipped with a laser for long-range combat and a blade in its arm for fighting in close quarters, and is immune to ... They are all animals on exhibit at the Shining Sea Aquarium that were affected by a viral serum, transforming them into undead ... Unlike Abraham, the Gila monster is completely under the control of the aliens that created the serum. As a result, the device ...
Indeed, serum levels of LECT2 are increased in animal models of insulin-resistant diabetes as well as in individual diabetics ... This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony ... 2005). "Changes in serum LECT 2 levels during the early period of liver regeneration after adult living related donor liver ... 2005). "Serum LECT2 level as a prognostic indicator in acute liver failure". Transplant. Proc. 36 (8): 2359-61. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... Immune sera and immunoglobulins is a therapeutic subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification ... Bezlotoxumab J06BC04 Obiltoxaximab J06BD01 Palivizumab J06BD02 Motavizumab J06BD03 Tixagevimab and cilgavimab Immune sera and ... Tetanus antitoxin J06AA03 Snake venom antiserum J06AA04 Botulinum antitoxin J06AA05 Gas-gangrene sera J06AA06 Rabies serum ...
An mRNA vaccine designed to cause a strong fast immune response to tick saliva allowed the immune system to detect and remove ... Benach supplied him with more ticks from Shelter Island and sera from people diagnosed with Lyme disease. University of Texas ... burgdorferi antibodies by the immune system. The spirochetes may avoid the immune response by decreasing expression of surface ... The immune system takes some time to produce antibodies in quantity. After Lyme infection onset, antibodies of types IgM and ...
Serum protein electrophoresis results indicate evidence of a monoclonal spike but cannot establish the spike as IgM. An M ... Koshiol, J.; Gridley, G.; Engels, E.; McMaster, M.; Landgren, O. (2008). "Chronic immune stimulation and subsequent Waldenström ... An additional predictive factor is elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Of cancers involving the lymphocytes, 1% of ... High-resolution electrophoresis and serum and urine immunofixation are recommended to help identify and characterize the ...
A patient infected with HTLV can be diagnosed when antibodies against HTLV-1 are detected in the serum. HTLV-1 is a retrovirus ... Immune Defic. Syndr. 4 (5): 460-7. PMID 2016683. Ancient virus lurking in remote Australia, affecting thousands of Aboriginal ... The result is a reduction in the ability of the infected host to mount an adequate immune response to invading organisms that ... antigen in an ATL cell line and detection of antibodies to the antigen in human sera". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
... "for study of the immune system" 1919 Jules Bordet (1870-1961), "for discovery of the complement system in the immune system" ... "for his serum therapy to treat diphtheria" (First ever Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine) 1908 Eli Metchnikoff (1845-1916) ... "for the discovery that the immune system of the fetus learns how to distinguish between self and non-self" 1972 Gerald Maurice ... "for work on the immune system and the production of monoclonal antibodies" 1987 Susumu Tonegawa (1939-), "for discovering how ...
... of normal serum level of A1AT PiSS: 60% of normal serum level of A1AT PiMZ: 60% of normal serum level of A1AT PiSZ: 40% of ... a primary role as a sentinel in immune vigilance. A1AT is both an endogenous protease inhibitor and an exogenous one used as ... The level of A1AT in serum is most often determined by adding an antibody that binds to A1AT, then using turbidimetry to ... The serum levels of some of the common genotypes are: PiMM: 100% (normal) PiMS: 80% ...
Only Warlock, being a Technarch, is immune to her manipulations and suspects that Gosamyr is a threat before it is too late, ... a former soldier who had volunteered for experiments to re-create the Super-Soldier Serum. After leaving the Marine Corps, one ...
For example, she has used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to link individual genomes to their serum glycome and ... "Glycosylation and the immune system". Science. 291 (5512): 2370-2376. doi:10.1126/SCIENCE.291.5512.2370. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID ...
