Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
Care of a highly technical and specialized nature, provided in a medical center, usually one affiliated with a university, for patients with unusually severe, complex, or uncommon health problems.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
Diseases of plants.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.
A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.
The largest genus in the family Myxobolidae, class MYXOSPOREA, containing over 400 species.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus XANTHOMONAS, which causes citrus cankers and black rot in plants.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of RNA plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, containing slightly flexuous filaments, often transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. Carnation latent virus is the type species.
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
"Stress alters immune function and disease resistance in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)." J. Endocrinol. 120:135-142 ... "Stress and disease resistance." pp 170-175. In: J.F. Muir and R.J. Roberts (eds). Recent Advances in Aquaculture. Blackwell ... some of the early work describing the negative effects of cortisol and stress on immune function and disease resistance in fish ... "Are the endocrine and immune systems really the same thing?" pp 351-357. In: H.J.T. Goos, R.K. Rostogi, H. Vaudry, and R. ...
A major disease for the other lupines is cucumber mosaic virus. To this virus lupinus albus is immune. Phorbia platura is the ... In some cultivars resistance has been found. The most efficient way to control this fungi is through seed treatment. Bean ... Fungal diseases are often controlled with fungicides. To control the other diseases are the most effective practices the crop ... Based on the numerous diseases for lupinus albus, the management is complex and very important. Higher yields can reach by ...
He is immune to all Earthly diseases and has some resistance to magic. Courtesy of a spell cast by his mother and Asgardian ...
... presence of capsule and resistance to immune serum killing". Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 53 (3): 241-47. doi:10.3354/ ... Austin D, Austin B (2008). "Characteristics of the diseases". Bacterial Fish Pathogens: Disease of Farmed and Wild Fish. Berlin ... doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.1998.tb00655.x. Ndong D, Chen YY, Lin YH, Vaseeharan B, Chen JC (2007). "The immune response of tilapia ... Serotype II was first identified as the type strain (ATCC 29177) isolated from another dolphin case of "golf ball disease". A ...
Some individuals are quite susceptible while others are essentially immune to the disease. Japanese chestnut is also ... dentata lacked any resistance. The disease was first noticed on a tree in the Bronx Zoo in 1904 and quickly spread out of ... Chinese chestnuts have evolved over a long period of time in coexistence with the bark fungal disease chestnut blight ( ... It's important to realize, though, that Chinese chestnut trees vary considerably in blight resistance. ...
Colonization resistance allows an organism to feed off of the host and protect it from pathogens that would have caused disease ... Noninfection may be due to such factors as general health and proper immune functioning; acquired immunity from previous ... Rivers wanted to show the link between viruses and diseases. Rivers' own postulates are: the virus must be connected to disease ... A single pathogen can cause several disease conditions. Additionally, a single disease condition can be caused by several ...
... ' is immune to Potato virus A. It has moderate resistance to Potato leafroll virus. It is susceptible to netted scab, ... A mechanism to overcome sterility has recently allowed for breeding-based genetic improvements in disease resistance and potato ... which prevents improvements in disease resistance through breeding. ...
Typhon is immortal and has a healing factor that makes him immune to Earthly diseases. He possesses superhuman strength, ... stamina and resistance to most injuries from the Olympian Gods. In ancient times, he could control the disruptive forces of ... rendering him immune from harm; so equipped, he slew both Zeus and Hera, intending to cause the destruction of the universe, ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second- ... Houben E, Nguyen L, Pieters J. Interaction of pathogenic mycobacteria with the host immune system. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006, 9 ... 結核病屬於飛沫傳染性疾病(英语:Airborne disease)。意即病原體會藉由開放性結核患者咳嗽、打噴嚏,或說話過程中所產生的飛沫散佈[1][4];而潛伏性結核病患者則不會散布
assessed the dietary inclusion of various levels of MOS on the immune status and disease resistance of sea bass. MOS reduced ... "Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides". ... Dairy cows fed MOS had better immune protection against rotavirus and were able to pass some of this protection on to their ... The transfer of immunity from the cow to the calves is critical in order to protect the calf from many different diseases. ...
So the twofold effect is to ensure the less fatal form of the disease is the one caught, and to give the immune system the best ... and thus at peak resistance. The recipient would develop smallpox; however, due to being introduced through the skin rather ... As with survivors of the natural disease, the inoculated individual was subsequently immune to re-infection. ... "International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 3 (1): 54-60. doi:10.1016/s1201-9712(98)90096-0. PMID 9831677.. CS1 maint: ref= ...
Arch G., III Mainous (2010). Management of Antimicrobials in Infectious Diseases: Impact of Antibiotic Resistance. Humana Pr. s ... Houben E, Nguyen L, Pieters J (2006). "Interaction of pathogenic mycobacteria with the host immune system". Curr Opin Microbiol ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2006). "Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to ... Fact Sheets: The Difference Between Latent TB Infection and Active TB Disease. Centers for Disease Control. 20. juni 2011. ...
It may occur following antibiotic use due to the development of resistance to the antibiotics used. An associated skin disease ... they are also more likely to have associated skin diseases and multiple lesions. Other causes include poor immune system ... Such diseases include food poisoning, septic shock, toxic shock syndrome, and scalded skin syndrome. Almost any organ system ... S. aureus strains also produce enzymes and exotoxins that likely cause or increase the severity of certain diseases. ...
This response results in the enhanced synthesis of metabolites which reduce damage and increase resistance to pest, disease or ... This is an immune response known as pattern triggered immunity or PTI. PTI is effective against necrotrophic microorganisms. An ... Elicitors can protect crops from diseases, stress and damage. Elicitors do not need to be directly toxic for pathogenic ... Mandadi, Kranthi K.; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G. (2013-05-01). "Plant Immune Responses Against Viruses: How Does a Virus Cause ...
The HIV virus attacks the immune system of the patient and reduces its resistance to other diseases. Government and health ... the theme helped alleviate some of the stigma surrounding the disease and boost recognition of the problem as a family disease ... U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, International News, "World AIDS Day Co-Founder Looks Back 20 Years Later", CDC ... World Patient Safety Day and World Chagas Disease Day. As of 2017[update], AIDS has killed between 28.9 million and 41.5 ...
... and kidney diseases. C. auris has attracted increased clinical attention because of its multiple drug resistance. In vitro, ... Candidiasis is most often acquired in hospitals by patients with weakened immune systems. It can cause invasive candidiasis, in ... Antimicrobial resistance in general is an increasingly common phenomenon. In 2010, two million people were reported to have ... In 2011, South Korea saw its first cases of disease-causing C. auris. Reportedly, this spread across Asia and Europe, and first ...
... providing enhanced disease resistance. Lamberth C, Jeanmart S, Luksch T, Plant A (August 2013). "Current challenges and trends ... Plant activators are compounds that activate a plant's immune system in response to invasion by pathogens. They play a crucial ... resistance-breaking and cost-effective. Obstacles include increasing pesticide resistance and an increasingly stringent ... Others enhance resistance only in the presence of pathogens. In 2012, five activators that protected against Pseudomonas ...
She is extremely long-lived and superhumanly strong, immune to all earthly diseases and resistance to conventional injury. ...
Many human diseases are capable of evolution. Viruses, bacteria, fungi and cancers evolve to be resistant to host immune ... Pan D, Xue W, Zhang W, Liu H, Yao X (October 2012). "Understanding the drug resistance mechanism of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A to ... These same problems occur in agriculture with pesticide and herbicide resistance. It is possible that we are facing the end of ... Schenk MF, Szendro IG, Krug J, de Visser JA (June 2012). "Quantifying the adaptive potential of an antibiotic resistance enzyme ...
Supplementation of vitamin E in the diet benefits the immune system and improves resistance to infections and diseases. The ... Omega-6 fatty acids at high levels can suppress the functions of the immune system (a large part of which is located in the ... The Cat That Ate Tofu Alternet article on vegan cat food Buffington CA (June 2008). "Dry foods and risk of disease in cats". ... A renal diet is formulated for cats that are living with chronic kidney disease, or CKD. This is a highly prevalent condition ...
In medicine, this contributes to the spread of antibiotic resistance, as when one bacteria acquires resistance genes it can ... Many human diseases are not static phenomena, but capable of evolution. Viruses, bacteria, fungi and cancers evolve to be ... while sending signals that suppress the plant immune system. Coalitions between organisms of the same species have also evolved ... These same problems occur in agriculture with pesticide and herbicide resistance. It is possible that we are facing the end of ...
Their homologs have been discovered in many different animal species (APAF1) and also in the plant kingdom (disease-resistance ... They are types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and play key roles in the regulation of innate immune response. NLRs ... Chen G, Shaw MH, Kim YG, Nuñez G (2009). "NOD-like receptors: role in innate immunity and inflammatory disease". Annu Rev ... They are found in lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and also in non-immune cells, for example in epithelium. NLRs are ...
The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis posits that sexual ornaments are indicators of parasite- and disease-resistance.[33] To test this ... MHC genes code for receptors that identify foreign pathogens in the body so that the immune system may respond and destroy them ... This will ensure better resistance to parasites and disease in offspring. Researchers found that women tended to rate the odors ... Femininity can also be linked to disease-resistance and high estrogen levels, which are factors that suggest reproductive value ...
"Protective role of tea against cancer and infectious diseases through immune activation". In Jain, N. K.; Weisburger, John; ... Responsible for Therapeutic Resistance and Relapse?". Breast Cancer Metastasis and Drug Resistance. pp. 385-398. doi:10.1007/ ... "Protective role of tea against cancer and infectious diseases through immune activation". Economic crisis in tea industry : ... His studies also involve the identification of signaling networks conferring resistance to current anti-cancer therapies. His ...
Van Der Biezen, E.; Jones, J. D. G. (1998). "Plant disease-resistance proteins and the gene-for-gene concept". Trends in ... "The plant immune system". Nature. 444 (7117): 323-9. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..323J. doi:10.1038/nature05286. PMID 17108957. ... Hammond-Kosack, K. E.; Jones, J. D. G. (1997). "Plant Disease Resistance Genes". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ... "Bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis through flagellin perception". Nature. 428 (6984): 764-767. Bibcode:2004Natur.428.. ...
Perlin, DS (1 December 2015). "Echinocandin Resistance in Candida". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 61 Suppl 6: S612-7. doi: ... In vitro and mouse models show echinocandins may also enhance host immune responses by exposing highly antigenic beta-glucan ... Echinocandin resistance is rare among Candida spp. However, case studies have shown some resistance in C. albicans, C. glabrata ... Resistance patterns include alterations in the glucan synthase (Fks1-Fks2 complex), overexpression of efflux pumps, ...
