Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Cilastatin: A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteria, AnaerobicLactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.CephalosporinaseMuramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Posttraumatic skin infections, catheter sepsis and respiratory isolates without clinical ... Susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. ... Biosafety level 2 First isolated in 1976 during an outbreak of peritonitis associated with automated peritoneal dialysis ...
"Molecular Epidemiology of Imipenem-Resistant Acinetobacter haemolyticus and Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Carrying Plasmid- ... Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 44 (10): 3838-41. doi:10.1128/JCM.00407-06. PMC 1594762 . PMID 17021124. Retrieved 2013-07-18 ...
Emergence in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates of the VIM-4 metallo-beta-lactamase encoded by a ... Molecular characterisation of the metallo-beta-lactamase genes in imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from a university ... Detection of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. in Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol ... Rapid emergence and spread of OXA-48-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Belgian hospitals. Int. J. ...
"Antibacterial effect of imipenem in vitro against important aerobic and anaerobic strains isolated from clinical specimens". ... Focht, J; Heilmann, HD; Heinrich, S; Klietmann, W (1985). "A survey of temocillin sensitivity of strains resistant to newer ... Focht, J; Klietmann, W; Nösner, K; Rolinson, GN; Johnsen, J (1988). "Sensitivity of clinical isolates from German hospitals to ... Klietmann, W. F.; Ruoff, K. L. (2001). "Bioterrorism: Implications for the Clinical Microbiologist". Clinical Microbiology ...
... has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following micro-organisms in vitro and in clinical ... penicillin-susceptible isolates only), Streptococcus pyogenes, Note: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci and Enterococcus spp. ... Unlike imipenem and meropenem, ertapenem is highly protein-bound, which results in a longer half-life (4 hours). Ertapenem is ... are resistant to ertapenem. Aerobic and facultative gram-negative microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, ...
Inhibitor-resistant TEM β-lactamases have been found mainly in clinical isolates of E. coli, but also some strains of K. ... imipenem produced the better outcome There have been few clinical studies to define the optimal therapy for infections caused ... In general, these are of little clinical significance. CcrA (CfiA). Its gene occurs in c. 1-3% of B. fragilis isolates, but ... AmpC type β-lactamases are commonly isolated from extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. AmpC β- ...
... aeruginosa isolates are resistant to a large range of antibiotics and may demonstrate additional resistance after unsuccessful ... aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to all other penicillins. carbapenems (meropenem, imipenem, doripenem, but not ertapenem ... "A controlled clinical trial of a therapeutic bacteriophage preparation in chronic otitis due to antibiotic-resistant ... Such findings have been reported in the case of rifampicin-resistant and colistin-resistant strains, in which decrease in ...
... of Greek Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are resistant to third generation and cyclosporins and 60% are resistant to carbapenems ... "Imipenem and meropenem: Comparison of in vitro activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials and adverse effects". Can J Infect ... among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates ESBL producers increased from 1.5% to 4.0%. These strains are resistant to third ... including in patients with levofloxacin-resistant E. coli infections. The carbapenems imipenem and meropenem are recommended by ...
are naturally resistant to penicillin and the majority of related beta-lactam antibiotics, but a number are sensitive to ... Isolated from Fluid Milk Products and Dairy Processing Plants". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69 (1): 130-138. doi: ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa is increasingly recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen of clinical relevance. One of its most ... piperacillin, imipenem, ticarcillin, or ciprofloxacin. Aminoglycosides such as tobramycin, gentamicin, and amikacin are other ...
Once a specific resistance profile has been isolated via clinical laboratory findings, treatment is often modified as indicated ... Vancomycin has long been considered a drug of last resort, due to its efficiency in treating multiple drug-resistant infectious ... Amikacin Amphotericin B Ceftobiprole Ceftaroline Carbapenems (such as imipenem/cilastatin) - used as drug of last resort for a ... Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 51 (10): 763-70. doi:10.5414/CP201898. PMID 23993253. "Marplan ( ...
A clinical isolate of E. coli from the sputum sample of a patient admitted to a Beijing hospital was found to acquire ... Many studies use media with 1 to 2 mg/l of imipenem. However, bacteria that produce OXA-48 or OXA-181 result in low-level ... Since this causes a change in the mass of the antibiotic, resistant bacteria are detectable by MALDI-TOF MS. Accepted clinical ... A meta-analysis of 17 studies investigating the clinical effectiveness of fosfomycin in four multidrug-resistant strains of ...
