Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Boronic Acids: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.PyrazinesReceptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Heredity: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Sweat: The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells: Mononuclear leukocytes that have been expanded in CELL CULTURE and activated with CYTOKINES such as INTERLEUKIN-2 to produce large numbers of highly cytotoxic cells.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Receptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.PrPC Proteins: Normal cellular isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) encoded by a chromosomal gene and found in normal and scrapie-infected brain tissue, and other normal tissue. PrPC are protease-sensitive proteins whose function is unknown. Posttranslational modification of PrPC into PrPSC leads to infectivity.Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Prion Diseases: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)PrPSc Proteins: Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).Scrapie: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Endopeptidase K: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of keratin, and of other proteins with subtilisin-like specificity. It hydrolyses peptide amides. Endopeptidase K is from the mold Tritirachium album Limber. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.21.64.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive: A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)Neuroectodermal Tumors: Malignant neoplasms arising in the neuroectoderm, the portion of the ectoderm of the early embryo that gives rise to the central and peripheral nervous systems, including some glial cells.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral: A group of highly cellular primitive round cell neoplasms which occur extracranially in soft tissue and bone and are derived from embryonal neural crest cells. These tumors occur primarily in children and adolescents and share a number of characteristics with EWING SARCOMA.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic: A spectrum of disorders characterized by clonal expansions of the peripheral blood LYMPHOCYTE populations known as large granular lymphocytes which contain abundant cytoplasm and azurophilic granules. Subtypes develop from either CD3-negative NATURAL KILLER CELLS or CD3-positive T-CELLS. The clinical course of both subtypes can vary from spontaneous regression to progressive, malignant disease.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.

*Cytokine-induced killer cell

Cytokine-induced killer cells or CIK cells are a group of immune effector cells featuring a mixed T- and natural killer (NK) ... presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. However, CIK cells have the ... of CIK cells by the National Cancer Institute Natural killer cell Natural killer T cell Lymphokine-activated killer cell ... CIK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells or LAK cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells and LAK cells ...

*Cell-mediated immunity

T-cell mediated immunity or T-cell immunity : activating antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells that are able to induce apoptosis ... and stimulating cells to secrete a variety of cytokines that influence the function of other cells involved in adaptive immune ... cells with intracellular bacteria, and cancer cells displaying tumor antigens; activating macrophages and natural killer cells ... CD4 cells or helper T cells provide protection against different pathogens. Naive T cells, mature T cells that have yet to ...

*Immunoediting

For the innate immune response, several effector cells such as natural killer cells and T cells are activated by the ... Cells contained in tumor microenvironment are able to produce cytokines which can cause apoptosis of activated T lymphocyte. ... "Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: A potential mechanism of immune evasion". Nature Medicine. doi:10.1038/nm730 ... TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligands (TRAILs), and reactive oxygen species. Most of the tumor cells are destroyed in this ...

*Natural killer cell

... use an alternate pathway to induce apoptosis in infected cells. Natural killer cell activation is determined by the balance of ... Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine ... Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells ... NK cells are thought to be an important cell type in this process. These cells are known as "uterine NK cells" (uNK cells) and ...

*Toll-like receptor

... the infected cell may shut off its protein synthesis and may undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). Immune cells that have ... Flagellin, a TLR5 ligand induces cytokine secretion on interacting with TLR5 on human T cells. TLRs are a type of pattern ... natural killer cells, cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial ... within the cytosol of the immune cell in order to propagate the antigen-induced signal transduction pathway. These recruited ...

*Necrosis

... activated natural killer cells; and peritoneal macrophages. Pathogen-induced necrosis programs in cells with immunological ... usually cause cells to undergo apoptosis. In adaptation to higher tendency of cell death, blind mole rats evolved a mutation in ... The body's immune response to apoptosis, which involves the automatic breaking down and recycling of cellular material, is not ... Pathological conditions are characterized by inadequate secretion of cytokines. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species ( ...

*Specialized pro-resolving mediators

... stimulates Natural killer T cell lymphocytes to induce apoptosis in the neutrophils and eosinophil of inflamed tissues; and ... Microglia cells: inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by this central nervous system type of macrophage. Mast ... thereby contributing to the dampening adaptive immune responses in T helper 17 cells; ... gamma delta T cells, and Natural killer T cells. The cited cells then proceeded to neutralize invading organisms, limit tissue ...

*Immune system

... induces the target cell to undergo apoptosis. T cell killing of host cells is particularly important in preventing the ... Cytokine signals produced by helper T cells enhance the microbicidal function of macrophages and the activity of killer T cells ... As with B cells, each type of T cell recognizes a different antigen. Killer T cells are activated when their T-cell receptor ( ... This allows killer T cells to recognize the tumor cell as abnormal. NK cells also kill tumorous cells in a similar way, ...

*Transplant rejection

Rejection is an adaptive immune response via cellular immunity (mediated by killer T cells inducing apoptosis of target cells) ... The memory helper T cell subsequently produces clones that, as effector cells, secrete immune signalling molecules (cytokines) ... of the killer T cells recognize their matching epitope, and trigger the target cell's programmed cell death by apoptosis. ... Lymphocytes of specific immunity T cells-including the subclasses helper T cells and killer T cells-and B cells. The ...

*Adaptive immune system

Cytotoxic T cells (also known as TC, killer T cell, or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)) are a sub-group of T cells that induce the ... CTL release granzyme, a serine protease that enters cells via pores to induce apoptosis (cell death). To limit extensive tissue ... Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses limit malaria parasite multiplication, and many cytokines contribute to the ... B cells play a large role in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are intimately involved in cell-mediated immune ...

*Cancer immunotherapy

Cell types that can be used in this way are natural killer cells, lymphokine-activated killer cells, cytotoxic T cells and ... generally induced by apoptosis but sometimes by autophagy. Interleukins have an array of immune system effects. Interleukin-2 ... Cytokines are proteins produced by many types of cells present within a tumor. They can modulate immune responses. The tumor ... Fc receptors are found on many immune system cells, including natural killer cells. When natural killer cells encounter ...

*Macrophage-activating factor

IFNγ signaling can initially originate from Natural Killer (NK) cells, but adaptive immune cells are required to sustain a ... 2013). "IFN-γ-induced iNOS Expression in Mouse Regulatory Macrophages Prolongs Allograft Survival in Fully Immunocompetent ... Regulatory macrophages produce Interleukin 10, which can inhibit cytotoxic responses of other lymphocytes to cancer cell ... Examples include heat shock proteins released during apoptosis, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Interferon-gamma Interleukin ...

*Interferon

... whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T ... IFNs also have various other functions: they activate immune cells, such as natural killer cells and macrophages; they increase ... A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can prepare neighboring ... They also limit viral spread by increasing p53 activity, which kills virus-infected cells by promoting apoptosis. The effect of ...

*Innate immune system

T cell subsets bearing invariant T cell receptors (TCRs), such as CD1d-restricted Natural Killer T cells, γδ T cells exhibit ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... called cytokines. The phagocytic cells of the immune system include macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. Phagocytosis ... Both pathways converge in the recruitment and activation of the IKKε/TBK-1 complex, inducing dimerization of transcription ...

*Macrophage

... s are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... NF-κB then enters the nucleus of a tumor cell and turns on production of proteins that stop apoptosis and promote cell ... and those that turn off damaging immune system activation by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-10. M2 is the ... Typhoidal Salmonellae induce their own phagocytosis by host macrophages in vivo, and inhibit digestion by lysosomal action, ...

*Phagocyte

Dying cells that undergo the final stages of apoptosis display molecules, such as phosphatidylserine, on their cell surface to ... In addition to these functions, mast cells produce cytokines that induce an inflammatory response. This is a vital part of the ... The source of interferon-gamma can be CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, ... Mast cells have Toll-like receptors and interact with dendritic cells, B cells, and T cells to help mediate adaptive immune ...

*Xenotransplantation

... stimulated by CD4+ T cells) and NK cells (stimulated by the release of Il-2). Thus, the role of MHC molecules and T cell ... Fibrosis in the xenograft occurs as a result of immune reactions, cytokines (which stimulate fibroblasts), or healing ( ... Cellular rejection is based on cellular immunity, and is mediated by: Natural killer cells, which accumulate in and damage the ... Studies have also shown that some porcine transplant cells are able to induce human tissue factor expression, thus stimulating ...

*TLR9

... is an important receptor expressed in immune system cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, ... Many viruses take advantage of this relationship by inducing certain TLR9 expression patterns to first infect the cell (down- ... TLR9 signals leads to activation of the cells initiating pro-inflammatory reactions that result in the production of cytokines ... Autoimmune diseases can also be triggered by activated cells undergoing apoptosis and being engulfed by antigen presenting ...

*Gluten immunochemistry

31-55 shows the ability to activate undifferentiated immune cells that then proliferate and also produce inflammatory cytokines ... IL-15 appears to induce increases in MICA and NKG2D that may increase brush-border cell killing. In addition, innate immunity ... Lymphocytes attracted by IL-15 are composed of markers enriched on natural killer cells versus normal helper T-cells. One ... The HLA-A antigens can mediate apoptosis in autoimmune disease and HLA A*0201 in with the HLA-DQ8 haplotypes has been ...

*Alloimmunity

It recognizes target cells by "missing-self strategy" and induces their apoptosis by enzymes perforin and granzymes released ... Receptors of KIR (Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) family bind concrete MHC class I molecules. If the graft has these ... Cytokine microenvironment where CD4+ T-lymphocytes recognize alloantigens significantly influences polarization of the immune ... B-lymphocytes, NK cells and cytokines also play a role in it. Cellular rejection - CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, NK cells ...

*Tumor microenvironment

... also suppresses the immune response. The TME can limit T cell viability. Both IDO and PD-L1 may induce T cell apoptosis. ... turn off the normal cytotoxic response of natural killer cells (NK cells). This suggests that cancer cells actively work to ... TAMs have been induced in vitro by exposing macrophage progenitors to different immune regulatory cytokines, such as ... and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Ppp2r2d is a key regulator promoting T cell apoptosis and suppressing T cell ...

*Cytotoxic T cell

However, CD8+ T cells also have the ability to make some cytokines. The immune system must recognize millions of potential ... programmed cell death). A second way to induce apoptosis is via cell-surface interaction between the TC and the infected cell. ... cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells ... these T cells are called CD8+ T cells. The affinity between CD8 and the MHC molecule keeps the TC cell and the target cell ...

*Fc receptor

... natural killer cells) or adaptive immune system (e.g., B cells). They allow these cells to bind to antibodies that are attached ... "Divergent signal transduction pathways and effects on natural killer cell functions induced by interaction of Fc receptors with ... Activation of FcγRIII by IgG causes the release of cytokines such as IFN-γ that signal to other immune cells, and cytotoxic ... mediators like perforin and granzyme that enter the target cell and promote cell death by triggering apoptosis. This process is ...