Widespread starvation and malnutrition first compromised immune systems, and reduced resistance to disease led to death by ... Disease-related mortality then continued to take its toll through early-to-mid 1944. Among diseases, malaria was the biggest ... no demographic or geographic group was completely immune to increased mortality rates caused by disease - but deaths from ... Disease began its sharp upward turn around October 1943 and overtook starvation as the most common cause of death around ...
The non-race specific disease resistance-1 (NDR1) primarily discovered to have a large function in plant immune response. This ... a locus of Arabidopsis thaliana that is required for disease resistance to both a bacterial and a fungal pathogen". Proceedings ... Integrin-like receptors and integrin-linked kinases together have been implicated in surface adhesion, immune response, and ion ... Further support for this calm shows RGD-binding inhibition reduces nodule formation and encapsulation in invertebrate immune ...
S. aureus biofilms are important in disease pathogenesis, as they can contribute to antibiotic resistance and immune system ... S. aureus biofilms also have high resistance to host immune response. Though the exact mechanism of resistance is unknown, S. ... S. aureus biofilm has high resistance to antibiotic treatments and host immune response. One hypothesis for explaining this is ... Because of the high level of resistance to penicillins and because of the potential for MRSA to develop resistance to ...
Like all Olympians she has some resistance to magic and is immune to all terrestrial diseases, aging and poisons. As the ... The only known beings who were immune to her influence were her half-sisters, Athena and Artemis and her aunt, Hestia. She also ...
A Lithuanian trial searching for disease-resistance resulted in the selection of fifty disease-resistant trees for the ... where ash trees are immune to the disease.[10] Genetic analysis of the fungus Lambertella albida which grows harmlessly on ... Developing resistance to the disease in the native UK ash tree population ... Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is an Ascomycete fungus that causes ash dieback, a chronic fungal disease of ash trees in Europe ...
... life expectancies and decreased noticeable symptoms from infectious diseases that were the result of a weakened immune system ... Viral resistance[edit]. Many people were skeptical of being too hopeful with indinavir due to previous events that occurred ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... Currently, it is being replaced by newer drugs that are more convenient to take, less likely to promote virus resistance, and ...
Sihanouk desired independence from French rule, but after France refused his requests he called for public resistance to its ... there he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease.[376] In mid-1984, Office 131 was moved to a new base further into Cambodia, near ... or implied that Cambodians were an intrinsically superior group to other ethnic or national groups and that they were immune to ... as the most promising resistance group. He believed the Khmer Việt Minh's relationship to the Việt Minh and thus the ...
"Critical decline in pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance in South Africa". NICD. Retrieved 20 July 2015.. ... As with many natural flora, it can become pathogenic under the right conditions, typically when the immune system of the host ... Diseases and symptoms[edit]. Pneumonia is the most common of the S. pneumoniae diseases which include symptoms such as fever ... 16: Pneumococcal Disease". In Atkinson W; Wolfe S; Hamborsky J. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ( ...
"Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... Immune system evasion. Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.[50][52] EBOV ... with more than 1,000 cases and insecurity continuing to being the major resistance to providing an adequate response.[215][216] ... "About Ebola Virus Disease". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. ...
This article is about a skin disease common during adolescence. For other acneiform skin diseases, see Acne (disambiguation). ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... Andriessen A, Lynde CW (November 2014). "Antibiotic resistance: shifting the paradigm in topical acne treatment". Journal of ... Disease Primers. 1: 15033. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2015.33. PMID 27227877.. *^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions: Acne" (PDF). U.S. ...
At very young ages, the immune system is yet to develop fully and there is no individual immune response to candida species, an ... It is often described as being "a disease of the diseased", occurring in the very young, the very old, or the very sick. ... Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... Candidiasis can be a marker for underlying disease, so the overall prognosis may also be dependent upon this. For example, a ...
... is an inflammatory disease that is unique to allogeneic transplantation. It is an attack by the "new" bone marrow's immune ... This genetic trait confers resistance to HIV infection by blocking attachment of HIV to the cell. Roughly one in 1000 people of ... Graft-versus-host disease[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ... Veno-occlusive disease[edit]. Severe liver injury can result from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Elevated levels of ...
The resistance of a genospecies of Lyme disease spirochetes to the bacteriolytic activities of the alternative complement ... "Molecular mimicry and immune-mediated diseases". FASEB Journal. 12 (13): 1255-65. doi:10.1096/fasebj.12.13.1255. PMC 7164021. ... "Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 December 2018. Archived from ... "Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 February 2019. Archived from ...
Mixed connective tissue disease - a disease of the autoimmune system, also undifferentiated connective tissue disease. ... also provide resistance to stretch forces.[15]:171 They are found in the walls of large blood vessels and in certain ligaments ... 158 Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose ... "Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 17 (2): 125-139. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2006.10.005. PMC 4426988. PMID ...
DQ2 are believed to also contribute to autoimmune disease.[3] Also a dozen inflammatory diseases of the immune system can ... Resistance to recombination[edit]. A1::DQ2 is found in Iceland, Pomors of Northern Russia, the Serbians of Northern Slavic ... Some disease like coeliac disease primarily associate with certain genes. While other diseases, like type 1 diabetes may have ... "Celiac disease autoantibodies in severe autoimmune liver disease and the effect of liver transplantation". Liver Int. 28 (4): ...
Widespread starvation and malnutrition first compromised immune systems, and reduced resistance to disease led to death by ... disease had become the most common cause of death.[205] Disease-related mortality then continued to take its toll through early ... no demographic or geographic group was completely immune to increased deaths by disease, although deaths from starvation were ... and provided a more hospitable environment for water-borne diseases such as cholera and malaria. Such diseases clustered around ...
Alzheimer's disease[edit]. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with an inherited form of the disease may carry mutations in the ... T cell activation involved in immune response. • cellular protein metabolic process. • neurogenesis. • intracellular signal ... Gottesman MM, Fojo T, Bates SE (January 2002). "Multidrug resistance in cancer: role of ATP-dependent transporters". Nat. Rev. ... These mutations result in early-onset Alzheimer's Disease, which is a rare form of the disease. These rare genetic variants are ...
Immunodeficiency Diseases (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 9780071621519.. *^ a b Grimbacher B, Holland S, Gallin ... DOCK8 - DOCK8 Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DIDS) presents primarily with immune effects including HEIS.[9] Eczema is prominent, ... Abnormal neutrophil chemotaxis due to decreased production of interferon gamma by T lymphocytes is thought to cause the disease ... U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH): Clinical Research Studies: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( ...
"Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005-10-13. Archived from the original on 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2008-10-20.. ... Animals under stress, including the stress of intensive confinement, have compromised immune systems, and thus higher levels of ... allowing for greater resistance to penetration by the Salmonella Enteritidis pathogen and decreasing the risk of egg ... A 2004 study of California egg farms in the journal Avian Diseases finds comparatively low Salmonella prevalence in indoor ...
This resistance to extreme environments has made archaea the focus of speculation about the possible properties of ... from the natural environment to infectious diseases". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2 (2): 95-108. doi:10.1038/nrmicro821. PMID ... "A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, ... The proposal is that the selective pressure towards resistance generated by the gram-positive antibiotics was eventually ...
... high wear resistance, and poor regenerative qualities. It is responsible for much of the compressive resistance and load ... An advantage to this approach is that a person's own stem cells are used, avoiding tissue rejection by the patient's immune ... "Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells ...
Immune system[edit]. Some scientists have indicated that a fast will cause white blood cells to break down during the fasting, ... Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781741330. Retrieved 22 January 2017.. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke ... "Neurodegenerative Diseases and Fasting". Antiaging-europe.com. Archived from the original on 2010-10-16. Retrieved 2010-10-18. ...
... fruits and vegetables supply the body with key nutrients but also assists in the prevention and resistance against disease. ... Zinc within the body primarily used within the immune system, for cell division and growth, healing of wounds and for ... coronary heart disease, dimension, osteoporosis, eye disease, stroke cancer and rheumatoid arthritis and the influence of ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Children eating more fruit, but fruit and vegetable intake still too low ...
However, further research eventually produced several trees effectively immune to disease, which were released after 1989.[46] ... they are believed to have survived courtesy of their isolation from disease-carrying beetles rather than any innate resistance ... Dutch elm disease in Britain, UK *^ Brasier, C. M. (1996). New horizons in Dutch elm disease control. Pages 20-28 in: Report on ... Pests and diseases[edit]. While the species is highly susceptible to Dutch elm disease,[18][19] it is less favoured as a host ...
... immune deficiency/immunodeficiency - immune response - immune system - immune thrombocytopenic purpura - immunity - ... efficacy - empirical - encephalitis - end-stage disease - endemic - endogenous - endoscopy - endotoxin - endpoint - enteric - ... resistance - retina - retinal detachment - retinitis - retrovirus - REV - reverse transcriptase - ribonucleic acid (RNA) - ... NAT - National Cancer Institute (NCI) - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) - National Institute of ...
Infliximab, an immune-suppressing antibody, has been tested in COPD; there was a possibility of harm with no evidence of ... Concerns include the potential for antibiotic resistance and side effects including hearing loss, tinnitus, and changes to the ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other names. Chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease ... Most cases of COPD are a mixture of both diseases.. *^ "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". WHO. Retrieved 5 June ...
"Journal of Thoracic Disease. 7 (8): 1311-1322. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.06.11. PMC 4561280. PMID 26380759.. ... Kezirian, EJ; Boudewyns, A; Eisele, DW; Schwartz, AR; Smith, PL; Van de Heyning, PH; De Backer, WA (October 2010). "Electrical ... and immune response, especially in children and young adults.[citation needed] ... Stroke and other cardiovascular disease are related to OSA and those under the age of 70 have an increased risk of early death. ...
... addressing treatment options for various diseases.[3][12] Retroviral mutations can be developed to make transgenic mouse models ... and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research ... Lymphocyte T-Cell Immune Modulator (LTCI).[17] ... been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8 ... of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have ...
The search for a stronger remedy against this disease was made more difficult because most animals are immune to it: it was ... a great pharmacy for the Resistance thanks to the initiative of Vallery-Radot, Pasteur's nephew. The Germans became suspicious ... This made him realise that the vector of the disease were lice that were discarded with the patient's own clothes.[3] Nicolle ... This disease used to kill thousands of children every year: an associated condition was commonly called croup, which created ...
Ocular immune system. *Optical coherence tomography. *Eye care professional. *Eye disease. *Refractive error ... this region makes the greatest contribution to outflow resistance of the aqueous humor. ...
