HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Telomerase: An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Pharmacoepidemiology: The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: Rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by mesenchymal and epithelial neoplasms at multiple sites. MUTATION of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, a component of the DNA DAMAGE response pathway, apparently predisposes family members who inherit it to develop certain cancers. The spectrum of cancers in the syndrome was shown to include, in addition to BREAST CANCER and soft tissue sarcomas (SARCOMA); BRAIN TUMORS; OSTEOSARCOMA; LEUKEMIA; and ADRENOCORTICAL CARCINOMA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Subrenal Capsule Assay: In vivo method of screening investigative anticancer drugs and biologic response modifiers for individual cancer patients. Fresh tumor tissue is implanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompetent mice or rats; gross and histological assessments follow several days after tumor treatment in situ.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Literature, ModernCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Piebaldism: Autosomal dominant, congenital disorder characterized by localized hypomelanosis of the skin and hair. The most familiar feature is a white forelock presenting in 80 to 90 percent of the patients. The underlying defect is possibly related to the differentiation and migration of melanoblasts, as well as to defective development of the neural crest (neurocristopathy). Piebaldism may be closely related to WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF: A gene product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It antagonizes the function of MDM2 PROTEIN (which regulates P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN by targeting it for degradation). p14ARF is produced from the beta mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced alpha transcript, is CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.UridineGene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear: Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.TritiumGenes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.RNA Cap-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to RNA CAPS and form nuclear cap binding protein complexes. In addition to stabilizing the 5' end of mRNAs, they serve a diverse array of functions such as enhancing mRNA transport out of the CELL NUCLEUS and regulating MRNA TRANSLATION in the CYTOPLASM.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
... was originally identified in HeLa cells (an immortal cell line derived from cervical cancer cells), but was later found ... Expression of miR-22 can be induced by adding 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to HL-60 cells (leukaemia cell line). ... Li J, Liang S, Yu H, Zhang J, Ma D, Lu X (2010). "An inhibitory effect of miR-22 on cell migration and invasion in ovarian ... Ting Y, Medina DJ, Strair RK, Schaar DG (2010). "Differentiation-associated miR-22 represses Max expression and inhibits cell ...
Among the most commonly used cell lines are HeLa and Jurkat, both of which are immortalized cancer cell lines. HeLa cells ... and cell metabolism. Normal stem cells and germ cells can also be said to be immortal (when humans refer to the cell line).[ ... when a cell splits symmetrically to produce two daughter cells, the process of cell division can restore the cell to a youthful ... Biologists chose the word "immortal" to designate cells that are not subject to the Hayflick limit, the point at which cells ...
... source of the HeLa cell line, subject of The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks (2010) Willie Lanier (b. 1945), Pro Football Hall ...
... had sent his cells to all who requested them, and this problem arose because many workers were growing the immortal HeLa cell ... Exp Cell Res 61:455-457 Gartler, SM. 1968 Apparent HeLa cell contamination of human heteroploid cell lines. Nature 217:750-751 ... He showed that HeLa cells had contaminated many cell lines thought to be unique. Stanley Gartler is currently Professor ... 1968 Apparent HeLa cell contamination of human heteroploid cell lines. Nature 217:750-751 Auersperg N & Gartler SM. 1970 ...
He used chromosome banding to show that many immortal cell lines, previously thought to be unique, were actually HeLa cell ... The HeLa cells had contaminated and overgrown the other cell lines. He was born on January 11, 1929. Nelson-Rees retired in ... world's persistent watchdog in finding the cases in which other cell cultures were overgrown and replaced by HeLa cells. ... ... was a cell culture worker and cytogeneticist who helped expose the problem of cross-contamination of cell lines. ...
One significant cell-line cross contaminant is the immortal HeLa cell line. As cells generally continue to divide in culture, ... cells Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cell cycle arrest, causing cells to stop dividing, known as contact inhibition. Cell- ... The lifespan of most cells is genetically determined, but some cell culturing cells have been "transformed" into immortal cells ... Plant cell lines Tobacco BY-2 cells (kept as cell suspension culture, they are model system of plant cell) Other species cell ...
