Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein: A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Cysteine-Rich Protein 61: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins: A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Corneal Keratocytes: Fibroblasts which occur in the CORNEAL STROMA.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Houttuynia: A plant genus of the family SAURURACEAE. Members contain aristolactams.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Mesangial Cells: Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Fibromatosis, Gingival: Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Myofibroblasts: Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Polygeline: A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Amino Acids, DicarboxylicHepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Trabecular Meshwork: A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Filtering Surgery: A surgical procedure used in treatment of glaucoma in which an opening is created through which aqueous fluid may pass from the anterior chamber into a sac created beneath the conjunctiva, thus lowering the pressure within the eye. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Thrombospondin 1: An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
  • Moreover, we will propose a new insight into the immune pathogenesis of CTD-IP by presenting evidence which robustly indicates that T cells trigger initial development of IP in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, suggesting potential approaches for controlling such particular T cells in therapeutic interventions for IP. (intechopen.com)
  • ROS also directly alter the tumor microenvironment by activating cancer cells and inflammatory cells, which in turn release a variety of inflammatory factors to promote CSC renewal [ 10 ], leading to therapeutic resistance [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The inflammatory cells produce and secrete a variety of cytokines and/or growth factors including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and other profibrotic mediators such as endothelin-1, which induce increased proliferation of smooth muscle cells, marked accumulation of subendothelial fibrotic tissue, and initiation of platelet aggregation and intravascular thrombosis, eventually causing microvascular occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • [ 10 , 11 ] This crucial component results from the accumulation in skin and other affected tissues of myofibroblasts, cells possessing unique biological functions, including increased production of fibrillar type I and type III collagens, expression of α-smooth muscle actin, and reduction in the expression of genes encoding ECM-degradative enzymes. (medscape.com)
  • The invasive growth of malignant cells induces an admixture of host reactions including desmoplasia, angiogenesis, and immune reactions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The phagocytosis of apoptotic immune cells by monocytes in vitro has been shown to be augmented by several constituents of pulmonary surfactant, e. g. phospholipids and hydrophobic surfactant proteins. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Periapical cysts develop due to an inflammatory stimulus in 3 stages: Initial stage: Epithelial cells from the rests of Malassez at the apex of the roots of a non-vital tooth (one that has undergone root canal treatment) become stimulated due to the body's inflammatory response to bacterial endotoxins infecting the pulp or as a direct response to necrotic pulp tissue, therefore re-entering the growth phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyst development stage: Epithelial cells form strands and are attracted to the area which contains exposed connective tissue and foreign substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The innermost cells die and form an aggregate of dead tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory is unlikely in the absence of malignant transformation of epithelial cells as it does not follow the existing relationship between connective tissue and epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells have an inherent quality to reproduce and cover any connective tissue that is not already lined with epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells (MCs) are forceful multifunctional effector cells of the immune system. (diva-portal.org)
  • They can also promote muscle growth and aid in the production of immune cells. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Due to their widespread substrate spectrum, MMPs are integrated as important regulators for tissue homeostasis and immunity in the network of multidirectional communication within tissues and cells. (ersjournals.com)
  • These include (1) modulating the cholesterol content and thus reducing the stability of lipid raft formation and subsequent effects on the activation and regulation of immune cells, and (2) preventing the prenylation of signalling molecules and subsequent downregulation of gene expression, both resulting in reduced expression of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules with effects on cell apoptosis or proliferation. (bmj.com)