Infectious disease. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic ... Cloeckaert A (2006). "Introduction: emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in the zoonotic foodborne pathogens Salmonella ... and expansion of epidemics depend on frequent contact with other individuals who have not yet developed an adequate immune ... Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started out as zoonotic diseases. It is hard to establish with certainty which ...
Diarrheal diseases are the primary causes of early childhood mortality. These diseases can be attributed to poor sanitation and ... Also, it reduces the immune defence mechanism, which heightens the risk of infections. Due to their lower social status, girls ... malaria and pneumonia continue to plague India due to increased resistance to drugs. In 2011, India developed a 'totally drug- ... The provision of clean drinking water and sanitation as one of the principal factors in control of diseases is well established ...
The Infectious Diseases Society of America states this due to the concern of generating resistance to this class of medication. ... Coli are able to attach to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that resists the body's immune response.[6] ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 April 2015. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 9 ... A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ...
... ... since theory predicts they will evolve better disease resistance. Our study animal is an avian brood parasite. We have ... The vertebrate immune system is not static. Rather, it involves in response to the environment. ... The Challenge: In an era when emerging infectious diseases are steadily increasing, human populations are exposed to virulent ...
Antagonistic Control of Disease Resistance Protein Stability in the Plant Immune System ... Antagonistic Control of Disease Resistance Protein Stability in the Plant Immune System ... Antagonistic Control of Disease Resistance Protein Stability in the Plant Immune System ... Antagonistic Control of Disease Resistance Protein Stability in the Plant Immune System ...
... immune pathology, immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, and immunotherapy. ... Chlorophytum borivilianum Polysaccharide Fraction Provokes the Immune Function and Disease Resistance of Labeo rohita against ... for 4 weeks could effectively improve immune response and disease resistance in L. rohita. ... Immune parameters and immune-related gene expressions were measured at 3rd, 4th, and 5th week after feeding. The results ...
Nuclear Activity of MLA Immune Receptors Links Isolate-Specific and Basal Disease-Resistance Responses ... Nuclear Activity of MLA Immune Receptors Links Isolate-Specific and Basal Disease-Resistance Responses ... Nuclear Activity of MLA Immune Receptors Links Isolate-Specific and Basal Disease-Resistance Responses ... Nuclear Activity of MLA Immune Receptors Links Isolate-Specific and Basal Disease-Resistance Responses ...
Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum C014 on Innate Immune Response and Disease Resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Hybrid ... was prepared and used for the in vivo investigation of its effect on innate immune response and disease resistance of hybrid ... Based on its origin and beneficial effect on innate immune response and disease resistance, L. plantarum C014 may be a ... Two innate immune response parameters, phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and plasma lysozyme activity, were significantly ...
... immune status, inflammatory response and disease resistance to Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). For this ... immune status, inflammatory response and disease resistance to Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). For this ... Additionally, the observed enhanced immune status provided by methionine supplementation translated into an improved immune ... improved plasma humoral immune parameters and modulation of key immune-related genes was observed. Lastly, after a bacterial ...
Immune genetic predisposition and resistance to Crohns disease of the adult population of Moscow: P-226. ...
... results indicated that dietary intake containing COS could enhance the immune responses of fish and improve its resistance to ... supplementation on the innate immune response and protection against Vibrio harveyi infection in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal ... Effect of dietary carbohydrate on non-specific immune response, hepatic antioxidative abilities and disease resistance of ... Dietary administration of chitooligosaccharides to enhance growth, innate immune response and disease resistance of Trachinotus ...
These factors of immune evasion include regulation of membrane proteins, variable epitopes of surface proteins, protection ... against the immune system through tick saliva, the ability to migrate to regions where it is not exposed to the immune system ... The window of conventional treatment for Lyme disease is short and has the potential to display different symptoms depending on ... are dependent on the localization of Borrelia burgdorferi which correlates to the significance of diagnosing Lyme disease early ...
Effects on disease resistance. Food limitation led to mixed effects on disease resistance in this study (Fig. 6) and mixed ... 2004b). Estimating disease resistance in insects: phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity and disease resistance in the ... Immune assays frequently correlate only weakly with disease resistance (Adamo, 2004a,b), making it difficult to determine the ... a conceptual model for immune function and for resistance to disease. Integr. Comp. Biol. 50, 346-357. doi:10.1093/icb/icq055. ...
A new study uses genomics to show that fusions of plant immune receptors and other protein domains occur in significant numbers ... Trapping the intruder - immune receptor domain fusions provide new molecular leads for improving disease resistance in plants. ... immune receptor domain fusions provide new molecular leads for improving disease resistance in plants. Genome Biol 17, 23 (2016 ... The immune system of plants is composed of two tiers of receptors [2]. The first tier confers basal resistance to the majority ...
Zinc plays a pivotal role in the function of immune system and zinc deficiency causes increased susceptibility to infections ... Jan 2014 Home › Zinc in nutrition › Zinc immune system function and disease resistance in human body ... Excess zinc and immune depression. On the negative side, excess supplementation of zinc is associated with disease resistance ... exerts its ubiquitous effects on the function of the immune system in human body and modulates its disease resistance. ...
Malaria drug-resistance mechanisms. Sign up for Nature Research e-alerts to get the lastest research in your inbox every week. ... Adaptive immune cells are not the only immune cells that have some form of memory - innate immune cells do too. Certain immune ... Importantly, in a mouse model of Alzheimers disease pathology, immune training exacerbates cerebral amyloidosis, whereas ... Similarly, peripheral immune stimulation modifies pathological features after stroke. These findings show that immune memory in ...
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a zoonosis like most of the great plagues sculpting human history, from smallpox to ... COVID-19, varying genetic resistance to viral disease and immune tolerance checkpoints Christopher C Goodnow 1 2 ... COVID-19, varying genetic resistance to viral disease and immune tolerance checkpoints Christopher C Goodnow. Immunol Cell Biol ... Differences in resistance to viral disease are at the core of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ...
... identify intestinal IgA+ immune cells as mucosal mediators of whole-body glucose regulation in diet-induced metabolic disease. ... Here, we show that high fat diet (HFD) feeding alters intestinal IgA+ immune cells and that IgA is a critical immune regulator ... Obese mice have fewer IgA+ immune cells and less secretory IgA and IgA-promoting immune mediators. HFD-fed IgA-deficient mice ... understood despite emerging evidence of a critical role for the intestinal immune system in contributing to insulin resistance ...
... suggesting new therapies to tackle these and other diseases. ... A protein called Mal modifies the way the immune system ... Q&A: Put patients before profits to beat drug resistance 09/07/19 ... Key protein in immune response to disease found. By Zablon Odhiambo. [NAIROBI] Researchers have identified a way that the ... immune system responds to malaria and tuberculosis infections, suggesting new therapies to tackle these and other diseases. ...
CAMTA3 negatively regulates disease resistance through modulating immune response and extensive transcriptional reprogramming ... AtCAMTA3 is a positive regulator of CBF2 expression, and negative regulator of SA mediated immune response5,20. The higher ... Yang, S. L., Yu, P. L. & Chung, K. R. The glutathione peroxidase‐mediated reactive oxygen species resistance, fungicide ... A thaumatin-like protein gene involved in cotton fiber secondary cell wall development enhances resistance against Verticillium ...
Kikuch-Fujimoto disease. * Erythema multiforme. * Acute cerebral ataxia. * Immune thrombocytopenic purpura. The authors caution ... HPV Vaccines May Cause The Immune System To Attack Body. How could a vaccine that has been declared safe and effective the ... HPV is not a lethal disease in 95% of the infections; and the other 5% are detectable and treatable in the precancerous stage." ... Part of the explanation lies with a phenomena known as molecular mimicry, defined as the possibility that the immune system ...
... therefore its impact on the immune system and other aspects which could be involved in raising efficient antitumor immune ... Modulation of inflammation by low and high doses of ionizing radiation: implications for benign and malign diseases. Cancer ... Combining RAIT and Immune-Based Therapies to Overcome Resistance in Cancer?. In: Hosono M., Chatal JF. (eds) Resistance to ... therefore its impact on the immune system and other aspects which could be involved in raising efficient antitumor immune ...
Disease Resistance of Wildlife Species: how the immune system evolves and adapts The Challenge: In an era when emerging ... The vertebrate immune system is not static. Rather, it involves in response to the environment. ... Insight into the human system can be gained from understanding the variety of immune adaptations of wildlife species. ... Attribution: Ecosystems, Fish & Wildlife Disease, Region 1: North Atlantic-Appalachian, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center ...
... a flp-21 mutant had no detectable immune defects, indicating that FLP-21 is dispensable for NPR-1-mediated pathogen resistance ... A successful innate immune response is pivotal in maintaining the delicate balance between health and disease; an insufficient ... Evidence for the impact of nervous system and immune system interaction on the fine balance between human health and disease ... Much of our current understanding about the intricate neuro-immune interactions and their implications on health and diseases ...
Bioactive Lipids in Health and Disease von - Englische Bücher zum Genre Medizin günstig & portofrei bestellen im Online Shop ... Role of bioactive lipids in neurodegenerative diseases Chapter 10: Bioactive Lipids and the gut-brain axis: diet as a modulator ... Bioactive lipids in inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases Chapter 6: Arachidonic acid metabolism in macrophages: role of ... We hope the mechanistic observations on the role of bioactive lipids in health and disease serve a perspective to improve the ...
Main article: Plant disease resistance § Immune system. Members of every class of pathogen that infect humans also infect ... The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the adaptive immune ... Immune evasion[edit]. Cells of the innate immune system prevent free growth of microorganisms within the body, but many ... The major functions of the vertebrate innate immune system include: *Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection through the ...
... and her colleagues have discovered the molecular basis for tamoxifen resistance in women with breast cancer and found a ... At UC San Francisco, we dont just treat diseases, we treat individuals. We put our patients priorities at the center of our ... Gut Immune Cells Cut Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis. Sugars Sick Secrets: How Industry Forces Have Manipulated Science to ... Scientists Discover Mechanism for Tamoxifen Resistance and How to Defeat It. By Jason Bardi on November 14, 2011 ...
Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Immune System Diseases. Hyperinsulinism. ... Metabolic Diseases. Slow Virus Diseases. Avitaminosis. Deficiency Diseases. Malnutrition. Nutrition Disorders. Vitamins. ... Study of Vitamin D and Effect on Heart Disease and Insulin Resistance. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Vitamin D Deficiency HIV Infections Drug: ...
Insulin Resistance. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Immune System Diseases. Hyperinsulinism. Glucose ... Metabolic Diseases. Ovarian Cysts. Cysts. Neoplasms. Ovarian Diseases. Adnexal Diseases. Genital Diseases, Female. Gonadal ... Insulin Resistance Before and During Pregnancy in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. This study has been terminated. ... insulin resistance. gestational diabetes. estrogen. glucose intolerance. obesity. ovulatory disorder. racial differences. ...
