Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein: A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Cysteine-Rich Protein 61: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins: A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Corneal Keratocytes: Fibroblasts which occur in the CORNEAL STROMA.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Houttuynia: A plant genus of the family SAURURACEAE. Members contain aristolactams.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Mesangial Cells: Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Fibromatosis, Gingival: Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Myofibroblasts: Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Polygeline: A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Amino Acids, DicarboxylicHepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Trabecular Meshwork: A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Filtering Surgery: A surgical procedure used in treatment of glaucoma in which an opening is created through which aqueous fluid may pass from the anterior chamber into a sac created beneath the conjunctiva, thus lowering the pressure within the eye. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Thrombospondin 1: An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Substances released by the body's immune system as a result of the connective tissue breakdown, such as cytokines and growth ... factors, contribute to the mobilization and proliferation of epithelial cells in the area. b. Bone resorption caused by ... Epithelial cells have an inherent quality to reproduce and cover any connective tissue that is not already lined with epithelia ... Cyst development stage: Epithelial cells form strands and are attracted to the area which contains exposed connective tissue ...
... growth of connective tissue which is believed to occur as a result of the body's immune system attacking healthy tissues. ... Dysregulated transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signalling in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts has been observed in multiple ... Liakouli V, Cipriani P, Marrelli A, Alvaro S, Ruscitti P, Giacomelli R (August 2011). "Angiogenic cytokines and growth factors ... Alenghat, Francis J. (2016-02-04). "The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by ...
Connective tissue disease
Many connective tissue diseases feature abnormal immune system activity with inflammation in tissues as a result of an immune ... Connective tissue diseases can have strong or weak inheritance risks, and can also be caused by environmental factors. Marfan ... Peyronie's disease - involving the growth of abnormal collagen (Type I and III) in the penis. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - defect ... A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues of the body as a target of pathology. Connective ...
Mir-346 microRNA precursor family
"Connective tissue growth factor modulates oral squamous cell carcinoma invasion by activating a miR-504/FOXP1 signalling". ... mRNA and Governs Immune Regulatory Genes". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (48): 41862-41870. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.304956 ... activated Transcription Factor X-box-binding Protein 1 (XBP1) Induces MicroRNA-346 Expression That Targets the Human Antigen ...
Oral mucosa tissue engineering
When it comes to synthetic scaffolds thickness, porosity and pore size are important factors for controlling connective tissue ... simulated by oral keratinocytes cultured in a medium containing keratinocyte growth factors such as the epidermal growth factor ... It is durable, able to keep its structure and does not trigger immune reactions (non-immunogenic). Amniotic Membrane. The ... Tissue engineered oral mucosa shows promise for clinical use, such as the replacement of soft tissue defects in the oral cavity ...
... and growth factors. These secreted factors will regulate the invasiveness of trophoblast cells that eventually form the ... ESCs are the connective tissue cells of the endometrium that are fibroblastic in appearance. However, decidualization causes ... Outside of their immune functions, the uNK cells and dendritic cells also act as regulators of maternal spiral artery ... Furthermore, they begin secreting cytokines, growth factors, and proteins like IGFBP1 and prolactin, along with extracellular ...
... "α-Tocopherol induces expression of connective tissue growth factor and antagonizes tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated ... spinocerebellar ataxia myopathies peripheral neuropathy ataxia skeletal myopathy retinopathy impairment of the immune response ... and modulates expression of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). The CTGF gene, when expressed, is responsible for the ... As an enzymatic activity regulator, for instance, protein kinase C (PKC), which plays a role in smooth muscle growth, can be ...
These neuropeptides include calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal ... mediators around the needle as part of a neuromodulatory process resulting from the needling effect on connective tissue and ... immune-related dysfunction and visceral dysfunction. In 2015, the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and American ... The autonomic neuromodulatory signaling of tissue cytokines affects both somatic and viseral[clarification needed] structures ...
... is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process. This ... The process is initiated when immune cells such as macrophages release soluble factors that stimulate fibroblasts. The most ... Other soluble mediators of fibrosis include CTGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and Interleukin 4 (IL-4). These ... which deposit extracellular matrix into the surrounding connective tissue. This process of tissue repair is a complex one, with ...
The cytokines, transforming growth factor beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha, appear to play major roles in the development ... Macrophages phagocytose (ingest) the fibers and stimulate fibroblasts to deposit connective tissue. Due to the asbestos fibers ... local immune system and provoke an inflammatory reaction dominated by lung macrophages that respond to chemotactic factors ... "Transforming Growth Factor-β1 overexpression in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α receptor knockout mice induces fibroproliferative lung ...
Nerve growth factor
Dysregulation of NGF signaling has also been linked to Alzheimer's disease. Connective tissue cells ... Regulation of the immune systemEdit. NGF plays a critical role in the regulation of both innate and acquired immunity. In the ... nerve growth factor receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • receptor binding. Cellular component. • endosome. • Golgi ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance ...
Sp1 is a transcription factor most closely studied in this context. Apart from TGFβ, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has ... It may also be caused by an immune reaction to a virus (molecular mimicry) or by toxins. ... Systemic scleroderma, also called diffuse scleroderma or systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue ... A significant player in the process is transforming growth factor (TGFβ). This protein appears to be overproduced, and the ...
白细胞介素-4 - 维基百科，自由的百科全
connective tissue growth factor biosynthetic process. • dendritic cell differentiation. • negative regulation of endothelial ... type 2 immune response. • B cell activation. • positive regulation of interleukin-13 production. • immune response. • B cell ... 肿瘤坏死因子（英语：Tumor necrosis factors）. (TNF). *肿瘤坏死因子-α ... Yokota et al., Isolation and characterization of a human interleukin cDNA clone, homologous to mouse B-cell stimulatory factor ...
Transforming growth factor beta
This suggests that while the symptoms of Marfan syndrome may seem consistent with a connective tissue disorder, the mechanism ... "TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-β REGULATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSES". Annual Review of Immunology. 24 (1): 99-146. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily ... "Interactions between growth factors and integrins: latent forms of transforming growth factor-beta are ligands for the integrin ...
Both of these growth factors have been shown to play a significant role in the repair and regeneration of connective tissues. ... White blood cells or leukocytes, are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease ... insulin-like growth factor 1, platelet-derived epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Local ... Platelets release a multitude of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent chemotactic agent, ...
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Laboratory of Oral Connective Tissue Biology-studies the molecular biology of dental-oral-craniofacial development, with a ... growth factors and cytokines on bone cells. The programs emphasize the application of fundamental knowledge of bone cell ... normal and pathological immune responses are studied in mouse models and human tissue samples and researches targeted immune ... The program operates a Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine and a Laboratory of Oral Connective Tissue Biology. NIAMS scientists ...
The stroma of a carcinoma is the connective tissue below the basal lamina. This includes fibroblasts, ECM, immune cells and ... such as secreting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), platelet-derived growth factor ( ... basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2), TGF-β, EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth ... platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFR-α), platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β), fibroblast specific ...
In nerve cells, axonal growth is mediated by nerve growth factor in a haptotactic manner, where the axon of nerve cells grows ... which can differentiate into different kinds of connective tissue in the wound healing process. The haptotaxis is mediated by ... Movement of cells is vital for the function of the immune system, and especially for antigen presenting cells. Dendritic cells ... Taniuchi, M.; Clark, H. B.; Johnson, E. M. (1986). "Induction of nerve growth factor receptor in Schwann cells after axotomy". ...
Both of these growth factors have been shown to play a significant role in the repair and regeneration of connective tissues. ... White blood cells or leukocytes, are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease ... insulin-like growth factor 1, platelet-derived epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Local ... Other healing-associated growth factors produced by platelets include basic fibroblast growth factor, ...
... the high endothelial venules and provides the growth and regulatory factors necessary for activation and maturation of immune ... The lymph node capsule is composed of dense irregular connective tissue with some plain collagenous fibers, and from its ... Affected tissues are at a great risk of infection. Lymph nodes can be affected by both primary cancers of lymph tissue, and ... Thin reticular fibers of reticular connective tissue, and elastin form a supporting meshwork called a reticulin inside the node ...
Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; ... In addition, it sequesters a wide range of cellular growth factors and acts as a local store for them. Changes in physiological ... First, it prevents the immune system from triggering from the injury and responding with inflammation and scar tissue. Next, it ... Proteoglycans may also help to trap and store growth factors within the ECM. Described below are the different types of ...
Growth factors are also important for the innate immune defense of skin wounds by stimulation of the production of ... The deposited fibroblastic connective tissue matures by secreting ECM into the extracellular space, forming granulation tissue ... Overview of involved growth factorsEdit. Following are the main growth factors involved in wound healing: Growth factor. ... including cytokines and growth factors. Growth factors stimulate cells to speed their rate of division. Platelets release ...