  • AHSCT is primarily a chemotherapy treatment, that completely or substantially depletes the immune system, and then rebuilds the immune system through the re-infusion of the patient's own blood and immune stem cells (haematopoietic stem cells). (msra.org.au)
  • In laboratory studies, mesenchymal stem cells have shown the potential to develop into a range of other cell types including muscle, connective tissue and nerve cells. (msra.org.au)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis - Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder in which immune cells attack and inflame the membrane around joints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scleroderma - an activation of immune cells that produces scar tissue in the skin, internal organs, and small blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 A polypeptide consisting in its active form of two identical chains of 120 amino acids, which is produced normally by neurons, Schwann cells, glial cells, and various types of epithelial and connective tissue cells, and promotes the growth of (especially sensory and sympathetic) neurons and neurites, and also has certain modulatory effects on the immune system (abbreviated NGF). (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Platelets are the first cells to arrive at the injured site and release growth factors which start the healing process. (shoulderdoc.co.uk)
  • This is followed by leukocytes (white blood cells) which also release growth factors. (shoulderdoc.co.uk)
  • The connective tissue cells of this area respond by initiating a replication process. (shoulderdoc.co.uk)
  • A new strategy is to let those old cells die off and instead promote the growth of brand-new skin cells. (rd.com)
  • Just as it helps newborn babies build immunity and strength, Immupure products help skin cells thrive: They increase cell rejuvenation and offer optimal nutrition, including powerful immune-boosting compounds, to skin cells. (rd.com)
  • Since infiltrating immune cells, most notably monocytes, are known to have a profound effect on adipocytes, interest in the stromal fraction of adipose tissue has increased considerably. (asm.org)
  • An inflammatory response follows, involving the recruitment of growth factors and immune cells to the wound site, which then instigates the proliferation of epithelial cells, blood vessels and connective tissue to cover the wound. (usda.gov)
  • We identified a common pathogenic gene expression signature-an immune-fibrotic axis-indicative of pro-fibrotic macrophages (MØs) in multiple tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells) affected by SSc. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine, a class of chemical messenger that facilitates communication between cells. (ceri.com)
  • Capillary beds are optimized for blood/tissue exchange of nutrients, gases (such as oxygen) and migrating immune cells. (ceri.com)
  • Cells derived from more advanced KS lesions produce their own growth factors and proliferate independently, thus taking on a cancer-like growth quality. (ceri.com)
  • In KT, the IL-17 mRNA level is elevated in proximal tubular epithelial cells from allograft tissue with subclinical rejection [ 14 ]. (kjim.org)
  • Transforming growth factor β, IL-6, and IL-1β mediate the induction of immature Th17 cells [ 15 , 16 ]. (kjim.org)
  • Gremlin is a downstream profibrotic mediator of transforming growth factor-beta in cultured renal cells. (fibroteam.net)
  • The C-Terminal Module IV of Connective Tissue Growth Factor, Through EGFR/Nox1 Signaling, Activates the NF- κ B Pathway and Proinflammatory Factors in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. (fibroteam.net)
  • Paricalcitol Inhibits Aldosterone-Induced Proinflammatory Factors by Modulating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway in Cultured Tubular Epithelial Cells. (fibroteam.net)
  • Copper helps produce red blood cells and ensures that your immune system and nerve cells stay healthy. (livestrong.com)
  • Over the years, the skin was proven to have a crucial immunological role, not only being a passive protective barrier but a network of effector cells and molecular mediators that constitute a highly sophisticated compound known as the "skin immune system" (SIS). (hindawi.com)
  • Far from being a simple mechanical barrier, the skin constitutes a network of effector cells and molecular mediators that constitute a highly sophisticated "skin immune system" (SIS) as described by Bos and Kapsenberg in 1986 [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Taken together, the total skin environment favors the interaction between the immune cells and the host microbial community. (hindawi.com)
  • Current stem cell-based strategies for tissue regeneration involve ex vivo manipulation of these cells to confer features of the desired progenitor population. (jci.org)
  • Recently, the concept that endogenous stem/progenitor cells could be used for regenerating tissues has emerged as a promising approach that potentially overcomes the obstacles related to cell transplantation. (jci.org)
  • Hence, the critical functions of the ECM are integral to the behavior and function of our cells, our immune system, nervous system, and our endocrine system. (metabolichealing.com)
  • Borrelia's target in the ECM can prevent detection by host immune cells. (metabolichealing.com)
  • Additionally, stromal cells secrete factors that actually help the tumors grow. (blogspot.com)
