Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Mice, Inbred C57BLInterleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CInterleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mice, Inbred C3HReceptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Receptors, Interleukin-13: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Mice, Inbred DBACoculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated: Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsInterleukin-12 Subunit p40: A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Mice, Inbred CBACaspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
It recognizes and blocks interleukin-5 (IL-5), a signalling protein of the immune system. Mepolizumab is approved by the U.S. ...
This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony ... 5: 108-13. doi:10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.03.002. PMC 4816030 . PMID 27051596. Yoo HJ, Hwang SY, Choi JH, Lee HJ, Chung HS, Seo JA, ... The human LECT2 gene, ALECT2, is located on the long, i.e, "q", arm of chromosome 5 at position q31.1 (notated as 5q31.1). ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5". Nature. 431 (7006): 268-74. doi:10.1038/nature02919. ...
This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony ... 64 (5): 790-792. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.06.017. PMID 25064673. Murphy, C. L.; Wang, S.; Kestler, D.; Larsen, C.; Benson, D.; ... The human LECT2 gene, ALECT2, is located on the long, i.e, "q", arm of chromosome 5 at position q31.1 (notated as 5q31.1). ...
Blood cell lineage Hematopoiesis Blood count Haematopoiesis Immune system Innate immune system Trogocytosis White blood cell ... A polypeptide called interleukin-5 interacts with eosinophils and causes them to grow and differentiate; this polypeptide is ... they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil ... How the Immune System Works (3rd edition), Blackwell Publishing, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4051-6221-0. Media related to Granulozyt at ...
... and interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin 12 (IL-12) secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells ... 2006). "Immune Responses in Kala-azar". Indian J Med Res. 123 (3): 245-66. PMID 16778308.. ... Marked Elevation of Both Interleukin-10 and Interferon-gamma". J. Clin. Invest. 91 (4): 1664-8. doi:10.1172/JCI116372. PMC ... Worse, their immune systems were defenseless against this new pathogen, foreign to them though it came only from another part ...
In healthy people, innate and adaptive immune responses are triggered by various immune cells (notably neutrophils, resident ... Type 2 T helper cells appear to play an important role in ABPA due to an increased sensitivity to interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-5. ... Left untreated, the immune system and fungal spores can damage sensitive lung tissues and lead to scarring. The exact criteria ... These include immune factors (such as atopy or immunogenic HLA-restricted phenotypes), as well as genetic factors (such as CFTR ...
During MS ("EAE" in mice), a damaging protein called interleukin-17 (IL-17) is produced by immune cells in the brain. The ... Vitamin D appears to have effects on immune function.[19] It has been postulated to play a role in influenza with lack of ... immune functioning and autoimmune disorders, infections, neuropsychological functioning, and preeclampsia could not be linked ... "Systematic reviews and meta-analyses The AHRQ-Tufts systematic review found no RCTs for immune function clinical outcomes and ...
The nuocyte is a cell of the innate immune system that plays an important role in type 2 immune responses that are induced in ... Mirchandani, A; Salmond, R; Liew, F (2012). "Interleukin-33 and the function of innate lymphoid cells". Trends in Immunology. ... The nuocyte was identified at the same time as several other immune cells that play similar roles in type 2 immunity. These ... Nuocytes are amongst the first cells activated in type 2 immune responses and are thought to play important roles in activating ...
They enter the systemic system to reach the heart and then the liver, and along the way many are killed by the immune cells. ... which mainly produce T-helper-2 cytokines such as interleukins 4, 5, and 13), eosinophils, and, also activated macrophages. ... To evade detection by the host's immune system, the adults have the ability to coat themselves with host antigen. Individuals ... The eggs induce a granulomatous host immune response which is indicated by lymphocytes ( ...
... 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta (IL1 alpha and IL1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune ... "The interleukin-12/interleukin-12-receptor system: role in normal and pathologic immune responses". Annual Review of Immunology ... Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a pleiotropic cytokine that may be important in the regulation of the inflammatory and immune ... Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. ...
Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested that this cytokine may be a proinflammatory cytokine favoring Th2-type immune ... Interleukin-25 (IL-25) - also known as interleukin-17E (IL-17E) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL25 gene. IL- ... "Entrez Gene: IL25 interleukin 25". Ikeda K, Nakajima H, Suzuki K, Kagami S, Hirose K, Suto A, Saito Y, Iwamoto I (May 2003). " ... Büning C, Genschel J, Weltrich R, Lochs H, Schmidt H (Oct 2003). "The interleukin-25 gene located in the inflammatory bowel ...
... is secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response, e.g. during infection and after trauma, ... Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. In ... Interleukin-6 has been shown to interact with interleukin-6 receptor, and glycoprotein 130. There is considerable functional ... Other cytokines that signal through receptors containing gp130 are Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Interleukin 27 (IL-27), ciliary ...
"Interleukin-13 in the skin and interferon-gamma in the liver are key players in immune protection in human schistosomiasis". ... Zurawski G, de Vries JE (January 1994). "Interleukin 13, an interleukin 4-like cytokine that acts on monocytes and B cells, but ... "Interleukin-13 is a new human lymphokine regulating inflammatory and immune responses". Nature. 362 (6417): 248-50. doi:10.1038 ... Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene. IL-13 was first cloned in 1993 and is located ...
"Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 induced interleukin-19 dampens immune reactions and associates inversely with spondyloarthritis ... Interleukin-19 is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-10 family of cytokines along with several other interleukins including IL- ... Interleukin 19 (IL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL19 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine ... It can bind the interleukin-20 receptor complex and lead to the activation of the signal transducer and activator of ...
Li M, Liu X, Zhou Y, Su SB (July 2009). "Interferon-lambdas: the modulators of antivirus, antitumor, and immune responses". ... Interleukin-29 (IL-29) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL29 gene that resides on chromosome 19. IL-29 is a member ... Pagliaccetti NE, Eduardo R, Kleinstein SH, Mu XJ, Bandi P, Robek MD (October 2008). "Interleukin-29 functions cooperatively ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000182393 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: interleukin 29 ( ...
Aspinall R, Henson S, Pido-Lopez J, Ngom PT (2004). "Interleukin-7: an interleukin for rejuvenating the immune system". Ann. N ... "Entrez Gene: IL7 interleukin 7". Noguchi M, Nakamura Y, Russell SM, et al. (1994). "Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a ... "Reviewing the potential utility of interleukin-7 as a promoter of thymopoiesis and immune recovery". Cytokines Cell. Mol. Ther ... "Human follicular dendritic cells and vascular cells produce interleukin-7: a potential role for interleukin-7 in the germinal ...
Subsequently, IL-23 was shown to facilitate development of inflammation in numerous other models of immune pathology where IL- ... Sedgwick JD (Feb 2003). "Interleukin-23 rather than interleukin-12 is the critical cytokine for autoimmune inflammation of the ... Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of an IL12B (IL-12p40) subunit (that is shared with IL12) and the ... Hue S, Ahern P, Buonocore S, Kullberg MC, Cua DJ, McKenzie BS, Powrie F, Maloy KJ (2006). "Interleukin-23 drives innate and T ...
... (IL-26), is a natural human antimicrobial that promotes immune sensing of bacterial and host cell death. IL-26, ... "The T-cell lymphokine interleukin-26 targets epithelial cells through the interleukin-20 receptor 1 and interleukin-10 receptor ... TH17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26. Nature immunology, 16(9), 970-979.. ... 17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26". Nature Immunology. 16 (9): 970-979. ...
IL-22R is expressed on tissue cells, and it is absent on immune cells. Crystallization is possible if the N-linked ... Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor". Annual Review of ... Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is protein that in humans is encoded by the IL22 gene. IL-22 is an α-helical cytokine. IL-22 binds to a ... Xie MH, Aggarwal S, Ho WH, Foster J, Zhang Z, Stinson J, Wood WI, Goddard AD, Gurney AL (Oct 2000). "Interleukin (IL)-22, a ...