She is also the one who mixes and administers the counteragent serum. She does not particularly care for Darien at first, ... his body having become gradually immune to the standard counteragent - but after briefly returning to his old thieving career ...
RLRs often interact and create cross-talk with the TLRs in the innate immune response and in regulation of adaptive immune ... Complement receptors, collectins, ficolins, pentraxins such as serum amyloid and C-reactive protein, lipid transferases, ... One very important collectin is mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a major PRR of the innate immune system that binds to a wide range ... Many different cells of the innate immune system express a myriad of CLRs which shape innate immunity by virtue of their ...
Polyclonal antisera is serum that contains antibodies secreted by B cell lineages (cells derived from bone marrow). Monoclonal ... So far, scientists have not been able to genetically modify a grapevine that is immune to GVA. However, they are still working ... a type of serum containing antibodies). If the grapevine is infected with GVA, antibody particles will form around the ...
Easily defeated by facing opponents who are immune as they do not know the meaning of love, a mortified PePe finds himself at ... However, after studying Giselle's power, Mayuri devised a serum to alter the blood in zombified Soul Reapers and make them into ... This allows him to not only increase or decrease the lethal dosage needed to kill his opponent, he can render himself immune to ...
The amount of LPC released is small, so it is unclear how it is able to set up a concentration gradient in the serum or plasma ... If the body's immune system, or more specifically phagocytes, fail to clear dying cells in the body, symptoms such as chronic ... It may bind to components of the serum, making it unavailable to be modified or taken into other tissues. LPC may also be able ... Only a fraction of these new cells will stay and become mature, while the rest will die and be cleared by the body's immune ...
Immune-mediated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Infections: leprosy, lyme disease, ... and a serum immunofixation test, which tests for antibodies in the blood. The treatment of peripheral neuropathy varies based ... In peripheral neuropathy that stems from immune-mediated diseases, the underlying condition is treated with intravenous ... immune system disease, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or viral infection. It can also be genetic (present from ...
... effect on immune parameters in neonate" (1995, with T. R. Kramer and J. Cecil Smith) "Serum carotenoid concentrations and their ... Apgar, J; Makdani, D; Sowell, A L; Gunter, E W; Hegar, A; Potts, W; Rao, D; Wilcox, A; Smith, J C (1996-11-01). "Serum ... effect on immune parameters in neonate". Nutrition Research. 15 (4): 545-554. doi:10.1016/0271-5317(95)00022-4. ISSN 0271-5317 ...
Beginning in August 2020, CoVLP was in a Phase I clinical trial at two locations in Quebec to evaluate its safety and immune ... There was no CoVLP dose effect on serum NAbs, but titers increased significantly with both adjuvants. After the second dose, ... The GSK adjuvant is intended to enhance the immune response to CoVLP, reducing the amount of antigen required per dose, thereby ... NAbs in the CoVLP + AS03 groups were more than tenfold higher than titers in Coronavirus 2019 convalescent sera. Both spike ...
Subsequent testing of patient serum for evidence of serum specific IgG antibodies confirms patient exposure. Clinical tests ... For most infections, the immune response of the body is enough to control and apprehend the infection within a couple days, but ... Certain immune-modulating treatments may be appropriate for patients with chronic pneumonitis. Azathioprine and mycophenolate ...
Report of a collaborative study to assess the suitability of a replacement 3rd international standard for anti-poliovirus sera ... Immunoglobulin standard preparations in replacement of hyperimmune animal sera : with special reference to anti-rabies, anti- ... Proposed international standard for anti-brucella ovis serum / The Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, Surrey, United ... of a collaborative study to assess the suitability of a replacement for the 2nd international standard for anti-measles serum ...
... miR-155 Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia Patients Was Correlated with Serum ... miR-155 Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia Patients Was Correlated with Serum ... We investigated the possible pathogenic role of a microRNA (miR-155) in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). We used ... Abnormal Expression of Long Noncoding RNAs in Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Microarray Related Study Cellular Physiology ...