The cells, later known as HeLa cells, grew at an astonishing rate in the lab and were shipped and sold to researchers for ... Jones's role in the Lacks case was described in the book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. In 1960, the Joneses left ... Research with the cells helped to facilitate medical breakthroughs, including the vaccines for polio and human papillomavirus, ... though controversy later arose because the cells were being used without the knowledge of Lacks or her family. ...
... /ˈhiːlɑː/ (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research. It is the oldest and ... Scanning electron micrograph of just-divided HeLa cells. Zeiss Merlin HR-SEM. HeLa cells stained with Hoechst 33258 HeLa cells ... The HeLa cell lines are known to overtake other cell cultures in laboratory settings and it is estimated that HeLa cells, at ... In 1953, HeLa cells were the first human cells successfully cloned and demand for the HeLa cells quickly grew in the nascent ...
The origins of some immortal cell lines, for example HeLa human cells, are from naturally occurring cancers. Immortalized cell ... There are various immortal cell lines. Some of them are normal cell lines (e.g. derived from stem cells). Other immortalised ... cells. The main advantage of using an immortal cell line for research is its immortality; the cells can be grown indefinitely ... derived from human fetal cells Jurkat cells - a human T lymphocyte cell line isolated from a case of leukemia Vero cells - a ...
... which were cultured to create the first known human immortal cell line. HeLa High offers students a full high school curriculum ... HeLa also offers a variety of other electives including music, digital arts, world languages and leadership. HeLa High students ... Opening in 2013, HeLa was the sixth high school built in the Evergreen School District.. Construction began in 2011 after the ... HeLa has many clubs and extra-curricular activities offered to students, including Spanish Club French Club Key Club Interact ...
A good example of immortal cancer cells is HeLa cells, which have been used in laboratories as a model cell line since 1951. ... but also in epidermal cells, in activated T cell and B cell lymphocytes, as well as in certain adult stem cells, but in the ... Epithelial stem cell tissue and its early daughter cells are the only noncancerous cells in which hTERT can be detected. Since ... thus avoiding cell death as long as the conditions for their duplication are met. Many cancer cells are considered 'immortal' ...
Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cells into Ohio State Penitentiary inmates without informed consent in order to see if people ... Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Broadway Paperbacks. p. 129. Hitler's Black Victims: ...
The Wolf Prince later made a deal with Hela. Faced with a moral dilemma of whom to save, his child or Rahne, he chose the ... The children agreed to stay behind in Hrimhari's cell to emphasize the seriousness of the situation, for when the others do ... He had been fighting them when Ragnarok hit, claiming him the lives of all immortal beings. Hrimhari subsequently revealed a ... Hrimhari fought Hela's armies for his people's freedom but he was eventually captured and prisoned. Through the link Danielle ...
... as much telomerase as is found in the immortal cancer cell line HeLa.[9] ... Years later, these cells were deemed immortal. Typically, the only immortal human cells are our germline and most cancers.[1] ... "Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells." science 279.5349 (1998): 349-352.), a likely ... and that when the gene for that component was inserted into normal human skin cells, they could divide past the Hayflick limit ...
HeLa cells) into their skin, to see if their immune system would reject the cancer cells or if the cells would grow. He did ... Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown/Archetype. pp. 127-135. ISBN 9780307589385. ... "14 Convicts Injected With Live Cancer Cells". The New York Times. 15 June 1956. Johnston, Richard J. (15 April 1957). "Cancer ...
In the 1950s, a prominent virologist named Chester M. Southam injected inmates from the Ohio State Penitentiary with HeLa cells ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Broadway Paperbacks. p. 128. Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of ... Reports say that many guards refused to unlock cells when smoke entered the cell block and left the prisoners in their cells, ... A cell block in the abandoned prison, shortly before demolition. A cell in the abandoned prison, shortly before demolition. The ...