The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and ... and through paracrine signal FGF7 aka keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) produced by the dermis below the basal cells. In mice, ... See Skin absorption.) Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system. Sensation: contains a variety of ... The alveolor of mucous glands are much more simple and only consist of an epithelium layer as well as connective tissue which ...
Growth factors initiate signal transduction pathways, which lead to activation of transcription factors. Growth factors elicit ... In some vertebrates, haematopoiesis can occur wherever there is a loose stroma of connective tissue and slow blood supply, such ... Lymphocytes are the cornerstone of the adaptive immune system. They are derived from common lymphoid progenitors. The lymphoid ... "Haemopoietic growth factors". Postgrad Med J. Hauke, Ralph; Stefano R. Tarantolo (November 2000). "Hematopoietic Growth Factors ...
Mast cells are located in connective tissue, including the skin, the linings of the stomach and intestine, and other sites. ... research advances for this rare disorder include improved diagnosis of mast cell disease and identification of growth factors ... By releasing chemical "alarms" such as histamine, mast cells attract other key players of the immune defense system to areas of ... Researchers also think mast cells may have a role in the growth of blood vessels (angiogenesis). No one with too few or no mast ...
"Phosphorylation and action of the immunomodulator FTY720 inhibits vascular endothelial cell growth factor-induced vascular ... the GTPase RAC are responsible of the lymphocytes migration and their interactions with other cells or with connective-tissue ... Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 is also involved in immune-modulation and directly involved in suppression of innate immune ... The proliferation of immune cells is due to S1P-mediated signals via the GTPase RAS and extracellular-signal regulated kinase ( ...
... and autonomous cellular/tissue growth. Desmoplasia refers to growth of dense connective tissue or stroma. This growth is ... increased ECM and growth factor production and secretion, which consequently cause growth of the tissue. In other words, the ... These scars are hypercellular with fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and some immune cells present. The immature scars can be ... In medicine, desmoplasia is the growth of fibrous or connective tissue. It is also called desmoplastic reaction to emphasize ...
Glossary of biology
ligament The fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones and is also known as articular ligament, articular ... autoimmunity The system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. autotrophic auto means " ... exocytosis . exon . exponential growth . expressivity . external fertilization sperm units with egg in the open, rather than ... A species' niche includes all of its interactions with the biotic and abiotic factors of its environment. ecological pyramid an ...
Xie D, Nakachi K, Wang H, Elashoff R, Koeffler HP (2001). "Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and ... it can also exacerbate apoptosis of these cells in the presence of the immune surveillance molecule TRAIL. CYR61 has an ... including stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF- ... connective tissue growth factor, or CCN2), and NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed, or CCN3). These proteins, together with WISP1 ...
Collagen is an important component of connective tissue. It is vital for structural support and is found in muscles, tendons, ... and unable to produce the T-cell growth factor (IL-2). Cortisol also has a negative-feedback effect on interleukin-1. Though IL ... The suppressor immune cells are not affected by GRMF, so the immune cells' effective setpoint may be even higher than the ... Besedovsky HO, Del Rey A, Sorkin E (1986). "Integration of Activated Immune Cell Products in Immune Endocrine Feedback Circuits ...
Connective tissue cells. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. First, the B cells have to encounter ... the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. ... This prolific production of antibodies is an integral part of the humoral immune response. ...
High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne. Both ... skin discoloration and connective tissue damage from the accumulation of homogentisic acid). ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... Another common factor is the excessive growth of the bacterium Cutibacterium acnes, which is present on the skin. ...
Human brains are surrounded by a system of connective tissue membranes called meninges that separate the brain from the skull. ... Risk factors. Neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl chloride, Epstein-Barr virus, ionizing radiation. ... uncontrolled mitosis (growth by division beyond the normal limits). *anaplasia: the cells in the neoplasm have an obviously ... Treatments that use a person's immune system are being studied. Outcome varies considerably depending on the type of tumor ...
Fruit and vegetables for kids
Vitamin A assists in the maintenance and promotion of healthy growth of skin and tissues cells. Healthy growth of tissue cells ... Zinc within the body primarily used within the immune system, for cell division and growth, healing of wounds and for ... teeth and connective tissues - Aids the production of collagen which is the foundational matrix of bones, teeth, tendons, ... study suggesting that good nutrition as a child decreases lung damage as an adult as well as having a large influencing factor ...
White blood cell
It also makes blood vessels more permeable so neutrophils and clotting proteins can get into connective tissue more easily. ... Cancer - either by growth factors secreted by the tumor or invasion of bone marrow by the cancer ... Inherited immune deficiency - severe combined immunodeficiency, common variable immune deficiency, ataxia-telangiectasia, ... Monocytes migrate from the bloodstream to other tissues and differentiate into tissue resident macrophages, Kupffer cells in ...
The influence of isotretinoin and 5-a reductase inhibitors in metaloproteases of connective tissue in patients with ance] (in ... Risk factors for skeletal effects include older age, greater dosage and longer course of treatment. Most bone changes cause no ... Isotretinoin may stop long bone growth in young people who are still growing. Premature epiphyseal closure can occur in ... While excessive bone growth has been raised a possible side effect, a 2006 review found little evidence for this. ...
Innate immune system
Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in the mucous membranes. They are intimately ... Immune evasion. Cells of the innate immune system prevent free growth of microorganisms within the body, but many ... Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection through the production of chemical factors, including specialized chemical ... The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the adaptive immune ...
Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... It was also noted that there was no change in intraocular pressure and no immune response was taken against the API[ ... Pegaptanib is a pegylated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) aptamer, a single strand of nucleic acid that binds ... This then reduces the growth of the blood vessels located within the eye and works to control the leakage and swelling. ...
In addition to SLE, these antibodies are highly associated with mixed connective tissue disease. Anti-nRNP antibodies recognise ... This defence mechanism produces antibodies (large glycoproteins) in response to an immune stimulus. Many cells of the immune ... "A Serum Factor in Lupus Erythematosus with Affinity for Tissue Nuclei". BMJ. 2 (5047): 732-734. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5047.732. PMC ... The sp100 antigen is found within nuclear bodies; large protein complexes in the nucleus that may have a role in cell growth ...
Most structural proteins are fibrous proteins; for example, collagen and elastin are critical components of connective tissue ... Kauzmann W (May 1956). "Structural factors in protein denaturation". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 47 (Suppl 1): 113-31. doi: ... Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are ... In animals such as dogs and cats, protein maintains the health and quality of the skin by promoting hair follicle growth and ...
The soft tissues and connective fibres that cover and protect the underlying cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone ... Risk factors are variables that contribute to disease, rather than being factors that induce disease. Risk factors may be seen ... Pregnancy - Studies have shown that the oral tissues are affected and altered during pregnancy due a decreased immune response ... Multiplication: Through continued growth and maturation of existing plaque micro-organisms and the further recruitment of later ...
ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Central nervous system navs - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Soft tissue. *Connective tissue. *Congenital *abdomen. *muscular dystrophy. *Neoplasms and cancer. *Injury ... Template:Lymph immune and complement navs(edit talk links history). *Template:Lymphatic organ navs(edit talk links history) ... growth factors. *cytokines. *hormones. *Cell surface receptors *ligand-gated *enzyme-linked *G protein-coupled ...
Some hormones play a role in the development of cancer by promoting cell proliferation. Insulin-like growth factors and ... Sarcoma: Cancers arising from connective tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, nerve), each of which develops from cells ... A variety of therapies using immunotherapy, stimulating or helping the immune system to fight cancer, have come into use since ... Cancer is fundamentally a disease of tissue growth regulation. In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the ...
... while deeper in the skin granulation tissue forms, which is later converted to connective tissue by collagen growth. This mends ... in both of which the presence of foreign material activates the immune system's phagocytes to engulf the pigment particles. As ... Skin conditions resulting from physical factors. Hidden categories: *CS1: Julian-Gregorian uncertainty ... An amalgam tattoo is when amalgam particles are implanted in to the soft tissues of the mouth, usually the gums, during dental ...
In the connective tissue deep to the ulcer there is increased vascularity and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate composed of ... The cause is not completely understood, but involves a T cell-mediated immune response triggered by a variety of factors. ... There are also lymphocytes and histiocytes in the connective tissue surrounding deeper blood vessels near to the ulcer, ... Factors which decrease the thickness of mucosa increase the frequency of occurrence, and factors which increase the thickness ...
Among these molecules are irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which have been well-studied and are believed to be ... In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition ... vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages. Adipose tissue is derived from ... Main article: Brown adipose tissue. Brown fat or brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose tissue important ...
Actual growth rate is dependent upon age, sex, season, exercise level, diet, and hereditary factors. The longest female ... Vitamin A is an essential micro-nutrient for vision, reproduction, cell and tissue differentiation, and immune function. ... Subcutaneous tissue. *Panniculus/Pannus (Panniculus adiposus. *Panniculus carnosus). *Membranous layer. *Loose connective ... The nail bed is the skin beneath the nail plate.[unreliable source?] Like all skin, it is made of two types of tissues: the ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
SLE is triggered by environmental factors that are unknown. The immune system must balance between being sensitive enough to ... ANA screening yields positive results in many connective tissue disorders and other autoimmune diseases, and may occur in ... hair growth, and porphyrin brownish-red stained teeth in severe recessive forms of porphyria (or combinations of the disorder, ... which also appears in systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease), SS-A (or anti-Ro) and SS-B (or anti-La; both of ...