Girndt M (2003). "Humoral immune responses in uremia and the role of IL-10". Blood Purification. 20 (5): 485-8. doi:10.1159/ ... Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor". Annual Review of ... Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001-01-01). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor". Annual ... "Recombinant human interleukin 10 in the treatment of patients with mild to moderately active Crohn's disease. The Interleukin ...
Anderson KV (2000). "Toll signaling pathways in the innate immune response". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 12 (1): 13-19. doi:10.1016/ ... The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) homology domain is an intracellular signaling domain found in MyD88, interleukin-1 ... Interleukin-1 receptor InterPro: IPR004075 IL18R1; IL18RAP; IL1R1; IL1RAP; IL1RAPL1; IL1RAPL2; IL1RL1; IL1RL2; MYD88; SIGIRR; ... These proteins are type-I transmembrane receptors that share an intracellular 200 residue domain with the interleukin-1 ...
Th2 also produce Interleukin 4, which facilitates B cell isotype switching. In general, Th2 responses are more effective ... The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a ... The adaptive immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the innate immune ... Unlike the innate immune system, the adaptive immune system is highly specific to a particular pathogen. Adaptive immunity can ...
... that can improve the body's natural response to disease as part of the immune system. It acts by binding to the interleukin-3 ... Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene. Interleukin 3 is an interleukin, a type of ... Tabira T, Chui DH, Fan JP, Shirabe T, Konishi Y (1998). "Interleukin-3 and interleukin-3 receptors in the brain". Ann. N. Y. ... Interleukin 3 has been shown to interact with IL3RA. Interleukin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164399 - Ensembl, May ...
Normally the immune system reacts to foreign antigens that are associated with exogenous or endogenous Danger signals, which ... "Programmed death-1-induced interleukin-10 production by monocytes impairs CD4+ T cell activation during HIV infection". Nature ... It appears that upregulation of PD-L1 may allow cancers to evade the host immune system. An analysis of 196 tumor specimens ... "Immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat cancer". www.cancer.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27. Vlahopoulos, SA (15 August 2017). " ...
... interleukin 6, interleukin 13 and predominantly immunoglobulin E. Many bacteria and viruses elicit a TH1-mediated immune ... TH1 immune responses are characterized by the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 2, IFNγ, and TNFα. ... Competition for cytokines, MHC receptors and growth factors needed by the immune system to mount an immune response. ... Innate immune responses to mycobacteria and the downregulation of atopic responses" Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2003 Oct;3(5 ...
Instead, plasma cells are identified through flow cytometry by their additional expression of CD138, CD78, the Interleukin-6 ... This prolific production of antibodies is an integral part of the humoral immune response. ... ISBN 978-3-7186-0596-5.. *^ Rawstron AC (May 2006). "Immunophenotyping of plasma cells". Curr Protoc Cytom. Chapter. 6: ... Bona, Constantin; Francisco A. Bonilla (1996). "5". Textbook of Immunology. Martin Soohoo (2 ed.). CRC Press. p. 102. ...
... and it targets an immune chemical called interleukin-5 to treat asthma. ... a type of proinflammatory white blood cell involved in multiple immune processes, including allergic reactions. As the ...
Interleukin-2, interleukin-15, and their roles in human natural killer cells. Adv Immunol 2005; 86: 209-239 doi: 10.1016/S0065- ... Cytokine modulation of the innate immune system in the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma. Adv Pharmacol 2004; 51: 295-318 doi ... Interleukin-2 and interleukin-15: immunotherapy for cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2002; 13(2): 169-183 doi: 10.1016/S1359- ... Rodella L, Zamai L, Rezzani R, Artico M, Peri G, Falconi M, Facchini A, Pelusi G, Vitale M. Interleukin 2 and interleukin 15 ...