When sensitivities are known and the isolate is confirmed as resistant to both INH and RMP, five drugs should be chosen in the ... "Clinical outcome of individualised treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latvia: A retrospective cohort study". The ... imipenem co-amoxiclav clofazimine prochlorperazine metronidazole On December 28, 2012 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ... Resistant forms of TB bacteria, either MDR-TB or rifampin-resistant TB, cause 3.9% of new TB cases and 21% of previously ...
... although carbapenems like meropenem or imipenem may possibly work. Though the bacteria is reported to be resistant to first ... Bacterial isolates in many cases can show high level resistance to a range of antibiotics. C. violaceum rarely infects humans, ... Infection caused by C. violaceum is rare, therefore there are no clinical trials evaluating different treatments. Antibiotics ... 2012). "Chromobacterium violaceum: A rare bacterium isolated from a wound over the scalp". Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2 (1): 70- ...
One such derivative - imipenem - was formulated in 1985. Imipenem, an N-formimidoyl derivative of thienamycin, is rapidly ... Initial attempts to isolate the active species proved difficult due to the chemical instability of that component. After many ... Bradley JS, Garau J, Lode H, Rolston KV, Wilson SE, Quinn JP (1999). "Carbapenems in clinical practice: a guide to their use in ... Thienamycin has excellent activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and is resistant to bacterial β- ...
Among one set of isolates from Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 13 (35%) were susceptible to imipenem only, and two (4%) were ... Because routine identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory is not yet possible, Acinetobacter isolates are divided ... A. baumannii can survive on the human skin or dry surfaces for weeks, and is resistant to a variety of disinfectants, making it ... The clinical significance of A. baumannii is partially due to its capacity to develop resistance against many available ...
"Dissemination of NDM metallo-β-lactamase genes among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected during the SMART global ... This rearrangement also makes it a good drug candidate to drug resistant beta-lactamases. Boron based transition state ... "Cilastatin/imipenem/relebactam - AdisInsight". Springer International Publishing AG. Retrieved 29 April 2016. Livermore, David ... This is indeed a great break through in studying drug resistant beta-lactamases. Clavulanic acid or clavulanate, usually ...
Characterization of CSP-1, a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase produced by a clinical isolate of Capnocytophaga sputigena ... Capnocytophaga strains can be resistant to third generation cephalosporins, but remain susceptible to imipenem, cefoxitin, and ... which underlies the need to test the in vitro susceptibility of clinical isolates. Many antimicrobial treatments were used ... Although resistant strains are most frequently isolated in oral carriers, their prevalence is worrying (Jolivet-Gougeon et al ...
Blood cultures can isolate bacteria or fungi in the bloodstream. Sputum Gram staining and culture can also reveal the causative ... Some CAP patients require intensive care, with clinical prediction rules such as the pneumonia severity index and CURB-65 ... Another is an IV antipseudomonal beta-lactam such as cefepime, imipenem, meropenem or piperacillin/tazobactam, plus an ... With the increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, antibiotics such as cefpodoxime may become more popular. ...
Besides clinical markers like tachypnea (fast breathing) or a high white cell count (leukocytosis), the prognosis seems to be ... In European and Asian studies, the etiology of HCAP was similar to that of CAP, and rates of multi drug resistant pathogens ... Bacteria have been the most commonly isolated pathogens, although viral and fungal pathogens are potentially found in ... cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem or piperacillin-tazobactam; plus ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, ...
can be resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, but remain susceptible to imipenem, cefoxitin, and amoxicillin combined ... Characterization of CSP-1, a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase produced by a clinical isolate of Capnocytophaga sputigena ... isolated oral cavity of humans), C. canimorsus, and C. cynodegmi (isolated from the oral cavity of animals). Many strains have ... which underlies the need to test the in vitro susceptibility of clinical isolates. Many antimicrobial treatments were used ...
1999). "Comparison of imipenem and ceftazidime as therapy for severe melioidosis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 29 (2): 381- ... Liu Y, Loh JP, Aw LT, Yap EP, Lee MA, Ooi EE (2006). "Rapid molecular typing of Burkholderia pseudomallei, isolated in an ... Cattle, water buffalo, and crocodiles are considered to be relatively resistant to melioidosis despite their constant exposure ... 2012). "Clinical-epidemiological features of 13 cases of melioidosis in Brazil". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 50 (10): ...
As many as fifty percent of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in the intensive care setting are resistant to methicillin. ... maximizing clinical outcomes and minimizing selection of resistant organisms". Clin Infect Dis. 42 (Supp 2): S72-81. doi: ... as imipenem and meropenem Burkholderia cepacia is an important organism in people with cystic fibrosis and is often resistant ... some institutions may require one clinical symptoms such as shortness of breath, one clinical sign such as fever, plus evidence ...
