Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Serum Sickness: Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Arthus Reaction: A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dentin SensitivityCryoglobulins: Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Mice, Inbred C3HHemocyaninAntigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mice, Inbred CBAAntigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Picryl Chloride: A hapten that generates suppressor cells capable of down-regulating the efferent phase of trinitrophenol-specific contact hypersensitivity. (Arthritis Rheum 1991 Feb;34(2):180).Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The four types of hypersensitivity reaction are: type 1, immediate IgE-mediated; type 2, cytotoxic; type 3, immune complex- ... 1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... Early exposure to potential allergens. Treatment. Avoiding the food in question, having a plan if exposure occurs, ... When immune cells encounter the allergenic protein, IgE antibodies are produced; this is similar to the immune system's ...
... occurring 5-10 days after exposure. It is a type of hypersensitivity, specifically immune complex hypersensitivity (type III). ... the human immune system can mistake the proteins present for harmful antigens. The body produces antibodies, which combine with ... Serum sickness can be developed as a result of exposure to antibodies derived from animals. These sera or antitoxins are ... these proteins to form immune complexes. These complexes precipitate, enter the walls of blood vessels, and activate the ...
Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ... children by the same father typically have antibodies against the father's red blood cell and major histocompatibility complex ... Attempts have been made to reduce hypersensitivity reactions by oral tolerance and other means of repeated exposure. Repeated ... It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen and contrasts with conventional immune-mediated elimination of ...
Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ... children by the same father typically have antibodies against the father's red blood cell and major histocompatibility complex ... Attempts have been made to reduce hypersensitivity reactions by oral tolerance and other means of repeated exposure. Repeated ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ...
Following a subsequent exposure, IgG antibodies combine with the inhaled allergen to form immune complexes in the walls of the ... Any exposure to the antigens once hypersensitivity can set off another chronic reaction. The only prevention for FLD is ... After multiple exposures, it takes less and less of the antigens to set off the reaction in the lung. The most prominent ... Acute FLD has the ability to be treated because hypersensitivity to the antigens has not yet developed. The main treatment is ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
It is believed that they reduce antibody production or promote the clearance of immune complexes from the body, even though ... Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) form the mainstay of serologic testing for ... General discussion of hypersensitivity, not specific to SLE". Pathmicro.med.sc.edu. 2010-07-07. Archived from the original on ... These stimuli begin a reaction that leads to destruction of other cells in the body and exposure of their DNA, histones, and ...
... but insufficient to result in the formation of immune complexes and resultant immune responses. Toxin Antigen Erkes, Dan; ... free hapten molecules bind with antibodies toward that molecule without causing the immune response, leaving fewer antibodies ... After a subsequent, second exposure, the proliferated T-cells can become activated, generating an immune reaction that produces ... "Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor Regression: Plausibility of Mediating Antitumor ...
Type IV hypersensitivity
CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ... Induration and erythema around injection site indicates previous exposure. An example of a tuberculosis (TB) infection that ... Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. ... After several weeks, the immune system somehow [mechanism as yet unexplained] ramps up and, on stimulation with IFN-gamma, the ...
If TNF release is stimulated by B cell products in the form of RF or ACPA -containing immune complexes, through activation of ... RA is strongly associated with genes of the inherited tissue type major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen HLA-DR4 is the ... ACPAs measured as anti-CCP antibodies).[page needed] It is positive in 75-85%, but a negative RF or CCP antibody does not rule ... Silica exposure has been linked to RA. No infectious agent has been consistently linked with RA and there is no evidence of ...
This starts a complex immune cascade leading to skin inflammation, itching, and the typical rash of contact dermatitis. In ... expansion and some clones of the newly formed antigen specific sensitized T-cells travel back to the site of antigen exposure. ... Mast cells have antibodies on their surface called immunoglobulin E (IgE). These act as receptors, and if they recognize the ... A patch test relies on the principle of a type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The first step in becoming allergic is ...
... hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies. Immune complexes (aggregations of antigens, complement proteins, ... Newborn infants have no prior exposure to microbes and are particularly vulnerable to infection. Several layers of passive ... A B cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a specific foreign antigen. This antigen/antibody complex ... Type II hypersensitivity occurs when antibodies bind to antigens on the patient's own cells, marking them for destruction. This ...
Type II hypersensitivity
... or cytotoxic hypersensitivity) the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patient's own cell ... IgG and IgM antibodies bind to these antigens to form complexes that activate the classical pathway of complement activation to ... antigen, innately part of the patient's cells) or extrinsic (adsorbed onto the cells during exposure to some foreign antigen, ... Type I hypersensitivity Type III hypersensitivity Type IV hypersensitivity Type V hypersensitivity "Hypersensitivity reactions ...
T helper cell
Many auto-immune diseases are more complex. A well-known example is rheumatoid arthritis, where both antibodies and immune ... Hypersensitivity. The immune system must achieve a balance of sensitivity in order to respond to foreign antigens without ... If this second signal is not present during initial antigen exposure, the T cell presumes that it is auto-reactive. This ... When the immune system responds to very low levels of antigen that it usually shouldn't respond to, a hypersensitivity response ...
... the antibody-producing cells of the immune system). IgE molecules, like all antibodies, are specific to one particular antigen ... The assembly of the α chain with the co-transfected β and γ chains mask the ER retention and allows the α β γ complex to be ... Calcium triggers the secretion of histamine from mast cells after previous exposure to sodium fluoride. The secretory process ... visceral hypersensitivity, and intestinal dysmotility (i.e., impaired peristalsis) result. Neuronal activation induces ...
Natural killer cell
Infected cells are routinely opsonized with antibodies for detection by immune cells. Antibodies that bind to antigens can be ... Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine ... able to react immediately with no prior exposure to the pathogen. In both mice and humans, NKs can be seen to play a role in ... and in models of hapten-hypersensitivity reactions. Especially, in the MCMV model, protective memory functions of MCMV-induced ...
T helper cell
Many auto-immune diseases are more complex. A well-known example is rheumatoid arthritis, where both antibodies and immune ... When the immune system responds to very low levels of antigen that it usually shouldn't respond to, a hypersensitivity response ... If this second signal is not present during initial antigen exposure, the T cell presumes that it is auto-reactive. This ... Type 2 and Type 3 hypersensitivity both involve complications from auto-immune or low affinity antibodies. In both of these ...
... the immune system will attack harmless antigens and thus normally benign microbial objects-like pollen-will trigger an immune ... Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to ... The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body's immune system, binding to an allergen ... Important elements of newer hygiene hypotheses also include exposure to endotoxins, exposure to pets and growing up on a farm. ...
... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... managing infections and boosting the immune system. Reduction of exposure to pathogens may be recommended, and in many ... it is a group of circulating proteins that can bind pathogens and form a membrane attack complex. Complement deficiencies are ... skin tests for delayed-type hypersensitivity, cell responses to mitogens and allogeneic cells, cytokine production by cells ...
The patch test evokes a delayed, Type IV hypersensitivity reaction, which is a cell-mediated, antibody independent, immune ... With each subsequent exposure to nickel these T cells become stimulated and duplicate (clone) themselves. With enough exposures ... The complex is predominantly expressed on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II, which activates and clonally expands naive ... Induction is the critical phase (immunological event) when skin contact to nickel results in antigen presentation to the T ...
DNA repair protein XRCC4
The antigen binding site consists of two variable regions, VL and VH. The remainder of the antibody structure is made up of ... Thus, NHEJ is also important in the development of the immune system via its role in V(D)J recombination. Recent studies have ... XRCC4 then forms a strong complex with DNA ligase IV, LigIV, which is enhanced by Cernunnos XRCC4-like factor, Cer-XLF. Cer-XLF ... DNA damage occurs very frequently and is generated from exposure to a variety of both exogenous and endogenous genotoxic ...