Immune Cell Activation in Melioidosis: Increased Serum Levels of Interferon- and Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptors without Change ... Immune Cell Activation in Melioidosis: Increased Serum Levels of Interferon- and Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptors without Change ...
PROBIOTICS Pro-Immune Serum stabilizes the skins immune cells, strengthens its microbiome, and protects it against digital ... PROBIOTICS Pro-Immune Serum stabilizes the skins immune cells, strengthens its microbiome, and protects it against digital ... Be the first to review "PROBIOTICS PRO-IMMUNE SERUM 50ML" Cancel Reply. Your rating *. Rate…. Perfect. Good. Average. Not that ... The highly concentrated PROBIOTICS Pro-Immune Serum acts as a protective shield against negative environmental stressors. ...
A study of standard rubella virus and immune rabbit serum against rubella virus proposed for designation as WHO reference ... Vaccines, sera, immunoglobulins : a practical handbook / Michael Pontecorvo. by Pontecorvo, Michael.. Edition: English ed. ...
... potential serum biomarkers for OS diagnosis and metastatic prediction were identified based on an analysis of immune cell ... this study was to identify novel key serum biomarkers for the diagnosis and metastatic prediction of OS by analysis of immune ... Further, the contribution of the immune response to OS progression is not well defined. However, it is known that circRNAs and ... Further, in association with immune cell infiltration, hsa-circ-0010220, hsa-miR-326, hsa-miR-338-3p, and FAM98A were ...
Dynamic Changes of Serum Heart Type-Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Cancer Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. ... H-FABP; cardio-oncology; cardiotoxicity; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related adverse events ... Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are effective anti-cancer drugs that can improve survival in cancer patients, but their use ... Dynamic Changes of Serum Heart Type-Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Cancer Patients Treated ...
In a tissue-culture neutralization test, Sixgun City virus plaques were unaffected by immune sera from 13 viruses: Chenuda (Ar ... immune sera [1] . In CF tests we were unable to show a relationship between Sixgun City and Chenuda viruses, although this was ...
Immune Complex Diseases [‎4]‎. Immune Reconstitution [‎1]‎. Immune Sera [‎12]‎. Immune System [‎6]‎. ...
Immune mechanisms in homotransplantation. 1. The role of serum antibody and complement in the neutralization of lymphoma cells ... Depression by antibody of the immune response to homografts and its role in immunological enhancement. Snell, G. D.; Winn, H. J ... Immune mechanisms in homotransplantation. II. Quantitative assay of the immunologic activity of lymphoid cells stimulated by ...
I. Neutralizing indices of immune hamster sera in cross-neutralization tests in mice (intraperitoneal inoculation): ... Neutralization tests with immune horse gamma globulin (1:1000) against the strain Hypr [5] in HeLa cells: ...
Categories: Immune Sera Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
Blood serum; Immune reaction; Tissue culture; Cytokines; Electrochemical analysis; Chemiluminescence immunoassay; Blood cells; ... Serum bioactivity (with and without exosomal fractions) was assessed via 1) serum cumulative inflammatory potential (SCIP) ... A significant increase in TNF-alpha gene expression was observed with serum containing the exosomal fraction when compared with ... We previously reported that short-term MWCNT exposure produces serum bioactivity that impairs endothelial function leading to ...
Type III is immune complex reactions, which result in vasculitis, serum sickness, and urticaria. ... Cutaneous Immune-Related Adverse Events (irAEs) to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Dermatology Perspective on Management. J ... Serum chemistry studies (especially for electrolyte balance and indices of renal or hepatic function in patients with severe ... Serum sickness [26] - Antithymocyte globulin for bone marrow failure, human rabies vaccine, penicillin, pneumococcal vaccine ( ...