... metabolic alkalosis and connective tissue weakness. Wound healing or ulcer formation may be inhibited by the ... Vulnerability to infection: By suppressing immune reactions (which is one of the main reasons for their use in allergies), ... Two genes of interest are CHRH1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and TBX21 (transcription factor T-bet). Both genes ... effects on growth". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 7 (7): CD009471. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009471.pub2. PMID ...
... a network of connective tissue that contains immune cells, and surrounds tissue associated with the immune system throughout ... Mathematical models of Salmonella growth kinetics have been developed for chicken, pork, tomatoes, and melons.[ ... Risk factors for Salmonella infections include a variety of foods. Meats such as chicken and pork have the possibility to be ... Selective immune knockout. A 2018 Imperial College London study shows how salmonella disrupt specific arms of the immune ...
... is inflammation of dental pulp tissue. The pulp contains the blood vessels the nerves and connective tissue inside a ... This neural growth typically lasts few a few days and function and form is retained. Thus, pain is poorly localized, and the ... Key factors in testing are the enamel and dentine thickness and the number of nerve fibers underlying the pulp. Pulp nerve ... A transition to an adaptive immune response will take place in the dental pulp as the caries and bacteria approach the pulp. ...
... barrier membranes or guided tissue regeneration (GTR), biologic modifiers like growth and differentiation factors (GDF), and ... Host defences involve multiple factors; saliva, epithelium, inflammatory response, immune response and chemical mediators. The ... Episodic nature of attachment loss: Two main tissue responses have been found in GAP cases: *Tissue may have severe acute ... Removal of plaque retentive factors: Local plaque retentive factors such as mal-positioned teeth, overhanging restorations, ...
... and serologic tests for parasitic and connective tissue diseases. The stool is often examined for traces of parasites (i.e. ... with a translocation between chromosomes 5 and 14 or alterations in the genes which encode platelet-derived growth factor ... However, immune suppression, the mechanism of action of corticosteroids, can be fatal in patients with parasitosis. ... The location of the causal factor can be used to classify eosinophilia into two general types: extrinsic, in which the factor ...
It consists of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and ... May 2003). "Real-Time Vital Optical Imaging of Precancer Using Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Antibodies Conjugated to ... "Immune Defense against Bacterial Pathogens: Innate Immunity". textbookofbacteriology.net. Retrieved 19 April 2017.. ... Oikarinen, A. (2004). "Connective tissue and aging". International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 26 (2): 107. doi:10.1111/j.1467 ...
Lymphoma and myeloma, derived from cells of the immune system.. *Sarcoma, originating in connective tissue, including fat, ... Cell division is a normal process used by the body for growth and repair. A parent cell divides to form two daughter cells, and ... making age another risk factor. Oncoviruses can cause certain types of cancer, and genetics are also known to play a role. ... "The Innate Immune System: NK Cells". Community College of Baltimore County. Archived from the original on 2010-07-27. Retrieved ...
Transforming growth factor beta superfamily
... tissue homeostasis and regulation of the immune system.. Structure. Proteins from the TGF-beta family are only active ... Burt DW, Law AS (1994). "Evolution of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily". Prog. Growth Factor Res. 5 (1): 99-118 ... The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that ... Roberts AB, Sporn MB (1990). Peptide growth factors and their receptors. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-51184-9.. ...
Boskey, A.L. (2003). "Biomineralization: An overview". Connective Tissue Research. 44 (Supplement 1): 5-9. doi:10.1080/ ... that provides a nucleation site for the growth of biominerals. Fungal growth may produce a copper-containing mineral ... and transcription factors - many elements of this 'toolkit' are shared between phyla as diverse as corals, molluscs, and ... and rather than experiencing an immune response, the molluscan nacre was incorporated into the host bone matrix. This points to ...
... the high endothelial venules and provides the growth and regulatory factors necessary for activation and maturation of immune ... Thin reticular fibers of reticular connective tissue form a supporting meshwork called reticulin inside the node. ... The lymph node capsule is composed of dense irregular connective tissue with some plain collagenous fibers, and a number of ... connective tissue or autoimmune disease, or a malignancy of blood cells such as a lymphoma or leukaemia. Rarely, depending ...
Boskey AL (2003). "Biomineralization: an overview". Connective Tissue Research. 44 Suppl 1 (1): 5-9. doi:10.1080/713713622. ... "Inhibition of MUC4 expression suppresses pancreatic tumor cell growth and metastasis". Cancer Research. 64 (2): 622-30. doi: ... They bind to pathogens as part of the immune system. Overexpression of the mucin proteins, especially MUC1, is associated with ... B-cell activating factor. *4-1BB ligand. *Cholesterylester transfer protein. *Clusterin. *Colony-stimulating factor ...
Interstitial Pneumonia Associated with Connective Tissue Disease: An Overview and an Insight | IntechOpen
Moreover, we will propose a new insight into the immune pathogenesis of CTD-IP by presenting evidence which robustly indicates ... One of the major categories of disorders frequently associated with IP is a connective tissue disease (CTD), in which ... autoimmune-mediated tissue injury leads to multiple organ impairment. Today, IP represents the most critical pulmonary ... and growth factors including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and insulin-like ...
The Immune Landscape of Cancer. | Physician's Weekly
The influence of connective tissue growth factor on rabbit ligament injury repair.. July 29, 2018 ... were involved in tumor-immune cell interactions, both across and within immune subtypes. Our immunogenomics pipeline to ... Across cancer types, we identified six immune subtypes-wound healing, IFN-γ dominant, inflammatory, lymphocyte depleted, ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20042396 - Multiwalled carbon nanotubes damage the mitochondria to increase reactive oxygen...
Growth-factors; Lung-cells; Connective-tissue; Muscle-cells; Lung-fibrosis; Cell-cultures; Molecular-biology; Immune-reaction ... stimulate transforming growth factor ß1 & platelet-derived growth factor expression to promote fibroblast-to-myofibroblast ... Finally, MWCNTs induced the production of fibrogenic growth factors TGFbeta1 and PDGF that function as paracrine signals to ...
Molecular Vision: Gene expression profiling of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) stimulated primary human tenon...
The initial immune response is boosted by the elevated expression of complement cascade elements like complement factor B and ... Connective tissue growth factor: a mediator of TGF-beta action on fibroblasts. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 1997; 8:171-9. [PMID ... Connective tissue growth factor in pterygium: simultaneous presence with vascular endothelial growth factor - possible ... The connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) belongs to the CCN (cyr61, ctgf, nov) protein family. The known six members of this ...
The Case for Biomarkers in Solid Organ Transplantation | AACC.org
... connective tissue growth factors; FasL, Fas Ligand; FOXP3, Fork-head box transcription factor; GB, Granzyme B; HLA-DRA, Human ... The former is a functional immune assay manufactured by Cylex that measures the increase in intracellular adenosine- ... Other similar initiatives are underway in Canada-Biomarkers in Transplantation-and in Europe, Reprogramming the Immune System ... T-cell immune response cDNA7; TLR, Toll-like receptor ... expressed and translated into proteins that are signs of immune ...
Corbus Pharmaceuticals Announces Change of Primary Endpoint in Ongoing RESOLVE-1 Phase 3 Study in Systemic Sclerosis in U.S. to...
... effect on fibroblasts to limit production of fibrogenic growth factors and extracellular connective tissue that lead to tissue ... but it is unknown why the bodys immune system is activated and stays active, damaging the bodys own tissue.4 SSc has the ... Bulpitt, Ken J. "Early Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease: III. Outcome and Prognostic Indicators in Early Scleroderma ... Such factors include those set forth in the Companys filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Prospective ...
Systemic Sclerosis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
... subcutaneous tissue, muscles, and internal organs (eg, alimentary tract, lungs, heart, kidney, CNS); and immunologic ... is a systemic connective tissue disease. Characteristics of systemic sclerosis include essential vasomotor disturbances; ... platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and connective-tissue growth factor.  The vasculopathy may be linked to TGF-beta and ... The activation of the immune system is of paramount importance in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. Antigen-activated T ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Growth-factors; Lung-cells; Connective-tissue; Muscle-cells; Lung-fibrosis; Cell-cultures; Molecular-biology; Immune-reaction ... stimulate transforming growth factor ß1 & platelet-derived growth factor expression to promote fibroblast-to-myofibroblast ... Finally, MWCNTs induced the production of fibrogenic growth factors TGFbeta1 and PDGF that function as paracrine signals to ...
Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Tumor Microenvironment Transformation: The Mechanism of Radioresistant Gastric Cancer
... immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and ... immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all ... Studies have confirmed that some RT can cause acute lung injury, and the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mediates a ... High levels of ROS can also activate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), protein (p65), and transforming growth factor beta ( ...
immune Adenosine Uptake DZNep, Rabbit polyclonal to MBD3 Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is normally a ... Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is normally a matricellular-secreted protein included in. ... The immune suppressive protein CTLA-4 is constitutively expressed by Tregs and. immune Adenosine Uptake LAIR2, Tariquidar ... NK cells, a major component of the innate immune system, can limit the growth and dissemination of several types of tumors [15 ...
What is the role of vascular alterations in the pathogenesis of scleroderma?
The exaggerated connective tissue production by systemic sclerosis fibroblasts is induced by cytokines and growth factors ... Activated inflammatory and immune cells secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors which cause fibroblast activation, ... The inflammatory cells produce and secrete a variety of cytokines and/or growth factors including transforming growth factor ... One of the growth factors that plays a crucial role in the fibrosis that accompanies systemic sclerosis is TGF-β. One of the ...
Escape Day Spa >...
Restorative CTGF (connective tissue growth factor) is specifically designed to restore skin health, which helps diminish the ... Essential oils have been used for thousands of years to relieve anxiety, boost your immune system and detoxify the body. We use ... an antioxidant well known for its ability to stimulate cell growth, as well as two other key Growth Factors used in the ... an antioxidant well known for its ability to stimulate cell growth, as well as two other key Growth Factors used in the ...
Scleroderma: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
The exaggerated connective tissue production by systemic sclerosis fibroblasts is induced by cytokines and growth factors ... Activated inflammatory and immune cells secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors which cause fibroblast activation, ... The inflammatory cells produce and secrete a variety of cytokines and/or growth factors including transforming growth factor ... and growth factor production. The released cytokines and growth factors induce the activation and phenotypic conversion of ...
Frontiers | Sex Hormones in Acquired Immunity and Autoimmune Disease | Immunology
... accounting for differences in gender-related immune responses. Both innate and adaptive immune systems bear receptors for sex ... accounting for differences in gender-related immune responses. Both innate and adaptive immune systems bear receptors for sex ... Paradoxically, the stronger immune response comes at a steep price, which is the high incidence of autoimmune diseases in women ... Paradoxically, the stronger immune response comes at a steep price, which is the high incidence of autoimmune diseases in women ...
Frontiers | Targeting Mechanotransduction at the Transcriptional Level: YAP and BRD4 Are Novel Therapeutic Targets for the...
However, chronic liver damage leads to perpetual HSC activation, progressive formation of pathological scar tissue and, ... However, chronic liver damage leads to perpetual HSC activation, progressive formation of pathological scar tissue and, ... Huang, G., and Brigstock, D. R. (2012). Regulation of hepatic stellate cells by connective tissue growth factor. Front. Biosci ... and immune processes. Importantly, some of the most strongly upregulated genes, such as Ankrd1 (cardiac ankyrin repeat protein ...
Collaborative Oncology - A Phytotherapy Perspective by Chanchal Cabrera - The National Institute of Medical Herbalists
... modulating growth factors, anti-angiogenesis, strengthening connective tissue, normalizing hormones.. Inna Zhuzha CAMAS Events ... 11/03/17 10:00 - 18:00 Stress, Liver and the Immune system in cancer - materia medica for building the foundation (adaptogens, ... alteratives and immune tonics). 12/03/17 10:00 - 16:00 Individualizing the protocols - treatment planning: tests and ...
Relationship between hepatic CTGF expression and routine blood tests a | CEG
... connective tissue growth factor, liver fibrosis, blood tests, fibrogenesis ... immune-expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key fibrogenic cytokine was determined using horseradish-labeled ... Methods: Using liver explants from patients with BA (n = 26), immune-expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a ... Keyword: connective tissue growth factor, liver fibrosis, blood tests, fibrogenesis. This work is published and licensed by ...
Labrada Archives - I'll Pump You Up
Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and...
Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), tissue ... However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development ... growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), actin gamma 2 (Actg2) and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2), as highly ... Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune ...
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important profibrotic factor in kidney diseases. Blockade of endogenous CTGF ... However, the factors regulating podocyte expression of inflammatory mediators in vivo in non-immune disorders are poorly ... Transforming growth factor-?1 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) have been shown to induce DN-like changes in the kidney ... TWEAK (tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis) is a TNF superfamily cytokine that activates the fibroblast growth ...
Follistatin-like 1 in development and human diseases | SpringerLink
... and connective tissue growth factor . It is important to note that unlike initial studies, in which the mice where analyzed ... Immune diseases. The immune system is the collective of tissues, cells, and processes that provide a specific response to ... Fibrosis refers to the formation of excessive connective tissue in an organ or tissue during a reactive and/or reparative ... Tumour growth. With respect to imbalanced tumour growth, contradictory results have also been reported upon in vitro ...
Homeopathic dilutions of growth factors - BREWITT; BARBARA
The present invention comprises homeopathic dilutions of growth factors and methods for their use. Disorders which may be ... and connective tissue (FICR). Signals corresponding to growth factors at potencies of 6C (1:100 diluted six times=10-12), 30C ( ... Growth factors are involved in complex feedback loops between the immune, nervous and endocrine systems. ... stem cell factor, platelet-derived growth factors, nerve growth factors, fibroblast growth factors, insulin-like growth factor ...
Invasion-specific Genes in Malignancy | Cancer Research
... connective tissue growth factor, tubulins, and others (12) and data from NCBI SAGEmap). It can be argued that a component of ... The invasive growth of malignant cells induces an admixture of host reactions including desmoplasia, angiogenesis, and immune ... fibroblast growth factor receptor and ligand, insulin-like growth factor 1 and its receptor, and transforming growth factors β ... These include the epidermal growth factor receptor and related receptors, multiple ligands that bind to epidermal growth factor ...
IL4 | Cancer Genetics Web
connective tissue growth factor biosynthetic process - cytokine activity - dendritic cell differentiation - external side of ... growth factor activity - immune response - innate immune response in mucosa - interleukin-4 receptor binding - negative ... Gene expression of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I), cyclooxygenase- ... tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, IL-17A, IL-32-in H pylori- ...
JCI Insight - Molecular profiling of dilated cardiomyopathy that progresses to heart failure
... including growth/differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15, 21.6-fold, P , 1 × 10-300) and connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, 5.3- ... growth factors, and kinases (Supplemental Table 9) in DCM and HCM.. Nonmyocytes. Immune signaling pathways were specifically ... Prominent increases in expression of profibrotic cytokines such as TGFβ and connective tissue growth factor were observed, as ... Tissue and cell harvesting for RNA analysis. Tissue isolation. For collection of whole LV tissue, hearts from PLNR9C/+ mice pre ...
A novel integrin α5β1 binding domain in module 4 of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) promotes adhesion and migration...
13 Immune complexes were separated on 8% sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels, transferred to nitrocellulose, and then ... connective tissue growth factor. Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2, also termed CTGF) is one of six structurally related ... di Mola FF, Friess H, Riesle E, et al. Connective tissue growth factor is involved in pancreatic repair and tissue remodeling ... cleave connective tissue growth factor and reactivate angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor 165. J Biol ...
Immuuntherapie met vaccin tegen HPV - Humane Papillomavirus-16, succesvol bij vulvakanker wordt getest bij al bestaande...
Connective tissue growth factor linked to the E7 tumor antigen generates potent antitumor immune responses mediated by an ... Immune-mediated eradication of tumors through the blockade of transforming growth factor-beta signaling in T cells. Nat Med. ... Interleukin-10 is a growth factor for human melanoma cells and down-regulates HLA class-I, HLA class-II and ICAM-1 molecules. ... Role of IL-2 secreted by PADRE-specific CD4+ T cells in enhancing E7-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses. Gene Ther. 2008 May ...
Antagonists of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1) - Patent # 7888483 - PatentGenius
Chambers et al., Thrombin is a Potent Inducer of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Production via Proteolytic Activation of ... Cenac et al., Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 is an Anti-Inflammatory Signal for Colitis Mediated by a Type 2 Immune Response; ... Albrektsen et al., Transcriptional Program Induced by Factor Vlla-Tissue Factor, PAR1 and PAR2 in MDA-MB-231 Cells; J Thromb ... Sevastos et al., "Tissue Factor Deficiency and PAR-1 Deficiency are Protective Against Renel Ischemia repurfusion Injury," 2007 ...
OPUS Würzburg | Search
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is an angiogenetic and profibrotic factor, acting downstream of TGF-b, involved in ... The phagocytosis of apoptotic immune cells by monocytes in vitro has been shown to be augmented by several constituents of ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) plays a key role in airway remodeling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of TGF-β, and transgelin, a binding and stabilising protein of ...