Prostaglandin EP4 receptor
... suppressor T cells that modulate the immune system to maintain tolerance to self-antigens and prevent autoimmune disease); b) ... and direct the early stage of immune responses; c) inhibit antibody-producing B cells from proliferating; d) suppresses the ... complex. The complex then dissociate into its Gαs and Gβγ components which act to regulate cell signaling pathways. In ... NECD is a non-allergic hypersensitivity reaction involving the acute development of wheals and angioedema in response to NSAID ...
... prolamins mediate between T-cells and antigen-presenting cells, whereas anti-transglutaminase antibodies confer autoimmunity ... A more complex condition affects individuals who have gluten-sensitive enteropathy in which there is also a response to avenin ... Regardless of whether or not this observation is a direct allergic immune response, by itself this is essentially benign.[ ... Manfreda J, Holford-Strevens V, Cheang M, Warren CP (April 1986). "Acute symptoms following exposure to grain dust in farming ...
Degranulation processes 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, ... thus achieving the inhibition of the production of antigen-specific IgE and hence a shift of immune balance toward non-IgE ... IgE also has an essential role in type I hypersensitivity, which manifests in various allergic diseases, such as allergic ... Molecular structure and patterns of in vivo exposure". Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 142 (1): 40-50. doi:10.1159/000095997. PMID ...
They found that the immune responses to innocuous antigens triggers an increase in the activity of hypothalamic neurons and ... Cytokines mediate and control immune and inflammatory responses. Complex interactions exist between cytokines, inflammation and ... hypersensitivities; immune deficiency); and the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the ... and then measuring the amount of antibody produced. The highly reproducible results revealed that conditioned rats exposed to ...
... shown that IL-21R knock-out mice express higher levels of IgE and lower levels of IgG1 than normal mice after antigen exposure ... An antibody to IL-21 is in development for multiple inflammatory conditions (Clinicaltrials.gov entries). GRCh38: Ensembl ... This has implications for the role of IL-21 in controlling allergic responses because of the role of IgE in hypersensitivity ... Thus, IL-21 may contribute to the mechanism by which CD4+ T helper cells orchestrate the immune system response to viral ...
These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. Each B cell has a unique ... The immune system is divided into a more primitive innate immune system, and acquired or adaptive immune system of vertebrates ... while other B cells become B memory cells that quicken response for a second exposure. Step 6: Plasma cells then secrete ... Antibody-antigen reaction. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ...
List of cutaneous conditions
... cutaneous primary complex, primary tuberculous complex, tuberculous chancre) Rapid-growing Mycobacterium infection ... Within this list, the term immunoglobulin is abbreviated to Ig when used as a prefix to a specific antibody isotype (i.e. IgA, ... system List of spiders associated with cutaneous reactions List of target antigens in pemphigoid List of target antigens in ... reaction to cytokines Allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome Anticoagulant-induced skin necrosis Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity ...
Ticks of domestic animals
microplus female ticks engorge with blood, the antibody reacts with the natural antigen in their guts so strongly that ... has been successful for their ability to acquire strong immune resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus following natural exposure ... Amblyomma variegatum was subject to a multi-country eradication program in the Caribbean area, but it failed for complex ... dermal hypersensitivities types 1 and 4) to the foreign proteins in tick saliva. This defense by the host is generally ...
Serum sickness facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serum sickness
The newly formed antibodies bind with the foreign protein to form immune complexes. These immune complexes may enter the walls ... Allergy- Altered body reaction, usually hypersensitivity, as a response to exposure to a specific substance. ... Antibody- Any of a large number of proteins that are produced after stimulation by an antigen and act specifically against the ... However, the antibodies from the animal serum are also foreign proteins that can act as antigens when injected into humans. The ...
Free Pharmacology Flashcards about PathoPharm Terms
TYPE III HYPERSENSITIVITY. Immune Complex - autoimmune disorders; antigen & antibody complex deposits in the tissues cause ... TYPE IV HYPERSENSITIVITY. Cell-mediated or delayed; contact dermatitis; rash 48-96 hrs after exposure. ... An autoimmune disease caused by immune complex deposits of antinuclear antibodies and is distinguished clinically by ... TYPE II HYPERSENSITIVITY. ABO blood incompatability; cyctoxic hypersensitivity; caused by reaction of antigen on blood cells. ...
Hypersensitivity reaction to chemotherapy
... : background - Chemotherapy is often used to treat various types of cancer. These ... Type III: This category involves the formation of an antigen-antibody immune complex, which deposits on blood vessel walls and ... Antigens on the allergen release inflammatory mediators within 24 to 48 hours of exposure. This type of reaction is seen with ... hypersensitivity, IgE, immune, immune defense system, immune-mediated, immune response, immune system, immunocompromised, ...
Exam 4: Dr. Archer Hypersensitivity Reactions Flashcards by Anika Eidson | Brainscape
Re-exposure causes antibody binding to antigen in circulation and the formation of antigen/antibody complexes or "immune ... What happens in a type III hypersensitivity once immune complexes are deposited or "settle out" into tissues? ... What can a high load of antigen re-exposure cause in type III hypersensitivity? ... Activation of sensitized T lymphocytes and movement of these T lymphocytes to the site of antigen exposure which can lead to ...
Anaphylaxis in horses | Vetlexicon Equis from Vetstream | Definitive Veterinary Intelligence
Cause: immediate form of immune-mediated hypersensitivity initiated by the formation of antigen-antibody complexes. Classic ... but require prior exposure to this antigen → antigen-specific IgE synthesis. Alterations of the mast cell or basophil cell ... Initiated by antigen-antibody complexes.. *Antigen is bound to antigen-specific, cell-bound antibody and, depending on the site ... Usually IgE is transiently produced and subsequent interactions with the same antigen → formation of IgG antigen complexes that ...
Fungal hypersensitivity | Article about fungal hypersensitivity by The Free Dictionary
The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies antibody,... Explanation of fungal hypersensitivity ... Find out information about fungal hypersensitivity. heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. ... In immune complex or Arthus (Type III) reaction, neither antibody nor antigen is fixed to cells. Rather, they combine in ... Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen, the target cell-fixed antibodies react with antigen to cause degranulation and release ...
Food allergy - Wikipedia
The four types of hypersensitivity reaction are: type 1, immediate IgE-mediated; type 2, cytotoxic; type 3, immune complex- ... 1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... Early exposure to potential allergens. Treatment. Avoiding the food in question, having a plan if exposure occurs, ... When immune cells encounter the allergenic protein, IgE antibodies are produced; this is similar to the immune systems ...
Endocrine Flashcards by Ade Ighodaro | Brainscape
aka immune complex hypersens. caused by deposition of complexes of antigen and antibody, causing complement activation in small ... occurs 48-72hrs after exposure to protein antigens. (i.e Hashimoto thyroiditis) ... and antithyroglobulin antibodies. -gland is enlarged and uniformly firm (from chronic inflammation). -elevated TSH and reduced ... type I hypersensitivity- mediated by? mech? result? IgE-mediated. immediate or allergy. caused by crosslinking of IgE bound to ...
Excessive Adaptive Responses - Immune System - Merck Veterinary Manual
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis:. When inhaled antigens meet circulating antibodies in the walls of the alveoli, immune complexes ... Chronic antigen exposure also occurs with inhaled antigens and, in such cases, immune complexes form in the alveolar walls. ... Immune complex disease) Antigen-antibody complexes (immune complexes) deposited in tissues may cause acute inflammation. By ... which then act as a source of chronic antigen exposure. In many cases, the origin of the antigen within these immune complexes ...
PPT - Ch. 15. Hypersensitivities (Allergies) Atopy - hereditary predisposition toward allergies Mechanism not clear- may map...