The immune system reacts to medicines that contain proteins used to treat immune conditions. It can also react to antiserum, ... Serum sickness is a reaction that is similar to an allergy. ... During serum sickness, the immune system falsely identifies a ... Immune system elements and the antiserum combine to form immune complexes, which cause the symptoms of serum sickness. ... Serum sickness is a reaction that is similar to an allergy. The immune system reacts to medicines that contain proteins used to ...
Immune electron microscopy: Immune serum is used to aggregate virus in stool samples to aid detection ... Serum antibody titers can be detected within 2 weeks of illness. During norovirus infection, immunoglobulin M (IgM) to ... Norovirus pathogenesis: mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion in human populations. Immunol Rev. 2008 Oct. 225:190-211. ...
J06 IMMUNE SERA AND IMMUNOGLOBULINS. J06B IMMUNOGLOBULINS. J06BC Antibacterial monoclonal antibodies. J06BC04 Obiltoxaximab. ...
Omicron variant showed lower neutralizing sensitivity than other SARS-CoV-2 variants to immune sera elicited by vaccines after ... Zhang L, Li Q, Liang Z, Li T, Liu S, Cui Q, et al. The significant immune escape of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron. ...
Remaining CSF and serum specimens are being used for exploring immune mediated responses and mechanisms for AFM. So individual ... In serum, we suggest obtaining enterovirus PCR and if the MRI is abnormal with a distinctive gray matter lesions that well ... Another possibility is that the pathogen triggers an immune response in the body that causes damage to the spinal cord. And CDC ... In fact, based on some recent data looking at seroprevalence rates against EV-D68 using sera that was collected before 2014, ...
... in enhanced activation of both the classical and the alternative complement pathways on dead cells when exposed to human serum ... in enhanced activation of both the classical and the alternative complement pathways on dead cells when exposed to human serum ... I. Demonstration and isolation of a new serum protein, properdin, and its role in immune phenomena. Science. (1954) 120:279-85 ... Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was from Applichem (Darmstadt, Germany). Human serum albumin (HSA) and the anti-mCRP mAb were ...
Immune recognition of different components of SE in serum and the intestinal tract will be compared. The protective role of ... Birds will be orally infected with salmonella enteritidis (SE) and serum and intestinal anti-SE antibody levels will be ... Examine the development of local humoral immune response at mucosal surfaces in chickens and compare this response with ... The birds will be re-infected to determine the development of serum and intestinal immunological memory. ...
Identifying HIV-2-seropositive individuals by reevaluating HIV-1 indeterminate sera. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1992;5:417-23 ... Only those sera that are repeatedly reactive by the combination HIV-1/HIV-2 test, negative or indeterminate by the HIV-1 ... Busch M, Petersen L, Schable C, Perkins H. Monitoring blood donors for HIV-2 infection by testing anti-HIV-1 reactive sera. ... Positive HIV-2 specimens were detected among sera from two of 19,504 clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, but in ...
Measurement of Metabolic and Inflammatory Serum Markers and Immune Marker Gene Expression during Superovulation in Beef Cattle ...
Ricin toxic kinetics and its sensitive detection in mouse sera or feces using immune-PCR. Plos One. 2010; 5(9): e12858. doi: ... IPCR analysis of sera from mice fed ricin showed that the toxin was rapidly sequestered from the sera (30 minutes) with a half- ... Immune-PCR: very sensitive antigen detection by means of specific antibody-DNA conjugates. Science. 1992; 258(5079): 120-122.. ... The assay was then performed with ricin dissolved in human serum revealing a detection limit of 0.5 fg/mL. The method has also ...