Moellering, Robert C.; Dray, Marie; Kunz, Lawrence J. (1974-09-01). "Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates of Bacteria to ... Staphylococci that are resistant to methicillin and oxacillin should also be considered clinically resistant to cefoxitin even ... It is a strong beta-lactamase inducer, as are certain other antibiotics (such as imipenem). However, cefoxitin is a better ... Major bacteria resistant to cefoxitin include: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Enterococci Listeria monocytogenes ...
"Penicillin-binding proteins of Bacteroides fragilis and their role in the resistance to imipenem of clinical isolates". Journal ... These organisms are resistant to penicillin by virtue of production of beta-lactamase, and by other unknown factors. This group ... B. fragilis is the most prevalent organism in the B. fragilis group, accounting for 41% to 78% of the isolates of the group. ... Although the B. fragilis group is the most common species found in clinical specimens, it is the least common Bacteroides ...
... imipenem, and piperacillin. It is resistant to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, daptomycin, gentamicin, netilmicin, polymyxin B, ... It may be isolated from soil, food scraps, and water contaminated by infected animals. It can survive in soil for several weeks ... A 7-day course is appropriate, and clinical improvement is usually observed 2-3 days after the beginning of the treatment. Q. ... It is resistant to vancomycin. E. rhusiopathiae is sensitive in vitro and in vivo mainly to penicillins, but also to ...
"Purification and Properties of Inducible Penicillin B-Lactamase Isolated from Pseudomonas maltophilia". Antimicrobial Agents ... Clinical data. Trade names. Pfizerpen, other. Other names. penicillin G potassium,[1] penicillin G sodium. ... Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ... β-lactamase resistant. (2nd generation). *Cloxacillin# (Dicloxacillin. *Flucloxacillin). *Oxacillin. *Nafcillin. *Methicillin‡ ...
Despite plenty of in vivo and in vitro studies mentioned above, the clinical studies were limited. Besides, the information ... Imipenem and Sulbactam in the Treatment of Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Bacteremia. The safety and scientific ... Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from the blood samples of patients Eligibility Criteria. Go to Study Description Study Design ... Effectiveness of Imipenem and Sulbactam in the Treatment of Bacteremic Patients Contracted With Imipenem-resistant ...
Lack of efflux mechanism in a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa highly resistant to beta-lactams and imipenem.. Kadry ... The resistant determinants of clinical isolate to imipenem, ceftazidim, cefriaxone and cefepime were conjugally nontransferable ... An isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis was highly resistant to beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors. ... permeability in the clinical isolate is the main mechanism conferring resistance against beta-lactams including imipenem. ...
... estimate the proportion of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to carbapenems in the United States, and ... imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem) to treat infections caused by these resistant organisms. Carbapenem-resistant ... Intermediate or resistant to imipenem, meropenem, or doripenem.. † Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli ... Intermediate or resistant to imipenem, meropenem, or doripenem.. † NNIS and NHSN include Enterobacteriaceae reported from ...
The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains encoding VIM1 gene, in clinical ... ... of Ambler Class B Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene in Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples ... of Ambler Class B Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene in Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples ... Among the 37 isolate, 30 strains were MBL-producing with imipenem-EDTA method. Twelve strains (18%) were carriers of VIM1 gene ...
... of the isolates were multi drug resistant while only 25% were sensitive to imipenem. More than 80% of the imipenem resistant ... Genetic variations of OprD porin protein in imipenem resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn patients ... The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic sequence rearrangements of OprD gene in imipenem resistant clinical isolates of ... Genetic variations of OprD porin protein in imipenem resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn patients. J ...
... in a Clostridioides difficile isolate. Here, we isolated an LR Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, KUB3006, from a urine ... in a Clostridioides difficile isolate. Here, we isolated an LR Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, KUB3006, from a urine ... LZD-resistant (LR) genetic features include mutations in 23S rRNA/ribosomal proteins, a plasmid-borne 23S rRNA ... Surprisingly, this Tn6218-like element was almost (99%) identical to that of C. difficile Ox3196, which was isolated from a ...
All ribotype 017 isolates carried an extra penicillin-binding protein gene, pbp5, and the imipenem-resistant isolates had ... These clones could disseminate and contribute to imipenem resistance. ... We describe imipenem-resistant and imipenem-susceptible clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile ribotype 017 in Portugal. ... We describe imipenem-resistant and imipenem-susceptible clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile ribotype 017 in Portugal. ...