  • They also generate factors that promote cancer cell growth and prevent the immune system from attacking the cancerous cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Ultimately, the expert says, patients may benefit most from a combination of therapies that target both the cancer cells and parts of the microenvironment that support their growth. (blogspot.com)
  • Stroma impedes anticancer drugs' access to their targets and stromal cells secrete factors that support tumor growth. (spjnews.com)
  • Ultimately, patients may benefit most from combination therapies that target both cancer cells and the components of their microenvironment that support their growth, explains Giulia Biffi, Ph.D., leader of the new study. (spjnews.com)
  • Medications directed against immune cells or harmful soluble factors in small trials in SSc are encouraging. (uth.gr)
  • Following periodontal surgery, epithelial, gingival connective tissue, bone and/or periodontal ligament cells may grow along the root surface. (dentalcare.com)
  • Barriers are often used to help guide periodontal ligament cells to grow along the root surface to restore lost tooth support, while preventing the epithelial and gingival connective tissue cells from entering the space. (dentalcare.com)
  • Freshney (Culture of Animal Cells) states that it removes complement and reduces cytotoxic action of of immunoglobulins WITHOUT damaging growth factors. (protocol-online.org)
  • I am particularly interested in whether it effects connective tissue cells. (protocol-online.org)
  • Most papers mentioning heat inactivation are on immune cells. (protocol-online.org)
  • And how do you isolate your cells from tissue? (protocol-online.org)
  • The microenvironment differs depending on the types of cells and tissues and differentiation stages of these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, we investigated effects of HMGB1 on tumor-infiltrating immune cells obtained from surgically resected tumor tissue from NSCLC patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, overexpression of miR-19b repressed p-STAT3 expression and the number of CD11c+ cells in AC eye and CLN tissues. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tumors are complex tissues in which mutant cancer cells have conscripted and subverted normal cell types to serve as active collaborators in their neoplastic agenda ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Arrows, factors secreted by the respective cells that act in both an autocrine and a paracrine manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 10. The method of claim 1 wherein the periosteal cells are cultured in a matrix in media comprising inducers of osteogenesis selected from the group consisting of factors inducing bone formation, enzymes enhancing calcification, enzymes enhancing phosphorus deposition, vitamins, and prostaglandins. (google.com)
  • All connective tissue apart from blood and lymph consists of three main components: fibers ( elastic and collagenous fibers ), ground substance and cells . (wn.com)
  • In severe cases, the excess tissue may cover the crowns of the teeth, thus causing functional, esthetic, and periodontal problems, such as bone loss and bleeding, due to the presence of pseudopockets and plaque accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bone resorption caused by metabolism of acidic substances produced by cysts contributes to cyst growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the broad spectrum of their substrate specificity, MMPs contribute to the homeostasis of many tissues and participate in several physiological processes, such as bone remodelling, angiogenesis, immunity and wound healing. (ersjournals.com)
  • Although the activity of MMPs has been shown to be essential in cell biological processes and many fundamental physiological events involving tissue remodelling, such as angiogenesis, bone development, wound healing and mammary involution [ 2 ], the increasing interest in MMP function mainly stems from their role in several pathological conditions, such as cancer or chronic inflammatory diseases [ 3 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy does not involve chemotherapy and uses a different type of stem cell which can be isolated from different tissues, including bone marrow and fat. (msra.org.au)
  • Elastin is the major component of ligaments (tissues that attach bone to bone) and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease) - caused by poor quality collagen, or insufficient amounts of normal collagen (primarily type I), necessary for healthy, strong bones and certain other connective tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main purpose of growth factors is to help the body build and restore muscle, bone, connective tissue, nerve tissue, cartilage and skin. (medindia.net)
  • The procedures and materials include barriers to prevent the epithelium from growing into the bony defect and to provide an increased opportunity for bone growth within the defect. (dentalcare.com)
  • Unlike synthetic bone, which only provides scaffolding for osteoconduction, allografts include growth factors which are also osteoinductive. (dentalcare.com)
  • Allografts both induce bone growth and provide an environment that increases the body's regenerative process. (dentalcare.com)