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; leucine-rich repeat; bacterial elicitor flagellin; disease-resistance gene; plant immune- ... that are conserved across microbial taxa and can be recognized by a plant or animal immune system. Although MAMP receptors have ... the MAMPs in some microbial species or strains have diverged sufficiently to render them unrecognizable by some host immune ...
The microbiome is emerging as an important regulator of health and disease well beyond the digestive tract. This eBriefing ... highlights from recent research innovations and therapeutic applications from the microbiome with a focus on metabolic disease. ... The Intestinal Adaptive Immune System in Obesity and Insulin Resistance: A Potential New Therapeutic Target. Daniel Winer ( ... Mitochondria in Complex Diseases. April 21, 2020. Speakers at this symposium will explore new advances in the basic biology of ...
... and by infection-induced responses of the immune system. Relative to a susceptible plant, disease resistance is the reduction ... disease resistance are generally preferred. Breeding for disease resistance began when plants were first domesticated. Breeding ... they could provide durable disease resistance to Ug99 and its derivatives. Another class of plant disease resistance genes ... Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation ...
News Analysis How Do Infant Immune Systems Learn to Tolerate Gut Bacteria? Scientists are beginning to unravel the ways in ... Doctors Advice to Finish Antibiotics Overlooks Resistance. By Abby Olena , August 11, 2017 ... tags: genetics & genomics x disease/medicine x cell & molecular biology x News & Opinion. » genetics & genomics, disease/ ... The infectious disease scientist spent seven years in the U.S. before returning home to establish a thriving center for ...
  • The Challenge: In an era when emerging infectious diseases are steadily increasing, human populations are exposed to virulent new pathogens. (usgs.gov)
  • The first tier confers basal resistance to the majority of 'would-be' pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the pathogens also require this mineral for their cellular functions, excess of this trace mineral may in fact increase the progression of diseases as found in some AID patients. (blogspot.com)
  • In conjunction with antimicrobial peptides, mucus and host defense molecules, IgA is essential for maintaining gut homeostasis through protection of the mucosal surface from pathogens while tolerating commensal bacteria using mechanisms such as immune exclusion 19 . (nature.com)
  • The interactions between the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its pathogens provide insights into mechanisms of neuroendocrine regulation of immunity and address many outstanding issues related to neuro-immune interactions. (biologists.org)
  • In this Perspective article, we briefly discuss the interactions between the nervous and immune systems, as well as how investigations into infection of C. elegans by various pathogens extends our knowledge of how the nervous system affects epithelial immunity. (biologists.org)
  • Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by pre-formed structures and chemicals, and by infection-induced responses of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduced activity of miR396 (MIM396 plants) was found to confer broad resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Chemical defense inducers, such as benzothiadiazole and probenazole, act on the SA pathway and induce strong resistance to various pathogens without major fitness costs, owing to their 'priming effect. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a second layer of induced defense in plants, resistance (R) proteins recognize effector proteins secreted by microbial pathogens, and trigger strong disease-resistance responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to innate mechanisms that hinder the entrance and initial spread of disease, adaptive immunity is more selective in its activity, and upon repeated exposures to pathogens can often prevent disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During humoral immune responses, proteins called antibodies, which can bind to and destroy pathogens, are secreted into the blood and other body fluids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In contrast, cell-mediated immune responses are important in resisting diseases caused by pathogens that live within cells, such as viruses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, aged individuals often have attenuated or otherwise impaired immune responses to various bacterial and viral pathogens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Frequently, severe respiratory tract disease in cattle is associated with concurrent infections of these pathogens. (cambridge.org)
  • Like other pathogens, the viral and bacterial pathogens of this disease complex have co-evolved with their hosts over millions of years. (cambridge.org)
  • As much as the hosts have diversified and fine-tuned the components of their immune system, the pathogens have also evolved diverse and sophisticated strategies to evade the host immune responses. (cambridge.org)
  • These pathogens have developed intricate mechanisms to thwart both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune responses of their hosts. (cambridge.org)
  • This review presents an overview of the strategies by which the pathogens suppress host immune responses, as well as the strategies by which the pathogens modify themselves or their locations in the host to evade host immune responses. (cambridge.org)
  • These immune evasion strategies likely contribute to the failure of currently-available vaccines to provide complete protection to cattle against these pathogens. (cambridge.org)
  • The platform has the potential to generate a robust pipeline of therapeutics and vaccines that both enhance the activity of the body's innate immune system and sensitize a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial pathogens to the action of first-line and other antibiotics. (biospace.com)
  • Because bats are constantly exposed to viruses, the scientists believe their immune systems are in a 'perpetual arms race with pathogens' -- a pathogen will enter the organism, the immune system will evolve a mechanism to combat the pathogen, the pathogen will evolve again, and so on. (indiatimes.com)
  • In contrast, the humoral immune response targets microbial pathogens and is characterized by the rapid production of a number of small antimicrobial peptides ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The innate immune system is the first line of defense and therefore an important protection against pathogens in fish. (csic.es)
  • This knowledge will allow determining the molecular basis of these responses and also be used in the improvement of cultured species via effective fight strategies against pathogens, new vaccine design, and genetic selection of disease-resistant species. (csic.es)
  • The relationship between disease resistant activities and antibody responses against the corresponding pathogens or vaccines, however, is still poorly understood. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Immune defense is autonomic, using its own subconscious memory to establish antigens against harmful pathogens. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • However, certain pathogens such as Listeria can grow within immune cells, which then release alarm signals to other nearby cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • He speculates that this may be a way for the immune system to more efficiently defend against viral pathogens, while avoiding collateral damage caused by an overactive immune cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • receptors, and to determine whether prevention of these effects improves resistance to infection by Listeria and other bacterial pathogens. (healthcanal.com)
  • Murepavadin's single pathogen focus prevents a build-up of resistance against other pathogens, which is a common problem with antibiotics. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • A protein called enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) plays a central role in plants' ability to defend themselves from pathogens. (redorbit.com)
  • The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to clear pathogens or mark them for destruction by other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While, it has been recognized since at least the 1930s that plants have some kind of induced immunity to pathogens, the modern study of systemic acquired resistance began in the 1980s when the invention of new tools allowed scientists to probe the molecular mechanisms of SAR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Field trials have found that acibenzolar-S-methyl (also known as BSA)[citation needed] is effective at controlling some plant diseases, but may have little effect on others, especially fungal pathogens which may not be very susceptible to SAR. (wikipedia.org)
  • To learn about particularly effective immune responses, we study wildlife species that have heightened exposure to foreign microbes, since theory predicts they will evolve better disease resistance. (usgs.gov)
  • We have documented that the species is unusually resistant to West Nile and other virulent viruses, that their eggs have elevated levels of antibacterial substances, and that they have more effective innate immune responses, which are critical in controlling new infections quickly. (usgs.gov)
  • and How is it related to the increased effectiveness of its immune responses. (usgs.gov)
  • Plant immune responses are triggered by pattern recognition receptors that detect conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or by resistance (R) proteins recognizing isolate-specific pathogen effectors. (sciencemag.org)
  • During interactions with virulent parasites, PRRs confer weak immune responses that attenuate pathogen growth and contribute to basal defense ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • PRR-triggered immune responses are tightly linked to mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activation of defense-related genes involving WRKY transcription factors (TFs) ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • However, R protein-triggered immune responses are also linked to ROS accumulation and defense-gene activation but differ quantitatively and kinetically from basal defense, often leading to host cell suicide at invasion sites ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • As resources dwindled within the caterpillar, the immune response shifted its emphasis away from inducible immune defenses (i.e. those responses that are activated during an immune challenge) and increased emphasis on constitutive defenses (i.e. immune components that are produced consistently). (biologists.org)
  • We also found changes suggesting that the activation threshold for some immune responses (e.g. phenoloxidase) was lowered. (biologists.org)
  • When fused to intracellular immune receptors, however, the same protein domains become 'baits' that plants use to detect effector molecules and to activate defense responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and (2) pathology, countered primarily by tolerance checkpoints to limit innate and adaptive immune responses. (cdc.gov)
  • I discuss tolerance thresholds and the role of CD8 T cells to limit pathological immune responses, the problems posed by tolerant superspreaders and the signature coronavirus evasion strategy of eliciting only short-lived neutralizing antibody responses. (cdc.gov)
  • therefore its impact on the immune system and other aspects which could be involved in raising efficient antitumor immune responses has been neglected. (springer.com)
  • Kroemer G, Zitvogel L. Abscopal but desirable: the contribution of immune responses to the efficacy of radiotherapy. (springer.com)
  • The nervous system regulates innate immune responses through the release of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and neurohormones. (biologists.org)
  • In animals, two important systems that mediate quick and precise responses to stresses are the nervous and immune systems. (biologists.org)
  • Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection or irritation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogen resistance in MIM396 plants is based on a superactivation of defense responses consistent with a priming event during pathogen infection. (nih.gov)
  • 7 Nutrition and Immune Responses: What Do We Know? (nap.edu)
  • The mutually aggravating interaction of malnutrition and infection has been known for centuries, but the concept of impaired immune responses mediating this interaction is relatively recent. (nap.edu)
  • 1971). In young children with protein-calorie malnutrition, that is, both marasmus and kwashiorkor, alterations in a number of immune responses were shown. (nap.edu)
  • Thus, to provide a complete answer to the question "What do we know about nutrition and immune responses? (nap.edu)
  • Protein-calorie malnutrition and deficiencies of individual nutrients, even subclinical deficits, are associated with impaired immune responses and altered risk of infection. (nap.edu)
  • Excessive intake of some nutrients may result in reduced immune responses. (nap.edu)
  • Immune responses are sensitive and functional indices of nutritional status and can aid in assessing prognosis in medical and surgical patients. (nap.edu)
  • They have also evolved a broad spectrum of inducible defense strategies to translate the perception of attackers into effective immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Background Diagnostic errors may appear, in infectious diseases, when anti-microbial immune system responses involve many temporal scales. (boothampitheatre.com)
  • Interestingly, 0.05 mg l 1 of Cr (VI) enhanced disease resistance and both nonspecific and specific immune responses to A. hydrophila . (int-res.com)
  • There are two kinds of adaptive immune responses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Humoral immune responses are effective against agents that act outside of cells, such as bacteria and toxins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During cell-mediated responses, immune cells that can destroy infected host cells become active. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lymphocytes are central to all adaptive immune responses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • helper T lymphocytes (Th cells) regulate the immune system, governing the quality and strength of all immune responses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These infections are often resistant to immune response or standard antibiotic regimens due to an extracellular matrix in the biofilm that protects the bacteria, contributing to persistent, harmful inflammatory responses, as well as extended duration and severity of disease. (biospace.com)
  • PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Cell-mediated immune responses are primarily involved in encapsulation reactions that defend insects against parasitoids ( 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Immune responses in larvae have delayed consequences on adult life history traits and on reproduction. (pnas.org)