A mechanism for immune surveillance against cells that lose expression of MHC class I would be advantageous because, in the ... Trinchieri G: Interleukin-12 and its role in the generation of Th-1 cells. Immunol Today 14:335, 1993. ... Mond JJ, Brunswick M: A role for IFN-gamma and NK cells in immune response to T cell-regulated antigens types 1 and 2. Immunol ... Ploegh HL: Viral strategies of immune evasion. Science 280:248, 1998.. 21.. Garrido F, Cabrera T, Lopez-Nevot MA, Ruiz-Cabello ...
Diseases : Asthma, Immune Dysregulation: TH1/TH2 imbalance. Pharmacological Actions : Interleukin-10 upregulation, Interleukin- ... Interleukin-12 downregulation, Interleukin-1 beta downregulation, Interleukin-4 downregulation, Interleukin-5 downregulation, ... Interleukin-12 upregulation, interleukin-13 down-regulation, Interleukin-4 downregulation, Interleukin-5 downregulation ... Pharmacological Actions : Interleukin-10 upregulation, interleukin-13 down-regulation, Interleukin-4 downregulation, ...
Interleukin-5 / biosynthesis * Interleukin-5 / immunology * Killer Cells, Natural / immunology * Killer Cells, Natural / ... Hsp70, a messenger from hyperthermia for the immune system Eur J Cell Biol. 2012 Jan;91(1):48-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.02. ... interior protein composition to the immune system for initiation of immune responses against intracellular proteins. Here we ... describe the mechanisms by which Hsp70, the heat-inducible Hsp70 family member, crosstalks with the immune system. Further, we ...
Interleukin‐17-positive mast cells contribute to synovial inflammation in spondylarthritis. ... Chapter 2: General introduction Immune mechanisms: innate immunity. * Chapter 3: Absence of a classically activated macrophage ... The role of innate immune cells in tissue inflammation in spondyloarthritis. Supervisors. D.L.P. Baeten. ... Where failure of the acquired immune system is a major contributor for rheumatoid arthritis, this is not the case for ...
Interleukin-5 facilitates lung metastasis by modulating the immune microenvironment.. Zaynagetdinov R, Sherrill TP, Gleaves LA ... The Innate Immune Protein S100A9 Protects from Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation. ... STAT6 Signaling Attenuates Interleukin-17-Producing γδ T Cells during Acute Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection. ... Infant Viral Respiratory Infection Nasal Immune-Response Patterns and Their Association with Subsequent Childhood Recurrent ...
Interleukin I - stimulates the immune response 5. Fever a. Due to pyrogens secreted by leucocytes b. Disrupts metabolism of ... a. interleukin I - costimulator for activated T-cells b. interleukin II - stimulates both B and T-cell proliferation c. MAF - ... The spleen functions in both immune and hematopoietic systems. Immune functions include: proliferation of lymphocytes, ... Immune System I. Non-specific responses General mechanisms for discouraging pathogens which do not require the identity of the ...
Interleukin-5 facilitates lung metastasis by modulating the immune microenvironment.. Zaynagetdinov R, Sherrill TP, Gleaves LA ... J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jan 1;56(1):64-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181fc0141. ... Host-derived interleukin-5 promotes adenocarcinoma-induced malignant pleural effusion.. Stathopoulos GT, Sherrill TP, Karabela ... 2015 May;1853(5):1219-28. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.02.020. Epub 2015 Mar 4. ...
To characterize particular features of neonatal immune responses to vaccine antigens, we asse … ... Induction of neonatal immune responses to vaccine antigens is believed to be of limited efficacy because of immune immaturity ... the secretion of significantly higher interleukin-5 and lower interferon-gamma levels by vaccine-specific T cells and an ... Induction of neonatal immune responses to vaccine antigens is believed to be of limited efficacy because of immune immaturity ...
Cytokine Signaling in Immune system (Mus musculus) * Signaling by Interleukins (Mus musculus) * Interleukin-3, Interleukin-5 ...
It reduces the number of eosinophils by inhibiting an immune system signaling chemical called interleukin-5. ... 5 I was born awesome: 6-year-old born with no eyes is raising awareness about being different ... Tripp Halstead dies 5 years after being struck by falling tree branch as a toddler ...