... either inhaled or ingested Immediate or delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH)... ... Hypersensitivities (Allergies) Atopy - hereditary predisposition toward allergies Mechanism not clear- may map to chromosomal ... Type III: Immune complex disease:. Sometimes antibody- (soluble) antigen complexes. are not cleared like they should be ... First exposure. B cells produce allergen-specific IgE Ab Tail of IgE Ab reacts with Fc receptors on ...
Hypersensitivity angiitis | definition of hypersensitivity angiitis by Medical dictionary
What is hypersensitivity angiitis? Meaning of hypersensitivity angiitis medical term. What does hypersensitivity angiitis mean? ... Looking for online definition of hypersensitivity angiitis in the Medical Dictionary? hypersensitivity angiitis explanation ... See also antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Type III (called also immune-complex or subacute hypersensitivity) causes ... typically manifesting at least 24 hours after exposure to the antigen.. 2. a state of increased responsivity to physical ...
Keeping children with latex allergies safe : Nursing2020
Type III is an immune complex-mediated response in which the antigen-antibody complexes travel through the bloodstream, causing ... The authors concluded that latex exposure causes sensitization and that a latex-free environment can reduce latex antibody ... Type I is an immediate hypersensitivity reaction, a classic allergic response. It occurs quickly when a person is exposed to an ... Minimizing early exposure. Latex exposure to mucous membranes at an early age is considered the biggest risk factor for latex ...
Hypersensitivity reaction to chemotherapy - The Source Natural Foods
Type III: This category involves the formation of an antigen-antibody immune complex, which deposits on blood vessel walls and ... Antigens on the allergen release inflammatory mediators within 24 to 48 hours of exposure. This type of reaction is seen with ... hypersensitivity, IgE, immune, immune defense system, immune-mediated, immune response, immune system, immunocompromised, ... An antigen associated with a specific cell initiates cytolysis of the cell by an antigen-specific antibody, such as ...
Physiology and Pathology of Drug Hypersensitivity: Role of Human Leukocyte Antigens | IntechOpen
... demonstrated significant associations between emerging hypersensitivity reactions and distinct genes of the HLA complex. HLA- ... The most common hypersensitivity reactions occur after the treatment of HLA-B*57:01+ HIV patients with abacavir and HLA-A*31: ... Severe drug hypersensitivity reactions that resemble acute GvHD are linked to certain specific HLA alleles. ... mediated hypersensitivity reactions particularly affect skin and liver, however, impairment of the bone marrow and kidney ...
Serum sickness - Wikipedia
... occurring 5-10 days after exposure. It is a type of hypersensitivity, specifically immune complex hypersensitivity (type III). ... the human immune system can mistake the proteins present for harmful antigens. The body produces antibodies, which combine with ... Serum sickness can be developed as a result of exposure to antibodies derived from animals. These sera or antitoxins are ... these proteins to form immune complexes. These complexes precipitate, enter the walls of blood vessels, and activate the ...
Helminth hypersensitivity | definition of helminth hypersensitivity by Medical dictionary
What is helminth hypersensitivity? Meaning of helminth hypersensitivity medical term. What does helminth hypersensitivity mean? ... Looking for online definition of helminth hypersensitivity in the Medical Dictionary? helminth hypersensitivity explanation ... Type 3 h. (immune-complex mediated h.) is mediated by a combination of antigen-antibody. Example: systemic lupus erythematosus ... The first exposure to the antigen induces the production of IgE antibodies (cytotropic antibodies, reagin) that bind to ...
3. Immune Complex Disorders. Damage caused by the deposit in the tissues of complexes of antigen and their antibodies. Examples ... 1. Immediate Hypersensitivities.. These occur quickly after exposure to the allergen. They are usually mediated by antibodies ... Immune Complex Disorders. While binding of antibody to antigen is often a helpful - even life-saving - response, in some ... Irregular, lumpy deposits of immune complexes (antigen + antibody + complement components) in a glomerulus. (Courtesy of Dr. ...
Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Systemic Allergic Reactions Following Immunization with Human Diploid Cell Rabies Vaccine
... mediated immune complex disease characterized by antigen-antibody complex deposition in tissues, complement activation, and ... Individuals with histories of presumed Type III hypersensitivity to HDCV may be at higher risk of subsequent hypersensitivity ... inapparent and/or unavoidable exposures to rabies virus. All available data suggest an anamnestic antibody response will occur ... III immune complex disease. Until this reaction problem can be resolved, it would be prudent to carefully assess each use of ...
Tobacco Worker's Lung: Practice Essentials
... is one disease in the group of parenchymal lung diseases categorized as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (United States) or ... Immune mediation plays a major pathogenetic role in tobacco workers lung. Serum antibodies are present in most patients with ... TWL usually involves inhalation of an antigen, particularly organic ones. This leads to an exaggerated immune response, which ... The major treatment strategy is elimination of exposure to tobacco molds or leaves. Preventing further exposure to the ...
Hypersensitivity reaction | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org
Pathology Classification There are four types of hypersensitivity reactions, each mediated by a differ... ... Hypersensitivity reactions are the immunological response to both exogenous and endogenous antigens, and forms the basis for ... type 3 hypersensitivity: immune-complex mediated reaction *IgG/IgM mediated. *antibody-antigen Immunocomplex deposition ... mast cell degranulation occurs on following exposure 8 *urticaria. *asthma *allergy/anaphylaxis ...
Nutritional support for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, ALS
The immunoglobulins attach to and surround the target antigen forming an antigen-antibody complex. This complex is then ... which occurs with the second exposure to the antigen, is normally quicker and usually produces more antibodies than the primary ... the body s immune system produces proteins called immunoglobulins which attach to their target antigen. An antigen is a ... The increased prevalence in Guam is associated with a decreased delayed hypersensitivity. The secondary response, ...
Farmer's Lung Disease. A Review | Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)
These antigens are implicated in the formation of antigen-antibody immune complexes, particularly of the IgG type, which ... The acute phase of FLD is generally reversible, but continuous exposure or several subacute episodes of hypersensitivity to the ... Exposure identified. Anti-antigen antibodies Cormier et al.25 Exposure to antigen. Inspiratory crackles. Dyspnea. Predominantly ... Exposure to antigen from history, antibodies or microbiological identification. Consistent clinical picture. Consistent ...
Immune tolerance - Wikipedia
Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ... children by the same father typically have antibodies against the fathers red blood cell and major histocompatibility complex ... Attempts have been made to reduce hypersensitivity reactions by oral tolerance and other means of repeated exposure. Repeated ... It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen and contrasts with conventional immune-mediated elimination of ...
Immune Responses in Cattle Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii |...
... and exposure to mycobacterial antigens may elicit an antibody response in a presensitized animal. ... if antibody is present, thus creating a colored immune complex. This complex flows laterally via capillary forces across the ... Prior studies have demonstrated that virulent and attenuated strains of M. bovis induce similar delayed-type hypersensitivity ... ii) The second scenario is an antigen load model in which the antibody responses are positively correlated to the antigen ...
Free Chiropractic Flashcards about Pathophys 1st Exam
What type of antibodies are found in a type 3 hypersensitivity reaction?. A type 3 is an immune complex mediated response and ... 1. initial exposure to antigen = increased IgE production 2. IgE binds to mast cells 3. Subsequent exposure to antigen = ... What does an antibody do in a type 2 hypersensitivity reaction?. Antibody binds to fixed antigen, attracts complement and Ig-Fc ... IgG and IgM bind to circulating antigens forming immune complexes. A type 4 hypersensitivity reaction is what type of reaction ...
Immune tolerance - Wikipedia
Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ... children by the same father typically have antibodies against the fathers red blood cell and major histocompatibility complex ... Attempts have been made to reduce hypersensitivity reactions by oral tolerance and other means of repeated exposure. Repeated ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ...