  • Tradeoffs involving humoral antimicrobial immune responses or, more generally, immune responses in the adult have not been explored in Drosophila . (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, EDS1 appears to play a role in activating distinct immune responses from different compartments within the plant cell. (redorbit.com)
  • So when EDS1 is attacked, surveillance proteins spread the alarm and various immune responses are activated to isolate the infection. (redorbit.com)
  • How signals are relayed from the surveillance proteins to activate antimicrobial responses remains a mystery, but this detailed understanding of how EDS1 interacts with surveillance proteins may help scientists design a protein to guard EDS1 against attacks and make crops more disease resistant. (redorbit.com)
  • To evaluate the immune status of fish fed with each of the diets before being submitted to bacterial infection fish were sampled from each group at 2 and 4 weeks after the beginning of feeding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Additionally, the observed enhanced immune status provided by methionine supplementation translated into an improved immune response to infection, as higher cellular differentiation/proliferation and recruitment to the inflammatory focus, improved plasma humoral immune parameters and modulation of key immune-related genes was observed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chitooligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on the innate immune response and protection against Vibrio harveyi infection in Trachinotus ovatus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These factors range from regulation of virulent genes, changing the epitope of outer membrane proteins, to utilizing tick saliva to stave off the immune system during the initial infection. (scirp.org)
  • Although Bb is susceptible to antibiotic treatment during early infection or treatment for Lyme disease, the bacteria is able to traverse the blood brain barrier, endothelial tissue, and imbed itself in joints. (scirp.org)
  • Upon infection, microbes inject into host cells a set of virulence effectors tailored to target protein domains that are involved in the host plant's basal immunity, thus disarming or disabling the plant's immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been found to increase the infection resistance in human body. (blogspot.com)
  • When viruses jump into a new species the outcome of infection ranges from asymptomatic to lethal, historically ascribed to "genetic resistance to viral disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Possessing two copies of the less active variant means the body will not respond sufficiently to infection and will succumb to disease, while two copies of the highly active variant means the immune system goes into overdrive, leading to severe forms of the disease. (scidev.net)
  • Particularly given the recent rise in the number of cases of drug-resistant strains, it is essential that we understand how the immune system responds to infection if we are to develop novel treatments" added Mark Walport, director of the Wellcome Trust. (scidev.net)
  • Although obvious qualitative differences in disease resistance can be observed when multiple specimens are compared (allowing classification as "resistant" or "susceptible" after infection by the same pathogen strain at similar inoculum levels in similar environments), a gradation of quantitative differences in disease resistance is more typically observed between plant strains or genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current study evaluated effects of dietary administration doses of Entrococcus faecium on the hematological factors, and disease resistance of Sander lucioperca against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. (areo.ir)
  • Although a substantial fraction of plant miRNAs has proven responsive to pathogen infection, their role in disease resistance remains largely unknown, especially during fungal infections. (nih.gov)
  • The immune system is made up of a complex network of cells and organs that protect the body from infection. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of hexavalent chromium (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) on the immune response and disease resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) to bacterial Aeromonas hydrophila infection. (int-res.com)
  • She said the goal of this immune system response in humans is to kill the virus and fight infection, but added that it can also be a detrimental response as patients' bodies overreact to the threat. (indiatimes.com)
  • A detailed knowledge of immune response to the parasite would help in designing prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against this infection. (wiley.com)
  • However, experimental studies have indicated that males are more susceptible to infection in crickets ( 32 ) and copepods ( 33 ), and that immune system function is suppressed in male scorpionflies ( Panorpa vulgaris ) ( 34 ). (pnas.org)
  • The sexual transmission of HIV is very inefficient, presumably because mucosal immune defences prevent infection after most exposures. (bmj.com)
  • 2. Immunology Inherited, acquired, or induced resistance to infection by a specific pathogen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Resistance of the body to infection by a disease-causing agent, such as a bacterium or virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It may also be brought about by having had a disease or infection in the past and recovering from it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The infectious disease scientist spent seven years in the U.S. before returning home to establish a thriving center for research and help lead the fight against malaria. (the-scientist.com)
  • What is an infectious disease? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Conclusions Infectious disease data may be ambiguous. (boothampitheatre.com)
  • Infectious disease data might reveal, at least, four properties connected with intricacy: (i) [2C8]. (boothampitheatre.com)
  • Forget the toilet paper & bottled water - - grab the vitamins & trace minerals to ward off infectious disease given absence of any proven anti-viral drug or (potentially problematic) vaccine for covid-19 coronavirus. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that are critical for a wide range of biological functions, from immune protection against infectious disease to the predisposition of an individual to develop diabetes and auto immune diseases. (akcchf.org)
  • Fully defining the canine MHC will have broad impact across canine health, including oncology, immunology and infectious disease. (akcchf.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The EIDAR Research Area is responsive to military-relevant infectious disease threats that are also frequently global public health concerns. (medworm.com)
  • Leprosy is an infectious disease with gruesome symptoms. (healthcanal.com)
  • Despite the benefits of resistance, susceptibility to infectious disease is commonplace. (pnas.org)
  • The Massachusetts General Hospital Infectious Diseases Division is dedicated to providing world-class clinical care, treatment, research, education and management of infectious disease. (massgeneral.org)
  • Resistance (R) proteins represent a second, mainly intracellular, immune receptor class having the capacity to directly or indirectly detect isolate-specific pathogen effectors, encoded by avirulence ( AVR ) genes ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Pinpointing and targeting the mechanisms responsible for varying pathology and short-lived antibody were beyond reach in previous zoonoses, but this time we are armed with genomic technologies and more knowledge of immune checkpoint genes. (cdc.gov)
  • The MHC genes in the dog are incompletely characterized, thereby severely limiting our ability to full define the cause of many canine diseases. (akcchf.org)
  • The study found several genes that are associated with resistance to antibiotics, including new genes that might point to previously unknown mechanisms of drug resistance. (healthcanal.com)
  • In spite of this, not many innate immune genes have been cloned in fish. (csic.es)
  • There are two intriguing perspectives of anti-disease breeding including selection on disease resistant alleles of candidate genes and on antibody response to vaccines or antigens. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2005), and many genes have been identified that contribute to disease resistance. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Disease resistance genes (R genes) are essential components of plant immune systems. (usda.gov)
  • Amongst five diverse classes of disease resistance genes, the largest class of R genes includes genes that encode proteins with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain and a Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) domain. (usda.gov)
  • More often resistance genes are carried on extra chromosomal plasmids that may be transferable from organism to organism by conjugation, transduction, or transformation (Jacoby and Swartz, 1980). (issuu.com)
  • Immunity is usually provided by the body's own immune system, which is determined by the action of one's genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Food limitation also: altered immune gene expression, changed the activity of key immune enzymes, depressed the concentration of a major antioxidant (glutathione), reduced resistance to oxidative stress, reduced resistance to bacteria (Gram-positive and -negative bacteria) but appeared to have less effect on resistance to a fungus. (biologists.org)
  • They found two variants of a key protein called Mal that alerts the body's immune system to the presence of invading bacteria. (scidev.net)
  • crap, bacteria have an adaptive immune system ? (popsci.com)
  • Blast disease, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae , and leaf-blight disease, caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bovine respiratory tract disease is a multi-factorial disease complex involving several viruses and bacteria. (cambridge.org)
  • The Clarametyx platform is designed to precisely remove a universal, pathogen-agnostic target within this matrix, rapidly and effectively collapsing the protective shield and sensitizing bacteria to immune and antibiotic attack. (biospace.com)
  • Scientists led by EPFL have isolated leprosy bacteria directly from human samples, and analyzed the purified genomes to identify mutations that confer drug resistance to the bacterium, as well as gain insights into the origins of the disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • In Drosophila and other insects, the immune system includes cellular and humoral components offering defense against parasitoids, viruses, bacteria and fungi ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although there are successful vaccines against bacteria, therapeutic treatments for viral diseases have yet to be established. (csic.es)
  • In the Feb. 15 issue of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Laurel Lenz, PhD, and his colleagues report that macrophages infected by the bacteria Listeria release interferon-aß (IFN- aß), which makes them and nearby immune cells unresponsive to activation signals. (healthcanal.com)
  • This reduces immune resistance to the bacteria, which causes thousands of cases of food poisoning - and more than 500 deaths - each year in the United States. (healthcanal.com)
  • Key words: Bacteria, Bacteria isolation, Broilers, Resistance, Newcastle disease virus 1.0 Introduction The routine handling of animals entails certain personal risks. (issuu.com)
  • The evolution of antibiotic resistance to common antibiotics by some of these bacteria, as a result of heavy usage of antibiotics to enhance livestock production performance has been documented. (issuu.com)
  • Bacteria resistance to antibiotic is of great concern in the medical community. (issuu.com)
  • Lastly, after a bacterial challenge, higher survival was observed in fish fed supplemented diets, ultimately corroborating the positive effect of methionine administration for 4 weeks in the cellular immune status. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to Bb's ability to protect itself from the immune system, many of the functional attributes and bacterial loci can influence the ability to treat Lyme disease with various antibiotics. (scirp.org)
  • Rice plants overexpressing WRKY45 were extremely resistant to rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and bacterial leaf blight disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. (frontiersin.org)
  • The specific immune response was assessed by antibody response to A. hydrophila by bacterial agglutination assay, and to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by plaque forming cell (PFC) assay. (int-res.com)
  • Anaïs G, Darrasse A, Prior P (2000) Breeding anthuriums ( Anthurium andreanum L.) for resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. (springer.com)
  • Researchers at Oregon State University have made a key advance in the fight against drug resistance, crafting a compound that genetically neutralizes a widespread bacterial pathogen's ability to thwart antibiotics. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Bacterial biofilms are a serious global health concern due to their ability to resist both antibiotics and the host's immune system," said Erin Duffy, R&D Chief of CARB-X, a non-profit global partnership led by Boston University and dedicated to funding and supporting the development of innovative products to address antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. (biospace.com)
  • With an entirely new approach to persistent bacterial infections, our technology could represent a disruptive innovation that is very well aligned to the CARB-X goals to combat drug resistance," said Charles McOsker, Ph.D., co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer of Clarametyx. (biospace.com)
  • Alpha-tocopherol enhances resistance of aged mice to bacterial pneumonia by modulating the innate immune response. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Effects of dietary β-1,3-glucan, chitosan or raffinose on the growth, innate immunity and resistance of koi (Cyprinus carpio koi). (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, given that stress affects neuronal secretion, which in turn affects immune function, these organisms might be useful for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the various effects of nervous system activity on immunity. (biologists.org)
  • The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the adaptive immune system ). (wikipedia.org)
  • FIV is a serious disease with no cure, but alternative therapies can boost immunity and help infected cats lead a normal life. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Here we provide experimental support for the direct phenotypic tradeoff between sexual activity and immunity by studying the antibacterial immune response in Drosophila melanogaster . (pnas.org)