  • They include processed animal bone or growth proteins. (dentalcare.com)
  • The organic component of autogenous bone is collagen, a fibrous tissue which is important for cell binding and proliferation. (dentalcare.com)
  • In the method of the invention, bone grafts or other substrates are modified to have an osteoinductive surface modification that the recipient's body will accept as its own tissue type and therefore will not reject or otherwise cause to fail. (google.com)
  • Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue , adipose tissue , cartilage , bone , and blood . (wn.com)
  • This has immune acid similarity of 24% to PDGF beta but joins different receptors and so provokes different biological effects. (shoulderdoc.co.uk)
  • This review focuses on the role of sex hormones particularly estrogen, in the adaptive immune response, in health, and autoimmune disease with an emphasis on systemic lupus erythematosus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Development of atherosclerosis (AT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) involves both acquired, modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypercholesterolemia, tobacco smoking) and genetic factors. (termedia.pl)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory disease characterized by a perturbed immune response with the consequent production of autoantibodies. (termedia.pl)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus itself has been shown to be an independent risk factor of AT progression. (termedia.pl)
  • STAT6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, has been shown to play a central role in mediating the immune regulatory signal of this cytokine. (cancerindex.org)
  • is an important macrophage-derived cytokine that regulates immune and inflammatory processes, activating intracellular pathways shared with Ang II, including the NF-?B. (jove.com)
  • Full Text Available Abstract Background Synovial sarcoma is a high-grade malignant tumor of soft tissue, characterized by the specific chromosomal translocation t(X;18, and its resultant SYT -SSX fusion gene. (worldwidescience.org)
  • In the current study, we evaluated whether the therapeutic effects of a DNA vaccine encoding human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 can be enhanced by combined application of an immune checkpoint blockade directed against the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway and secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) also known as CCL21 adjuvant, in a mouse cervical cancer model. (cancerindex.org)
  • Adipose tissue can undergo rapid expansion during times of excess caloric intake. (asm.org)
  • Like a rapidly expanding tumor mass, obese adipose tissue becomes hypoxic due to the inability of the vasculature to keep pace with tissue growth. (asm.org)
  • The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity has lead to increased efforts aimed at gaining a better understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of adipose tissue and adipocytes. (asm.org)
  • One of the more-surprising features of adipose tissue described over the past 10 years is the realization that adipose tissue in general and adipocytes in particular have the potential to be a rich source of a vast array of secretory proteins. (asm.org)
  • It is currently not established how these stromal components interact with adipocytes during adipose tissue expansion. (asm.org)
  • While the exact molecular mechanisms of how female hormones regulate the immune system are yet incompletely elucidated, studies show that they control development, homeostasis, gene expression, and signaling processes in T and B lymphocytes to influence their function in health and disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family of cytokines, which are multifunctional peptides that regulate proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and other functions in many cell types. (mybiosource.com)
  • Thus, there is a clear and compelling need to conduct gene expression studies in tissues that are specifically relevant to the disease of interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we monitored the gene expression of 13 tissue samples harvested from a rapid autopsy heart (non-failed heart) and 7 from a cardiac explant (failed heart) through 24 hours of autolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that RNA from autopsy-derived tissue, even up to 24 hours of autolysis, can be used to identify biologically relevant expression pattern differences, thus serving as a practical source for gene expression experiments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Statins appear to reduce the stability of lipid raft formation with subsequent effects on immune activation and regulation, and also prevent the prenylation of signalling molecules with subsequent downregulation of gene expression. (bmj.com)
  • Through a unique method of cell sorting and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated EC injury (Matrix Metalloproteinase 12, von Willebrand Factor) and activation in response to BLM. (bu.edu)
  • The mechanism underlying this seems to be via the rapid induction of the transcription factor TGF-β-inducible early gene (TIEG) ( 11 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The fibrotic process is characterized by the excessive production and deposition of types I, III, and VI collagens and other ECM and connective tissue macromolecules including COMP, glycosaminoglycans, tenascin, and fibronectin. (medscape.com)