*Lipoarabinomannan

It activates natural killer cells which produce IFN-γ to activate macrophages. By impairing the function of these two molecules ... 2008). "Inhibition of apoptosis, activation of NKT cell and upregulation of CD40 and CD40L mediated by M. leprae antigen(s) ... In addition to stimulation of early genes such as c-fos, KC, and JE, AraLAM induces transcription of the mRNA for cytokines ( ... This allows the bacterium maintain survival in the human reservoir by undermining host resistance and acquired immune responses ...

*Yersinia pestis

... cells and prevent YopB/D-induced rupture of host cells and release of cell contents that would attract and stimulate immune ... Park H, Teja K, O'Shea JJ, Siegel RM (May 2007). "The Yersinia effector protein YpkA induces apoptosis independently of actin ... hindering the body to bring phagocytic cells to the area of infection. Y. pestis is a versatile killer. In addition to rodents ... by preventing the release of some cytokines). Y. pestis proliferates inside lymph nodes, where it is able to avoid destruction ...

*Rituximab

It downregulates the B cell receptor. It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells. The combined effect results in the elimination of B ... The presence of the cap changed the effectiveness of natural killer (NK) cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell ... which is primarily found on the surface of immune system B cells. When it binds to this protein it triggers cell death. ... Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erratum. T2 - Human astrocytes are resistant to fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis (Journal of Neuroscience (March 22, 2006) (3299-3308)). AU - Song, Jin H.. AU - Bellail, Anita. AU - Tse, Margaret C.L.. AU - Yong, V. Wee. AU - Hao, Chunhai. PY - 2006/9/7. Y1 - 2006/9/7. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33748132489&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33748132489&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:33748132489. VL - 26. JO - Journal of Neuroscience. JF - Journal of Neuroscience. SN - 0270-6474. IS - 18. ER - ...
Elders, R C and Baines, S J and Catchpole, B (2009) Susceptibility of the C2 canine mastocytoma cell line to the effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY, 130 (1-2). pp. 11-16. ...
Tu, S. P., Sun, Y. W., Cui, J. T., Zou, B., Lin, M. C. M., Gu, Q., Jiang, S. H., Kung, H. F., Korneluk, R. G. and Wong, B. C. Y. (2010), Tumor suppressor XIAP-Associated factor 1 (XAF1) cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to suppress colon cancer growth and trigger tumor regression. Cancer, 116: 1252-1263. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24814 ...
Insufficient natural killer cell responses against retroviruses: how to improve NK cell killing of retrovirus-infected cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Sharma, S D.; Tsai, V; and Proffitt, M R., "Enhancement of mouse natural killer cell activity by thyroxine." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1180 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stage-dependent gene expression profiles during natural killer cell development. AU - Kang, Hyung Sik. AU - Kim, Eun Mi. AU - Lee, Sanggyu. AU - Yoon, Suk Ran. AU - Kawamura, Toshihiko. AU - Lee, Young Cheol. AU - Kim, Sangsoo. AU - Myung, Pyung Keun. AU - San, Ming Wang. AU - Choi, Inpyo. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Natural killer (NK) cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow. To understand the molecular regulation of NK cell development, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was applied to HSCs, NK precursor (pNK) cells, and mature NK cells (mNK) cultured without or with OP9 stromal cells. From 170,464 total individual tags from four SAGE libraries, 35,385 unique genes were identified. A set of genes was expressed in a stage-specific manner: 15 genes in HSCs, 30 genes in pNK cells, ...
Background Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), also called Apo-2 ligand, is a member of the TNF family that has been reported to induce apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines, as well as in normal human hepatocytes in vitro. Among the family members, TRAIL displays highest homology to CD95 ligand, receptor of which may not only mediate apoptosis of T cells, but also mediate the proliferation of normal human fibroblasts. Considering structural and functional similarities between TRAIL and CD95 ligand, we examined the effects of soluble TRAIL on normal human lung fibroblasts. Collagen a2(I) mRNA expression in fibroblasts was measured by RT-PCR, with ribosomal protein S9 as an internal standard. Normalised collagen mRNA expression was increased in fibroblasts stimulated with TRAIL for 1 or 7 days, with peak response (, 5-fold increase) at 10 ng/ml TRAIL. The increased expression of ...
CHAPTER 85 FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS Williams Hematology CHAPTER 85 FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS GIORGIO TRINCHIERI LEWIS L. LANIER Identification and Definition of Natural Killer Cells Definition Morphology Origin and Tissue Distribution Mechanisms of Natural Killer Cell Functions Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Production of Cytokines Physiologic Roles of Natural Killer Cells Natural Resistance Regulation of…
TRAIL plays an important role in host immunosurveillance against tumor progression, as it induces apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells, and thus has great therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. TRAIL binds to two cell-death-inducing (DR4 and DR5) and two decoy (DcR1, and DcR2) receptors. Here, we compare the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in normal oral mucosa (NOM), oral premalignancies (OPM), and primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in order to characterize the changes in their expression patterns during OSCC initiation and progression. DNA microarray, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the expression levels of TRAIL and its receptors in oral epithelial cell lines and in archival tissues of NOM, OPM, primary and metastatic OSCC. Apoptotic rates of tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in ...
Now, results from a new study carried out using a mouse model, show that modified cells called "super natural killer cells" are able to seek out cancer cells in lymph nodes to destroy them, thus halting the process of metastasis. Michael King, senior author of the study, said in a press release: "We want to see lymph node metastasis become a thing of the past.". The super natural killer cells find the cancerous cells in the lymph nodes and induce apoptosis - in other words, the cancer cells self-destruct and disintegrate, thus averting their further lymphatic spread. But what are these super natural killer cells? They are a modified version of the so-called natural killer cells - or NK cells for short.. NK cells are a type of lymphocytes that play a major ...
This sensitivity allows natural killer cells to vigorously initiate natural killer cytotoxicity (by emptying granules of porforin and granzyme) and inflammation as soon as pathogenesis is detected, and is essential to protection against viruses and tumors. Natural killer cells have genomic (not needed recombination, or RAG-independent) cell surface receptors which recognize classical Class I MHC molecules (and structural relatives like MICA, RAE-1 and H-60).. Natural killer cells lack TcRs, CD4s and CD8; instead, they have: cell-surface activating receptors, which bind noncovalently to molecules with ITAMs; and on the cytoplasmic side, inhibitory receptors with ITIM(s) which -- upon phosphorylation -- recruit and activate SHP-1 & -2, which inhibit the activating receptors. The balance between activating signals and inhibitory signals is what determines ...
SY13-01 The cell surface receptors for Tumor Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) are expressed on a majority of human tumor cells. Binding of agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or the ligand TRAIL, to either functional death receptor, TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2, rapidly induces the activation of a protease-mediated signaling cascade that culminates in programmed cell death. The predominantly tumor-restricted pattern of receptor expression and the ability to induce tumor cell death with receptor agonists make the TRAIL-R pathway an attractive target for cancer therapeutic agents.. We have developed fully human, IgG1, monoclonal antibodies, mapatumumab and lexatumumab, that specifically bind either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2, respectively and activate the apoptotic pathway in tumor cells. Preclinical evaluation of these agonistic TRAIL-R mAbs demonstrated rapid activation of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monocyte- and natural killer cell-mediated spontaneous cytotoxicity against human noncultured solid tumor cells. AU - Itoh, Kyogo. AU - Platsoucas, Chris D.. AU - Balch, Charles M.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Unstimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors exhibited spontaneous cytotoxicity against noncultured solid tumor targets in a 12- to 24-hr 51Cr release or 111In release assay. Both purified monocytes (, 99% monocytes) and natural killer (NK)-enriched lymphocytes exhibited comparable levels of spontaneous cytotoxicity against fresh melanoma tumor targets. This cytotoxicity was observed under endotoxin-free conditions. NK-depleted lymphocytes did not lyse the melanoma targets. Culture supernatants of monocytes incubated with the melanoma tumor cells did not exhibit cytotoxic activity against these targets. Purified monocytes lacked NK activity against the K562 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of CD94 and 56bright on Natural Killer Lymphocytes - the Influence of Exercise. AU - Horn, Peggy. AU - Leeman, K. AU - Gore, Christopher. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. M3 - Article. VL - 23. SP - 595. EP - 599. JO - International Journal of Sports Medicine. JF - International Journal of Sports Medicine. SN - 0172-4622. IS - 8. ER - ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of Cord Blood Natural Killer and Lymphokine Activated Killer Lymphocytes Following Ex Vivo Cellular Engineering. AU - Ayello, Janet. AU - van de Ven, Carmella. AU - Fortino, Weiwei. AU - Wade-Harris, Cheryl. AU - Satwani, Prakash. AU - Baxi, Laxmi. AU - Simpson, Lynn L.. AU - Sanger, Warren G. AU - Pickering, Diana. AU - Kurtzberg, Joanne. AU - Cairo, Mitchell S.. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - Cord blood (CB) natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cytotoxic cells are poorly characterized but might be used to treat minimal residual and/or recurrent malignant disease. Currently, there is no mechanism to use CB for adoptive cancer cellular immunotherapy after CB transplantation (CBT). Recognizing this as a deficiency, we hypothesized that CB aliquots could be engineered ex vivo for potential donor lymphocyte infusion after CBT. ...
Natural Killer Cells are the most aggressive white cells in the immune system. They make up about 5% to 15% of the total lymphocyte circulating population. They target tumor cell and protect against a wide variety of infectious microbes. Natural Killer Cells are a very important factor in the fight against cancer. Immune Stimulation is the key to keeping the white blood cell count high and giving the Natural Killer Cells a chance to fight cancer and other diseases.. ...
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor agonists are attractive anti-tumor agents because of their capability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells by activating death receptors (DR) 4 and 5 with little toxicity against normal cells. Despite an attractive mechanism of action, previous clinical efforts to use TRAIL receptor agonists have been unsuccessful. In this study, we examined MEDI3039, a highly potent multivalent DR5 agonist, in breast cancer cell lines and in vivo models. As in vitro model systems, we used 19 breast cancer cell lines that are categorized into four subtypes: ER+, HER2 amplified, basal A (triple-negative breast cancer) TNBC, and basal B TNBC. Cell viability was analyzed by MTS and RealTime live/dead assays. As in vivo model systems, MDA-MB231T orthotopic primary tumor growth in the mammary fat pad (MFP) and two experimental lung metastasis models were used. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic polymorphism analysis of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in the Chinese Uygur population. AU - Wang, Hong Dan. AU - Zhu, Bo Feng. AU - Shen, Chun Mei. AU - Yuan, Guo Lian. AU - Yang, Guang. AU - Guo, Juan Ning. AU - Yan, Jiang Wei. AU - Qin, Hai Xia. AU - Guo, Jian Xin. AU - Zhang, Li Ping. AU - Jia, Xiao Qin. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - Abstract Human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors are expressed in natural killer cells and subsets of T lymphocytes. They regulate these cells upon interaction with human leukocyte antigen class I molecules and other ligands presented by target cells. KIR gene frequencies and haplotype distributions have been shown to differ significantly between populations from different geographical regions and ethnic origins, which relates to functional variations in the ...
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance of many cancers. We evaluated the role of peroxiredoxin (Prx) I in TRAIL resistance governed by coupling of nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox)-derived ROS signaling with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/caspase-signaling cascade in liver cancer cells. Upregulated Prx I expression was found in neoplastic regions of human patient liver, and Prx I knockdown resulted in accelerated TRAIL-induced cell death in SK-Hep-1 human hepatoma cells. The TRAIL cytotoxicity by Prx I knockdown was dependent on activation of caspase-8/3 cascades, which was ablated by addition of inhibitors for p38 MAPK, ROS or Nox, suggesting the association with Nox-driven redox signaling. Furthermore, we found that Nox4 was constitutively expressed in both SK-Hep-1 ...