  • By rebuilding immunity, health is naturally restored and disease disappears. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Researchers from Mayo Clinic, United States of America, have reviewed the immunity developed against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Our understanding of infectious diseases and the immune response has been revolutionized by recent discoveries in innate immunity, genetics and genomics, and microbiology. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Infections & Immunity research in Imperial College has made major global contributions to immune-based treatments. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • 1. (Biology) the ability of an organism to resist disease, either through the activities of specialized blood cells or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation ( active immunity ) or by the injection of antiserum or the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her baby via the placenta or breast milk ( passive immunity ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Results show that methionine dietary supplementation improves seabass cellular immune status without evidence of activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Differences in resistance to viral disease are at the core of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) crisis, yet our understanding of the mechanisms in any interspecies leap falls short of the mark. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite these findings, changes in additional gut immune populations, including B and plasma cells, during DIO and mechanisms behind intestinal immune regulation of glucose homeostasis remain unclear. (nature.com)
  • Munn DH, Bronte V. Immune suppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment. (springer.com)
  • However, many questions related to the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved, the physiological role of the link between the immune and the nervous system, and the biological significance of neuro-immune interactions remain unresolved. (biologists.org)
  • The International Journal of Experimental Pathology - IJEP - publishes papers which afford new and imaginative insights into the basic mechanisms underlying human disease. (wiley.com)
  • Understanding the Immune Mechanisms and. (hhmi.org)
  • Determine potential mechanisms of resistance to ibrutinib and venetoclax combination treatment by whole exome and ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, nonspecific immune mechanisms were assessed by serum lysozyme activity and reactive nitrogen intermediates, the latter in terms of nitric oxide (NO) production by peripheral blood leucocytes. (int-res.com)
  • Our study revealed a concentration-dependent modulation of the immune system by chromium (VI), as demonstrated by suppressive or stimulatory effects on lymphocytes, lysozyme, phagocytic killing mechanisms, and disease resistance in O. mossambicus . (int-res.com)
  • A complete understanding of these age-associated changes in immune status and function remains elusive, requiring knowledge of the mechanisms underlying maintenance, activation, and control of the immune system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Research funded through this program will look at the biological and physiological mechanisms in relation to disease prevention in ruminants (cattle, goat, sheep), swine, poultry, equine, and aquaculture species. (usda.gov)
  • But unlike humans, the scientists said bats have specific mechanisms which reduce the replication of viruses in their bodies, and also dampen their immune response to a virus. (indiatimes.com)
  • In response, hosts have evolved elaborate mechanisms of defense ( 3 ), and heritable variation for disease resistance exists in many populations ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • What it may do is over stimulate the immune function, sacrificing the "self" - "not self" regulatory mechanisms. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Can we improve our understanding of the mechanisms of disease and injury and develop improved methods for diagnostics and treatment through study of animal models? (edu.au)
  • What are early-life origins and cellular mechanisms of respiratory inflammatory diseases such as allergic stress? (edu.au)
  • Insight into the human system can be gained from understanding the variety of immune adaptations of wildlife species. (usgs.gov)
  • The vertebrate immune system is not static. (usgs.gov)
  • Methionine presents a pivotal role in the regulation of many cellular events with crucial impact on the immune system, such as in processes involved in the control of inflammation and polyamines synthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • A dependency of the immune system upon the availability of amino acids (AA) has been associated to their role as signaling molecules essential for cellular function as reviewed in ( 1 - 4 ), but also as methyl group donors and precursors of physiological important molecules, such as hormones, bioactive amines, enzymes, neurotransmitters and nitric oxide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several studies have reported that AA deficiency reduces their plasma concentration, ultimately compromising the immune system repertoire ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These factors of immune evasion include regulation of membrane proteins, variable epitopes of surface proteins, protection against the immune system through tick saliva, the ability to migrate to regions where it is not exposed to the immune system or antibiotics, invagination or invasion within various cells, pleomorphic forms, and the potential to produce biofilms. (scirp.org)
  • However, the capacity for evading the immune system in mammals is complicated and involves various factors. (scirp.org)
  • Although some methods of evading the immune system are still in conjecture or require more research to be certain, the capacity and potential for treating Lyme disease are quite difficult. (scirp.org)
  • The capacity for Bb to stave off the immune system in addition to "hiding" itself in various tissues to avoid exposure to antibiotics are significant hurdles that from a clinical stand point are very hard to combat. (scirp.org)
  • However, food limitation has complex and seemingly paradoxical effects on the immune system. (biologists.org)
  • Examining these changes from an immune system network perspective may help illuminate the purpose of these fluctuations. (biologists.org)
  • These results provide evidence that food limitation led to a restructuring of the immune system network. (biologists.org)
  • Changes in the configuration of the immune system network will lead to different immunological strengths and vulnerabilities for the organism. (biologists.org)
  • The immune system is composed of multiple components that can be separately regulated (e.g. in insects, Beckage, 2008 ), a necessary precondition for adaptive reconfiguration. (biologists.org)
  • The immune system of plants is composed of two tiers of receptors [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zinc, an essential trace mineral, exerts its ubiquitous effects on the function of the immune system in human body and modulates its disease resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • Many research studies have documented that zinc has a pivotal role in the function in immune system of human body. (blogspot.com)
  • However it is to be noted that there is a delicate zinc mediated regulation of the function of immune system in human body and any increased or decreased plasma levels of the trace mineral can disturb the function of the system. (blogspot.com)
  • However multifarious factors affect the availability of zinc for both the host human body as well as the pathogen and this aspect of immune system requires further research input. (blogspot.com)
  • The intra and extracellular reactions of zinc in human body clearly demonstrate its central role in defence from diseases and priming up immune system. (blogspot.com)
  • The intestinal immune system is emerging as an important contributor to obesity-related insulin resistance, but the role of intestinal B cells in this context is unclear. (nature.com)
  • During high fat diet (HFD) feeding and obesity, a significant shift occurs in the microbial populations within the gut, known as dysbiosis, which interacts with the intestinal immune system. (nature.com)
  • A link between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system is the immune-derived molecule immunoglobulin A (IgA). (nature.com)
  • NAIROBI] Researchers have identified a way that the immune system responds to malaria and tuberculosis infections, suggesting new therapies to tackle these and other diseases. (scidev.net)
  • One variant allows the immune system to respond normally, whilst the other causes too strong a reaction. (scidev.net)
  • Part of the explanation lies with a phenomena known as ' molecular mimicry ,' defined as the possibility that the immune system will mistake a self-structure with a foreign (usually pathogen derived) peptide and thereby cause auto-immune harm. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Alterations in the state and function of the nervous system influence the immune response. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, we highlight areas in which other animal models are needed to compliment or extend findings in the C. elegans system to make them relevant to human disease. (biologists.org)
  • The innate immune system is an older evolutionary defense strategy, relatively speaking, and is the dominant immune system response found in plants , fungi , insects , and primitive multicellular organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Neutrophils then trigger other parts of the immune system by releasing factors that summon additional leukocytes and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines produced by macrophages and other cells of the innate immune system mediate the inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hiv Interferes With The Body's Resistance Towards Diseases And Infections By Damaging The Immune System. (nanobits.org)
  • Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are molecules, or domains within molecules, that are conserved across microbial taxa and can be recognized by a plant or animal immune system. (osti.gov)
  • The plant immune system carries two interconnected tiers of receptors, one most frequently sensing molecules outside the cell and the other most frequently sensing molecules inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • another, disease-causing virus that the immune system would recognize and attack. (popsci.com)
  • In turn, the immune system responds to the unwanted inhabitant. (popsci.com)
  • a better understanding of the immune system in general. (popsci.com)
  • History of clinically significant cardiovascular disease or nervous system or muscle disease, including seizures, peripheral neuropathy, dementia, or motor dysfunction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This 3-pronged approach to holistic cancer care for pets covers all the bases - it helps the immune system do its job, employs anti-cancer. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Your pet's immune system plays an essential role in maintaining his health and resistance to disease. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • However, just like your own immune system, it. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Many illnesses can be avoided or alleviated by balancing your dog or cat's immune system. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • A strong immune system is your animal's best protection against illness. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • What is the immune system? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The immune system works to keep germs out of the body and destroy any that get in. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Lymph nodes are part of the immune system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Can a custom-built white blood cell avoid suppression by cancer and boost our immune system? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Dr. Joel Pomerantz and his team at Johns Hopkins study the immune system to this end. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • They are vital to an effective immune system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • What are disorders of the immune system? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • When the immune system does not work properly, it leaves the body at risk for disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Allergies and being very sensitive to certain substances are both considered immune system disorders. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In addition, the immune system plays a role in rejecting transplanted organs or tissue. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The 4D technique detected, within one day even, changes in immune system profiles that happened after antibiotics had been prescribed. (boothampitheatre.com)
  • The study clearly indicated that chronic exposure of fish to 0.5 and 5 mg l 1 of chromium (VI) decreased both nonspecific and specific parameters of the immune system, which resulted in a lower disease resistance to A. hydrophila . (int-res.com)
  • The immune system provides the body with resistance to disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, unto-ward immune phenomena, such as certain forms of autoimmunity, as well as cancers involving cells of the immune system, show increased incidence in aged individuals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To treat neurological disease, researchers develop techniques to bypass or trick the guardian of the central nervous system. (the-scientist.com)
  • Sometimes the immune system is over-responsive and creates more havoc in your lungs, resulting in uncontrollable inflammation and lungs filling with fluid. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • DO NOT VACCINATE FOR THE FLU WHEN YOU ARE ILL. The vaccine may not work (you may not develop antibodies) if your immune system is weak and the vaccine IS the pathogen (virus or bacterium). (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Missouri have found a key process in a plant's immune system response that may help future crops fight off dangerous diseases. (missouri.edu)
  • NEW YORK: The capacity of bats to tolerate viruses such as the novel coronavirus may stem from their ability to control inflammation, according to a review of studies which says understanding the immune system of the flying mammals can provide new drug targets for human therapies against Covid-19 . (indiatimes.com)
  • The human immune system works like that -- once we get infected, our body sounds an alarm and we develop a fever and inflammation,' Gorbunova explained. (indiatimes.com)
  • The second would be to regulate our immune system more like a bat ,' she added. (indiatimes.com)