Patient information for DIGIFAB 40MG/VIAL DIGOXIN IMMUNE FAB POWDER FOR SOLUTION FOR INFUSION Including dosage instructions and ... Fasenra Fasenra (benralizumab) is an interleukin-5 receptor alpha-directed cytolytic monoclonal antibody indicated... ... Active substance(s): DIGOXIN IMMUNE FAB (OVINE) / DIGOXIN IMMUNE FAB (OVINE) / DIGOXIN IMMUNE FAB (OVINE). ... Home › Drugs › DIGIFAB 40MG/VIAL DIGOXIN IMMUNE FAB POWDER FOR SOLUTION FOR INFUSION ...
These results suggest that the T cell proliferation in response to dust mite may represent an allergic immune response. ... blood proliferation occurred in the absence of maternal blood allergen-specific proliferation and may be associated with IL-5 ...
MMP-7, matrix metalloproteinase 7; PTSG2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2; IL8, interleukin-8; BIRC5, baculoviral IAP ... The role of immune cells in human neoplasia is less clear (8). Immune cells can release inflammatory mediators with ... Tumors in mice and humans often contain infiltrates of immune cells. Experiments with immune-deficient mice have provided data ... The densities of adaptive immune cells (CD3+, CD8+, GZMB+, and CD45RO+ cells) were recorded as the number of positive cells per ...
Interleukin 5 in the link between the innate and acquired immune response. Adv. Immunol. 101: 191-236. ... Differential expression of interleukin-17A and -17F is coupled to T cell receptor signaling via inducible T cell kinase. ... Molecular and structural basis of cytokine receptor pleiotropy in the interleukin-4/13 system. Cell 132: 259-272. ... 3A, 3B). Although many Th2 clones expressed a uniform IL-4+IL-5+IL-13+ or IL-4+IL-5−IL-13+ phenotype (Fig. 3A, 3B, left and ...
... lung epithelial cells such as alveolar type 2 cells produce interleukin-33 (IL-33), which in turn activates immune cells, ... ILC2s are a population of tissue-resident immune cells that have been shown to play a central role in type 2 immune responses ( ... Interleukin-33 in tissue homeostasis, injury, and inflammation. Immunity 42, 1005-1019 (2015). doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.06.006 ... E to G) Percentage of immune cells in whole lungs after OVA challenge (n = 7 for control and 6 for mutant). Mann-Whitney U test ...
Journal Article] Interleukin 5 in the link between the innate and acquired immune response2009. *. Author(s). Takatsu K, Kouro ... Journal Article] Toll-like receptors on Heamtopoietic progenitor cells stimulate innate immune system replenishment2006. *. ... Journal Article] Interleukin 5 in the Link Between the Innate and Acquired Immune Response2009. *. Author(s). Takatsu, K., et. ... Presentation] Interleukin-5 in Health and Disease2007. *. Author(s). Takatsu K ...
Immune responses in human necatoriasis: association between interleukin-5 responses and resistance to reinfection. J Infect Dis ... Parasites and the hygiene hypothesis: regulating the immune system? Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 26 : 15-24.. [Google Scholar] ... Immune responses in hookworm infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 14 : 689-703.. [Google Scholar] ... Decreased atopy in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: a role for parasite-induced interleukin-10. Lancet 356 : ...
Immune responses in human necatoriasis: association between interleukin-5 responses and resistance to reinfection. J Infect Dis ... Immune responses in human Necatoriasis: association between interleukin-5 responses and resistance to reinfection. J Infect Dis ... Prenatal immune priming with helminth infections: parasite-specific cellular reactivity and Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses in ... Co-infection of helminths and malaria: modulation of the immune responses to malaria. Parasite Immunol 28 : 497-506. ...
Tumors and Metastasis Oncogenes and Cancer Induction Tumor Antigens Tumors and the Immune Response Immunotherapy. FATAL SYSTEM ... Cancer and the Immune System. Amar Bhatt Shirley Masand Jaime Warmkessel. Immunology Chapter 22 April 22, 2003. A Look Ahead. ... transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ... Immune System and Transfer Factor -. immune system. the health of the body is dependent on the immune systems ability to ...