  • Serum sickness is a reaction that is similar to an allergy . (
  • During serum sickness, the immune system falsely identifies a protein in antiserum as a harmful substance ( antigen ). (
  • Immune system elements and the antiserum combine to form immune complexes, which cause the symptoms of serum sickness. (
  • Injected proteins such as antithymocyte globulin (used to treat organ transplant rejection) and rituximab (used to treat immune disorders and cancers) can cause serum sickness reactions. (
  • Blood products may also cause serum sickness. (
  • Unlike other drug allergies , which occur very soon after receiving the medicine, serum sickness develops 7 to 21 days after the first exposure to a medicine. (
  • If you use the drug or antiserum that caused serum sickness again in the future, your risk of having another similar reaction is high. (
  • Contact your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness. (
  • There is no known way to prevent the development of serum sickness. (
  • People who have had serum sickness or drug allergy should avoid future use of the antiserum or drug. (
  • GAZYVA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis) to obinutuzumab or any of the excipients, including serum sickness with prior obinutuzumab use. (
  • This type of hypersensitivity is observed in serum sickness arthritis and glomerulonephritis. (
  • A number of diseases are due to the systemic effects of immune complexes (antibodies linked to antigens) that arise in the appropriate response to an infection or in serum sickness, and these especially affect the kidneys, skin, and joints. (
  • But it does contain many proteins, including antibodies, which are formed as part of the immune response to protect against infection. (
  • Antibodies attach to a specific antigen and make it easier for the immune cells to destroy the antigen. (
  • The protective role of serum and mucosal antibodies will be ascertained by passive administration of antibodies to naive birds and following the progression of the infection. (
  • Passive immunity, the transfer of antibody-rich substances from an immune subject to a non-immune subject who is susceptible to disease, is important in infancy, where maternal antibodies protect the child until its own immune responses have matured. (
  • The phenomena observed on absorption of immune sera to azoproteins with heterologous azoantigens lead to the conclusion that in general the sera do not contain a single antibody but antibody fractions somewhat different in their reactivity for heterologous antigens. (
  • Integral protein microarrays for the identification of lung cancer antigens in sera that induce a humoral immune response. (
  • Protein microarrays from tumor-derived fractions hold the diagnostic potential of uncovering antigens that induce an immune response in patients with certain types of cancers. (
  • The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by recognizing and responding to antigens . (
  • The immune system recognizes and destroys, or tries to destroy, substances that contain antigens. (
  • Your immune system learns to see these antigens as normal and usually does not react against them. (
  • T lymphocytes attack antigens directly and help control the immune response. (
  • Rheumatic disorders associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with cancer-clinical aspects and relationship with tumour response: a single-centre prospective cohort study. (
  • The humoral immune response represents a form of biological amplification of signals that are otherwise weak because of very low concentrations of antigen, especially in the early stages of cancers. (
  • If an antigen gets past these barriers, it is attacked and destroyed by other parts of the immune system. (
  • Your immune system builds a defense against that specific antigen. (
  • This allows your immune system to respond faster and more efficiently the next time you are exposed to the same antigen. (
  • Small doses of an antigen, such as dead or weakened live viruses, are given to activate immune system "memory" (activated B cells and sensitized T cells). (
  • Different populations of immune cells are engaged in an allergic reaction, including antigen presenting cells (e.g., dendritic cells), mast cells and Ig-E producing B cells and T cells. (
  • The birds will be re-infected to determine the development of serum and intestinal immunological memory. (
  • Examine the development of local humoral immune response at mucosal surfaces in chickens and compare this response with systemic immunity. (
  • The identification of biomarkers (both molecules and profiles) in patient sera offers enormous interest for the diagnosis of cancers. (
  • In addition to monitoring lack of reduction in viral load, serum levels of IP-10 and IL-10 expression during acute HCV infection may be useful biomarkers to predict the progress to chronic HCV. (
  • Immune serum globulin (given for hepatitis exposure) and tetanus antitoxin are examples of passive immunization. (
  • The initial method of prevention depended on postexposure prophylaxis with immune gamma globulin (Stokes et al. (