Background: Although there is convincing data in support of the effectiveness of hyperthermia in tumor therapy, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of hyperthermia are still poorly understood. Objective: To investigate natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity against heat-treated SW-872 and HeLa tumor cell lines. Methods: NKG2D ligands and HLA class I transcription were examined using quantitative real-time PCR in treated tumor cell lines at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h following thermal treatment at 39C and 42C for 1 h. The expression of MICA/B, ULBP1 and ULBP2 were also determined by flow cytometry. NK92-MI cytotoxic activity against heat-treated target cell lines was assessed by LDH release as well as annexin-V and 7-AAD assays. Results: Our results showed that heat treatment at 39C improved the cytolytic activity of NK cells against SW-872 cells without increasing NKG2D ...
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a tumor necrosis factor superfamily member, targets death receptors and selectively kills malignant cells while leaving normal cells unaffected. However, unlike most cancers, many osteosarcomas are resistant to TRAIL. To investigate this resistance, we characterized the response of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and hPOB-tert osteoblast-like cells to TRAIL and agonist antibodies to death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5). We found that MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and hPOB-tert osteoblast-like cells show no or very little response to TRAIL or a DR4 agonist, but MG-63 cells undergo apoptosis in response to a DR5 agonist. Analysis of TRAIL receptor expression showed that normal osteoblastic and osteosarcoma cells express a variety of TRAIL receptors but this does not correlate to ...
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL1-mediated recognition of human leukocyte antigen B.: Members of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)
Polymorphisms in cell surface receptors of natural killer cells and their ligands on target cells can affect susceptibility to viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. We found that the carriage of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G minus 14-bp polymorphism, LILRB1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1061680, and activating and inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) were different when data were compared between Caucasian, African Americans and Asian populations. However, carriage was similar when HIV-1 patients were compared with control donors, with the exception of the African American cohort.. ...
NK cells are the first line of defense against infected and transformed cells. Defective NK cell activity was shown to increase susceptibility for viral infections and reduce tumor immune-surveillance. With age, the incidence of infectious diseases and malignancy rises dramatically, suggesting that impaired NK cell function might contribute to disease in these individuals. We found an increased frequency of NK cells with high expression of the inhibitory killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) in individuals |70 y. The role of KLRG1 in ageing is not known, and the mechanism of KLRG1-induced inhibition of NK cell function is not fully understood. We report that NK cells with high KLRG1 expression spontaneously activate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and that activation of AMPK negatively ...
NK cells are the first line of defense against infected and transformed cells. Defective NK cell activity was shown to increase susceptibility for viral infections and reduce tumor immune-surveillance. With age, the incidence of infectious diseases and malignancy rises dramatically, suggesting that impaired NK cell function might contribute to disease in these individuals. We found an increased frequency of NK cells with high expression of the inhibitory killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) in individuals |70 y. The role of KLRG1 in ageing is not known, and the mechanism of KLRG1-induced inhibition of NK cell function is not fully understood. We report that NK cells with high KLRG1 expression spontaneously activate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and that activation of AMPK negatively ...
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer, because it preferentially induces apoptosis in numerous cancer cells with little or no effect on normal cells. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone is a dietary flavonoid commonly found in many plants. Here we show that the combined treatment with 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and TRAIL at subtoxic concentrations induced strong apoptotic response in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, acute leukemia Jurkat T cells, and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. We further investigated the mechanisms by which 5,7-dihydroxyflavone augments TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, attenuated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and IAPs, and reduced the ...
Rabinowich H., Manciulea M., Metes D., Sulica A., Herberman R.B., Corey S.J., Whiteside T.L.. We recently reported that Fc mu R on NK cells is a signal transducing protein that stimulates a rapid increase in the level of cytoplasmic free calcium upon binding of IgM. This study was designed to examine signal transduction via the Fc mu R on NK cells and to characterize intracellular second messengers activated by IgM. Immunoprecipitation of IgM-bound Fc mu R by IgM-specific Ab coimmunoprecipitated the zeta- and Fc epsilon RI gamma-chains. Furthermore, engagement and clustering of Fc mu R by polyclonal IgM induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the zeta- and Fc epsilon RI gamma-chains, indicating their functional association with the Fc mu R-induced signal transduction cascade. Ligand-induced clustering of the Fc mu R also induced activity of src family kinases, Lck, Fyn, Lyn, and Src, as well as ...
Looking for Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptor? Find out information about Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptor. Physiol a sensory nerve ending that changes specific stimuli into nerve impulses a sensory nerve structure that perceives and transforms stimuli from an... Explanation of Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptor
The Notch signaling pathway plays a substantial role on human NK cell development, however the role of Notch on KIR upregulation and acquisition of effector function has not been explored. To evaluate how Notch influences terminal differentiation, cord blood derived NK cells or sorted KIR- peripheral blood NK cells were cultured with IL-15 for 7 days in the presence or absence of gamma-secretase inhibitor, known to inhibit Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling significantly decreased KIR expression. Conversely, co-culturing the same cells with OP9 cells bearing Notch ligands enhanced KIR expression. Overexpression of the active portion of Notch on cord blood derived NK cells after 28 days of culture resulted in a 2-fold increase in KIR expression indicating that Notch signaling plays a direct, cell intrinsic, role in KIR regulation. By knocking down delta-like 1 (DLL1) on NK ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invariant natural killer T cells direct B cell responses to cognate lipid antigen in an IL-21-dependent manner. AU - King, Irah L.. AU - Fortier, Anne. AU - Tighe, Michael. AU - Dibble, John. AU - Watts, Gerald F.M.. AU - Veerapen, Natacha. AU - Haberman, Ann M.. AU - Besra, Gurdyal S.. AU - Mohrs, Markus. AU - Brenner, Michael B.. AU - Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Mouse invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) provide cognate and noncognate help for lipid and protein-specific B cells, respectively. However, the long-term outcome for B cells after cognate help is provided by iNKT cells is unknown at present. Here we found that cognate iNKT cell help resulted in a B cell differentiation program characterized by extrafollicular plasmablasts, germinal-center formation, ...
NK cells respond to tumor and virus-infected cells directly through several activation receptors, including natural cytotoxicity receptors, or indirectly through the activating Fc receptor CD16 for antibody-coated cells. Triggering of NK-cell effector functions through these receptors depends on physically associated transmembrane signaling adaptors, such as FcRγ (also known as FcεRIγ) and CD3ζ, both of which have been traditionally believed to be expressed by all mature NK cells. However, we have identified a distinct subset of human NK cells that are deficient for FcRγ expression but express normal levels of CD3ζ. FcRγ-deficient NK cells were readily detectable in about one-third of the healthy individuals examined. The deficiency was confined to the CD56dim population and was due to low FcRγ mRNA. FcRγ-deficient NK cells displayed dramatically reduced expression of the ...
Bridging innate and adaptive immunity, the NK cell is an important effector lymphocyte that participates in the early immune response to pathogens through the production of cytokines and chemokines (1). Furthermore, the NK cell has also been found to mediate cytolytic activity against virally infected cells and malignant cells (1, 2). Following the principle of the "missing self" hypothesis, NK recognition of "self" MHC Ags on putative target cells leads to inhibition of effector functions. Accordingly, target cell loss of self-MHC class I expression releases NK cell effector functions by removing the MHC-mediated inhibition (3). Regulation of NK cell function is accomplished through a diverse complement of receptors mediating, activating, and inhibiting signals in response to ligand interactions.. In humans, receptors that signal activation ...
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess endometrial chemokines in users of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and correlate them with leucocyte populations, uterine natural killer cells (uNK) and mast cells (MCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endometrium was obtained from two groups of women who had been using LNG-IUS for 3 years or more: 11 amenorrhoeic women formed the non-bleeding group and 15 women who maintained some form of cyclic bleeding comprised the bleeding group. Specific antibodies were used for the assessment of neutrophils, uNK cells and MCs. Immunohistochemistry was performed to locate the chemokines 6Ckine and interleukin-8 (IL-8). RESULTS: Neutrophils were few and without differences between the two groups. uNK cells were significantly higher in the bleeding group (P , 0.0001). There was no difference between the total number of MCs and activated MCs, but there was a greater ...
The researchers used an animal model to show that the loss of innate immune control by young natural killer cells can lead to infectious mononucleosis. "Young natural killer cells, which small children in particular have in abundance, seem to be especially suited to killing off the cells that multiply EBV", according to Christian Münz, Professor of Experimental Immunology at the University of Zurich. "This weakens the primary infection and infectious mononucleosis does not break out".. Without the defense of the natural killer cells, EBV multiplies so dramatically during the primary infection phase that the aggressive response of the adaptive immune system - chiefly of the T killer cells - makes the infected person sick with infectious mononucleosis. "In the animal model we also observed weight loss and the increased ...
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Horowitz, A., Strauss-Albee, D.M., Leipold, M. et al.. Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in immune defense and reproduction, yet remain the most poorly understood major lymphocyte population. Because their activation is controlled by a variety of combinatorially expressed activating and inhibitory receptors, NK cell diversity and function are closely linked. To provide an unprecedented understanding of NK cell repertoire diversity, we used mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze 37 parameters, including 28 NK cell receptors, on peripheral blood NK cells from 5 sets of monozygotic twins and 12 unrelated donors of defined human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotype. This analysis revealed a remarkable degree of NK cell diversity, with an estimated 6000 to 30,000 phenotypic populations ...
Gellert, Ginelle C. uPAR Interaction and Regulation of Natural Killer Cell Integrins: Implications for the Modulation of NK Cell Migration and Invasion. Doctor of Philosophy (Biomedical Sciences), May 2003; pp. 118, 2 tables; 12 figures; bibliography 163. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored receptor, devoid of an intracellular domain, but nevertheless initiates signaling, possibly through lateral interactions with integrins. Since adoptively transferred interleuking-2 (IL-2) activated natural killer (A-NK) cells can accumulate within established cancer metastases, these A-NK cells may integrate components of adhesion and proteolysis to facilitate their infiltration into tumors. The work in this dissertation investigates the hypothesis that uPAR directly interacts with and regulates the expression of integrins on the surface of NK cells ...
In the present study, we provide evidence that freshly isolated neuroblastoma cells are susceptible to NK-mediated lysis. More importantly, we show that a key role in the lytic process is played by PVR, a molecule expressed at the tumor cell surface that is recognized by the DNAM-1 receptor. We analyzed highly purified, fresh neuroblastoma cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates (22) . As compared with cultured neuroblastoma cell lines (20) , freshly isolated neuroblasts were generally more resistant to lysis. Remarkably, a certain degree of variability existed among different tumors. In particular, we show that tumor cells displaying maximal susceptibility to lysis were characterized by high surface expression of PVR. This molecule was recently recognized as a ligand for DNAM-1, a surface receptor mediating NK cell activation and tumor cell killing (17) . In line with these findings, we ...
We report evidence that murine NK cells express a functional Fc gamma RII encoded by the Fc gamma RII alpha gene. Several lines of indirect evidence indicate that freshly obtained NK cells from mice of several strains bear a functional Fc gamma RII: (a) anti-Fc gamma RII antibody 2.4G2 detects a small but significant proportion of sIg- cells and a small proportion of the 2.4G2+ cells are included in the Thy-1+ population; (b) sIg- lymphocytes contain 2.4G2+ and Fc gamma R-bearing cells in similar proportions; (c) binding of particulate immune complexes by sIg- lymphocytes is completely inhibited by 2.4G2; (d) 2.4G2+ cells mediate greater than 50% of the spontaneous cytotoxicity in sIg- splenic lymphocytes. Direct evidence for the presence of Fc gamma RII on murine NK cells is provided by the results of two-color immunofluorescence studies performed on splenic lymphocytes ...