Interleukin 4, interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 polymorphisms in children with acute and chronic immune thrombocytopenic ... Corticosteroids versus intravenous immune globulin for the treatment of acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura in children: a ... Treatment of immune thrombocytopaenic purpura in childhood. A review of 146 patients. Acta Clin Belg 1990;45(2):120-125. ... Childhood immune thrombocytopenia-who will spontaneously recover? Semin Hematol 2013;50(suppl 1):S71-S74. ...
MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND TREATMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERE IMMUNE COMPROMISE. Severe Immune Compromise (Non-HIV). Severely ... interleukin; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor.. 1This table is based primarily ... 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients. ... Immune globulin may be administered for short-term protection of those facing high risk of measles and for whom MMR vaccine is ...
1-dependent immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain," BMC Immunology, vol. 12, article 13, 2011. View at ... R. Sabat, G. Grütz, K. Warszawska et al., "Biology of interleukin-10," Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. ... Cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 can modulate the immune response of macrophages, inducing an increase in the production of ... M. A. Barcinski and C. A. DosReis, "Apoptosis in parasites and parasite-induced apoptosis in the host immune system: A new ...
Aspinall R, Henson S, Pido-Lopez J, Ngom PT (2004). "Interleukin-7: an interleukin for rejuvenating the immune system". Ann. N ... "Entrez Gene: IL7 interleukin 7". Noguchi M, Nakamura Y, Russell SM, et al. (1994). "Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a ... "Reviewing the potential utility of interleukin-7 as a promoter of thymopoiesis and immune recovery". Cytokines Cell. Mol. Ther ... "Human follicular dendritic cells and vascular cells produce interleukin-7: a potential role for interleukin-7 in the germinal ...
  • Previously known as Churg-Strauss Syndrome, EGPA is characterized by excessive proliferation of eosinophils, a type of proinflammatory white blood cell involved in multiple immune processes, including allergic reactions. (labroots.com)
  • 5 Indeed, interleukin (IL) 1, IL6, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α are detected in brains of AD patients. (bmj.com)
  • Parasitic infections and asthma may cause the human immune system to react in some of the same ways, and may one day be cured by manipulating some of the same proteins, according to research published today in the journal Science. (emaxhealth.com)
  • These results, while early, suggest that helping the body make more of a newly defined immune chemical may prevent roundworm infection, and that shutting it down may reduce lung damage in asthma. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In a clue to the worm/asthma link, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 also trigger mechanisms that cause irreversible damage to the lungs of asthmatic patients. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In the past 10 years, there have been substantial advances in the understanding of asthma genetics, airway biology, and immune cell signaling. (bmj.com)
  • Several new classes of asthma drugs-including ultra long acting β agonists and modulators of the interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17 pathways-have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. (bmj.com)
  • The intestinal microbiome may play a role in immune system maturation, and it has been postulated that early-life probiotic administration may reduce the risk of allergies and asthma in childhood. (aappublications.org)
  • There is now evidence of a noneosinophilic pattern of inflammation in asthma, with a subgroup of asthmatics demonstrating interleukin (IL)-8 driven neutrophilic airway inflammation [ 5 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • High body mass index (BMI) has been implicated in the development of asthma in industrialized countries [ 14 ] however, the relationship between high BMI and atopy is not clearly established [ 15 ], but potentially mediated through elevated production of leptin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 associated with increased adiposity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we describe the mechanisms by which Hsp70, the heat-inducible Hsp70 family member, crosstalks with the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • Where failure of the acquired immune system is a major contributor for rheumatoid arthritis, this is not the case for spondyloarthritis. (uva.nl)
  • Parasites and the hygiene hypothesis: regulating the immune system? (ajtmh.org)
  • Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, these data are consistent with the notion that the immune system communicates with the brain to regulate behavior in a way that is consistent with animal survival. (biologists.org)
  • Over the past 30 years, it has become clear that the immune system plays a critical role in animal behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the immune system attacks a person's joints. (hindawi.com)