OPUS Würzburg | Search
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is an angiogenetic and profibrotic factor, acting downstream of TGF-b, involved in ... While the T-helper 1 (Th1) cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-c) is well characterized as immune-modulatory and anti-fibrotic ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) plays a key role in airway remodeling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of TGF-β, and transgelin, a binding and stabilising protein of ...
CtgfFibrosisExtracellular matrixInflammationCollagen and connective tissueEndothelial cellsCellsBoneVEGFPDGFEpidermal Growth FactorsFibrousSystemic lupus erythemBody's immune systemCytokineBlood or lymphAbstractLymphoidAdipose tissueMetastasisGeneFibronectinInflammatoryCardiovascularImmunoglobulinsGingivalBiologicalProliferationSclerodermaHormonesGenesTransforming grMucosalCellExpressionPathologicalPhysiologicalBlockadeGlycosaminoglycans
- The results suggest that CTGF potentially acts as a modulating factor in inflammatory and wound healing response in fibroblasts of the human eye. (molvis.org)
- The connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) belongs to the CCN (cyr61, ctgf, nov) protein family. (molvis.org)
- Using liver explants from patients with BA (n = 26), immune-expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key fibrogenic cytokine was determined using horseradish-labeled antibodies. (dovepress.com)
- Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1), galanin (Gal), synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), actin gamma 2 (Actg2) and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2), as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life. (biomedcentral.com)
- Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2, also termed CTGF) is one of six structurally related molecules that comprise the CCN family. (bmj.com)
- Comparing the rapid autopsy to the failed heart identified 480 differentially expressed genes, including several types of collagens, lumican ( LUM ), natriuretic peptide A ( NPPA ) and connective tissue growth factor ( CTGF ), which allows for the clear separation between failing and non-failing heart based on gene expression profiles. (biomedcentral.com)
- CTGF™ (Connective Tissue Growth Factor) is specifically designed to restore skin health and vitality, helping diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. (rosewaterspa.com)
- These tendon-resident CD146 + stem/progenitor cells were selectively enriched by connective tissue growth factor delivery (CTGF delivery) in the early phase of tendon healing, followed by tenogenic differentiation in the later phase. (jci.org)
- Using siRNA knockdown to evaluate factors involved in tendon generation, we demonstrated that the FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway regulates CTGF-induced proliferation and differentiation of CD146 + stem/progenitor cells. (jci.org)
- Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is implicated as a factor promoting tissue fibrosis in several disorders, including diabetic nephropathy. (asnjournals.org)
- K252a, a known selective inhibitor of Trk, blocked this phosphorylation, CTGF-induced activation of signaling proteins, and CTGF-dependent induction of the transcription factor TGF-β-inducible early gene in HMC. (asnjournals.org)
- The presence of multiple domains in CTGF suggests a role for the growth factor as an integrator of several other signaling molecules such as growth factors, integrins, and extracellular matrix proteins. (asnjournals.org)
- Renal morphology was examined by light and electron microscopy, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were measured by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay. (biomedcentral.com)
- Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN matricellular protein family, consisting of four domains, that regulates the signaling of other growth factors and promotes kidney fibrosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- CTGF can simultaneously interact with several factors with its four domains. (biomedcentral.com)
- The diverse biological actions of CTGF on various types of cells and tissues depend on this difference in microenvironment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Emerging evidence suggests that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a key player in the progression of kidney fibrosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- CTGF was isolated with an antiserum directed against the platelet growth factor from human endothelial cells in 1991. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study was designed to explore the correlation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), heme oxygenase (HO-1), neurotrophic factors (NT-3) with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy, as well as the changes after immune cytokine alone and combined with cattleencephalon glycoside and ignotin treatment. (ac.ir)
- Immune cytokine TGF-β1 combined with cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin injection could improve the contents of CTGF, HO-1 and NT-3, and be better to treat the peripheral neuropathy of type 2 diabetes. (ac.ir)
- Finally, MWCNTs induced the production of fibrogenic growth factors TGFbeta1 and PDGF that function as paracrine signals to promote the transformation of lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, a key molecular step in the development of lung fibrosis. (cdc.gov)
- Fibrosis can be caused by profibrotic cytokines, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), interleukin-4 (IL-4), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and connective-tissue growth factor. (medscape.com)
- Severe alterations in small blood vessels of skin and internal organs, including endothelial dysfunction, subendothelial fibrosis, and perivascular cellular infiltration with activated T cells and macrophages, are almost universally present in systemic sclerosis affected tissues. (medscape.com)
- One of the growth factors that plays a crucial role in the fibrosis that accompanies systemic sclerosis is TGF-β. (medscape.com)
- Distinguishable components of this process are known from histopathological studies (fibrosis, angiogenesis, and immune reactions) and from biochemical analyses that have revealed, for example, that elevated levels of proteases may mediate the migration of tumor cells through normal tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
- Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) is upregulated in pancreatic fibrosis and desmoplastic pancreatic tumours. (bmj.com)
- T cells differentiate into subsets, including Th2 cells, which play a vital role in tissue fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
- The growth of lung fibrosis research, coupled with an intense interest on the part of industry to devise therapies, suggests that new therapies are coming that are rationally designed to target these critical signaling events. (springer.com)
- Short telomeres are a risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (springer.com)
- The company's lead product candidate is RXI-109, an sd-rxRNA that reduces the expression of connective tissue growth factor, a critical regulator of several biological pathways involved in fibrosis, including scar formation in the skin and eye. (marketbeat.com)
- Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy, immune dysfunction and fibrosis of skin and internal organs. (bu.edu)
- Direct contribution of ECs to fibrosis was demonstrated by up-regulation of pro-fibrotic cytokines (Osteopontin, Connective Tissue Growth Factor, Plasminogen Activation Inhibitor-1), activation of collagen production by fibroblasts, and expression of Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EndoMT) markers (Fibronectin, Fibroblast Specific Protein-1). (bu.edu)
- Previous work from our lab has shown that transcription factor Friend Leukemia Virus Integration-1 (Fli1) is down-regulated in fibroblasts and ECs in SSc, contributing to fibrosis and vasculopathy in the skin. (bu.edu)
- In this study, we identified Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3, an important molecule in collagen degradation, as a novel Fli1 target, revealing another mechanism by which Fli1 contributes to development of fibrosis. (bu.edu)
- Skin fibrosis is caused by massive production of fibrous connective tissue in the dermis. (docme.ru)
- Studies of growth factors (e.g., transforming growth factor ␤ [TGF␤]) have suggested that they also have a role in the development of fibrosis. (docme.ru)
- Moreover, fibrosis at the pannus, assessed by immunofluorescence of connective tissue growth factor, was increased in arthritic rats treated with prasugrel. (jefferson.edu)
- In contrast, we observed that HIF1α initiates adipose tissue fibrosis, with an associated increase in local inflammation. (asm.org)
- Trichrome- and picrosirius red-positive streaks," enriched in fibrillar collagens, are a hallmark of adipose tissue suffering from the early stages of hypoxia-induced fibrosis. (asm.org)
- Collectively, our observations are consistent with a model in which adipose tissue hypoxia serves as an early upstream initiator for adipose tissue dysfunction by inducing a local state of fibrosis. (asm.org)
- We used consensus clustering to compare gene expression profiles of biopsies from four SSc-affected tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood) from patients with SSc, and the related conditions pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension, and derived a consensus disease-associate signature across all tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our approach provides a framework for examining molecular signatures of disease in fibrosis and autoimmune diseases and for leveraging publicly available data to understand common and tissue-specific disease processes in complex human diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- In vivo models of renal and hepatic fibrosis were associated with transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1)-related reduction of GCLc and GCLm levels that were miR-433 dependent. (jove.com)
- Lenabasum also has a direct effect on fibroblasts to limit production of fibrogenic growth factors and extracellular connective tissue that lead to tissue fibrosis (scarring). (corbuspharma.com)
- Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by extensive fibrosis, vasculopathy and activation of the immune system. (uth.gr)
- The PDA stroma, aptly termed the tumor microenvironment, occupies the majority of the tumor mass, and consists of a dynamic assortment of extracellular matrix components and nonneoplastic cells including fibroblastic, vascular, and immune cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- It was originally thought that their main function is to degrade the various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), yet recent studies have led us to appreciate their significance as regulators of extracellular tissue signalling networks. (ersjournals.com)
- In the classical view, MMPs are collectively capable of degrading all components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basement membrane, restricting their functions to tissue remodelling and maintenance. (ersjournals.com)
- Connective tissue is any type of biological tissue with an extensive extracellular matrix that supports, binds together, and protects organs. (wikipedia.org)
- Later in the course of the response, TGF␤ is primarily associated with extracellular matrix production and up-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors in the scleroderma fibroblast (1). (docme.ru)