Glycolipid ligands for invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are loaded onto CD1d molecules in the late endosome/lysosome. Accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in lysosomal storage diseases could potentially influence endogenous and exogenous lipid loading and/or presentation and, thus, affect iNKT cell selection or function. The percentages and frequency of iNKT cells were reduced in multiple mouse models of lysosomal GSL storage disease, irrespective of the specific genetic defect or lipid species stored. Reduced numbers of iNKT cells resulted in the absence of cytokine production in response to alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) and reduced iNKT cell-mediated lysis of wild-type targets loaded with alpha-GalCer. The reduction in iNKT cells did not result from defective expression of CD1d or a lack of antigen-presenting ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Suppress the Neutrophil Inflammatory Response in a Mouse Model of Cholestatic Liver Damage. AU - Wintermeyer, Philip. AU - Cheng, Chao Wen. AU - Gehring, Stephan. AU - Hoffman, Beth L.. AU - Holub, Martin. AU - Brossay, Laurent. AU - Gregory, Stephen H.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Background & Aims: NK1.1+ TCRαβint CD1-restricted T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of T lymphocytes that are believed to have an immunoregulatory role in a wide range of diseases. Most mouse NKT cells express a T-cell receptor that contains an invariant Vα14Jα18 chain and recognizes antigenic glycolipids presented in association with major histocompatibility complex class Ib (CD1d) molecules. These invariant NKT (iNKT) cells have been implicated in cholestatic liver injury. Methods: We examined the role of iNKT cells in liver injury associated with biliary ...
Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of innate immunity that respond to virus infected and tumor cells. After allogeneic transplantation, NK cells are the first reconstituting lymphocytes, but are dysfunctional. Manipulating this first wave of lymphocytes could be instrumental in reducing the 40% relapse rate following transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning. NK cells express numerous activating and inhibitory receptors. Some recognize classical or non-classical HLA class I ligands, others recognize class I-like ligands or unrelated ligands. Dominant in the NK cell transplant literature are killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), encoded on chromosome 19q. Inhibitory KIR recognition of cognate HLA class I ligand is responsible for NK cell education, which makes them tolerant of healthy cells, but responsive to ...
In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated to kill tumor cells. If lymphocytes are cultured in the presence of Interleukin 2, it results in the development of effector cells which are cytotoxic to tumor cells. It has been shown that lymphocytes, when exposed to Interleukin 2, are capable of lysing fresh, non-cultured cancer cells, both primary and metastatic. LAK cells respond to these lymphokines, particularly IL-2, by lysing tumor cells that were already known to be resistant to NK cell activity. The mechanism of LAK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells cannot. LAK ...
Williams, J. L., Eggen, A., Ferretti, L., Farr, C. J., Gautier, M., Amati, G., Ball, G., Caramorr, T., Critcher, R., Costa, S., Hextall, P., Hills, D., Jeulin, A., Kiguwa, S. L., Ross, O., Smith, A. L., Saunier, K., Urquhart, B. and Waddington, D., A bovine whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and outline map. Mamm. Genome 2002. 13: 469-474 ...
Background Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that help potentiate and regulate immune responses. Although human NKT cell subsets with distinct effector functions have been identified, it is unclear whether the effector functions of these subsets are imprinted during development or can be selectively reprogrammed in the periphery. Results We found that neonatal NKT cells are predominantly CD4+ and express higher levels of CCR7 and CD62L and lower levels of CD94 and CD161 than adult CD4+ or CD4− NKT cell subsets. Accordingly, neonatal NKT cells were more flexible than adult CD4+ NKT cells in their capacity to acquire Th1- or Th2-like functions upon either cytokine-mediated polarization or ectopic expression of the Th1 or Th2 transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3, respectively. Consistent with their more differentiated ...
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Tissue antigens, 2007; 69 Suppl 1 doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.759_5.x. Authors: Hsu K C, Pinto-Agnello C, Gooley T, Malkki M, Dupont B Hsu K C, Pinto-Agnello C, Gooley T, Malkki M, Dupont B, Petersdorf E W et al.(1) Affiliation: Memorial Hospital, 10021, NY, United States Sample size: 1770 Abstract: Recognition of recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligand by donor natural killer cell killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) has been proposed as the basis for donor allograft reactivity against malignancy leading to reduction in posttransplant relapse and higher survival for acute myelogenous leukemia. Analysis of KIR ligand effects in 1770 patients undergoing myeloablative T-replete hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated donors showed that lack of KIR ligand in patients for inhibitory KIR was associated with lower hazards of relapse in leukemia patients with in HLA-mismatched ...
Work in T cells has demonstrated that actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and lipid raft polarization induced by contact with an APC are dependent on Vav1 activity (10-12). Therefore, early signals upstream of actin polymerization that induce Vav1 phosphorylation must exist. Activation receptor 2B4 on NK cells is not likely to provide such early signals because 2B4 phosphorylation is itself dependent on actin polymerization (20). To test if LFA-1 engagement on NK cells can activate Vav1 upstream of cytoskeleton rearrangements, actin polymerization was blocked by treatment with cytochalasin D and Latrunculin A. As shown in Fig. 3 B, these inhibitors did not block the Vav1 phosphorylation induced by SC2-ICAM cells. In contrast, and consistent with the actin polymerization-dependent phosphorylation of 2B4 (20), the enhancement of Vav1 phosphorylation due to coengagement of 2B4 with LFA-1 was blocked by ...
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Background: Invariant natural killer cells (iNKT) are an important immunoregulatory T cell subset. Currently several flow cytometry-based approaches exist for the identifi-cation of iNKT cells, which rely on using the 6B11 monoclonal antibody or a combina-tion of anti-Vα24 and anti-Vβ11 antibodies. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the ability of two flow cytometry-based methods for detecting the frequency of circulating iNKT cells. Methods: The frequency of iNKT cells was detected in the pe-ripheral blood of 37 healthy adult donors by flow cytometry using the 6B11 antibody or a combination of anti-Vα24 and anti-Vβ11 antibodies. Results: The frequency of iNKT cells detected by 6B11 antibody or by combination of anti-Vα24 and anti-Vβ11 anti-bodies was significantly different (0.54% vs. 0.31%, respectively, p|0.001) but the val-ues were highly correlated (Spearman r = 0.742, ...
CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) possess a wide range of effector and regulatory activities that are related to their ability to secrete both T helper 1 (Th1) cell- and Th2 cell-type cytokines. We analyzed presentation of NKT cell activating α galactosylceramide (αGalCer) analogs that give predominantly Th2 cell-type cytokine responses to determine how ligand structure controls the outcome of NKT cell activation. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for αGalCer-CD1d complexes to visualize and quantitate glycolipid presentation, we found that Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing ligands were characterized by rapid and direct loading of cell-surface CD1d proteins. Complexes formed by association of these Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing αGalCer ...
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells represent a unique population of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes expressing an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) encoded by Vα14-Jα18 and Vα24-Jα18 gene segments in mice and humans, respectively. Recognition of CD1d-loaded endogenous lipid antigen(s) on CD4/CD8-double positive (DP) thymocytes is essential for the development of iNKT cells. The lipid repertoire of DP thymocytes and the identity of the decisive endogenous lipid ligands have not yet been fully elucidated. Glycosphingolipids (GSL) were implicated to serve as endogenous ligands. However, further in vivo investigations were hampered by early embryonal lethality of mice deficient for the key GSL-synthesizing enzyme glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase (GCS, EC 2.4.1.80). We have now analyzed the GSL composition of DP thymocytes and shown that GlcCer represented the sole neutral GSL and the acidic fraction was composed of gangliosides. Furthermore, ...
Immunoglobulin (Ig) M production can be induced by the interaction of thymus-independent type-2 (TI-2) antigen (Ag) with B cell Ag receptors (BCRs) without the involvement of conventional T cells; for IgG production through the same process, however, a second signal is required. Previous studies have reported that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells may be responsible for the second signal involved in IgG production. In the present study, we addressed whether human iNKT cells could participate in the production of Ig against TI-2 Ag in vitro. Two major distinct subsets of human iNKT cells, CD4+ CD8β- (CD4) and CD4- CD8β- [double negative (DN)] cells, were generated from peripheral blood monocytes from a healthy volunteer. BCR engagement, triggered by anti-IgM antibody stimulation, examined here as a model of BCR engagement triggered by TI-2 ...
Comparison of mutant killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) 3DL1*015 substituted at natural positions of variation showed that tryptophan/leucine dimorphism at position 283 uniquely changes receptor conformation and can strongly influence binding of the A24nef tetramer. Dimorphic motifs at positions 2, 47, and 54 in D0 and 182 and 283 in D1+D2 distinguish the two 3DL1 lineages, typified by 3DL1*005 and 3DL1*015. The interlineage recombinant, KIR3DL1*001, combines D0 of 3DL1*005 with D1+D2 of 3DL1*015 and binds A24nef more strongly than either parent. In contrast, the reciprocal recombinant with D0 from 3DL1*015 and D1+D2 from 3DL1*005 cannot bind A24nef. Thus, D0 polymorphism directly affects the avidity of the KIR3DL1 ligand binding site. From these observations, multiple sequence alignment, and homology modeling, we constructed structural models for KIR3DL1 and its complex with A24nef. In these models, D0, D1, and D2 come together to form a binding surface for A24nef, which is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus infection promotes rapid maturation of NK cells expressing activating killer Ig-like receptor in patients transplanted with NKG2C-/- umbilical cord blood. AU - Della Chiesa, Mariella. AU - Falco, Michela. AU - Bertaina, Alice. AU - Muccio, Letizia. AU - Alicata, Claudia. AU - Frassoni, Francesco. AU - Locatelli, Franco. AU - Moretta, Lorenzo. AU - Moretta, Alessandro. PY - 2014/2/15. Y1 - 2014/2/15. N2 - NK cells are the first lymphoid population recovering after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and play a crucial role in early immunity after the graft. Recently, it has been shown that humanCMV (HCMV) infection/reactivation can deeply influence NK cell reconstitution after umbilical cord blood transplantation by accelerating the differentiation of mature NKG2A-killer Ig-like receptor (KIR)+ NK cells characterized by the expression of ...
KLRC3, human recombinant protein, Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily C, NKG2-E; NKG2E validated in (PBV10978r-100), Abgent
NKT cells are a unique population of T cells that recognize lipid antigens presented by a nonclassical MHC-like molecule CD1d. There are two types of NKT cells, type I and type II. Our group previously showed that type I NKT cells enhance and type II NKT cells suppress anti-tumor responses, and that these two types of NKT cells cross-regulate each other. One of the defined antigens for type I NKT cells is alpha-galactosylceramide (aGC), and aGC-loaded CD1d tetramers are widely used to study them. Unlike conventional T cells, each subset of NKT cells recognizes distinct antigens. Sulfatide (3-o-sulfo-beta-D-galactosylceramide), an endogenous lipid, is the only lipid proven to be recognized by type II NKT cells in vivo. In addition, recently phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), also endogenous lipids, were reported to be ...
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a disorder in which the immune system produces too many activated immune cells (lymphocytes) called T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, and macrophages (histiocytes). Excessive amounts of immune system proteins called cytokines are also produced. This overactivation of the immune system causes fever and damages the liver and spleen, resulting in enlargement of these organs.. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis also destroys blood-producing cells in the bone marrow, a process called hemophagocytosis. As a result, affected individuals have low numbers of red blood cells (anemia) and a reduction in the number of platelets, which are involved in clotting. A reduction in platelets may cause easy bruising and abnormal bleeding.. The brain may also be ...
MICA shedding is thought to be the principal mechanism by which tumor cells escape from NKG2D- mediated immunosurveillance.13 In this study, we demonstrated that ADAM9 was overexpressed in human HCC tissues and that ADAM9 knockdown resulted in increased expression of membrane-bound MICA, decreased production of soluble MICA, and up-regulation of NK sensitivity of human HCC cells. These results point to ADAM9 as a possible therapeutic target for inhibiting MICA shedding, thereby increasing immunity against HCC.. We identified the ADAM9 cleavage site of MICA in vitro, which is located at the intracellular domain of MICA. ADAM9 protease is usually located in the extracellular area, but we revealed that ADAM9 protease is required for the production of not only the 37 kD soluble MICA but also the 39 kD MICA in HCC cells. Based on our present data, it is speculated that ADAM9 protease may enable intracellular ...