  • The inflammation is thought to be related to tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 causing the immune system to overreact [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, immune system-mediated chronic inflammation of the liver can lead to HCC [ 3 - 5 ]. (medsci.org)
  • It is considered the result of inadequate control of an excessive reaction of the immune system to the resident flora of the gut. (springer.com)
  • Like other primary immunodeficiencies, IL-10 and IL-10 receptor (IL10R) deficiency present with IBD and demonstrate the sensitivity of the intestine to any changes of the immune system. (springer.com)
  • Today's study results show how the model continues to define new players in the immune system and to suggest new treatment approaches. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The point of the study is that each new detail in our understanding of the immune system creates opportunities to make changes that counter disease," said Mosmann. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The current results define amphiregulin for the first time as an important new player in the immune system, in the Th2 immune profile and perhaps in the many disease processes touched by it. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Such results highlight the difficulties in translating therapies to the clinic and emphasize the importance of broadly interrogating the immune system to evaluate the effects of therapy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2 The hygiene hypothesis, formulated as a probable explanation for the rise in the prevalence of allergic diseases, suggests that increased cleanliness, reduced family size, and decreased childhood infections have lowered our exposure to microbes, which play a crucial role in the maturation of the host immune system during the first years of life. (aappublications.org)
  • The understanding of the interplay between the tumor and the immune system has led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors that are active in many solid tumors, including RCC. (medscape.com)
  • Suppressive and regulatory pathways in the immune system are incredib. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Suppressive and regulatory pathways in the immune system are incredibly important for normal health and preventing autoimmunity," said John Wherry, Ph.D., Deputy Editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology . (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ontologies such as peptidases, cell adhesion, cell death/cell cycle, growth factors, cytoskeletal organization, defense/immune system, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation which are related to the development of endometriosis were represented by these genes. (scirp.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Innate Immune System and Carvedilol Pathway, Pharmacokinetics . (genecards.org)
  • Appears to function in modulating the activity of the immune system during the acute-phase reaction. (genecards.org)
  • Severe bleeding, occurring in only 3% to 5% of children, 2 requires treatment with corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), or anti-Rhesus-D immunoglobulin, either alone or in combination and, if life threatening, also with platelet and red blood cell transfusions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For purposes of clinical assessment and approach to immunizations, immunocompromised travelers may be thought of as falling into 1 of 3 groups, based on mechanism and level of immune suppression. (cdc.gov)
  • Our group has had a long term interest in defining the biological role, regulation and signalling mechanism for IL-5. (edu.au)
  • The efficacy of graft-versus-leukemia effect following allogeneic stem cell bone marrow transplantation in CML prompted the search for immune effectors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5 In addition, nonsteroid therapeutic treatments including cyclosporin A and tacrolimus have been reported to induce cutaneous T cell lymphoma, fever, extreme rises in serum alkaline phosphatase in children, enhanced irritation and relapsing Kaposi's varicelliform eruption. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Interleukin-35 (IL-35) has been recognized as a novel member of IL-12 family which composed of IL-12α and IL-27β chains and encoded by two separate genes called IL-12A and EBI3, respectively. (medsci.org)
  • a role for parasite-induced interleukin-10. (ajtmh.org)
  • This role is tightly linked to the obvious role that immune cell activation plays in the clearance of pathogenic organisms. (biologists.org)
  • Our study indicated that IL-10-producing CD1d hi CD5 + Bregs might maintain Tregs and regulate Th1/Th2 polarization in SP, suggesting that IL-10-producing Bregs may play a critical role in modulating immune homeostasis in SP. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interleukin 10 ( IL-10 ili IL10 ), isto poznat kao ljudski inhibitorni faktor sinteze ( CSIF ), je anti inflamatorni citokin . (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1β and IL1ra levels and 5-HT transporter density in frontal cortex were quantified at 1 h, 3 h or 7 days. (biomedcentral.com)