Finally, the property at issue may not have been Moore's cells but the cell line created from his cells. The court then looked ... HeLa Sandra Blakeslee (July 10, 1990). "Patient's Right to Tissue Is Limited". New York Times. Epstein & Sharkey (2016), p. 560 ... The Tissue-Industrial Complex", The New York Times Magazine, retrieved August 5, 2016 Skloot, Rebecca (2010), The Immortal Life ... Moore's cancer cells were later developed into a cell line that was commercialized by Golde and UCLA. The California Supreme ...
There are ~10,000 factories in the nucleoplasm of a HeLa cell, among which are ~8,000 polymerase II factories and ~2,000 ... Activation of telomerase could be part of the process that allows cancer cells to become immortal. The immortalizing factor of ... the host cell undergoes programmed cell death, or apoptosis of T cells. However, in other retroviruses, the host cell remains ... Telomerase is often activated in cancer cells to enable cancer cells to duplicate their genomes indefinitely without losing ...
Ageing Apoptosis Biological immortality HeLa cells Induced stem cells Hayflick L, Moorhead PS (1961). "The serial cultivation ... "that all cells explanted in culture are immortal, and that the lack of continuous cell replication was due to ignorance on how ... Hayflick was preparing normal human cells to be exposed to extracts of cancer cells when he noticed the normal cells had ... the cells eventually reach phase three, a phenomenon of senescence - cell growth diminishes and then cell division stops ...
Activation of telomerase could be part of the process that allows cancer cells to become immortal. The immortalizing factor of ... There are ~10,000 factories in the nucleoplasm of a HeLa cell, among which are ~8,000 polymerase II factories and ~2,000 ... the host cell undergoes programmed cell death, or apoptosis of T cells.[23] However, in other retroviruses, the host cell ... "Cell. 135 (2): 216-26. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.050. PMC 3118044 . PMID 18957198.. ...
... cancer cells which have lost the ability to die when maintained in a cell culture such as the HeLa cell line, and specific stem ... the methylation pattern in their cells (a full reset leads to undesirable immortal cancer cells). This resetting into a ... In contrast, many species can be considered immortal: for example, bacteria fission to produce daughter cells, strawberry ... Normal human cells however die after about 50 cell divisions in laboratory culture (the Hayflick Limit, discovered by Leonard ...
From the 1950s-60s, Chester M. Southam, an important virologist and cancer researcher, injected HeLa cells into cancer patients ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Broadway Paperbacks. p. 128. AFP (October 31, 2007). "A life haunted by WWII ...
That is, immortal means "incapable of dying". Eternal implies guaranteed existence for eternity, and in this context is also ... Aging Anti-aging movement Biological immortality DNA damage theory of aging Dyson's eternal intelligence Eternal youth HeLa ... Kyriazis, Marios (2014). "Reversal of Informational Entropy and the Acquisition of Germ-like Immortality by Somatic Cells". ... Their lifespans would be "indefinite" (that is, they would not be "immortal"), because protection from the effects of aging on ...
... and prison inmates from the Ohio Penitentiary with HeLa cancer cells in order to observe if cancer could be transmitted. ... The Medical and Scientific Conceptions of Influenza, Human Virology at Stanford Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of ... involves immune cells known as T cells: the body's cells constantly display short fragments of their proteins on the cell's ... specific transcription factor genes into normal skin cells of mice or humans can turn these cells into pluripotent stem cells, ...
In this experiment, Southam, along with his colleague, Emanuel Mandel, injected HeLa cancer cells into elderly patients at the ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Broadway Paperbacks ... Three of the hospital's doctors refused to inject the cells without the patients' consent. A public suit followed in which New ... Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Broadway Paperbacks. p. 130. Skloot, Rebecca (2010). ...
In the 1960s, virologist and cancer researcher Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cancer cells into patients at the Jewish ... Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Broadway Paperbacks.. ... or cells derived from females as well as males if they are studying cell cultures, and that the NIH would take the balance of ... Third, maintain a diverse research portfolio in order to capitalize on major discoveries in a variety of fields such as cell ...