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B ...
Dr. Bommanna Loganathan is a Professor of environmental/analytical chemistry with a joint appointment in the Department of Chemistry and WSI. He received MS and Ph.D. degrees in Biology and Environmental Chemistry from Annamalai University, India and Ehime University, Matsuyama, Japan respectively. Dr. Loganathan received postdoctoral training at the Great Lakes Laboratory, State University of New York College at Buffalo, NY and at the Murray State University. Dr. Loganathans current research involves investigations on the distribution, environmental transformation, and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the environment and their effect on wildlife and human health. A major focus of his research is to evaluate the status and trends of classical as well as emerging pollutants in human constructed freshwater lakes, such as Kentucky Lake, in comparison with natural lakes and marine ecosystems and to assess effects of these compounds on human natural killer cells ability ...
CD8(+)/V beta 5.1(+) large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with autoimmune cytopenias, rheumatoid arthritis and vascular mammary skin lesions: Successful response to 2- deoxycoformycin. We report a case of CD8(+)/Vbeta(5.1)(+) T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL leukemia) presenting with mild lymphocytosis, severe autoimmune neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, polyarthritis and recurrent infections with a chronic disease course. Immunophenotyping showed an expansion of CD3(+)/TCRalphabeta(+)/CD8(+bright)/CD11c(+)/CD57(-)/CD56(-) large granular lymphocytes with expression of the TCR-Vbeta5.1 family. Southern blot analysis revealed a clonal rearrangement of the TCR beta-chain gene. Hematopoietic growth factors, high dose intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids were of limited therapeutic benefit to correct the cytopenias. During the disease course, the patient developed a severe cutaneous leg ulcer and bilateral vascular mammary skin ...
Felty syndrome is a rare disease defined by neutropenia, splenomegaly, and rheumatoid arthritis. Sometimes the differential diagnosis between Felty syndrome and large granular lymphocyte leukemia is problematic. Recently, somatic STAT3 and STAT5B mutations were discovered in 30-40% of patients with large granular lymphocyte leukemia. We now aimed to study whether these mutations can also be detected in Felty syndrome, which would imply for a common pathogenic mechanism between these two disease entities. We collected samples and clinical information from 14 Felty syndrome patients who were monitored at the rheumatology outpatient clinic for Felty syndrome. Somatic STAT3 mutations were discovered in 43% (6/14) of Felty syndrome patients with deep amplicon sequencing targeting all STAT3 exons. Mutations were located in the SH2 domain of STAT3 which is a known mutational hotspot. No STAT5B mutations were found. In blood smears, overrepresentation of large granular lymphocytes was observed, and in ...
HLA-B*57 control of HIV involves enhanced CD8+ T cell responses against infected cells, but extensive heterogeneity exists in the level of HIV control among B*57+ individuals. Using whole-genome sequencing of untreated B*57+ HIV-1-infected controllers and noncontrollers, we identified a single variant (rs643347A/G) encoding an isoleucine-to-valine substitution at position 47 (I47V) of the inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor KIR3DL1 as the only significant modifier of B*57 protection. The association was replicated in an independent cohort and across multiple outcomes. The modifying effect of I47V was confined to B*57:01 and was not observed for the closely related B*57:03. Positions 2, 47, and 54 tracked one another nearly perfectly, and 2 KIR3DL1 allotypes differing only at these 3 positions showed significant differences in binding B*57:01 tetramers, whereas the protective allotype showed lower binding. Thus, variation in ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The small total number of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) in cord blood limited its use in adult recipients. Since the hematopoiesis might be controlled by both positive and negative factors, the finding of negative cellular components and thereafter depletion of them would be of importance for further expansion of HPC from cord blood in vitro. The role of natural killer cells (NK cells) in hematopoiesis remains unclear and needs to be elucidated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cord blood mononuclear cells were co-cultured in a liquid culture system containing the hematopoietic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-3, IL-6, stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and G-CSF for a total of 20 days with or without depletion of NK cells. RESULTS: The percentage of CD34+ cells was ...
As the most common NK/T-cell lymphoma in Asian countries, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL), has unique clinical features and a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In order to gain a preliminary understanding of the relationship between ENKTL and EBV, we performed genotypic analysis of EBV and investigated LMP1 expression in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma. Our study shows that ENKTL is an EBV-associated malignancy and that A, C and F are the predominant EBV genotypes in northern China. LMP1 expression is stronger in extranasal sites than nasal sites, and the expression level is strongly correlated to ENKTL and may play an important role in the development of ENKTL.
Adenomyosis refers to the presence of endometrial glands and stroma that is haphazardly deep within the myometrium. However, the etiology and pathologic mechanism responsible for adenomyosis are not yet very well known. Our previous results revealed that the expression of killer inhibitory receptors on natural killer cells was decreased in eutopic endometrium in women with adenomyosis. It implies that the formation of adenomyosis might be due to abnormal endometrial tissues, but not the aberrant local immunological dysfunction in myometrium. Our further investigation revealed that in vitro coculture of macrophages and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) increase the expression of IL-6 mRNA in ESC, which might further enhance the proliferation of ESC and subsequently result in the formation of ectopic endometrial implants in adenomyosis.. Abnormal cell proliferation has been generally found in the tumorigenesis, including the ...
Cytokine-induced killer cells or CIK cells are a group of immune effector cells featuring a mixed T- and natural killer (NK) cell-like phenotype. They are generated by ex vivo incubation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or cord blood mononuclear cells with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), anti-CD3 antibody, recombinant human interleukin (IL-) 1 and recombinant human interleukin (IL)-2. Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. However, CIK cells have the ability to recognize infected or even malignant cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC, allowing for a fast and unbiased ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor and human leukocyte antigen-C genotypes in rheumatoid arthritis primary responders and non-responders to anti-TNF-α therapy. AU - McGeough, Cathy. AU - Berrar, Daniel. AU - Wright, Gary. AU - Mathews, Clare. AU - Gilmore, Paula. AU - Cunningham, Rodat T.. AU - Bjourson, AJ. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. U2 - 10.1007/s00296-011-1838-6. DO - 10.1007/s00296-011-1838-6. M3 - Article. VL - 32. SP - 1647. JO - Rheumatology International. JF - Rheumatology International. SN - 0172-8172. IS - 6. ER - ...
NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on all human NK cells and a subset of T cells. In cytolytic conjugates between NK cells and target cells expressing its ligand MHC class I chain-related gene A, NKG2D accumulates at the immunological synapse with GM1-rich microdomains. Furthermore, NKG2D is specifically recruited to detergent-resistant membrane fractions upon ligation. However, in the presence of a strong inhibitory stimulus, NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity can be intercepted, and recruitment of NKG2D to the immunological synapse and detergent-resistant membrane fractions is blocked. Also, downstream phosphorylation of Vav-1 triggered by NKG2D ligation is circumvented by coengaging inhibitory receptors. Thus, we propose that one way in which inhibitory signaling can control NKG2D-mediated activation is by blocking its recruitment to GM1-rich membrane domains. The accumulation of activating NK cell receptors in GM1-rich ...
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Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several "framework" genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) cytoplasmic domain. KIR proteins with the long cytoplasmic domain transduce inhibitory signals upon ligand binding via an immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), while KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack the ITIM motif and instead associate with the TYRO protein tyrosine ...
KIR2DS2 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_036444), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several framework genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) ...
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Nasal T/NK-cell lymphomas are highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). They are more frequent in Asia than in Western countries. In Central and South America there are few studies about nasal T/NK-cell lymphoma and they have shown a strong predominance of this phenotype in Native American descents, supporting the hypothesis of a racial predisposition for the disease. We studied the lymphomas involving midline facial region at a Brazilian institution. T/NK cell lymphomas (16/25) were more frequently found compared to B lymphomas (9 cases, all B large cell). T/NK cell lymphomas involved predominantly the nasal region. Histologically they showed angioinvasion and necrosis. All of them were positive for CD3 and CD56 and showed numerous tumor cells labeled by EBER-1. Although disease was localized in 61% at diagnosis, there was no tendency to cure. The racial distribution of patients with ...
The pathophysiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated haemophagocytosis remains poorly understood.1 In EBV-related haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, EBV-infected CD8 T cells and natural killer cells are thought to trigger haemophagocytosis and the associated cytokine-storm/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) directly.2,-,4. By contrast, in the context of uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected B cells, hyperactively responding EBV-specific T cells are assumed to mediate haemophagocytosis/SIRS.5 Both the quantity and quality of such deregulated EBV-specific T-cell reactivity remain undefined. Unique insight into basic aspects of the postulated T-cell requirements necessary to trigger haemophagocytosis was provided by the case of a 37-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease (ribonucleoprotein-Ab positive, severe pulmonary arterial ...
Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are the most abundant cell type in first trimester human pregnancy decidua. We have shown previously that CD56-positive decidual LGL have cytotoxic activity against the natural killer (NK) target K562, and that this cytotoxicity is augmented by pretreatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2). We now report that flow cytometrically purified populations of CD56-positive decidual LGL have no cytotoxic activity against either the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line or freshly isolated term trophoblast. Incubation of unfractionated decidual cells with IL-2 induced cytotoxicity against BeWo, but term trophoblast remained resistant to lysis. Both BeWo and trophoblast showed much lower binding frequencies to decidual or peripheral blood cells than K56 targets, and excess trophoblast did not inhibit cytotoxic activity against K562. This suggests that the resistance of trophoblast to lysis by either ...
Innate CD56(pos) natural killer (NK) and natural T (NT) cells comprise important hepatic antiviral effector lymphocytes whose activity is fine-tuned through surface NK receptors (NKRs). Dysregulation of NKRs in patients with long-standing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been shown, but little is known regarding NKRs in acute infection. Treatment-naïve patients with acute HCV (n = 22), including 10 with spontaneous recovery, were prospectively studied. CD56(pos) NT levels were reduced early in acute HCV infection and did not fluctuate over time. In resolving HCV infection, NT cells with a more activated phenotype (lower CD158A and higher natural cytotoxicity receptor expression) at baseline predated spontaneous recovery. Moreover, NKG2A expression on CD56(+) NT cells correlated directly with circulating HCV RNA levels. Deficient interleukin-13 (IL-13) production by NT cells and reduced IL-2-activated killing (LAK) at ...
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In addition to their role as effector cells in virus control, natural killer (NK) cells have an immunoregulatory function in shaping the antiviral T-cell response. This function is further pronounced in perforin-deficient mice that show the enhanced NK-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion upon mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Here we confirmed that stronger activation and maturation of NK cells in perforin-deficient mice correlates with higher MCMV load. To further characterize the immunoregulatory potential of perforin, we compared the response of NK cells that express or do not express perforin using bone-marrow chimeras. Our results demonstrated that the enhanced proliferation and maturation of NK cells in MCMV-infected bone-marrow chimeras is an intrinsic property of perforin-deficient NK cells. Thus, in addition to ...