PPT - LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS PowerPoint Presentation - ID:707734
Type III (immune complex)- large antibody-antigen complexes that get trapped under the tunic interna of blood vessels and cause ... Hypersensitivity. Production of antibodies to substances most tolerate, ie allergies.. *Type I (acute) - Most common, starts ... Type IV (delayed)- occur 12 to 72 hours after exposure. Delay commonly associated with travel time to lymph nodes. Cosmetics ... Failure of the immune system to distinguish self from foreign antigens.. Immune systems produces antibodies against bodies own ...
Allergic to Penicillin? Maybe Not. | aliquotthesciencespot
Antibodies are then formed against the antigen, creating a hypersensitivity to subsequent exposures to the drug. ... Haptens are drug-protein complexes in the body that stimulate an immune response. Penicillin and its metabolites (degradation ... Risk & Exposure. Previous exposure to Penicillins is necessary to develop Penicillin Allergy. All penicillins have the ... covalently binds to proteins and this complex acts as an antigen. ...
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - The Immune System
Allergies and hypersensitivity to certain substances are considered immune system disorders. In addition, the immune system ... by the bodys immune system. When that antigen enters the body again, the immune system "remembers" exactly how to respond to ... The immune system is made up of a complex and vital network of cells and organs that protect the body from infection. ... Once a person is exposed to chickenpox or the chickenpox vaccine, the immune system will produce specific antibodies against ...
Immune System Responses in Cats - Cat Owners - Merck Veterinary Manual
Learn about the veterinary topic of Immune System Responses in Cats. Find specific details on this topic and related topics ... Type III Reactions (Immune Complex Disease). Type III reactions occur when a large number of antigen-antibody complexes lodge ... It takes time to develop specific immunity after initial exposure to a new antigen; however, when the antigen is encountered in ... Type IV or delayed hypersensitivity occurs more than 24 hours after the body was exposed to an antigen. Unlike the other types ...
Immune System Boosters - Arthritis Research
Antibodies binding to equivalent amounts of soluble antigens give rise to immune complex formation. The antigens involved in ... Hypersensitiv-ity reactions require a sensitizing exposure so the excessive response does not occur with the initial exposure. ... However, if immune complexes are formed in great excess of antigen, or if the complex is very small and soluble, the ... The innate immune system also acts to recruit antigen-specific immune responses, not only by attracting cells of the immune ...
ReactionsProteinsReactionSerumBindANAPHYLAXISTissuesAllergenMacrophagesResponsesInduceSystemicAnaphylacticAtopicProduction of IgE antibodiesSelf-antigensInducesMonoclonal antibodiesReceptorsImmunityBody'sTriggersClinicalMast cellBasophilsPhagocytosisAllergiesInvolvesNeutrophilsBoundDependent Cell Mediated CytotoxicityCytotoxicityProteinDiseasesSubsequentSubstancesForeign antigenReactFood antigensAutoantibodiesMicroorganismsAtopy
- The patient's immune system recognizes the proteins in the drug or antiserum as foreign proteins, and produces its own antibodies to protect against the foreign proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
- Antibody - Any of a large number of proteins that are produced after stimulation by an antigen and act specifically against the antigen in an immune response. (encyclopedia.com)
- These immune complexes may enter the walls of blood vessels where they set off an inflammatory reaction. (encyclopedia.com)
- Although the symptoms of serum sickness may be similar to other conditions, patients who present with symptoms of serum sickness and who have a recent history of exposure to a drug or other product which may cause this type of reaction should be suspected of having serum sickness. (encyclopedia.com)
- Allergy - Altered body reaction, usually hypersensitivity, as a response to exposure to a specific substance. (encyclopedia.com)
- Anaphylaxis anaphylaxis , hypersensitive state that may develop after introduction of a foreign protein or other antigen into the body tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Anaphylaxis occurs when IgE antibodies are involved, and areas of the body that are not in direct contact with the food become affected and show symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
- Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic manifestation of the interaction of an antigen (allergen) binding to IgE antibodies attached to mast cells and basophils. (merckvetmanual.com)
- The severity of anaphylaxis depends on the type of antigen, the amount of IgE produced, and the amount of antigen and route of exposure. (merckvetmanual.com)
- anaphylaxis is a form of hypersensitivity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- anaphylaxis and allergy are forms of hypersensitivity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The degree of immediate hypersensitivity responses varies from mild allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis to life-threatening angioedema and anaphylaxis. (mhmedical.com)
- This would likely be a Delayed Type Hypersensitivity response swelling and tissue destruction at the sight of exposure, but anaphylaxis would not be off the the Table (get it? (strolen.com)
- Which again may render the drug less effective, but could lead to anaphylaxis or if gave a large enough dose of PHL-80 and the anaphylaxis didn't kill you than kidney failure from all the antibody-PHL-80 complexes in your blood. (strolen.com)
- Antibodies of other immunoglobulin classes are thought to mediate anaphylaxis on occasion. (nap.edu)
- Less severe manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity that do not qualify as anaphylaxis under the above definition occur commonly. (nap.edu)
- Certain allergens-especially drugs, insect venoms, latex, and foods-may induce an IgE antibody response, causing a generalized release of mediators from mast cells and resulting in systemic anaphylaxis. (blogspot.com)
- Damage caused by the deposit in the tissues of complexes of antigen and their antibodies. (biology-pages.info)
- Although Owens did not use the term immune tolerance, his study showed the body could be tolerant of these foreign tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- This develops through exposure to specific foreign microorganisms, toxins, or foreign tissues, which are "remembered" by the body's immune system. (nyhq.org)
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease of unknown cause, is characterized by a chronic inappropriate immune response in articular joints, resulting in inflammation and destruction of joint tissues. (arthritisresearch.us)
- Later exposure to the same allergen, cross-links the bound IgE on sensitised cells resulting in degranulation and the secretion of pharmacologically active mediators such as histamine, leukotriene, and prostaglandins that act on the surrounding tissues. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- This results in a large mass of aggregates of immune complexes deposited in various tissues, such as the internal elastic lamina of arteries and in perivascular regions. (medscape.com)
- Cells and Tissues of the Immune System T lymphocytes B lymphocytes Macrophages Dendritic cells Natural killer cells T lymphocytes From BM stem cells Maturation in thymus Found 60-70% in blood and T cell zones (paracortical/ parafollicular area) Recognize by peptides presented by MHC of Antigen presenting cells express receptors for chemokines recognizes spec. (scribd.com)
- The lymphatic system is comprised of three interrelated functions: (1) Removal of excess fluids, lymph, from body tissues, (2) Absorption of fatty acids and subsequent transport of fat, chyle, to the circulatory system and (3) Formation of white blood cells (WBCs), and initiation of immunity through the formation of antibodies, lending specific resistance to pathogens. (wikibooks.org)
- 2) Protecting against invasion: Lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues are the site for production of immunocompetent lymphocytes and macrophages in the specific immune response. (scribd.com)
- However, an imbalanced immune system can attack the body's own tissues (auto-immune conditions) and lead to cumulative oxidative stress. (qnorganic.com)
- The resulting immune complexes, if not cleared rapidly, can lodge in various organs and tissues where they can trigger inflammatory conditions. (qnorganic.com)
- When there is a failure of the normal controls on immune responses or an immune response is unduly prolonged, the immune response itself may cause damage to host tissues. (50webs.com)
- Autoantibodies are natural antibodies produced against self-antigens, or 'autoantigens', and can induce the immune system to attack host tissues, leading to a condition generically referred to as autoimmunity. (intechopen.com)
- Deposition of immune complexes in tissues activates neutrophils and triggers the complement system. (mhmedical.com)
- The innate immune response also promotes clearance of dead cells or antibody complexes and removes foreign substances present in organs, tissues, blood and lymph. (biomedcentral.com)
- If not rapidly phagocytosed, complexes can induce serious inflammatory changes in either the tissues (top right) or in the walls of small blood vessels (bottom right), depending on the site of formation. (pediagenosis.com)