... known as HeLa, possessed unexplainable immortal properties. Over the past 60 years, HeLa cells have been instrumental in ... Her cells have enabled scientists to better understand the effects of the atom bomb, cancer and HIV. In total, HeLa cells have ... None of the companies or laboratories who profited from the HeLa cells ever sought their consent. Skloots book changed all ... A sample of her cells was retained without her knowledge or consent. The cells were used in a number of scientific studies and ...
Those cells became known as the HeLa immortal cell line.. HeLa cells (called immortal because they can divide an unlimited ... Every time I hear about Henrietta Lacks and her mysterious immortal cells, I cant help but feel a little haunted. I have ... Yesterday it was announced that the Lacks family will receive formal recognition in scientific research that uses HeLa cells, ... and they will also have a seat at the table in determining how HeLa cells will be used from this point forward. ...
Although Henrietta would die soon after her treatment, her cancer cells, called HeLa, lived on. Her cells were cultivated in ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot - Audiobook Review. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca ... Skloot managed to relate scientific information about the HeLa cells in a way that was easily understandable, but did not sound ... The HeLa cells helped cure polio, but Henriettas family doesnt have health care. ...
Download the app and start listening to The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks today - Free with a 30 day Trial! Keep your ... Henriettas cells lived, and they named this new cell line HeLa, using first letters from both of her names. HeLa cells were so ... The Immortal cells of Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) as the medium, has had a profound impact on biological studies, the likes for ... All Roads Lead to Hela Never heard of Henrietta Lacks and her eternal (hela) cells? Me either, and the story is fascinating. ...
All of the praise is more than deserved, and I would add that the story of Henrietta Lacks, her family, the immortal HeLa cell ... HeLa cells were the first living human cells to be successfully grown in culture. They were distributed to scientists around ... But around the time of her diagnosis, cancer cells from her cervix-famously known around the world as HeLa cells-were taken ... They spawned the first viable, indeed miraculously productive, cell line-known as HeLa. These cells have aided in medical ...
The Help, Hidden Figures and The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks focus on the black struggle and unsung women who helped ... Doctors committed institutional slavery by stealing her cells, assigning a scientific code (HeLa) and used them for decades ... Those cells are still used to this day.. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks was a hard read for me. I spoke with other ... This young womans cells were used and her medical history exploited. After reading this story I am sure there are others like ...
"They became the first immortal cells ever grown in a laboratory.". They also became famous. Labeled HeLa, they were at first ... When Skloot began her 10-year quest for the woman whose unstoppable cell line had saved millions of lives, HeLa cells had been ... "By the 1960s, Henriettas cells were everywhere: The general public could grow HeLa at home using instructions from a ... You are here: Home / Departments / Arts & Media / Medical Ethics, Race, and Henrietta Lacks "Magic" Cells ...
The doctors referred to the strain as HeLa, and when pressed about who was responsible for providing the miraculous cells, gave ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Review: Oprah Winfrey Dominates an HBO Film Told From the Wrong Perspective. An upsetting ... This Article is related to: Television and tagged Oprah Winfrey, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, TV Reviews ... Chronicling the legal but unethical theft of a black womans cells by white doctors, the film proves to be more concerned with ...
Tags: AIDS, HBO, HBO Films, HeLa, HeLa cells, Henrietta Lacks, HIV, Oprah Winfrey, Rose Byrne, The Immortal Life of Henrietta ... Science took her cells. Her family reclaimed her story.. Oprah Winfrey and Rose Byrne star in this adaptation of the critically ... I found out about that movie, "The Immortal Life Of Henrietta Lacks," coming out on HBO in April, I felt the urge to do some ... HBO Films presents The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Saturday, April 22 at 8pm on HBO.. - HBO ...