  • An effort to allow the infection to take place, but in an attenuated form, by injecting less immune globulin was usually successful. (
  • Administration of the vaccine with immune globulin of the proper titer attenuated the reaction without interfering with the induction of permanent immunity. (
  • Herein we present the use of integral microarrays spotted with tumor-derived proteins to investigate the antibody repertoire in the sera of lung cancer patients and controls. (
  • Birds will be orally infected with salmonella enteritidis (SE) and serum and intestinal anti-SE antibody levels will be ascertained over time. (
  • Vaccination ( immunization ) is a way to trigger the immune response. (
  • Serum bioactivity (with and without exosomal fractions) was assessed via 1) serum cumulative inflammatory potential (SCIP) assay on mouse brain endothelial cells (MBEC) and 2) myography using naïve thoracic aorta from male C57BL6 mice incubated with 1% serum from exposed mice to evaluate vasodilatory changes. (
  • These preliminary findings suggest that MWCNT pulmonary exposure induces inflammatory activation in the lungs of C57BL6 mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner and may produce serum bioactivity via exosomal delivery. (
  • Allergy is an overactive immune (hypersensitivity) reaction to a harmless entity sensed as dangerous by the immune system. (
  • Type III hypersensitivity reaction is also known as immune-complex reaction. (
  • We aim at identifying novel glyco-markers of response and survival by leveraging the N- glycome of total serum proteins collected in 88 ICI-naive patients with advanced melanoma from two European countries. (
  • The immune system reacts to medicines that contain proteins used to treat immune conditions. (
  • They also release chemicals, known as cytokines, which control the entire immune response. (
  • In certain diseases, such as tetanus and rabies, immune serum gives valuable immediate passive protection in non-immune subjects. (
  • Several immune markers have been quantified in the serum throughout therapy, including peanut-specific IgE, IgG4, and IgA. (
  • Immune complexes and allergic disease. (
  • The complement system is a key humoral component of innate immunity, and in addition to its many other functions, it is involved in the clearance of waste material, such as immune complexes and apoptotic and necrotic cells ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Saliva and serum were collected at baseline, 30, 82, 134 and 160 weeks, and salivary peanut-specific and total IgG4 and IgA were quantified by ELISA. (
  • Detection of host immune responses in acute phase sera of spontaneous resolution versus persistent hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • Viral transmission in subjects with a known date of infection allows the study of the immune responses to acute HCV infection. (
  • A The mean proportion of 22 immune cells in the 17 OS patient tissues and six normal human tissues. (
  • D Principal component analysis of immune cell infiltration patterns of 22 types of immune cell between the OS patient tissues and normal human tissues. (
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and tissues were collected. (
  • The Ectoin® in the serum also supports the skin's own protective mechanisms by protecting the Langerhans cells responsible for the skin's defense mechanisms. (
  • The highly concentrated PROBIOTICS Pro-Immune Serum acts as a protective shield against negative environmental stressors. (
  • Immune system disorders occur when the immune response is directed against body tissue, is excessive, or is lacking. (
  • In a paper recently published in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice , Smeekens et al quantified salivary peanut-specific and total IgG4 and IgA in participants from the Immune Tolerance Network's IMPACT study, a phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PnOIT. (
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of melanoma and other cancers. (
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are effective anti- cancer drugs that can improve survival in cancer patients , but their use may be associated with adverse cardiovascular side effects. (
  • PROBIOTICS Pro-Immune Serum stabilizes the skin's immune cells, strengthens its microbiome, and protects it against digital aging. (
  • Tumor-infiltrating immune cells analyzed by the identified DEmRNAs. (
  • The P values showed different infiltrating types of immune cells. (
  • The immune system includes certain types of white blood cells. (
  • Some of these directly attack foreign substances in the body, and others work together to help the immune system cells. (
  • Once B cells and T cells are formed, a few of those cells will multiply and provide "memory" for your immune system. (
  • Different types of lymphocytes grow and mature inside a lymph node, and these immune cells help the body fight infections. (
  • Infections, cancer, and many immune diseases can affect lymph cells and cause an enlargement of lymph nodes. (