- Note that increased vascular permeability plays a preparatory role both for complex deposition in vessels and for exudation of complement and PMN into the tissues, underlining the close links between type I and type III hypersensitivity. (pediagenosis.com)
- This is particularly likely to happen when PMNs attempt to phagocytose complexes that are fixed to other tissues. (pediagenosis.com)
- The leaky gut then allows more antibody-allergen complexes to escape into tissues, which provokes more food allergies. (albertahomeopathicclinic.com)
- Later exposure to the same allergen, cross-links the bound IgE on sensitized cells resulting in degranulation and the secretion of pharmacologically active mediators such as histamine , leukotriene , and prostaglandin that act on the surrounding tissues. (bionity.com)
- After their maturation in the bone marrow, B cells enter peripheral lymphoid tissues, which are the sites of interaction with foreign antigens. (uniba.sk)
- Allergies are a variety of hypersensitivity, a term that refers to an immune response that damages the body's own tissues. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- However, deposition of these complexes in tissues or in vascular endothelium can produce immune complex-mediated tissue injury through activation of the complement cascade, anaphylatoxin generation, chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, phagocytosis, and tissue injury. (blogspot.com)
- can occur in response to minute doses of antigen (allergen cross-links two or more IgE receptors on mast cell surface) but require prior exposure to this antigen → antigen-specific IgE synthesis. (vetstream.com)
- Clinical signs occur within seconds to minutes after exposure to the allergen. (merckvetmanual.com)
- These occur quickly after exposure to the allergen. (biology-pages.info)
- Almost any substance capable ofinducing an immune response is a potential allergen. (50webs.com)
- Development of hypersensitivity to any particular allergen is due to a complex interaction of genetic susceptibility and exposure. (50webs.com)
- When a person is exposed to an allergen for the first time, the body develops molecules called antibodies against the invading proteins. (taxodiary.com)
- When exposed to the allergen again the immune system produces large amounts of antibodies that lead to breakdown of mast cells that contain chemicals like histamine. (taxodiary.com)
- Sometimes sensitization develops as the affected person shows symptoms but never fully develops the antibody to the allergen. (taxodiary.com)
- Upon secondary exposure, the allergen binds to IgE, causes cross-linking, and stimulates the basophils and mast cells to degranulate and release their inflammatory vasoactive mediators-prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamines, and tryptase. (mhmedical.com)
- These are the most delayed of the delayed allergies, often occurring many hours after exposure to an allergen. (essentialhealthsolutions.com)
- Similarly to Type 2 allergies, in Type 4 allergies the allergen binds with the body's own cells which in turn triggers an immune system response. (essentialhealthsolutions.com)
- However the initial exposure to the allergen only activates the immune response. (essentialhealthsolutions.com)
- If the allergen was not consumed anytime in the 3 weeks prior to testing, the immune system may not have had recent enough exposure for IgG antibodies to be present. (albertahomeopathicclinic.com)
- The first and most important step is exposure to an allergen. (worldallergy.org)
- Typically, when the immune system is first exposed to an allergen, a type of antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE) is produced in response. (dunwoodylabs.com)
- The Dunwoody Labs Dietary Antigen and Environmental Allergen Exposure Profiles are the only test on the market that measures both IgG and immune complexes containing the complement fragment complement (C3d), for multiple food antigens and actually reports it. (dunwoodylabs.com)
- Random serum samples were measured for dietary allergen-specific immunoglobulin using the Dietary Antigen and Environmental Allergen Exposure Profiles. (dunwoodylabs.com)
- Dietary Antigen and Environmental Allergen Exposure Profiles are optimized for the for the semi-quantitative measurement of human immunoglobulins IgA, IgE, IgG, IgG4 and IgM in serum samples using an indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). (dunwoodylabs.com)
- This hypersensitivity involves the interaction of the antigen (i.e. foreign substance, or allergen when a person is hypersensitized to it) with immunoglobulin E (IgE, a subclass of antibodies ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- An allergy is a state of over-reactivity or hypersensitivity of the immune system to a particular substance called an allergen . (vcahospitals.com)
- Hypersensitivity diseases can be classified according to (1) the immunologic mechanism involved in pathogenesis, (2) the organ system affected, and (3) the nature and source of the allergen. (blogspot.com)
- Within minutes after exposure to the allergen, a multivalent antigen links adjacent IgE molecules, activating and degranulating mast cells. (blogspot.com)
- The antigens induce injury by causing macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes to produce substances such as proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen compounds. (medscape.com)
- These cells are also recognised by macrophages or dendritic cells which act as antigen presenting cells, this causes a B cell response where antibodies are produced against the foreign antigen. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- In a typical scenario, macrophages process ingested antigens and display recognition fragments on their surfaces. (qnorganic.com)
- B) many cell types (macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells) cause lysis of target cell coated by IgG Poststreptococcal rheumatic fever: molecular mimikri: Antibodies produced against S. pyogenes cross react with various tissue eg. (docplayer.net)
- Numerous cells are involved in the innate immune response such as phagocytes (macrophages and neutrophils), dendritic cells, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, natural killer (NK) cells and lymphocytes (T cells). (biomedcentral.com)
- Fc receptors on macrophages and neutrophils facilitate phagocytosis, and are responsible for the opsonizing effects of antibody. (pediagenosis.com)
- Macrophages lining the liver (Kupffer cells) or spleen sinusoids remove particles from the blood, including large complexes. (pediagenosis.com)
- When complexes bind C1, C4 and C2, C3 is split into a small fragment, C3a, which activates mast cells and basophils, and a larger one, C3b, which pro- motes phagocytosis by attaching to receptors on PMNs and macrophages (CR in figure). (pediagenosis.com)
- and type IV, delayed-type hypersensitivity, which is mediated largely by T lymphocytes and macrophages. (nap.edu)
- Although macrophages pick up the IgG-Ag complexes immediately, they have a finite capacity to do so. (wellnessandnutritionmatters.com)
- If there are a lot of antigens present, the macrophages may saturate their capacity to remove the immune complexes, causing the excess to be deposited in tissue. (wellnessandnutritionmatters.com)
- Four different immune mechanisms can result in allergic responses. (biology-pages.info)
- Because it takes a day or two for the T cells to mobilize following exposure to the antigen, these responses are called delayed-type hypersensitivities ( DTH ). (biology-pages.info)
- It is used to describe the phenomenon underlying discrimination of self from non-self, suppressing allergic responses, allowing chronic infection instead of rejection and elimination, and preventing attack of fetuses by the maternal immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- Cattle were inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , or Mycobacterium kansasii to compare the antigen-specific immune responses to various patterns of mycobacterial disease. (asm.org)
- Specific antibody responses were detected in all M. tuberculosis - and M. bovis -inoculated cattle 3 weeks after inoculation. (asm.org)
- From 6 to 16 weeks after M. tuberculosis inoculation, the antibody responses waned, whereas the responses persisted with M. bovis infection. (asm.org)
- With M. kansasii inoculation, initial early antibody responses waned by 10 weeks after inoculation and then increased 2 weeks after the injection of purified protein derivative for the skin test at 18 weeks after challenge. (asm.org)
- These findings indicate that antibody responses are associated with the antigen burden rather than the pathology, cellular immune responses to tuberculin correlate with infection but not necessarily with the pathology or bacterial burden, and exposure to mycobacterial antigens may elicit an antibody response in a presensitized animal. (asm.org)
- Of particular relevance for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, M. kansasii infection/sensitization may elicit responses to antigens generally considered to be tuberculosis specific, such as ESAT-6, CFP-10, and MPB83 ( 2 , 30 , 35 ). (asm.org)
- The most common are either immediate (Type I) or delayed (Type IV) hypersensitivity responses. (aliquotthesciencespot.com)
- Here we show that targeting of antigen to Fc receptors on DCs accomplishes combined activation of Th1 CD4 and CD8 effector responses in vivo, namely delayed-type hypersensitivity and tumor immunity. (jci.org)