Tumor-derived human cell lines, HT1080 cells and HeLa cells that also lack p53 function, exhibited little genomic instability ... The remaining wild-type p53 allele is lost in the cell lines. Telomerase activity was undetectable in all immortal cell lines. ... The remaining wild-type p53 allele is lost in the cell lines. Telomerase activity was undetectable in all immortal cell lines. ... minisatellite instability detected by DNA fingerprints was observed in the immortal cell lines. However, all of the cell lines ...
... woman becomes an unwitting pioneer for medical breakthroughs when her cells are used to create the first immortal human cell ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks (DVD) : An African-American ... The story of Henretta Lacks and the HeLa cells was secondary. ... I felt this movie did a disservice to the issue of the HeLa cells story. It was used as a vehicle to allow Oprah some dramatic ... woman becomes an unwitting pioneer for medical breakthroughs when her cells are used to create the first immortal human cell ...
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is about a black woman who died in 1951 of cervical cancer. But that is just the beginning ... The HeLa cell line is one of the first immortal cell lines. These cells are the most used cells in experiments by scientists. ... The cells were labled HeLa, for the first two letters of her first and last name. These cells thrived and grew while ... Finished! The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is about a black woman who died in 1951 of ...
HeLa cells * Human experimentation in medicine -- History * Lacks, Henrietta, 1920-1951 -- Health ... The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. Title The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. Statement of responsibility Rebecca Skloot. ... The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks, Rebecca Skloot, (compact disc, unabridged). Instantiates * The immortal life of Henrietta ... Documents the story of how scientists took cells from an unsuspecting descendant of freed slaves and created a human cell line ...
She was a poor Southern tobacco farmer who worked the same land as her slave ancestors, yet her cells-taken without her ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot Genre: Biography, Science Length: 370 Pages Released: February 2, 2010 ... Blurb via GoodReads: Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. ... The first "immortal" human cells grown in culture, they are still alive today, though she has been dead for more than sixty ...
... abbreviated life grew a seemingly immortal line of cells that made some of the most crucial innovations in modern science ... And from that same life, and those cells, Rebecca… ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. ... human cells that could survive-even thrive-in the lab. Known as HeLa cells, their stunning potency gave scientists a building ... From a single, abbreviated life grew a seemingly immortal line of cells that made some of the most crucial innovations in ...
... human cells grown in culture, they are still alive today, though she has been dead for more than sixty years. HeLa cells were ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. She was ... A lot of people have been talking about The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks again, since the movie starring Oprah is set to ... The new cells and the method of making them also led to vaccines that have protected billions of people around the world from ...
During her initial surgery to remove the tumor, doctors took several of her cells without her knowledge and used them… ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Author: Rebecca Skloot Date Read: 20 May 2017 Genre: Nonfiction/Science Rating: 4 Stars In ... Known as HeLa, Lacks cells became an important tool in aiding medicines progression including finding a vaccine for polio. ... We learn about the medical progress that has been made using the HeLa cells and how black Americans were often forced to ...
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks event in Washington, DC. Discover the venue and the vendors who worked on it and book them ... Our team created The HeLa Project (for HeLa cells) to promote the film, and to support HBO Multicultural Marketings mission to ... This film is the true story of one womans cells being used for tremendous medical advancements and staggering profits, but ...
The HeLa cells are extremely strong and virulent and invaded many other cell lines until proper storage and working conditions ... The first "immortal" human cells grown in culture, they are still alive today, though she has been dead for more than sixty ... HeLa cells were vital for developing the polio vaccine; uncovered secrets of cancer, viruses, and the effects of the atom bomb ... If you could pile all HeLa cells ever grown onto a scale, theyd weigh more than 50 million metric tons-as much as a hundred ...
HeLa cells, and in so doing it traverses the complicated history of the actual human lineage these cells are a part of. HeLa ... entertainment, to read, books, cell line, Rebecca Skloot, Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, cell culture ... Well succeed they did, and HeLa cells became the most widely dispersed human cell lineage in history. They yielded countless ... Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells stained with the actin binding toxin phalloidin (red), microtubules (cyan) and ...