  • Both specific (vaccination) and non-specific (immunostimulation) approaches are explored, from maintaining optimal environmental conditions, to understanding how stressors in fish affect their immune system. (elsevier.com)
  • How Does Stress Affect The Immune System? (bartleby.com)
  • Gut-associated lymphoid tissue accounts for 70 percent of the bodys immune system. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We found a substantial delay in the time that it takes to restore the gut mucosal immune system in those with chronic infections, Dandekar said. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • They discovered that newly infected patients had fewer signs of inflammation at the beginning of the study and experienced greater recovery of the gut mucosal immune system function by the end of it. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Consequently, males may invest fewer resources in immune-system mediated parasite defense ( 26 , 27 ). (pnas.org)
  • The humoral immune system that is mediated by serum antibodies secreted by B cells is one of the major immunological defenses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The immune system is not responsive to drugs for healing. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Antibiotics used to fight infections actually depress the immune system when used long-term. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Disorders in the immune system can result in disease. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Immunodeficiency diseases occur when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • In contrast, autoimmune diseases result from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Natural nutritive forces, like healing foods and herbal medicines can and do support the immune system. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Greg B. Wilson, Ph.D. and James B. Daily, Jr., Ph.D. - "Our health is directly influenced by our immune system. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • The long term effects of the breakdown of the immune system can be seen in increased infections, auto-immune disorders and tumor formation. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Linda Page, N.D. Ph.D . - "What does the immune system really do? (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • It's a system that works on its own to fend off or neutralize disease toxins, and set up a healing environment for the body. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • An overload of antibiotics, antacids, immunizations, cortico-steroid drugs , and environmental pollutants eventually affect immune system balance to the point where it cannot distinguish harmful cells from healthy cells. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • When patrolling immune-system cells encounter non-pathogenic microbes, they normally engulf and destroy them. (healthcanal.com)
  • Proponents of supplementary vitamins often recommend combining vitamins A, C, and E and claim that these vitamins improve general well-being, strengthen the immune system and may delay the development and progression of serious disease. (nlc-bnc.ca)
  • Two papers published in the Dec. 9 issue of Science ( http://www.sciencemag.org/magazine ) demonstrate how EDS1 activates different components of the plant immune system, "a compartmentalization of the immune response that is novel," according to John M. McDowell, professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Virginia Tech. (redorbit.com)
  • SAR is analogous to the innate immune system found in animals, and although there are many shared aspects between the two systems, it is thought to be a result of convergent evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among 128 patients routinely receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic in Cameroon, 16.4% had drug resistance after a median of 10 months. (cdc.gov)
  • HIV drug resistance is a major threat to the scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in developing countries (the World Health Organization/United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS "3 by 5" Initiative) ( 1 ), especially in Africa ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Data on drug resistance in the routine care setting are urgently required to design large, effective ART programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Mutations were classified as minor or major, by using the September 2004 version of the French National Agency for Research on AIDS consensus statements on antiretroviral drug resistance ( http://www.hivfrenchresistance.org ). (cdc.gov)
  • A susceptible strain based on absence of major drug resistance mutations by genotyping or a strain that could not be amplified for genotyping was considered nonresistant. (cdc.gov)
  • this change should be guided by a thorough drug treatment history and the results of drug-resistance testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Disrupting DNA repair will result in a storm of random mutations, increasing the chance that the right gene mutates at the right spot and lead to drug resistance. (healthcanal.com)
  • Viruses that play prominent roles in causing the bovine respiratory disease complex include bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and parinfluenza-3 virus. (cambridge.org)
  • Antiretroviral regimens are complex, have serious side effects, pose difficulty with adherence, and carry serious potential consequences from the development of viral resistance because of nonadherence to the drug regimen or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Failure of therapy at 4--6 months might be ascribed to nonadherence, inadequate potency of drugs or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents, viral resistance, and other factors that are poorly understood. (cdc.gov)
  • Those results prompted Dandekar and her team to undertake the current study in which they set out to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy, known as HAART, on viral suppression and immune restoration in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The research highlights the crosstalk that exists between the antibacterial and anti-viral arms of the immune response. (healthcanal.com)
  • Its lead candidate, CMTX-101, is an immune-enabling antibody therapy with broad-spectrum activity for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pneumonia through co-administration with standard antibiotic regimens to improve patient response to therapy. (biospace.com)
  • With intensifying concerns about the perils of vaccinations and antibiotic resistant organisms, a new weapon against disease is sorely needed. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • In a study of poultry and farm personnel, Ojeniyi (1989) reported increase antibiotic resistance in commercial reared birds compared to free range village poultry. (issuu.com)
  • ABSTRACT: The major antigenic protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is the surface glycoprotein G, which contains neutralizing epitopes that induce the production of immune neutralizing antibodies. (int-res.com)
  • Mortality occurs because salmon lice can cause severely damaged fins and skin lesions, and thereby physiological stress, problems with salt regulation, increased susceptibility to other infections and reduced disease resistance in individual fish. (bibsys.no)
  • Millions of people are at risk of infections, disease and death from parasitic infections ( Bittencourt & Barral-Netto, 1995 ). (wiley.com)
  • Aciclovir for Infusion is also used to prevent herpes infections in people who have a low resistance to disease. (drugs.com)
  • Then, since high-risk sexual activity is commonly one of these criteria, its potential impact on genital immunology must be carefully considered, both the direct effects of sex and the secondary immune effects of genital co-infections. (bmj.com)
  • There is little (unbiased) clinical research to support the use of intrapartum antibiotics to reduce early onset GBS disease (EOGBSD). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A new review published in Autoimmunity Reviews titled, " On the relationship between human papilloma virus vaccine and autoimmune disease ," is destined to reopen the controversy surrounding numerous reports of HPV vaccine-induced harm that have surfaced ever since their widespread use, beginning with the FDA's 2006 approval of Merck & Co.'s Gardasil. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The study points out, "Along with the introduction of the HPV vaccines, several cases of onset or exacerbations of autoimmune diseases following the vaccine shot have been reported in the literature and pharmacovigilance databases, triggering concerns about its safety. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • How could a vaccine that has been declared safe and effective the world over be connected to such a wide range of autoimmune diseases? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 1 ] expand our knowledge of this neat plant defense mechanism by highlighting the large number and diversity of such chimeric immune receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The NLR-based defense response is much stronger than basal resistance and often results in the death of the affected host cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With a main focus on these studies, I review the current knowledge of SA-pathway-dependent defense in rice by comparing it with that in Arabidopsis , and discuss potential strategies to develop disease-resistant rice using signaling components. (frontiersin.org)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Clinical Microbiology and Immune Defense. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Clinical Microbiology and Immune Defense are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICCMID 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Clinical Microbiology and Immune Defense . (waset.org)
  • This "cost" hypothesis predicts a tradeoff between immune defense and other components of fitness. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, however, it has been recognized that in addition to this process, disease susceptibility can be maintained by tradeoffs between costly immune defense and other components of fitness, such as reproduction ( 8 , 12 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease pathology, immune training exacerbates cerebral amyloidosis, whereas tolerance alleviates it. (natureasia.com)
  • and the approval and launch in China of the first new drug to treat Alzheimer's disease in more than a decade. (medworm.com)
  • Surroundings- later stages of Alzheimer's disease someone may become much less aware of what is happening around them. (bartleby.com)
  • These symptoms occur when the brain is damaged by certain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. (bartleby.com)
  • Diagram of the brain of a person with Alzheimer's Disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Low levels of amyloid-β and tau proteins, biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in eye fluid were significantly associated with low cognitive scores, according to a new study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease . (medicalxpress.com)
  • These findings indicate that proteins in the eye may be a potential source for an accessible, cost-effective test to predict future Alzheimer's disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • These findings could help us build an accessible, and minimally invasive test to determine Alzheimer's disease risk, especially among patients with eye disease," says Lauren Wright, MD, first author on the study and ophthalmology fellow at BMC. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This is a great step in discovering the eye's potential role in diagnosing preclinical Alzheimer's disease, and further study is needed comparing protein biomarkers in the eye with more in-depth neurological testing," adds Manju Subramanian, MD, senior author, principal investigator, and ophthalmologist at BMC. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Obesity is a global concern that is associated with many chronic complications such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance (IR), cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. (nature.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate how Vitamin D affects endothelial function, inflammation, lipids, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is widely accepted that 'insulin resistance' may be responsible for the polycystic ovary syndrome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • End points included changes in fasting insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-I:IGFBP-3 molar ratio between baseline and week 15. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To date, however, no study has examined the effect of exercise training on changes in insulin, insulin resistance, IGF, and IGFBP in breast cancer survivors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • From these results, we recommend that CBP administration at 0.4% for 4 weeks could effectively improve immune response and disease resistance in L. rohita . (hindawi.com)
  • To examine whether L. plantarum C014 had potential for use as an immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish, the fish diet supplemented with L. plantarum C014 (10 7 CFU/g diet) was prepared and used for the in vivo investigation of its effect on innate immune response and disease resistance of hybrid catfish. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on its origin and beneficial effect on innate immune response and disease resistance, L. plantarum C014 may be a potential candidate for use as a natural and safe immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish. (hindawi.com)
  • Accordingly, the present study aimed to assess the modulatory effects of dietary methionine on the European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) immune status, inflammatory response and disease resistance to Photobacterium damselae subsp. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dietary administration of chitooligosaccharides to enhance growth, innate immune response and disease resistance of Trachinotus ovatus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases and Antimicrobial Resistance (EIDAR). (medworm.com)
  • Several new EIDAR efforts are underway that will provide Combatant Command Surgeons, Infectious Diseases Service Chiefs, and other Force Health Protection stakeholders with epidemiological information to mitigate the impact of EIDs and antimicrobial resistance on the health of U.S. military service members and their dependents. (medworm.com)
  • Phylogenomics and antimicrobial resistance of the leprosy bacillus Mycobacterium leprae . (healthcanal.com)
  • Immune parameters and immune-related gene expressions were measured at 3rd, 4th, and 5th week after feeding. (hindawi.com)
  • However, five weeks of CBP administration had no significant effect on immune gene expression, except TNF- α and IL-8 . (hindawi.com)