- Tumor protection was eliminated when immune complex-loaded DCs lacked β 2 microglobulin, TAP, or MHC class II, demonstrating that Fc receptor-targeted antigenic uptake led to both MHC class I- and class II-restricted responses, which together are required for effector tumor immunity. (jci.org)
- These data suggest that administration of antitumor antibodies may enhance tumor-specific T cell responses in vivo and provide the rationale for Fc receptor targeting in vaccine development. (jci.org)
- Schuurhuis ( 13 ) has shown that this pathway can induce antigen-specific CD8 responses in vivo, but the physiological relevance and potency of this pathway in effector immunity, including tumor immunity, have not yet been demonstrated. (jci.org)
- The physiological consequences of cellular bound IgG and immune complexes (ICs) are mediated by FcγRs and include immunoregulatory and inflammatory responses. (jci.org)
- Our third line of defense is specific immune responses - T Cells and B Cells. (wikibooks.org)
- Allergic responses can be generally classified as immediate or delayed hypersensitivities. (qnorganic.com)
- It is important to remember that hypersensitivities are all secondary responses. (50webs.com)
- Antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity are seriously impaired, probably because of atrophy of the thymus and the consequent deficiency of helper T cells. (britannica.com)
- While the mechanism underlying T cell failure in this context remains unclear, it is known that normally harmless microorganisms that coevolved with humans can help prevent the body from generating inappropriate immune responses. (britannica.com)
- The terms allergy and hypersensitivity are commonly used to describe inappropriate immune responses that occur when an individual becomes sensitized to harmless substances. (britannica.com)
- There are two kinds of adaptive immune responses. (encyclopedia.com)
- Humoral immune responses are effective against agents that act outside of cells, such as bacteria and toxins. (encyclopedia.com)
- In contrast, cell-mediated immune responses are important in resisting diseases caused by pathogens that live within cells, such as viruses. (encyclopedia.com)
- During cell-mediated responses, immune cells that can destroy infected host cells become active. (encyclopedia.com)
- For example, aged individuals often have attenuated or otherwise impaired immune responses to various bacterial and viral pathogens. (encyclopedia.com)
- Lymphocytes are central to all adaptive immune responses. (encyclopedia.com)
- helper T lymphocytes (Th cells) regulate the immune system, governing the quality and strength of all immune responses. (encyclopedia.com)
- Immune responses can be depressed by various external influences including emotional stress, physical stressors such as inadequate sleep or athletic overtraining, environmental and occupational chemical exposure, UV and other types of radiation, common viral or bacterial infections, certain drug therapies, blood transfusions and surgery. (digitalnaturopath.com)
- a method of immunotherapy for treating diseases and disorders which involve cellular fc receptor mediated immune responses in humans and animals is disclosed. (marocstreetfood.com)
- Re-exposure to antigen (e.g., to a drug bound to a cell) results in more exaggerated effector responses. (clicktocurecancer.info)
- Cross-reactive responses elicited by exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria often confound the interpretation of antemortem tests for Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. (asm.org)
- Instillation of M. kansasii into the tonsillar crypts of calves elicited delayed-type hypersensitivity and in vitro gamma interferon and nitrite concentration responses of leukocytes to M. avium and M. bovis purified protein derivatives (PPDs). (asm.org)
- The assays were applied to diagnosis of cutaneous and inhalational anthrax to evaluate serologic responses in persons considered at risk from anthrax spore exposure and enhance anthrax serologic tests with standardized techniques for distribution to public health and clinical laboratories. (cdc.gov)
- Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known as the key cytokine of innate immune responses and has been described as the "quintessential inflammatory cytokine" ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Accumulating evidence suggests that acute stressors (those lasting minutes to hours) can augment immune responses. (springer.com)
- In contrast, chronic stressors (those lasting weeks to years) are associated with dysregulation of the HPA axis, impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, and adverse health outcomes. (springer.com)
- The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. (mdpi.com)
- These findings underline the importance of the skin barrier in preventing allergic responses and give rise to the concept that the primary defect in E is a failure of skin barrier function allowing abnormally enhanced cutaneous presentation of antigens, allergens and chemicals to the immune system. (worldallergy.org)
- Recent observations have suggested that activation of immune responses may promote atherosclerosis on one hand by inducing and perpetuating arterial inflammation, whereas on the other hand, selective activation of certain immune functions may inhibit atherosclerosis and arterial inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
- These observations suggest the possibility that selective suppression of proatherogenic immune responses or selective activation of antiatherogenic immune responses may provide new approaches for atherosclerosis prevention and treatment. (ahajournals.org)
- Several antigens activating immune responses affecting development of atherosclerosis have been identified. (ahajournals.org)
- These immune responses may be modulated by presenting the antigens together with different types of adjuvants as well as through the route of administration. (ahajournals.org)
- Development of atherosclerosis is influenced by innate and adaptive immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
- Immunomodulatory therapies, such as immunization and immunosuppressive drugs, usually target adaptive immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
- However, the effect of immunization on adaptive immune responses can in turn be modulated by targeting elements of innate immunity, such as the TLRs. (ahajournals.org)
- An antigen binds to the membrane receptors on specific B cells and initiates a series of responses that lead to two principal changes: cell proliferation resulting in expansion of the clone, and differentiation to either plasma cells actively secreting antibodies or to memory cells. (uniba.sk)
- This has led to the development of drugs and other agents which are able to interfere with abnormal or destructive immune responses. (daviddarling.info)
- It is important in infancy, where maternal antibodies protect the child until its own immune responses have matured. (daviddarling.info)
- Studies in human subjects also indicate that exposure to UV-B radiation can suppress the induction of some immune responses and may cause systemic alterations in immune function. (columbia.edu)
- These responses have a genetic basis, but the clinical expression of disease depends on both immunologic responsiveness and antigen exposure. (blogspot.com)
- Any substances that can induce an immune response. (merckvetmanual.com)
- For instance, cadmium ions induce autoantibodies to laminin, chromium and platinum trigger antinuclear antibodies (ANA), copper induces antibodies against red blood cells, lithium is associated with ANA and antithyroid antibodies, gold stimulates the production of ANA with Ro specificity and antiplatelet autoantibodies, and finally silver salts induce antifibrillarin antibodies [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The immune response of the gut of the neonate is less well-developed than in adults, and this relative immune deficiency makes it easier to induce tolerance to orally administered antigens ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Autoantibodies produced against self-antigens, or 'autoantigens', result from a loss of self-tolerance triggered by genetic and/or environmental factors which induce the immune system to attack the host's own cells, resulting in a condition referred to as autoimmunity. (intechopen.com)
- Antigens induce antibody production resulting in circulating antigen-antibody complexes that deposit within postcapillary venules. (visualdx.com)
- Large immune complexes that cannot be cleared are deposited in vessel walls and induce an inflammatory response. (bionity.com)
- The aim of this investigation was to determine whether exposure during the first week of life to antigens from a known diabetes-promoting diet (NIH-07) could modify diabetes incidence and, if so, to what extent this occurs via alterations in systemic T-cell reactivity, gut cytokines, or islet infiltration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The effect of early oral treatment with NIH-07 or PG on systemic T-cell reactivity was evaluated using footpad swelling delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and the popliteal lymph node assay. (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, whereas diabetes-resistant BBc rats developed systemic tolerance to NIH-07 antigens fed chronically, BBdp rats did not. (diabetesjournals.org)