- SSc is a systemic disease characterized by abnormal vasculature, adaptive immune dysfunction (autoantibody production), and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in skin and internal organs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Simultaneously, the chronic disease patient population experiences many complex symptoms related to a loss of extracellular matrix (ECM) function, and associated connective tissues. (metabolichealing.com)
- Joint hypermobility syndromes are a significantly under-diagnosed spectrum of conditions that reflect a loss of connective tissue and extracellular matrix functions. (metabolichealing.com)
- One of the most striking examples of how Lyme disease co-infections can wreak havoc on the extracellular matrix and connective tissues comes from a 2018 study that looked at the effects of Bartonella infection, rheumatological symptoms and associated joint hypermobility (8). (metabolichealing.com)
- This DR is characterized by a complex interplay between the normal host epithelial cells, invading tumor cells, stromal fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, proliferating endothelial cells, an altered extracellular matrix, and growth factors activating oncogenic signaling pathways by autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
- Accumulating evidence indicates that pancreatic stellate cells when activated switch to a myofibroblast phenotype that produces components of the extracellular matrix, MMPs, and tissue inhibitors of MMPs by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- In this prevailing model, a three-dimensional structure supports epithelial carcinoma cells through an altered extracellular matrix (ECM), maintained by diffusible paracrine growth factors and cytokines, tumor-associated vasculature, inflammatory cells, and stromal fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
- However recent substrate identification studies reveal that MMPs are regulating the release or activation of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, antibiotic peptides, and other bioactive molecules thus participating in physiological processes such as innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, angiogenesis, bone remodelling, and neurite growth. (ersjournals.com)
- 6 Evidence has accumulated that statins lower C-reactive protein (CRP), 7, 8, 9, 10 a key indicator of inflammation, which itself is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. (bmj.com)
- In patients with connective tissue disease, it is common for collagen and elastin to become injured by inflammation (ICT). (wikipedia.org)
- Many connective tissue diseases feature abnormal immune system activity with inflammation in tissues as a result of an immune system that is directed against one's own body tissues (autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
- The classic collagen vascular diseases include: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) - An inflammation of the connective tissues, SLE can afflict every organ system. (wikipedia.org)
- Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) affects the growth, differentiation, and function of a multitude of cell types that are mediators of inflammation and cellular immune responses. (docme.ru)
- Since prasugrel metabolites inhibit neutrophil function ex-vivo and the effects of both clopidogrel and prasugrel metabolites on platelets are identical, we conclude that the thienopyridines metabolites might exert non-platelet effects on other immune cells to aggravate inflammation. (jefferson.edu)
- Inhibition of LOX activity by β-aminoproprionitrile treatment results in a significant improvement in several metabolic parameters and further reduces local adipose tissue inflammation. (asm.org)
- This dynamic and intricate process involves four key overlapping stages, as follows: hemostasis, inflammation, tissue proliferation, and wound resolution and remodeling ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Immune cells can impact any of these processes, and excessive inflammation delays healing and may lead to complications and chronic wounds ( 3 ), causing significant morbidity ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
- During inflammation, elevated levels of IL-6, like TNF, induce vascular relaxation, leakiness of plasma fluids, and increased migration of immune cells into the extravascular spaces. (ceri.com)
- TWEAK transactivation of the Epidermal growth factor receptor mediates renal inflammation J Pathol. (fibroteam.net)
- Gremlin regulates renal inflammation via the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 pathway. (fibroteam.net)
- Izquierdo MC, Sanz AB, Mezzano S, Blanco J, Carrasco S, Sanchez-Niño MD, Benito-Martín A, Ruiz-Ortega M, Egido J, Ortiz A. TWEAK (tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis) activates CXCL16 expression during renal tubulointerstitial inflammation. (fibroteam.net)
- Some of these autoantibodies form immune complexes that are responsible for tissue inflammation directly contributing to the development of different clinical manifestations of the disease. (termedia.pl)
- These findings reveal the vast implications stealth infections (and the tissue-inflammation they invoke) have on the connective tissue. (metabolichealing.com)
- Th17 cells secrete interleukin 17A/F (IL-17A/F), interleukin 22 (IL-22), interleukin 21 (IL-21), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), which modulate inflammation and immune cell recruitment. (kjim.org)
Collagen and connective tissue2
- In contrast to this, soluble factors derived from brain endothelial cells weakened the barrier significantly. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- In conclusion, soluble factors from lung endothelial cells can strengthen the alveolar epithelium barrier in vitro, which suggests communication between endothelial and epithelial cells regulating the integrity of the blood-air barrier. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- Capillaries are composed of a microscopic tubule made from a continuous layer of endothelial cells surrounded by a layer of connective tissue for support. (ceri.com)
- Moreover, we will propose a new insight into the immune pathogenesis of CTD-IP by presenting evidence which robustly indicates that T cells trigger initial development of IP in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, suggesting potential approaches for controlling such particular T cells in therapeutic interventions for IP. (intechopen.com)
- ROS also directly alter the tumor microenvironment by activating cancer cells and inflammatory cells, which in turn release a variety of inflammatory factors to promote CSC renewal [ 10 ], leading to therapeutic resistance [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The inflammatory cells produce and secrete a variety of cytokines and/or growth factors including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and other profibrotic mediators such as endothelin-1, which induce increased proliferation of smooth muscle cells, marked accumulation of subendothelial fibrotic tissue, and initiation of platelet aggregation and intravascular thrombosis, eventually causing microvascular occlusion. (medscape.com)
- [ 10 , 11 ] This crucial component results from the accumulation in skin and other affected tissues of myofibroblasts, cells possessing unique biological functions, including increased production of fibrillar type I and type III collagens, expression of α-smooth muscle actin, and reduction in the expression of genes encoding ECM-degradative enzymes. (medscape.com)
- The invasive growth of malignant cells induces an admixture of host reactions including desmoplasia, angiogenesis, and immune reactions. (aacrjournals.org)
- The phagocytosis of apoptotic immune cells by monocytes in vitro has been shown to be augmented by several constituents of pulmonary surfactant, e. g. phospholipids and hydrophobic surfactant proteins. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- Periapical cysts develop due to an inflammatory stimulus in 3 stages: Initial stage: Epithelial cells from the rests of Malassez at the apex of the roots of a non-vital tooth (one that has undergone root canal treatment) become stimulated due to the body's inflammatory response to bacterial endotoxins infecting the pulp or as a direct response to necrotic pulp tissue, therefore re-entering the growth phase. (wikipedia.org)
- Cyst development stage: Epithelial cells form strands and are attracted to the area which contains exposed connective tissue and foreign substances. (wikipedia.org)
- The innermost cells die and form an aggregate of dead tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- This theory is unlikely in the absence of malignant transformation of epithelial cells as it does not follow the existing relationship between connective tissue and epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
- Epithelial cells have an inherent quality to reproduce and cover any connective tissue that is not already lined with epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
- Mast cells (MCs) are forceful multifunctional effector cells of the immune system. (diva-portal.org)
- They can also promote muscle growth and aid in the production of immune cells. (selfgrowth.com)
- Due to their widespread substrate spectrum, MMPs are integrated as important regulators for tissue homeostasis and immunity in the network of multidirectional communication within tissues and cells. (ersjournals.com)
- These include (1) modulating the cholesterol content and thus reducing the stability of lipid raft formation and subsequent effects on the activation and regulation of immune cells, and (2) preventing the prenylation of signalling molecules and subsequent downregulation of gene expression, both resulting in reduced expression of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules with effects on cell apoptosis or proliferation. (bmj.com)
- AHSCT is primarily a chemotherapy treatment, that completely or substantially depletes the immune system, and then rebuilds the immune system through the re-infusion of the patient's own blood and immune stem cells (haematopoietic stem cells). (msra.org.au)
- In laboratory studies, mesenchymal stem cells have shown the potential to develop into a range of other cell types including muscle, connective tissue and nerve cells. (msra.org.au)
- Rheumatoid arthritis - Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder in which immune cells attack and inflame the membrane around joints. (wikipedia.org)
- Scleroderma - an activation of immune cells that produces scar tissue in the skin, internal organs, and small blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
- 1 A polypeptide consisting in its active form of two identical chains of 120 amino acids, which is produced normally by neurons, Schwann cells, glial cells, and various types of epithelial and connective tissue cells, and promotes the growth of (especially sensory and sympathetic) neurons and neurites, and also has certain modulatory effects on the immune system (abbreviated NGF). (oxforddictionaries.com)
- Platelets are the first cells to arrive at the injured site and release growth factors which start the healing process. (shoulderdoc.co.uk)
- This is followed by leukocytes (white blood cells) which also release growth factors. (shoulderdoc.co.uk)
- The connective tissue cells of this area respond by initiating a replication process. (shoulderdoc.co.uk)
- A new strategy is to let those old cells die off and instead promote the growth of brand-new skin cells. (rd.com)