  • Fish hematological profile, peripheral cell dynamics, plasma humoral immune parameters, leucocyte migration to the inflammatory focus and head-kidney gene expression were evaluated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Azadi P, Otang NV, Supaporn H, Khan RS, Chin DP, Nakamura I, Mii M (2011) Increased resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Lilium transformed with a defective CMV replicate gene. (springer.com)
  • Venn, A.A., Quinn, J.A.S., Jones, R.J. and Bodnar, A.G. (2009) P-glycoprotein (multi-xenobiotic resistance) and heat shock protein gene expression in the reef coral Montastraea franksi in response to environmental toxicants. (bios.edu)
  • As a consequence, diseases of skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems crop up. (blogspot.com)
  • The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is far from over as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to ravage across the globe. (news-medical.net)
  • National Jewish Health is known worldwide for treatment of patients with respiratory, cardiac, immune and related disorders, and for groundbreaking medical research. (healthcanal.com)
  • These scientific advances have led to the development of novel immuno-therapeutics and major clinical breakthroughs for the treatment of previously intractable diseases in almost all clinical specialties, including Renal, Rheumatology, Neurology, Transplantation, Cancer, Respiratory and Infectious Diseases. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • We describe the frequency and nature of major genotypic mutations conferring resistance to antiretroviral drugs among patients treated in a routine HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic in Yaoundé, the political capital of Cameroon. (cdc.gov)
  • The deduced amino acid sequences were compared with a reference sequence to detect mutations associated with resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • I. Determine if the addition of venetoclax to ibrutinib therapy can eliminate ibrutinib resistance mutations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVES I. Describe changes in variant allele frequency (VAF) of known ibrutinib resistance mutations after the addition of venetoclax. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Daily exposure to environmental pollutants, the emotional and excessive stresses of modern lifestyles, chemicalized foods, and new virus mutations are all a challenge to our immune systems. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Now researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) have discovered the molecular basis for tamoxifen resistance and found a potential way to defeat it. (ucsf.edu)
  • Better understanding white blood cells and the body's immune response may help researchers detect and fight cancer. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The scale of such challenges require increased international collaboration, and this partnership of co-investment between BBSRC and NIFA will allow world-leading researchers in both countries to work together to combat livestock diseases and safeguard food supplies. (usda.gov)
  • According to the researchers studying bats' immune systems can provide new targets for human therapies to fight diseases and aging. (indiatimes.com)
  • Tropical medicine has captured the interest of generations of medical students and researchers living in countries where these diseases are endemic. (wiley.com)
  • Fish fed with 0.4% CBP for 4 weeks showed maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (73.3% survival) compared to control. (hindawi.com)
  • 30 mcg/dL) are characterized by mental impairment, diseases, severe immune depression and alopecia. (blogspot.com)
  • Other epidemics include Chestnut blight, as well as recurrent severe plant diseases such as Rice blast, Soybean cyst nematode, Citrus canker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists correct a mutation in fertilized eggs that causes a severe cardiac disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • Our findings reveal a mechanism by which these polymorphic immune receptors integrate distinct pathogen signals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Plants have evolved two classes of immune receptors, each of which recognizes non-self molecular structures. (sciencemag.org)
  • A new study uses genomics to show that fusions of plant immune receptors and other protein domains occur in significant numbers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effector perception by NLR immune receptors occurs either directly or indirectly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison of different effector recognition models by intracellular plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat ( NLR ) immune receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although MAMP receptors have evolved to recognize conserved epitopes, the MAMPs in some microbial species or strains have diverged sufficiently to render them unrecognizable by some host immune systems. (osti.gov)
  • Plants also carry immune receptors that recognize highly variable pathogen effectors, these include the NBS-LRR class of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dwindling resources might be expected to induce a gradual decline in immune function. (biologists.org)
  • Certain immune stimuli 'train' blood monocytes and enhance the immune response to subsequent challenges, whereas others suppress inflammation and induce tolerance. (natureasia.com)
  • This is one of the few courses available outside of medicine that combines aspects of human physiology, immunology and infectious diseases. (salford.ac.uk)
  • course will cover essential concepts in immunology and infectious diseases that underpin vaccination, antimicrobial therapy and resistance, cancer immunotherapy, allergy, autoimmunity and transplant biology, using clinical examples. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Combining RAIT and Immune-Based Therapies to Overcome Resistance in Cancer? (springer.com)
  • Correspondence author email: [email protected] Tel:+2348027120080 Abstract An attempt was made to enumerate the micro-flora in trachea of broiler chickens challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) following supplementation with different extracts of local sources. (issuu.com)
  • This course focuses on human biology and the pathology, transmission and epidemiology of infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Specifically, the projects will address the development of immune reagents, breeding for genetic resistance to disease, studying the ecology of diseases spread by vector insects, and developing improved vaccines. (usda.gov)
  • Because there are many areas where different species and different forms of the disease overlap, detailed knowledge of the immune response and pathogenesis is extremely important to develop vaccines for the various forms of leishmaniasis. (wiley.com)
  • In the review research, published in the journal Cell Metabolism , the scientists assessed how the natural ability of bats to control inflammation may be contributing to their longevity and tendency to fight off diseases. (indiatimes.com)
  • Humans have two possible strategies if we want to prevent inflammation, live longer, and avoid the deadly effects of diseases like Covid-19,' Gorbunova said. (indiatimes.com)
  • How do the nervous and immune systems interact to promote and regulate inflammation? (edu.au)
  • Understanding the mechanism of tamoxifen resistance and how to defeat it may help a large number of women with hormone-resistant breast cancer," said Munster. (ucsf.edu)
  • Determine if increased expression of MCL-1 and BCL-XL is a potential mechanism of resistance to venetoclax when given in combination with ibrutinib. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells (termed adaptive immune resistance). (nih.gov)
  • They also found that HIV continues to replicate in the gut mucosa, suppressing immune function in patients being treated with antiretroviral therapyeven when blood samples from the same individuals indicated the treatment was working. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Results of the study suggest that patients being treated with antiretroviral therapy should be monitored using gut biopsies and that the guts immune function be restored through earlier antiretroviral treatment and the use of anti-inflammatory medications. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In the last three decades, thousands of women with breast cancer have taken the drug tamoxifen, only to discover that the therapy doesn't work, either because their tumors do not respond to the treatment at all, or because they develop resistance to it over time. (ucsf.edu)
  • On Nov. 13, 2011, at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference: Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics, UCSF oncologist Pamela Munster , MD, and her colleagues will present the results of clinical studies and laboratory experiments that show how some tumors resist tamoxifen and how this resistance can be overcome by administering a second class of drugs. (ucsf.edu)
  • May is Pet Cancer Awareness Month, and that means it's time to spread the word about this dreaded and increasingly common disease. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Cancer isn't a simple disease. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Multidrug resistance (MDR) -- a process in which tumors become resistant to multiple medicines -- is the main cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. (news-medical.net)
  • There is clear evidence that a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of many diseases, including some types of cancer. (nlc-bnc.ca)
  • These proponents base their recommendations for megadose therapy on laboratory studies indicating that these substances, alone or in combination, have positive effects such as immune modulation, tumour suppression and promotion of cell differentiation, which may be beneficial to cancer patients. (nlc-bnc.ca)
  • Each protein carries a risk of inducing an immune response that could, in theory, 'blow back' on self-structures within the human proteome. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Causes of sign and symptoms People with Alzheimer disease also develop deposits of protein and fibre that prevent the cells from working properly. (bartleby.com)
  • In chickens, it is well documented that the Mx protein is associated with resistance to avian influenza virus (Flohr et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Learn about the cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways of CRISPR-associated proteins, DNA repair pathways, and applications in diverse organisms, including for human health and disease biology. (nyas.org)
  • Multiple signaling pathways, including those mediated by salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene are involved in transducing the signal of pathogen perception into an immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • What biochemical pathways are affected by acute and chronic exposure to pesticides in neurodegenerative diseases? (edu.au)
  • Are innate immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved? (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various outer surface proteins (Osps) with varying functions with regard to immune evasion. (scirp.org)
  • A Tumor-Specific Super-Enhancer Drives Immune Evasion by Guiding Synchronous Expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2. (nih.gov)
  • Two innate immune response parameters, phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and plasma lysozyme activity, were significantly enhanced in the treated fish after 45 days of feeding. (hindawi.com)
  • The potential adverse events associated with vaccination for infectious diseases underscore the need for effective analysis and definition of possible vaccine side effects. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Even with a 100% vaccination rate and 100% vaccine effectiveness, by my calculations it is likely such a vaccine would generate more hospitalizations and deaths than the disease itself because of the weak immune status of the individual. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • Swine Immune Toolkit: Development of new immune reagents for swine health, vaccine and disease studies. (usda.gov)
  • Through the leadership of our chief, Rochelle Walensky, MD, MPH , we offer a wide range of inpatient and outpatient clinical services related to the care of patients with infectious diseases. (massgeneral.org)
  • One of the core goals of our division is offering unparalleled opportunities in clinical and research training in Infectious Diseases. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Infectious Diseases Division offers clinical care for all major areas of infectious diseases. (massgeneral.org)
  • You will also receive training in research techniques, data analysis, science communication and presentation skills, discuss current and future research and clinical challenges in immune-related diseases, and gain research experience via a laboratory-based project within an active research group. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Data presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases have shown that, when treated with Murepavadin, there was a high rate of clinical cure and low rate of mortality in a small patient group. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • Several faculty are primarily focused on clinical care and teaching in three infectious diseases consulting clinical services at Stanford (General Infectious Diseases, Immunocompromised Host Service, and ICU-ID). (stanford.edu)
  • We show that in barley, intracellular mildew A (MLA) R proteins function in the nucleus to confer resistance against the powdery mildew fungus. (sciencemag.org)
  • The world's first mass-cultivated banana cultivar Gros Michel was lost in the 1920s to Panama disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, a positive multidecadal correlation between increasing air temperature and putative amphibian extinctions at several locations across the globe led many authors to conclude that climate change was driving amphibian declines, presumably by increasing disease risk from the deadly amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd ) ( 10 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Damage to host plants caused by microbial organisms is of particular importance in agriculture where plant diseases are a major cause of crop losses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The following review is meant to understand why chronic Lyme disease is so difficult to treat. (scirp.org)
  • Chronic secretion of glucocorticoids and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) from the HPA and SAM axes, respectively, can have profound effects on many immune functions ( Sternberg, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • This starts the precipitous march toward auto immune disorders such as SLE, Multiple Sclerosis , Rhumathoid Arthritis and possibly Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • The innate immune response is evoked as a consequence of interactions between invading foreign infectious agents and host immune cells. (biologists.org)