- These antibodies are associated with systemic exposure to bacteria, viruses or other infections. (sacredvesselacupuncture.com)
- Patients with discoid lupus have only skin (not systemic) involvement, and they do not have anti-DS DNA antibodies (an antinuclear antibody frequently present in patients with systemic lupus). (pathologystudent.com)
- However, depending upon the degree of sensitization (IgE antibody formation), and presumably upon the rate with which the antigen enters the circulation, localized or systemic symptoms may not be expressed for minutes or a few hours (Dolovich et al. (nap.edu)
- Classic anaphylactic hypersensitivity is associated with the production of IgE antibodies synthesized by Beta cells upon exposure to appropriate antigen. (vetstream.com)
- Anaphylactic shock occurs in sensitized animals after exposure to antigens in sensitizing vaccines or drugs, ingestion of foods, or insect bites. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Type I, also known as atopic or anaphylactic hypersensitivity, involves IgE antibody, mast cells, and basophils. (britannica.com)
- The term "atopy" is applied to a group of diseases (allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic gastroenteropathy) occurring in persons with an inherited tendency to develop antigen-specific IgE to environmental allergens or food antigens. (blogspot.com)
- The allergic origin of atopic dermatitis is less well understood, but some patients' symptoms can be triggered by exposure to dust mite antigen and ingestion of certain foods. (blogspot.com)
Production of IgE antibodies3
- The first exposure to the antigen induces the production of IgE antibodies (cytotropic antibodies, reagin) that bind to receptors on mast cells and basophils. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Some people respond to environmental antigens (e.g., pollen grains, mold spores) with an unusually vigorous production of IgE antibodies . (biology-pages.info)
- Exposure stimulates the production of IgE antibodies, which bind to mast cells and circulating basophils. (britannica.com)
- Anti-tnf-α monoclonal antibodies - antithrombin iii de- creased demand. (beforelive.me)
- In this review, we address the in vitro methods developed to evaluate how monoclonal antibodies could trigger the immunization process by focusing on the role of aggregated antibodies in the establishment of this response. (frontiersin.org)
- The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of neonatal immune tolerance induction in mice to enable long-term pharmacokinetic studies with immunogenic therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb). (springer.com)
- The IgE has high-affinity binding to the surface receptors of mast cells and basophils via the Fc region of the antibody (homocytotropic, species specific). (vetstream.com)
- These Fc receptors recognise surface bound antibody and complement receptors, that recognise surface bound complement protein. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- Instead of binding to cell surface components, the antibodies recognise and bind to the cell surface receptors, which either prevents the intended ligand binding with the receptor or mimics the effects of the ligand, thus impairing cell signalling. (immunopaedia.org.za)
- Antigen uptake receptors on dendritic cells (DCs) provide efficient entry for the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immunity. (jci.org)
- Thus the cross-presentation pathway accessed by antigens acquired endocytically through Fc receptors links humoral and cellular immunity. (jci.org)
- Yet, endocytosis or phagocytosis of extracellular antigens by antigen uptake receptors is processed primarily by APCs via the exogenous endosomal/lysosomal pathway, which ultimately delivers peptide onto surface MHC class II but not MHC class I molecules. (jci.org)
- Recent observations with in vitro systems ( 10 - 12 ) suggest that uptake of antigen through Fc receptors (FcγRs) may represent an alternative method for cross-presentation. (jci.org)
- Simply put, while billions of different antigen receptors can be made (in terms of antigen-binding specificity), each lymphocyte makes only one kind. (encyclopedia.com)
- The IgE antibodies are fixated on the membrane of basophils and mast cells by the Fc receptors. (mhmedical.com)
- Fc receptors (FcR) A family of receptors found at the surface of many cell types that bind to the constant (known historically as the Fc) region of antibodies (see Fig. 14). (pediagenosis.com)
- It involves a stochastic rearrangement process in immunoblasts, leading to generation of a large number of T and B cell receptors and immunoglobulins, which can recognize foreign antigens. (ahajournals.org)
- The antibodies impart immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Not only does the immune system provide protection from infection through natural barriers, but it also adapts itself to provide immunity against infection by "remembering" the infectious microorganism from a previous exposure. (nyhq.org)
- The degree and duration of immunity depend on the type and amount of antigen and how it enters the body. (nyhq.org)
- Another type of natural immunity is in the form of antibodies passed on from mother to child. (nyhq.org)
- Tumor immunity specific for ovalbumin-expressing tumors was provided by immunization with wild-type but not FcγRγ -/- DCs loaded with ovalbumin-containing immune complexes. (jci.org)
- Genetic evidence in humans ( 15 ) and mice ( 16 , 17 ) supports a general requirement for FcγR engagement for the efficacy of antitumor antibodies in vivo, implicating Fc-dependent effector cell ADCC as a common mechanism underlying tumor-specific humoral immunity. (jci.org)
- However, a requirement for CD8 cellular cytotoxicity for the efficacy of an antitumor mAb ( 18 ) suggests that in addition to mediating ADCC, FcγR-mediated enhancement of antigen presentation may also contribute to tumor immunity. (jci.org)
- Antibodies) Can be: cellular or humoral immunity 1. (scribd.com)
- The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of some recent studies, that include aspects concerning innate immunity, on our understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases associated with exposure to inhaled microbial matter. (ijbs.com)
- The immune system consists of two branches, cellular immunity and humoral immunity. (qnorganic.com)
- In contrast to innate mechanisms that hinder the entrance and initial spread of disease, adaptive immunity is more selective in its activity, and upon repeated exposures to pathogens can often prevent disease. (encyclopedia.com)
- In basic terms, the immune system has two lines of defense: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Innate immunity is the first immunological, non-specific (antigen-independent) mechanism for fighting against an intruding pathogen. (biomedcentral.com)
- The immune system can be simplistically viewed as having two "lines of defense": innate immunity and adaptive immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Adaptive immunity which can also be calledacquired resistance to infection is an antigen-specific type of immunity that is an acquired ability of a host immune system to recognize and destroy specific microbes, their products and other foreign bodies that invade the body. (microbiologyclass.com)
- Immunity is the system of defense in the body which gives protection against foreign materials, specifically infectious microorganisms - bacteria , viruses , parasites , and their products (see also immune system ). (daviddarling.info)
- once immunity has been thus primed, the easy and rapid availability of antibody protects against further infection. (daviddarling.info)
- Immune deficiency diseases, although rare, have provided models for the separate parts of the immune system, and have led to methods of replacement of absent components of immunity. (daviddarling.info)
- Passive immunity is the transfer of antibody-rich substances from an immune subject to a non-immune subject who is susceptible to disease. (daviddarling.info)
- The lymphatic system and the immune system are terms that are used interchangeably to refer to the body's ability to defend against pathogens. (wikibooks.org)
- The body's immune system is designed to recognize any sign of cellular injury and act promptly to mitigate the damage. (pterrywave.com)
- CD is considered an autoimmune disorder because the body's own immune system causes the damage. (digitalnaturopath.com)
- Alterations of the mast cell or basophil cell membrane by the signal from the antigen-antibody interaction triggers a cell-associated enzyme cascade. (vetstream.com)
- Indeed, genetics play a role in determining an individual's susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), celiac disease, cancer or other complex disorders, but it is the environment that triggers the genes, which culminates in the disorder. (autismone.org)
- A single trigger, or a combination of triggers can set into motion a biomolecular destructive cascade that ends in gut, immune and neurological dysfunction. (autismone.org)
- Aeroallergens such as pollens, mold spores, animal danders, and house dust mite antigen are common triggers for allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and allergic asthma. (blogspot.com)
- [ 2 ] The clinical features and natural history are akin to hypersensitivity pneumonitis of other causes. (medscape.com)
- The clinical presentation may vary, differentiating the chronic (exposure to lower concentrations of the antigen over a longer period time) and the acute forms (after exposure to high concentrations of the antigen). (archbronconeumol.org)