  • Interactions of the FHRs with pentraxins resulted in enhanced activation of both the classical and the alternative complement pathways on dead cells when exposed to human serum. (
  • We previously reported that short-term MWCNT exposure produces serum bioactivity that impairs endothelial function leading to vasodilatory insufficiencies, as well as induction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairments. (
  • Next, the microarrays were individually incubated with 14 serum samples from patients with lung cancer patients, 14 sera from colon cancer patients, and 14 control sera from normal subjects. (
  • We analysed 39 soluble immune factors in serum samples from subjects with transfusion-transmitted HCV. (
  • Investigation of the role of immunity and its disorders in the causation and manifestations of many diseases has led to the development of immunosuppressive drugs and other agents that are able to interfere with abnormal or destructive immune responses. (
  • Immune deficiency diseases have provided models for the separate parts of the immune system, and have led to methods of replacement of absent components of immunity. (
  • Methods We retrospectively examined all patients at a single centre who had a serum albumin performed in the institutional laboratory before treatment with a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor before January 1, 2018, with follow-up until October 1, 2018. (
  • The reactivity of the selected fractions was analyzed, and the level of immunoglobulin bound to each fraction by each serum sample was quantified. (
  • A significant increase in TNF-alpha gene expression was observed with serum containing the exosomal fraction when compared with exosome depleted fractions and DM controls. (
  • 0.01 and were recognized by an average of four reacting patients, whereas no serum from normal individuals was positive for those fractions. (
  • The immune response is how your body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful. (
  • C Correlation matrix of 21 immune cell proportions and immune/stromal score. (
  • Salivary peanut-specific IgG4 was compared to serum levels, and there was a high correlation between local and systemic peanut-specific IgG4 production. (
  • In addition, Beta-glucan stimulates the skin's own immune system and increases the resistance of the skin by doing so. (
  • The result is an immune system response that attacks the antiserum. (
  • Although serum LDH levels were lower in those with favourable oncological response, this relationship was not statistically significant (p=0.16). (
  • Tumours are characterized by aberrant glycosylation which may contribute to their progression and hinder an effective antitumour immune response. (
  • While changes in serum protein glycosylation have been previously implicated in a pro-metastatic melanoma behaviour, we show here that they are also associated with response to ICI, opening new avenues for the stratification of patients and the design of adjunct therapies aiming at improving immune response. (
  • These barriers form the first line of defense in the immune response. (
  • Allergies involve an immune response to a substance that most people's bodies perceive as harmless. (
  • Prospective validation of a prognostic score for patients in immunotherapy phase I trials: The Gustave Roussy Immune Score (GRIm-Score). (
  • Dynamic Changes of Serum Heart Type-Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Cancer Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. (
  • Background Rheumatic immune-related adverse events (irAEs) following immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy for cancer are an increasing burden on rheumatological services but have also been associated with subsequent good oncological outcomes(1). (
  • High serum albumin and low lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)(2) prior to ICI therapy has been associated with subsequent good oncological outcomes, and may therefore predict rheumatic irAEs, but to the best of our knowledge this has not previously been examined. (
  • Objectives To determine the relationship between serum albumin and LDH of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and oncological outcomes following treatment with the main classes of ICI therapy for cancer, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. (
  • Conclusion High serum albumin was associated with good oncological outcomes following ICI therapy with a PD-1 or PD-L1, but not with rheumatic irAEs. (
  • The epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has added some urgency to research. (
  • Immune recognition of different components of SE in serum and the intestinal tract will be compared. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Immune sera. (
  • immune human host population. (
  • Results There were 401 episodes of therapy which met criteria, of which 324 had a serum albumin level and 244 had serum LDH prior to the commencement of therapy. (
  • To date, most reports on the immune effects of statins have assayed a narrow array of variables and have focused on cell lines, rodent models, or patient cohorts. (