Autoimmune Diseases. The Biologic Response Modifier report does the thorough study of the key industry players to understand their business strategies, annual revenue, company profile and their contribution to the Biologic Response Modifier market share in the United States. Diverse factors of the Biologic Response Modifier industry like the supply chain scenario, industry standards, import/export details are also mentioned in this report.. Key Highlights of the United States Biologic Response Modifier Market 2017 Report:. A Clear understanding of the Biologic Response Modifier market based on growth, constraints, opportunities, feasibility study.. Concise Biologic Response Modifier Market study based on major United States regions.. Analysis of evolving market segments as well as a complete study of existing Biologic Response Modifier market segments.. Before Purchasing, Request Free Sample Copy of the Report Here: ...
NKT cells are a regulatory subset of T lymphocytes with immune modulatory effects and an important role in anti-tumor immunity. The feasibility of ex-vivo education of NKT cells has recently been demonstrated. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of ex-vivo immune-modulated NKT lymphocytes in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Athymic Balb/C mice were sublethally irradiated and transplanted with human Hep3B HCC. NKT cells prepared from immunocompetent Balb/C mice were pulsed ex vivo with HCC-derived antigens (Group A), Hep3B cells (group B) or BSA (group C), and adoptively transferred into HCC harboring mice (1 x 0(6) NKT cells per mouse). Group D mice did not undergo NKT cell transplantation. Group E mice were transplanted with 1 x 10(6) NKT cells from HBV-immunized donors. Mice were followed for tumor size and weight. To determine ...
Objectives: This study aims to identify the presenting symptoms, treatment and outcome of patients with nasal natural killer T (NK/T)-cell lymphoma and to find possible differences in survival based on Ann-Arbor stage and international prognostic index (IPI). Patients and Methods: Computed tomography and biopsy results of 23 patients (15 males, 8 females; mean age 41 years; range 22 to 72 years) with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma who were treated at the department of clinical hematology between 1995 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The median time from onset of clinical symptoms to histological diagnosis was five months. Most patients presented with nasal obstruction (69%) and rhinism (52%). The site of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma primarily involved nasal cavity in 39%. Orbital extension was observed in 26%. Lymphomas were classified as stage IE in 30.4%, stage IIE in 47.8% and stage IVE in 21.7%. Nineteen patients received ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a persistent latent infection in B lymphocytes and is associated with the development of numerous human tumors. (EBV) is a potent transforming agent of resting B lymphocytes, promoting cell cycle entry and subsequent continuous proliferation. EBV is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous lymphoid tumors, including Burkitts lymphoma (BL), Hodgkins disease, posttransplant lymphomas, and certain T-cell and natural killer cell lymphomas, in addition to the epithelial cell tumor nasopharyngeal carcinoma (reviewed in reference 54). Like other members of the herpesvirus family, EBV has a biphasic life cycle involving a latent and a lytic phase. In infected B cells, EBV establishes a latent infection where the Ntrk3 172-kb double-stranded DNA viral genome is maintained as a closed circular episome and expresses a limited set of latent genes. These include the Epstein-Barr ...
available TLR-7 agonist that was selected because its antiviral response dominated its proinflammatory response.33 In preclinical studies of woodchucks and chimpanzees, this agent reduced surface antigen and viral DNA, and some animals lost surface antigen and seroconverted to surface antibody.34 This agent also decreased HBeAg and induced IFN-α and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as well as natural killer cells. However, the agent did not decrease HBsAg in humans in short-term studies, although it did induce ISG-15 production.35 When studied in the clinic in a group of 26 HBeAg-negative CHB patients who were suppressed on TDF for at least 3 years, the addition of 12 weeks of GS-9620 at 1, 2, or 4 mg orally each week did not alter HBsAg levels in serum.36 There were improvements in natural killer cell and specific T-cell responses observed with GS-9620 (eg, IFN-γ and interleukin-2 production).37. Host ...
2Ukranian Anticancer Institute, Laimgrubengasse 19/7. A-1060 Vienna, Austria. Abstract - Ukrain is a semisynthetic compound consisting of alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. conjugated to thiophosphoric acid. with immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties in cancer patients. The present m vitro studies demonstrate that Ukrain is an effective biological response modifier in that it augmented, by up to 48-fold. the lytic activity of spleen lymphocytes obtained from alloimmunized mice. The lytic activities of IL-2-treated spleen cells and peritoneal exudate lymphocytes were also increased significantly by the addition of Ukrain to the CML assay medium. The highest Ukrain-induced enhancement of spleen lymphocyte lytic activity in vitro was found to occur at 18 days after alloimmunization, was dose dependent and specific for the immunizing P815 tumor cells. Since Ukrain was present only during the CML assays, its mode of action is thought to be via direct ...
The question we are addressing is: how does the maternal immune system regulate placentation in humans? Our view of the fetal allograft is one of cooperation between mother and fetus. We focus on how the dominant population of uterine leukocytes, Natural Killer (NK) cells, that have receptors for HLA class I ligands on fetal trophoblast cells, regulate trophoblast function.. We work in close collaboration with Dr Francesco Colucci in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.. The main areas of current research are:. 1) Interactions between maternal Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) and fetal HLA-C molecules. Because both KIR and HLA-C genes are highly polymorphic, each pregnancy is likely to be different. Our genetic and functional studies in Europeans and Africans show certain KIR/HLA-C genetic combinations are associated with extremes of the normal birth weight distribution.. 2) Culture of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Appearance of Human Plasma Cells Following Differentiation of Human B Cells in NOD/SCID Mouse Spleen. AU - Kikuchi, Kentaro. AU - Lian, Zhe Xiong. AU - He, Xiaosong. AU - Ansari, Aftab A.. AU - Ishibashi, Miyuki. AU - Miyakawa, Hiroshi. AU - Shultz, Leonard D.. AU - Ikehara, Susumu. AU - Gershwin, M. Eric. PY - 2003/6. Y1 - 2003/6. N2 - Relatively little is known for the differentiation and maturation process of human B cells to plasma cells. This is particularly important in reconstitution work involving transfer of autoantibodies. To address this issue, we transplanted human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) directly into the spleen of irradiated NOD/SCID mice depleted of natural killer cell activity. Within 6 weeks, naïve B cells differentiated into memory B cells and, importantly, the numbers of human CD138+ plasma ...
Dexamethasone used as an antiemetic in chemotherapy protocols inhibits natural cytotoxic (NC) cell activity. Antiemetic superiority of lorazepam over oxazepam and methylprednisolone as premedicants for patients receiving cisplatin-containing chemotherapy
These mushrooms are best known for their lung and respiratory benefits. However, you may never know they were mushrooms thanks to the unique shape that earned them the name caterpillar mushrooms. This type of mushroom is believed to ease asthma symptoms, coughing, weak lungs, shortness of breath and wheezing by increasing the amount of oxygen the body can assimilate and absorb.. Cordyceps has also been found to lower cholesterol by 10 - 21% and triglycerides by 9 - 26%, according to EarthPulse.com. They have also been found to improve blood cell functioning and viability and repair DNA.. Other health benefits include increased NK (natural killer) cell activity, which helps your body build muscle. It also helps to recharge these cells, in turn improving your immune system.. Purchase these cordyceps extract in pill form or try this soup from EatingPleasure.com.. All mushrooms hold a unique spot in the natural health world, ...
Mutations in the human NBEAL2 gene cause gray platelet syndrome (GPS), a bleeding diathesis characterized by a lack of α granules in platelets. The functions of the NBEAL2 protein have not been explored outside platelet biology, but there are reports of increased frequency of infection and abnormal neutrophil morphology in patients with GPS. We therefore investigated the role of NBEAL2 in immunity by analyzing the phenotype of Nbeal2-deficient mice. We found profound abnormalities in the Nbeal2-deficient immune system, particularly in the function of neutrophils and NK cells. Phenotyping of Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils showed a severe reduction in granule contents across all granule subsets. Despite this, Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils had an enhanced phagocyte respiratory burst relative to Nbeal2-expressing neutrophils. This respiratory burst was associated with increased expression of cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase complex. Nbeal2-deficient NK ...
Mutations in the human NBEAL2 gene cause gray platelet syndrome (GPS), a bleeding diathesis characterized by a lack of α granules in platelets. The functions of the NBEAL2 protein have not been explored outside platelet biology, but there are reports of increased frequency of infection and abnormal neutrophil morphology in patients with GPS. We therefore investigated the role of NBEAL2 in immunity by analyzing the phenotype of Nbeal2-deficient mice. We found profound abnormalities in the Nbeal2-deficient immune system, particularly in the function of neutrophils and NK cells. Phenotyping of Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils showed a severe reduction in granule contents across all granule subsets. Despite this, Nbeal2-deficient neutrophils had an enhanced phagocyte respiratory burst relative to Nbeal2-expressing neutrophils. This respiratory burst was associated with increased expression of cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase complex. Nbeal2-deficient NK ...
The influence of a chronic social stress upon immunity was investigated in Wistar rats, submitted for four weeks to two different behavioral situations, balanced in a factorial design: housing with three females and membership rotation. The combination of these two factor led to adrenal enlargement (43.3%), thymus involution (39.5%) and increased basal corticosterone levels, all indices of activation of the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis. However, neither natural killer cell activity, splenocyte reactivity to mitogen nor the rate of spontaneous development of antibodies against Mycoplasma pulmonis, a common pathogen of the respiratory tract, were changed in the endocrine activated animals. Analysis of the data on kinetics of stress at 1, 7 and 28 days after the initial mixing of the animals gave the same results. These data question the immunosuppressant activity usually conferred to corticosteroids, at least when adrenal hyperactivity is induced by ...
Preferred Name: Jin Fu Kang Definition: A traditional Chinese herbal medicine derived from the plant Astragalus membranaceus with potential immunopotentiation activity. Jin Fu Kang may stimulate anti-tumor macrophage and natural killer cell activity and may enhance immune recognition of tumor cells by inhibiting the production of T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Label: Jin Fu Kang NCI Thesaurus Code: C61316 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI Metathesaurus Link: C1831812 (see NCI Metathesaurus info) Synonyms & Abbreviations: (see Synonym Details) ...
Sulfatides are innate glycosphingolipids shown to activate a subpopulation of type II NKT cells. Their activation has been reported to sometimes have antagonistic roles to those of type I NKT cells in some disease models. This has sparked a lot of interest in the synthesis of natural and unnatural sulfatides for an examination of their influence on NKT cell responses. The design, synthesis and evaluation of type II NKT cell activation of several sulfatide ligands are described in this thesis. A two-step methodology has been developed for the rapid assembly of disubstituted β-lactones. The first step is olefin cross metathesis (CM) of a-methylene-β-lactones with various alkene cross partners to furnish a-alkylidine-β-lactones. These are subsequently diastereoselectively reduced. A diverse library of β-lactones, including (±)-nocardiolactone has been prepared. Combining this approach with competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) ...
This grant award was a joint offering from TMS and Mastokids, with $20,000 contributed from TMS and $20,000 from Mastokids.. Award amount: $40,000. Award recipient:. Richard Stevens, PhD, Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Collaborators: Mariana Castells, MD, PhD, Brigham and Womens Hospital. Matthew Hamilton, MD, Brigham and Womens Hospital. (current Principal Investigator of grant). Steven Krilis, MD, PhD, University New South Wales (AUS). Title: Importance of hTryptase-beta in Pediatric Mast Cell Disorders. Resulting Publication(s)/Presentation(s):. CD117+ Dendritic and Mast Cells Are Dependent on RasGRP4 to Function as Accessory Cells for Optimal Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Responses to Lipopolysaccharide. Zhou S, Tanaka K, OKeeffe M, Qi M, El-Assaad F, Weaver JC, et al. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 16;11(3) ...
The highly polymorphic nonclassical MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes MICA and MICB encode stress inducible glycoproteins expressed on a variety of epithelial cells including intestinal cells. Interaction with the receptor NKG2D is likely to provide an important costimulatory signal for activation and proliferation of NK cells, activated macrophages and CD8 αβ and γδ T cells. Fifty-four MICA and 17 MICB alleles have been described to date. Although the functional significance of this polymorphism is not known, the high degree of nonconservative substitution, concentration to the putative ligand-binding site and recent observation that different MICA alleles bind to NKG2D with varying affinity has generated much interest. The MIC genes are attractive functional and positional candidate genes for inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility as a consequence of their position in the HLA region and expression on the gastrointestinal epithelium. ...