- Allergic rhinitis is the most common immune mediated clinical entity. (50webs.com)
- Establishment of autoantibod- ies can be repeated exposure to form a clinical state. (beforelive.me)
- Other antibody subclasses can → similar activation but are less significant because of their low-affinity binding to mast cells and basophils. (vetstream.com)
- Type I (called also immediate hypersensitivity) involves cell-fixed antibody, mainly IgE attached to mast cells or basophils. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These manifestations are driven by active mediators, including histamines, released by antigen-IgE stimulated basophils and mast cells, which cause smooth muscle contraction, vascular permeability, and leukocyte and platelet aggregation. (mhmedical.com)
- Release of mediators depends typically upon the interaction of antigen with specific antibodies of the IgE class that are bound to the mast cells and basophils. (nap.edu)
- Allergies and hypersensitivity to certain substances are considered immune system disorders. (nyhq.org)
- Food allergies have been linked to a range of auto immune conditions, rheumatoid arthritis, for example.1 Detecting food allergies can be perplexing. (qnorganic.com)
- Nutritional support for those with allergies \nProduct #6340 Technical Support \nThe Immune System The immune system normally discriminates between "self" and "non-self" foreign substances. (qnorganic.com)
- A weak or deficient immune system can lead to dysfunctions such as autoimmune diseases (including allergies ) and tumor growth. (digitalnaturopath.com)
- Most allergies are found in type I hypersensitivity. (taxodiary.com)
- TWL usually involves inhalation of an antigen , particularly organic ones. (medscape.com)
- Screening for CD involves testing asymptomatic people for the antibodies to gluten/gliadin. (digitalnaturopath.com)
- Another agglutination method involves latex agglutination that is used to determine, i.e. rheumatoid factor (diagnosis of autoimmune diseases) and hemagglutination method that can be used in, i.e. antibodies screening against Treponema pallidum, the main cause of syphilis. (uniba.sk)
- The B lymphocyte's antigen receptor is a membrane-bound version of the antibody it will secrete if activated. (encyclopedia.com)
- The immune complex is the bound form of an antibody and an antigen. (taxodiary.com)
- This results in activation of the complement cascade and the destruction of the cell to which the antigen is bound. (blogspot.com)
Dependent Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity1
- Vaccinations, eg second exposure to foreign antigenic protein. (vetstream.com)
- Allergic disease initiated by chemicals is becoming better are more frequently attributed to protein exposure, there understood, as evidenced by the increasing number of is increasing evidence that certain chemicals can produce reports in the medical literature of agents capable of allergic disease for each of the four types of allergic inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic dermatitis. (cdc.gov)
- In countries where the diet, especially that of growing children, is grossly deficient in protein, severe malnutrition ranks as an important cause of immune deficiency. (britannica.com)
- Excessive fat, alcohol or refined sugar consumption or inadequate protein , calorie, vitamin, mineral or water intake fosters decreased immune performance as well. (digitalnaturopath.com)
- Immune complex diseases encompass a understanding the integration of these systems has led to our current conceptual framework of immune complex‐mediated more specifically, the present invention relates to treatment of immune complex-mediated renal disease using c-reactive protein (crp). (marocstreetfood.com)
- The former effect is caused by ADA binding to the epitopes on the therapeutic protein that are essential for biological activity (so-called neutralizing antibodies), while all ADA, both neutralizing and non-neutralizing, may change clearance of the therapeutic protein. (springer.com)
- Such change in clearance alters the exposure to the therapeutic protein and thus its efficacy. (springer.com)
- Immunoblotting is a qualitative method based on protein separation in gel following by their transfer from the gel to the membrane and protein detection by enzyme-labelled antibodies. (uniba.sk)
- Tobacco worker's lung (TWL) is one disease in the group of parenchymal lung diseases categorized as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (United States) or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (Britain). (medscape.com)
- 2001. Hypersensitivity diseases. (radiopaedia.org)
- When the immune system does not function properly, it leaves the body susceptible to an array of diseases. (nyhq.org)
- Autoimmune diseases result from perturbation of the immune system either. (arthritisresearch.us)
- Using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), based upon HPV virus-like particles synthesized by the expression of HPV late genes in recombinant vectors, antibodies reactive to the virus capsid have been found in a proportion of patients with HPV infections and HPV-related diseases. (inchem.org)
- Immune deficiencies are also attributed to acquired infections or diseases that target the immune system , such as AIDS , while others, particularly primary immunodeficiency diseases, are often due to genetic abnormalities. (digitalnaturopath.com)
- Chronic and acute mobilization of immune defenses, induced by a variety of diseases and conditions, places undue stress on the immune system , weakening its capacity to deal effectively with infectious organisms and other immunological requirements elsewhere in the body. (digitalnaturopath.com)
- igg mediated immune complex disease learn about the veterinary topic of disorders involving immune complexes immune complex disorders are among the most common immune-mediated diseases. (marocstreetfood.com)
- 20/11/2018 · objective immune complexes (ics) play a critical role in the pathology of autoimmune diseases. (marocstreetfood.com)
- a., examples of immune complex diseases includes malaria, viral hepatitis and autoimmune diseases. (marocstreetfood.com)
- learn antibody-mediated diseases of an underlying primary autoimmune disease immune complex. (marocstreetfood.com)
- Start studying immune complex diseases. (marocstreetfood.com)
- Understanding mechanisms of action responsible for the development of complex diseases including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. (autismone.org)
- In 1994, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recognized that, although strategies were available to reduce the frequency of opportunistic infections in patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, information regarding prevention of both exposure and disease often was published in journals not regularly reviewed by health-care providers. (cdc.gov)
- Iatrogenic causes of immunodeficiency might be secondary to other diseases, such as cancers, or could relate to treatments that suppress the normal function of the immune system, such as chemotherapy or radiation. (informit.com)
- Agglutination and precipitation belong to classical serological methods that are used in diagnosis of infectious diseases (antibodies screening), serotyping of microorganisms and human blood group typing. (uniba.sk)
- The importance of these immune effects for infectious diseases in humans in unknown. (columbia.edu)
- However, in areas of the world where infectious diseases already pose a significant challenge to human health, and in persons with impaired immune function, the added insult of UV-B-induced immune suppression could be significant. (columbia.edu)
- What does subsequent exposure to a specific antigen lead? (brainscape.com)
- Usually IgE is transiently produced and subsequent interactions with the same antigen → formation of IgG antigen complexes that promote basophil degranulation and the release of histamine. (vetstream.com)
- Antibodies are then formed against the antigen, creating a hypersensitivity to subsequent exposures to the drug. (aliquotthesciencespot.com)
- Subsequent developments have altered the structure of murine antibodies so that they more closely resemble human antibodies in order to reduce immunogenicity. (arthritisresearch.us)
- The antigens recognised in this way may either be intrinsic ("self" antigen, innately part of the patient's cells) or extrinsic (absorbed onto the cells during exposure to some foreign antigen, possibly as part of infection with a pathogen). (immunopaedia.org.za)
- Here, cells exhibiting the foreign antigen are tagged with antibodies (IgG or IgM). (immunopaedia.org.za)
- Oral exposure to diabetes-promoting food antigens or LPS downregulated the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and decreased the IFN-γ/TGF-β ratio. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Thus, oral exposure to diabetes-promoting food antigens and immune modulators in neonates can modify diabetes expression in association with changes in local cytokine balance in the gut. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is a form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) caused by inhaling microorganisms from hay or grain stored in conditions of high humidity in the agricultural workplace. (archbronconeumol.org)
- Antigens may be contained within or on bacteria, viruses, other microorganisms, or cancer cells. (merckvetmanual.com)