- Just as it helps newborn babies build immunity and strength, Immupure products help skin cells thrive: They increase cell rejuvenation and offer optimal nutrition, including powerful immune-boosting compounds, to skin cells. (rd.com)
- Since infiltrating immune cells, most notably monocytes, are known to have a profound effect on adipocytes, interest in the stromal fraction of adipose tissue has increased considerably. (asm.org)
- An inflammatory response follows, involving the recruitment of growth factors and immune cells to the wound site, which then instigates the proliferation of epithelial cells, blood vessels and connective tissue to cover the wound. (usda.gov)
- We identified a common pathogenic gene expression signature-an immune-fibrotic axis-indicative of pro-fibrotic macrophages (MØs) in multiple tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells) affected by SSc. (biomedcentral.com)
- Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine, a class of chemical messenger that facilitates communication between cells. (ceri.com)
- Capillary beds are optimized for blood/tissue exchange of nutrients, gases (such as oxygen) and migrating immune cells. (ceri.com)
- Cells derived from more advanced KS lesions produce their own growth factors and proliferate independently, thus taking on a cancer-like growth quality. (ceri.com)
- In KT, the IL-17 mRNA level is elevated in proximal tubular epithelial cells from allograft tissue with subclinical rejection [ 14 ]. (kjim.org)
- Transforming growth factor β, IL-6, and IL-1β mediate the induction of immature Th17 cells [ 15 , 16 ]. (kjim.org)
- Gremlin is a downstream profibrotic mediator of transforming growth factor-beta in cultured renal cells. (fibroteam.net)
- The C-Terminal Module IV of Connective Tissue Growth Factor, Through EGFR/Nox1 Signaling, Activates the NF- κ B Pathway and Proinflammatory Factors in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. (fibroteam.net)
- Paricalcitol Inhibits Aldosterone-Induced Proinflammatory Factors by Modulating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway in Cultured Tubular Epithelial Cells. (fibroteam.net)
- Copper helps produce red blood cells and ensures that your immune system and nerve cells stay healthy. (livestrong.com)
- Over the years, the skin was proven to have a crucial immunological role, not only being a passive protective barrier but a network of effector cells and molecular mediators that constitute a highly sophisticated compound known as the "skin immune system" (SIS). (hindawi.com)
- Far from being a simple mechanical barrier, the skin constitutes a network of effector cells and molecular mediators that constitute a highly sophisticated "skin immune system" (SIS) as described by Bos and Kapsenberg in 1986 [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Taken together, the total skin environment favors the interaction between the immune cells and the host microbial community. (hindawi.com)
- Current stem cell-based strategies for tissue regeneration involve ex vivo manipulation of these cells to confer features of the desired progenitor population. (jci.org)
- Recently, the concept that endogenous stem/progenitor cells could be used for regenerating tissues has emerged as a promising approach that potentially overcomes the obstacles related to cell transplantation. (jci.org)
- Hence, the critical functions of the ECM are integral to the behavior and function of our cells, our immune system, nervous system, and our endocrine system. (metabolichealing.com)
- Borrelia's target in the ECM can prevent detection by host immune cells. (metabolichealing.com)
- Additionally, stromal cells secrete factors that actually help the tumors grow. (blogspot.com)
- They also generate factors that promote cancer cell growth and prevent the immune system from attacking the cancerous cells. (blogspot.com)
- Ultimately, the expert says, patients may benefit most from a combination of therapies that target both the cancer cells and parts of the microenvironment that support their growth. (blogspot.com)
- Stroma impedes anticancer drugs' access to their targets and stromal cells secrete factors that support tumor growth. (spjnews.com)
- Ultimately, patients may benefit most from combination therapies that target both cancer cells and the components of their microenvironment that support their growth, explains Giulia Biffi, Ph.D., leader of the new study. (spjnews.com)
- Medications directed against immune cells or harmful soluble factors in small trials in SSc are encouraging. (uth.gr)
- Following periodontal surgery, epithelial, gingival connective tissue, bone and/or periodontal ligament cells may grow along the root surface. (dentalcare.com)
- Barriers are often used to help guide periodontal ligament cells to grow along the root surface to restore lost tooth support, while preventing the epithelial and gingival connective tissue cells from entering the space. (dentalcare.com)
- Freshney (Culture of Animal Cells) states that it removes complement and reduces cytotoxic action of of immunoglobulins WITHOUT damaging growth factors. (protocol-online.org)
- I am particularly interested in whether it effects connective tissue cells. (protocol-online.org)
- Most papers mentioning heat inactivation are on immune cells. (protocol-online.org)
- And how do you isolate your cells from tissue? (protocol-online.org)
- The microenvironment differs depending on the types of cells and tissues and differentiation stages of these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. (bvsalud.org)
- Furthermore, we investigated effects of HMGB1 on tumor-infiltrating immune cells obtained from surgically resected tumor tissue from NSCLC patients. (bvsalud.org)
- Moreover, overexpression of miR-19b repressed p-STAT3 expression and the number of CD11c+ cells in AC eye and CLN tissues. (bvsalud.org)
- Tumors are complex tissues in which mutant cancer cells have conscripted and subverted normal cell types to serve as active collaborators in their neoplastic agenda ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Arrows, factors secreted by the respective cells that act in both an autocrine and a paracrine manner. (aacrjournals.org)
- 10. The method of claim 1 wherein the periosteal cells are cultured in a matrix in media comprising inducers of osteogenesis selected from the group consisting of factors inducing bone formation, enzymes enhancing calcification, enzymes enhancing phosphorus deposition, vitamins, and prostaglandins. (google.com)
- All connective tissue apart from blood and lymph consists of three main components: fibers ( elastic and collagenous fibers ), ground substance and cells . (wn.com)
- In severe cases, the excess tissue may cover the crowns of the teeth, thus causing functional, esthetic, and periodontal problems, such as bone loss and bleeding, due to the presence of pseudopockets and plaque accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bone resorption caused by metabolism of acidic substances produced by cysts contributes to cyst growth. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to the broad spectrum of their substrate specificity, MMPs contribute to the homeostasis of many tissues and participate in several physiological processes, such as bone remodelling, angiogenesis, immunity and wound healing. (ersjournals.com)
- Although the activity of MMPs has been shown to be essential in cell biological processes and many fundamental physiological events involving tissue remodelling, such as angiogenesis, bone development, wound healing and mammary involution [ 2 ], the increasing interest in MMP function mainly stems from their role in several pathological conditions, such as cancer or chronic inflammatory diseases [ 3 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy does not involve chemotherapy and uses a different type of stem cell which can be isolated from different tissues, including bone marrow and fat. (msra.org.au)
- Elastin is the major component of ligaments (tissues that attach bone to bone) and skin. (wikipedia.org)
- Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease) - caused by poor quality collagen, or insufficient amounts of normal collagen (primarily type I), necessary for healthy, strong bones and certain other connective tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- The main purpose of growth factors is to help the body build and restore muscle, bone, connective tissue, nerve tissue, cartilage and skin. (medindia.net)
- The procedures and materials include barriers to prevent the epithelium from growing into the bony defect and to provide an increased opportunity for bone growth within the defect. (dentalcare.com)
- Unlike synthetic bone, which only provides scaffolding for osteoconduction, allografts include growth factors which are also osteoinductive. (dentalcare.com)
- Allografts both induce bone growth and provide an environment that increases the body's regenerative process. (dentalcare.com)
- They include processed animal bone or growth proteins. (dentalcare.com)
- The organic component of autogenous bone is collagen, a fibrous tissue which is important for cell binding and proliferation. (dentalcare.com)
- In the method of the invention, bone grafts or other substrates are modified to have an osteoinductive surface modification that the recipient's body will accept as its own tissue type and therefore will not reject or otherwise cause to fail. (google.com)
- Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue , adipose tissue , cartilage , bone , and blood . (wn.com)
- Despite this impaired angiogenesis, elevated levels of pro-angiogenic growth factors like PDGF and VEGF is often seen in persons with the condition. (wikipedia.org)
- Strong correlation was detected between S1P receptor-2 (S1P 2 ) and VEGF mRNAs in 11 different cell lines and 17 NB tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
- Interestingly, JTE-013 significantly inhibited tumor growth, VEGF mRNA expression, and induced apoptosis in the NB tumor xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
- Among many pro- and antiangiogenic growth factors, VEGF is a key mediator of angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Review of the current literature on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) bevacizumab therapy for corneal neovascular disorders. (escrs.org)
Epidermal Growth Factors1
Systemic lupus erythem4
- This review focuses on the role of sex hormones particularly estrogen, in the adaptive immune response, in health, and autoimmune disease with an emphasis on systemic lupus erythematosus. (frontiersin.org)
- Development of atherosclerosis (AT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) involves both acquired, modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypercholesterolemia, tobacco smoking) and genetic factors. (termedia.pl)
- Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory disease characterized by a perturbed immune response with the consequent production of autoantibodies. (termedia.pl)
- Systemic lupus erythematosus itself has been shown to be an independent risk factor of AT progression. (termedia.pl)
Body's immune system1
- STAT6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, has been shown to play a central role in mediating the immune regulatory signal of this cytokine. (cancerindex.org)
- is an important macrophage-derived cytokine that regulates immune and inflammatory processes, activating intracellular pathways shared with Ang II, including the NF-?B. (jove.com)
- In the current study, we evaluated whether the therapeutic effects of a DNA vaccine encoding human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 can be enhanced by combined application of an immune checkpoint blockade directed against the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway and secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) also known as CCL21 adjuvant, in a mouse cervical cancer model. (cancerindex.org)