Cytokine-induced killer cell - WikipediaCytokine-induced killer cell - Wikipedia

Cytokine-induced killer cells or CIK cells are a group of immune effector cells featuring a mixed T- and natural killer (NK) ... presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. However, CIK cells have the ... of CIK cells by the National Cancer Institute Natural killer cell Natural killer T cell Lymphokine-activated killer cell ... CIK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells or LAK cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells and LAK cells ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokine-induced_killer_cell

Natural Killer Cells and Bortezomib to Treat Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govNatural Killer Cells and Bortezomib to Treat Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Immune System Diseases. Leukemia, B-Cell. Genital Neoplasms, Male. Urogenital Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Genital Diseases, ... with bortezomib significantly enhances NK-mediated tumor cytotoxicity by sensitizing cells to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ... TRAIL is a member of tumor necrosis factor family of cytokines that promotes apoptosis. Importantly, in our laboratory, in ... Natural killer (NK) cells are white blood cells that have a limited ability to kill cancer cells. This ability might be ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00720785

LymeMD: January 2010LymeMD: January 2010

Cytokines and chemokines induce inflammatory responses. Other immune cells, killer T-cells and B cells are activated. Bb can ... invade local glial cells and astrocytes. OspA is upregulated which induces apoptosis (cell death). Neurotoxins are produced. ... Inflammation occurs as Bb encounters local immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells. ...
more infohttp://lymemd.blogspot.com/2010/01/

NK Cells and Cancer | The Journal of ImmunologyNK Cells and Cancer | The Journal of Immunology

Cytokine-induced apoptosis of human natural killer cells identifies a novel mechanism to regulate the innate immune response. ... Toxicity of systemic cytokine administration and cytokine-activated NK cell apoptosis are two important limitations of cytokine ... differently from erythroid cells, NK cells are usually protected from TRAIL-induced apoptosis thanks to cytokine-dependent c- ... Upon cytokine stimulation, NK cells become lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells that proliferate, produce cytokines, and up- ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/178/7/4011.long

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Myeloid Malignancies: A Focus on Immune Escaping and Therapeutic ImplicationsMesenchymal Stem Cells in Myeloid Malignancies: A Focus on Immune Escaping and Therapeutic Implications

... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... S. L. Poh and Y. C. Linn, "Immune checkpoint inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells against human ... leading to decreased B cell proliferation, natural killer dysfunction, and propagation of cell autophagy or apoptosis. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/6720594/

Association of IL-4-590 C|T and IL-13-1112 C|T Gene Polymorphisms with the Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes MellitusAssociation of IL-4-590 C|T and IL-13-1112 C|T Gene Polymorphisms with the Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

... and natural killer (NK) T cells, and by cells of the innate immune system, including mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils [2 ... IL-4 is suggested to protect human islets from cytotoxic damage induced by proinflammatory and Th1 cytokines. Another study ... Interleukin 4 regulates proliferation, apoptosis, gene expression, and differentiation in many hematopoietic cells; in ... D. La Torre, "Immunobiology of beta-cell destruction," Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 771, pp. 194-218, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2013/107470/

Clinical grade ex vivo expanded human natural killer (NK) cells - EnglishClinical grade ex vivo expanded human natural killer (NK) cells - English

... apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-dependent NK-cell metastatic sarcoma. Depletion of CD3 T cells and a lysis [6Á8]. This effect ... Cytokine secretion profile of NK cells after co-culture with K562 and RCC target cells. Resting NK cells or NK cells from two ... Expanded Introduction receptors expressed on target cells. They can also mediate Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune ... cells was significantly higher with expanded NK cells T cells, no CD56/CD3 cells, no CD19 B cells and (27.699.3%) compared with ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/lifextechnologies/clinical-grade-ex-vivo-expanded-human-natural-killer-nk-cells

Frontiers | Cancer Stem Cells and Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in Glioma | ImmunologyFrontiers | Cancer Stem Cells and Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in Glioma | Immunology

Localized antitumor factors could be silenced or even converted to suppressive phenotypes, due to stemness-related cell ... In addition to heterogenous population of tumor cells, the glioma stem cells (GSCs) and other nontumor cells present in the ... the glioma stem cells (GSCs) and other nontumor cells present in the glioma microenvironment serve as critical regulators of ... Localized antitumor factors could be silenced or even converted to suppressive phenotypes, due to stemness-related cell ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02924/full

Cell-mediated immunity - WikipediaCell-mediated immunity - Wikipedia

T-cell mediated immunity or T-cell immunity : activating antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells that are able to induce apoptosis ... and stimulating cells to secrete a variety of cytokines that influence the function of other cells involved in adaptive immune ... cells with intracellular bacteria, and cancer cells displaying tumor antigens; activating macrophages and natural killer cells ... CD4 cells or helper T cells provide protection against different pathogens. Naive T cells, mature T cells that have yet to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell-mediated_immunity

Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) Research Areas: R&D SystemsMyeloid-derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) Research Areas: R&D Systems