Part scientific inquiry about HeLa cells, part medical mystery about what makes these cells immortal, part memoir about the ... They were named the first human "immortal" cells. Henrietta and her family had no idea that her cells would make such a ... When Henriettas family learns about HeLa, they begin a battle where ethics, race, and medicine collide. The impact HeLa cells ... Just like her cells, she is immortal. She had no idea she would have such an impact on millions of peoples lives. Which leaves ...
Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. She was a poor black tobacco farmer whose cells-taken without ... Henriettas cells have been bought and sold by the billions, yet she remains virtually unknown, and her family cant afford ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, 0307888444,9780307888440,0804190100,9780804190107,9781400052189,9780307589385, Rebecca ...
... who view Henrietta and HeLa not as separate entities, which is the common scientific practice, but as one and the same. ... HeLa cells were unusual because they were naturally immortal. Was it right for a doctor to, without…… References Siminoff, L. ... Yet this achievement also represents one of the most painful juxtapositions in The Immortal Life: the HeLa factory was located ... The discovery that researcher Chester Southam had been injecting HeLa cells into patients roughly half of whom were diagnosed ...
While Henrietta died later that same year, her children and husband were still alive and, unknown to them, her (HeLa) cells ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Digital HD Review. Rose Byrne is terrific as Skloot, a somewhat naïve freelance writer ... It wasnt until 20 years later that they first heard about the cells and that they had been utilized in all manner of medical ... In this case, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is both. Winfrey rarely gets involved in a project unless it has something ...
... human cells grown in culture, they are still alive today, though she has been dead for more than sixty years. HeLa cells were ... but scientists know her as HeLa. She was a poor Southern tobacco farmer, yet her cells--taken without her knowledge--became one ... The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks (Book) : Skloot, Rebecca : Her name was Henrietta Lacks, ... human cells grown in culture, they are still alive today, though she has been dead for more than sixty years. HeLa cells were ...
  • She was a poor black tobacco farmer whose cells-taken without her knowledge in 1951-became one of the most important tools in medicine, vital for developing the polio vaccine, cloning, gene mapping, and more. (redshelf.com)
  • Even when the film forces pretension upon Deborah (like when she awkwardly walks in front of a projection of her mother's cells to visually highlight the connection between science and love ), Winfrey astutely ratchets down her output, providing balance to a scene headed toward artificiality. (indiewire.com)
  • A sample of her cancerous tissue, taken without her knowledge or consent, as was the custom then, turned out to provide one of the holy grails of mid-century biology: human cells that could survive-even thrive-in the lab. (wordpress.com)
  • Chronicling the legal but unethical theft of a black woman's cells by white doctors, the film proves to be more concerned with finding a happy ending than discussing how the systemic nature of America's racial rift has adversely affected a family, if not generations of families. (indiewire.com)
  • And though the cells had launched a multimillion-dollar industry that sells human biological materials, her family never saw any of the profits. (jennabookish.com)
  • Unbelivable that science in the medical field has made such great advancements during this Era without paying any attention to the family of the cells creators. (bibliocommons.com)
  • People were earning profit from her useful cells and the family never received any money or regard for this. (bibliocommons.com)
  • I felt this movie did a disservice to the issue of the HeLa cells story. (bibliocommons.com)
  • This film is the true story of one woman's cells being used for tremendous medical advancements and staggering profits, but without her knowledge - a fascinating story of bio-ethics, race, and class. (thevendry.co)
  • The Foundation is set up to give scholarships for her decendents and also so they can afford to have health insurance and be able to benefit from the advances in medicine that have advanced from the HeLa cells. (wordpress.com)
  • We learn about the medical progress that has been made using the HeLa cells and how black Americans were often forced to partake in this progress. (wordpress.com)
  • The doctors referred to the strain as HeLa, and when pressed about who was responsible for providing the miraculous cells, gave the false name of Helen Lane, for fear of reciprocity as much as doctor-patient confidentiality. (indiewire.com)
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