- Adipose tissue can undergo rapid expansion during times of excess caloric intake. (asm.org)
- Like a rapidly expanding tumor mass, obese adipose tissue becomes hypoxic due to the inability of the vasculature to keep pace with tissue growth. (asm.org)
- The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity has lead to increased efforts aimed at gaining a better understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of adipose tissue and adipocytes. (asm.org)
- One of the more-surprising features of adipose tissue described over the past 10 years is the realization that adipose tissue in general and adipocytes in particular have the potential to be a rich source of a vast array of secretory proteins. (asm.org)
- It is currently not established how these stromal components interact with adipocytes during adipose tissue expansion. (asm.org)
- Recent work has revealed that the PDA stroma supports tumor growth and promotes metastasis and simultaneously serves as a physical barrier to drug delivery. (aacrjournals.org)
- To define genetic determinants of pulmonary metastasis, we have applied cDNA microarrays to a recently described murine model of OSA that is characterized by orthotopic tumor growth, a period of minimal residual disease, spontaneous pulmonary metastasis, and cell line variants that differ in metastatic potential. (aacrjournals.org)
- Expression levels of SYT 8 mRNA in GC tissues were elevated in the validation set comprising patients with peritoneal recurrence or metastasis. (worldwidescience.org)
- A hallmark in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the presence of 'desmoplasia,' which is defined as proliferation of fibrotic tissue with an altered ECM conducive to tumor growth and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
- While the exact molecular mechanisms of how female hormones regulate the immune system are yet incompletely elucidated, studies show that they control development, homeostasis, gene expression, and signaling processes in T and B lymphocytes to influence their function in health and disease. (frontiersin.org)
- However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. (biomedcentral.com)
- This gene encodes a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family of cytokines, which are multifunctional peptides that regulate proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and other functions in many cell types. (mybiosource.com)
- Thus, there is a clear and compelling need to conduct gene expression studies in tissues that are specifically relevant to the disease of interest. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we monitored the gene expression of 13 tissue samples harvested from a rapid autopsy heart (non-failed heart) and 7 from a cardiac explant (failed heart) through 24 hours of autolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results demonstrate that RNA from autopsy-derived tissue, even up to 24 hours of autolysis, can be used to identify biologically relevant expression pattern differences, thus serving as a practical source for gene expression experiments. (biomedcentral.com)
- Statins appear to reduce the stability of lipid raft formation with subsequent effects on immune activation and regulation, and also prevent the prenylation of signalling molecules with subsequent downregulation of gene expression. (bmj.com)
- Through a unique method of cell sorting and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated EC injury (Matrix Metalloproteinase 12, von Willebrand Factor) and activation in response to BLM. (bu.edu)
- The mechanism underlying this seems to be via the rapid induction of the transcription factor TGF-β-inducible early gene (TIEG) ( 11 ). (asnjournals.org)
- It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the initiation and development of gastric cancer (GC), and the levels of ROS are significantly increased in patients with GC accompanied with abnormal expressions of multiple inflammatory factors. (hindawi.com)
- The haemal levels of ROS in gastric cancer patients are obviously increased, along with the abnormal expression of factors such as P38 which modulates the expression of inflammatory factors [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Lean Muscle Accelerator™ - Biologically Active Plasma Albumin Peptides Yielding Naturally Occurring Immunoglobulins, IGF-1, Immune-Regulating Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, transforming Growth Factor Beta. (illpumpyouup.com)
- The nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is an important regulator of the inflammatory response. (jove.com)
- Powerful immune factors such as immunoglobulins, lactoferrin and cytokines are present in colostrum that works to restore immune function. (scirp.org)
- Some medical research says the presence of a wide spectrum of Immunoglobulins, Antibodies and Powerful Immune & Growth factors found in colostrum can be of wide therapeutic help for optimal health & wellness . (selfgrowth.com)
- Capra's Goat Colostrum provides immune supportive agents called Immunoglobulins which include IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG & IgM. (selfgrowth.com)
- This immune function is restored in the body with the help of colostrum that has strong immune factors such as immunoglobulins, lactoferrins and cytokines. (medindia.net)
- Gingival fibromatosis (GF) is a rare condition characterized by pathological, diffuse or local growth of gingiva. (biomedcentral.com)
- The condition may be related to hereditary factors and occurs as a non-syndromic hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) or as a part of a syndrome. (biomedcentral.com)
- GF is a condition characterized by the pathological growth of gingival tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
- Surrounding gingival tissue may experience lymphadenopathy. (wikipedia.org)
- FSTL1 is involved in multiple signaling pathways and biological processes, including vascularization and regulation of the immune response, a feature that complicates its study. (springer.com)
- Thrombin is a Potent Inducer of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Production via Proteolytic Activation of Protease-activated Receptor-1, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Nov. 10, 2000, pp. 35584-35591, vol. 275, No. 4, TheAmerican Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, US. (patentgenius.com)
- Near infrared light and ELFPMF have very different effects in their interaction with living tissue, while ELFPMF is more widely studied than near infrared light in biological systems by our literature review. (biomedcentral.com)
- High levels of ROS suppress tumor growth through the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis and senescence. (hindawi.com)
- Darmoul et al, "Activation of Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 Promotes Human Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation Through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation," Sep. (patentgenius.com)
- Both innate and adaptive immune systems bear receptors for sex hormones and respond to hormonal cues. (frontiersin.org)
- Colostrum from Mt. Capra comes from goats that are never fed synthetic growth-hormones, antibiotics or feed that contains pesticides or herbicides-the true essence of natural. (selfgrowth.com)
- Your body needs manganese to make sex hormones, blood-clotting factors, connective tissue and bones. (livestrong.com)
- Thyroid hormones contribute to normal growth and development. (livestrong.com)
- 2.5%) of genes showed fluctuations in expression over the 24 hr period and largely belong to immune and signal response and energy metabolism-related processes. (biomedcentral.com)
- While the co-expression of these genes is common to all tissues, the functional consequences of this upregulation differ by organ. (biomedcentral.com)
- These tools hold promise for understanding how genes may contribute to human diseases [ 2 ] that arise, in part, out of an aberrant interplay of cell types and tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
- Fifty-two SNPs were annotated within genes, some of those involved in the immune response to mastitis. (biomedcentral.com)
- The aim of this study was to investigate MC migration to chemoattractants released in vivo or in vitro (body fluids collected from patients with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis and T H 1- and T H 2-cytokines) and to recombinant cytokines (transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) and CCL5/RANTES). (diva-portal.org)
- Multiple control modalities of the intracellular and extracellular networks (transcription, microRNAs, copy number, and epigenetic processes) were involved in tumor-immune cell interactions, both across and within immune subtypes. (physiciansweekly.com)
- 1. A composition comprising a homeopathic dilution of one or more purified growth factors, said factors comprising cell signalling polyeptides. (freepatentsonline.com)
- As control for tissue specificity H441 layers were exposed to conditioned medium from human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- Soluble factors obtained from the lung endothelial cell line increased the barrier significantly proven by TEER values and fluorescein permeability on the functional level and by the differential expression of tight junctional proteins on the molecular level. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- This thesis shows that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from asthmatic patients and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatiod arthritis contain MC chemoattractants, and that part of the chemotactic activity can be related to the presence of stem cell factor (SCF) and TGF-β. (diva-portal.org)
- Colostrum has the unique ability to support normal cell growth & tissue repair. (selfgrowth.com)
- Our data set provided transcriptional and immunohistochemical evidence for activated immune cell infiltration. (ahajournals.org)
- Functionally, the growth factor has been shown to regulate many aspects of cell behavior, including cell adhesion, migration, growth, chemotaxis, and the synthesis and accumulation of matrix proteins ( 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
- Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19. (bvsalud.org)
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) exert beneficial effects in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. (bvsalud.org)
- However, gremlin expression is elevated in many human renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and chronic allograft nephropathy. (jove.com)
- High expression of connective tissue growth factor accelerates dissemination of leukaemia. (hitbite.fun)
- Consequently, during the early stages of obesity, hypoxic conditions cause an increase in the level of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) expression. (asm.org)
- In this study, we aimed to investigate the WISP1 expression in the lung tissue after hepatic IRI and determine the regulating mechanisms and functions of WISP1 in the lung injury after hepatic IRI. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, chronic liver damage leads to perpetual HSC activation, progressive formation of pathological scar tissue and ultimately, cirrhosis and organ failure. (frontiersin.org)
- Periapical is defined as "the tissues surrounding the apex of the root of a tooth" and a cyst is "a pathological cavity lined by epithelium, having fluid or gaseous content that is not created by the accumulation of pus. (wikipedia.org)