  • It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the initiation and development of gastric cancer (GC), and the levels of ROS are significantly increased in patients with GC accompanied with abnormal expressions of multiple inflammatory factors. (hindawi.com)
  • The haemal levels of ROS in gastric cancer patients are obviously increased, along with the abnormal expression of factors such as P38 which modulates the expression of inflammatory factors [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Lean Muscle Accelerator™ - Biologically Active Plasma Albumin Peptides Yielding Naturally Occurring Immunoglobulins, IGF-1, Immune-Regulating Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, transforming Growth Factor Beta. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • The nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is an important regulator of the inflammatory response. (jove.com)
  • FSTL1 is involved in multiple signaling pathways and biological processes, including vascularization and regulation of the immune response, a feature that complicates its study. (springer.com)
  • Thrombin is a Potent Inducer of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Production via Proteolytic Activation of Protease-activated Receptor-1, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Nov. 10, 2000, pp. 35584-35591, vol. 275, No. 4, TheAmerican Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, US. (patentgenius.com)
  • Near infrared light and ELFPMF have very different effects in their interaction with living tissue, while ELFPMF is more widely studied than near infrared light in biological systems by our literature review. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2.5%) of genes showed fluctuations in expression over the 24 hr period and largely belong to immune and signal response and energy metabolism-related processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the co-expression of these genes is common to all tissues, the functional consequences of this upregulation differ by organ. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These tools hold promise for understanding how genes may contribute to human diseases [ 2 ] that arise, in part, out of an aberrant interplay of cell types and tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fifty-two SNPs were annotated within genes, some of those involved in the immune response to mastitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate MC migration to chemoattractants released in vivo or in vitro (body fluids collected from patients with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis and T H 1- and T H 2-cytokines) and to recombinant cytokines (transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) and CCL5/RANTES). (diva-portal.org)
  • Multiple control modalities of the intracellular and extracellular networks (transcription, microRNAs, copy number, and epigenetic processes) were involved in tumor-immune cell interactions, both across and within immune subtypes. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 1. A composition comprising a homeopathic dilution of one or more purified growth factors, said factors comprising cell signalling polyeptides. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • As control for tissue specificity H441 layers were exposed to conditioned medium from human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Soluble factors obtained from the lung endothelial cell line increased the barrier significantly proven by TEER values and fluorescein permeability on the functional level and by the differential expression of tight junctional proteins on the molecular level. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • This thesis shows that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from asthmatic patients and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatiod arthritis contain MC chemoattractants, and that part of the chemotactic activity can be related to the presence of stem cell factor (SCF) and TGF-β. (diva-portal.org)
  • Colostrum has the unique ability to support normal cell growth & tissue repair. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Our data set provided transcriptional and immunohistochemical evidence for activated immune cell infiltration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Functionally, the growth factor has been shown to regulate many aspects of cell behavior, including cell adhesion, migration, growth, chemotaxis, and the synthesis and accumulation of matrix proteins ( 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19. (bvsalud.org)
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) exert beneficial effects in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, chronic liver damage leads to perpetual HSC activation, progressive formation of pathological scar tissue and ultimately, cirrhosis and organ failure. (frontiersin.org)
  • Periapical is defined as "the tissues surrounding the apex of the root of a tooth" and a cyst is "a pathological cavity lined by epithelium, having fluid or gaseous content that is not created by the accumulation of pus. (wikipedia.org)