R&D Systems is a global resource for cell biology. Find quality proteins, antibodies, ELISA kits, laboratory reagents, and ... inhibit T cell proliferation, and promote T cell apoptosis. Additionally, MDSCs secrete immunosuppressive cytokines and induce ... and NKT cells, and the adaptive immune response mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. While the mechanism of NK cell inhibition is ... These cells are of great interest because they have the capacity to suppress both the cytotoxic activities of natural killer ( ...
more infohttps://www.rndsystems.com/research-area/myeloid--derived-suppressor-cells--mdsc

Increased CD160 expression on circulating natural killer cells in atherogenesis | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full TextIncreased CD160 expression on circulating natural killer cells in atherogenesis | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full Text

... cells from AS patients triggers a significantly increased production of inflammation cytokines and subsequent NK cell apoptosis ... Our results provide evidence that elevated CD160 expression on NK cells plays an important role in NK cell loss in ... Accumulating evidence has showed the impairment of natural killer (NK) cells in atherosclerosis, however, the mechanisms of ... their inflammatory cytokine levels in sera were determined by ELSIA, and the effect of CD160 engagement on NK cells was ...
more infohttps://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-015-0564-3

Associations of Plasma-Soluble Fas Ligand with Aging and Age-Related Macular Degeneration | IOVS | ARVO JournalsAssociations of Plasma-Soluble Fas Ligand with Aging and Age-Related Macular Degeneration | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Fas mediates apoptosis and oxidant-induced cell death in cultured hRPE cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:645-655. [ ... FasL is predominantly expressed in activated T cells and natural killer cells, but is also expressed in immune-privileged sites ... Altered cytokine production, along with lymphopenia and abnormal immune response, is frequently observed in aging and age- ... 17 18 The FasL-induced apoptosis is implicated in the regulation of immune responses, killing of tumor cells, and maintenance ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2184168

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy - microbewikiBacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy - microbewiki

4) Immune cell recruitment and cytokine production ultimately results in immune-mediated cytotoxicity by natural killer cells, ... These immune cells secrete soluble factors to induce direct cytotoxicity such as TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ... natural killer cells, and macrophages. The cytokines produced in this process of immune cell recruitment include IL-1, IL-2, Il ... secrete cytokines and chemokines, and express BCG antigens for localization by immune cells. Immune cells currently thought to ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Bacillus_Calmette-Gu%C3%A9rin_therapy&

Shikonin Attenuates Concanavalin A-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice via Inhibition of the JNK PathwayShikonin Attenuates Concanavalin A-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice via Inhibition of the JNK Pathway

... including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of ... leading to immune hepatitis in mice [3, 4]. Natural killer (NK) T-cells and macrophages are also closely associated with the ... These results indicated that shikonin could attenuate hepatic cell apoptosis in ConA-induced hepatitis through the JNK/p-JNK ... reported that the apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells induced by IL-1β occurs mainly via the activation of the JNK pathway [29 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/2748367/

BAG4 BCL2 associated athanogene 4 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBIBAG4 BCL2 associated athanogene 4 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

... is expressed in immune and nonimmune cell types including macrophages, T cells, mast cells, granulocytes, natural killer (NK) ... Death Domain Mediates Acid-Induced Decrease in Cell Apoptosis in Barretts Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells. Li D, et ... TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range ... Death Domain Mediates Acid-Induced Decrease in Cell Apoptosis in Barretts Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/9530

Extracellular purine metabolism and signaling of CD73-derived adenosine in murine Treg and Teff cells | Cell PhysiologyExtracellular purine metabolism and signaling of CD73-derived adenosine in murine Treg and Teff cells | Cell Physiology

CD73 on tumor cells impairs antitumor T-cell responses: a novel mechanism of tumor-induced immune suppression. Cancer Res 70: ... we found in Treg cells TCR-mediated downregulation of P2X7 expression which may counteract ATP-induced apoptosis of Treg cells ... CD4+ T-cell activation.. For nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the cytokine release assays purified CD4+ T cells and for ... T cells whereas CCL3 is chemotactic for natural killer (NK) cells (22). Interestingly, A2aR activation inhibited CCL3 and CCL4 ...
more infohttp://ajpcell.physiology.org/content/301/2/C530

Phospho-IRS-1 (Ser302) Antibody, UniProt ID P35568 #2384 to SGLT2 Antibody, UniProt ID P31639 #14210 from Cell Signaling...Phospho-IRS-1 (Ser302) Antibody, UniProt ID P35568 #2384 to SGLT2 Antibody, UniProt ID P31639 #14210 from Cell Signaling...

PRDX2 is upregulated and protects cancer cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis (4, 5). In inflammatory diseases such as ... and regulates cytokine-induced peroxide levels for normal cell function (2). Research studies have shown that PRDX2 plays ... but is also released into extracellular space to trigger local inflammation and to activate NK cells for innate immune response ... important roles in inflammation, cancer, and natural killer (NK) cell activation (3). During cancer progression, ...
more infohttps://www.cellsignal.com/1/1/indexf187.html

Frontiers | The Cellular Prion Protein: A Player in Immunological Quiescence | ImmunologyFrontiers | The Cellular Prion Protein: A Player in Immunological Quiescence | Immunology

... to modulate the inflammatory potential of immune cells and to protect vulnerable parenchymal cells against noxious insults ... to modulate the inflammatory potential of immune cells and to protect vulnerable parenchymal cells against noxious insults ... while at the same time it is expressed in most cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this paradigm, PrPC serves two principal ... while at the same time it is expressed in most cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this paradigm, PrPC serves two principal ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00450/full

Anti-GD3 Chimeric sFv-CD28/T-Cell Receptor ζ Designer T Cells for Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma and Other Neuroectodermal...Anti-GD3 Chimeric sFv-CD28/T-Cell Receptor ζ Designer T Cells for Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma and Other Neuroectodermal...

Chimeric Fv-ζ or Fv-ε receptors are not sufficient to induce activation or cytokine production in peripheral T cells. Blood ... IL-2 rescues antigen-specific T cells from radiation or dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Correlation with induction of Bcl-2. J ... Adoptive T-cell therapies using lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have had ... Such therapies can enhance the immune system by secretion of type I cytokines, but they fail as a general solution to the ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/16/10/2769

The Role of the Immune Cells in Fracture Healing | SpringerLinkThe Role of the Immune Cells in Fracture Healing | SpringerLink

Inflammatory factors secreted by immune cells help to control recruitment,... ... Purpose of review Bone fracture healing is a complex physiological process relying on numerous cell types and signals. ... The immunological function of NK cells is to recognize foreign or virally infected cells and induce apoptosis or cell lysis ... Natural Killer Cells. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are hematopoietic cells of the lymphoid lineage. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11914-018-0423-2

A brief review of clinical trials involving manipulation of invariant NKT cells as a promising approach in future cancer...A brief review of clinical trials involving manipulation of invariant NKT cells as a promising approach in future cancer...

... is being conducted by the invariant natural killer... ... the key role in recognition and eradication of cancer cells, ... 2009): Characterization of the recognition and functional heterogeneity exhibited by cytokine-induced killer cell subsets ... 2008): Type I NKT cells protect (and type II NKT cells suppress) the hosts innate antitumor immune response to a B-cell ... protect tumour cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis [82], facilitate the metastasis of tumour [83], and cause T-cell death ...
more infohttps://www.termedia.pl/A-brief-review-of-clinical-trials-involving-manipulation-of-invariant-NKT-cells-as-a-promising-approach-in-future-cancer-therapies,10,30446,1,1.html

Natural Killer Cells, Viruses And CancerNatural Killer Cells, Viruses And Cancer

... and comprise the third kind of cells other than B and T Lymphocytes. They usually... ... Natural Killer Cells are also defined as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) ... inducing apoptosis. Natural Killers cells are activated in response interferons or macrophages derived cytokines. Patients ... Natural killer cells are derived from Pluripotent Hematopoietic stem cells and are considered as important cells of the immune ...
more infohttp://www.sooperarticles.com/health-fitness-articles/cancer-articles/natural-killer-cells-viruses-cancer-1596752.html

How to Improve Your Immune Function by Boosting Natural Killer CellsHow to Improve Your Immune Function by Boosting Natural Killer Cells

... thereby inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) that destroys the virus along with the infected cell. ... enhanced NK cell activity … increased T-cell proliferation, including altered T-cell activity; altered cytokine production … ... Natural killer (NK) cells, a specific type of white blood cell, are an important component of your innate immune system. Your ... O]n the whole, those whose immune cells consisted of 10 to 13 percent natural killers [NK cells] did not succumb to the flu, ...
more infohttps://www.lewrockwell.com/2018/06/joseph-mercola/how-to-improve-your-immune-function-by-boosting-natural-killer-cells/

Increased Populations of Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Patients with Gastric and...Increased Populations of Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Patients with Gastric and...

... an increased degree of T-cell apoptosis, down-regulation of T cell receptor ζ molecules, and impaired cytokine production (9) . ... Kiessling R., Wasserman K., Horiguchi S., Kono K., Sjoberg J., Pisa P., Petersson M. Tumor-induced immune dysfunction. Cancer ... and defective signal transduction in T cells and natural killer cells (5 , 6) . There is also evidence for increased apoptosis ... Cytokine Production Assay.. Purified CD4+/CD25+ or CD4+/CD25− cells (1 × 105 cells) were placed on anti-CD3 mAb (10 ng/ml; DAKO ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/9/12/4404.long

Phytochemicals for Prevention of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation- Induced Damages[Dagger] - RedorbitPhytochemicals for Prevention of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation- Induced Damages[Dagger] - Redorbit

... thereby protecting the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis (102). The relevance of these findings in cell culture system to ... Natural killer cell stimulatory factor (interleukin-12 [IL-12]) induces T helper type 1 (Th1)-specific immune responses and ... Silymarin treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in UVB-induced immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 producing cells ... Interleukin-12 suppresses ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis by inducing DNA repair. Nat. Cell Biol. 4, 26-31. ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1305781/phytochemicals_for_prevention_of_solar_ultraviolet_radiation_induced_damagesdagger/
  • CIK cells respond to these lymphokines, particularly IL-2, by lysing tumor cells that were already known to be resistant to NK cell or LAK cell activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particularly solid and hematologic tumor cells tend to overexpress NKG2D ligands, making them a sought target of CIK cell-mediated cytolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors and surface markers confer the capability of acting against cells that do not display the major histocompatibility complex, as has been shown by the ability to cause lysis in non-immunogenic, allogeneic and syngeneic tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • CIK cells, along with the administration of IL-2 have been experimentally used to treat cancer in mice and humans with low toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or cord blood mononuclear cells are extracted from either peripheral blood or cord blood, e.g. by simple blood draw. (wikipedia.org)
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