In this study, among the 77 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, 18 isolates (23.4%) were found to be ... of isolates were colistin resistant. Among the 77 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, 18 isolates (23.4%) were ... 18 isolates (23.4% of 77 imipenem-resistant isolates) were imipenem resistant and ceftazidime susceptible. Multilocus sequence ... only six isolates were resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Among the imipenem-resistant ceftazidime-susceptible isolates ...
The isolates were clonally unrelated; rmtC and rmtF genes were located on a chromosome with the blaNDM-1 gene. Strategies are ... We investigated 16S rRNA methyltransferases in 38 blaNDM-1-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and found RmtC in 3 ... needed to limit the spread of such isolates. ... isolates were resistant to meropenem and imipenem. These ... We describe an occurrence of 16S RMTases RmtC and RmtF in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa co-producing blaNDM-1. The rmtC ...
In vitro effect of minocycline and colistin combinations on imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. J ... Clonal spread of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among different cities of China. J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Dec. 45(12 ... Clinical significance of Acinetobacter species isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005. 37(9):669-75. [ ... Infections caused by imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus biotype anitratus. J Infect Dis. 1993 Dec. 168(6):1602-3. [ ...
Over a six-year period, 73 isolates of A. baumannii were collected from infected patients in two hospitals in Italy. While 69 ... Our results indicate that exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem can stimulate biofilm formation and induce iron ... Genetic profiles of these 69 isolates, determined by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), indicated that they were ... Exposure of A. baumannii SMAL to subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem resulted in biofilm stimulation and increased ...
In vitro effect of minocycline and colistin combinations on imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. J ... baumannii isolates were multidrug resistant (77.6%), while 10 isolates were pan-drug resistant (8.6%) (Table 4). ... Antibiogram of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from clinical specimens at King Hussein Medical Centre, ... and pandrug-resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii group. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Mar;53(3):1295-6. ...
Resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Posttraumatic skin infections, catheter sepsis and respiratory isolates without clinical ... Susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. ... Biosafety level 2 First isolated in 1976 during an outbreak of peritonitis associated with automated peritoneal dialysis ...
of isolates). No. of imipenem- resistant isolates. No. (%) of isolates positive for:. ... b Phenotypic differentiation of P. fluorescens and P. putida was performed for all imipenem-resistant isolates. The phenotypic ... Clinical features of patients and characteristics of A. baumannii isolates with blaSIM-1 cassette-carrying class 1 integrons ... Novel Acquired Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene, blaSIM-1, in a Class 1 Integron from Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates from ...
... commonly isolated from the hospital environment and hospitalized patients. A baumannii is a water organism and preferentially ... In vitro effect of minocycline and colistin combinations on imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. J ... Clonal spread of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among different cities of China. J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Dec. 45(12 ... Clinical significance of Acinetobacter species isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005. 37(9):669-75. [ ...
Imipenem was readily hydrolyzed by crude extracts of imipenem-resistant isolates, but not by extracts of the controls, ... baumanniiclinical isolate susceptible to imipenem and A. baumanniiATCC 19606. In an attempt to detect transfer of imipenem ... Fortunately, imipenem resistance is relatively rare among Acinetobacter clinical isolates. Carbapenem resistance can arise by a ... was isolated (7), and recently, imipenem-hydrolyzing enzymes have been noted in someAcinetobacter isolates in a United Kingdom ...
Several isolates were reported by the clinical microbiology laboratories as being susceptible to imipenem. Although all the ... Carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae isolates are rapidly emerging in New York City. The spread of a strain that possesses a ... Because these isolates are resistant to virtually all commonly used antibiotics, control of their spread is crucial. However, ... isolates were resistant using agar diffusion methods, minimal inhibitory concentrations of imipenem were substantially lower ...
Plazomicin achieved synergy in combination with meropenem or imipenem against 69 imipenem-resistant AB isolates from Spain. MIC ... Mechanisms of resistance to ciprofloxacin, ampicillin/sulbactam and imipenem in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in ... Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim ... Combination antibiotic treatment versus monotherapy for multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pandrug-resistant ...
Clinical trial for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease , Pulmonary Microbiota in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary ... Disease Colonized With P. Aeruginosa Resistant to Imipenem ... Subject: Im Interested in Participating in Your Clinical Trial ... PA strains isolated during lung infection episodes of severe COPD patients often show resistance to antibiotics including ... Pulmonary Microbiota in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Colonized With P. Aeruginosa Resistant to Imipenem ...
Two MDR A. baumannii isolates (ATCC 17978 and AB 251847) were separately cultured in tryptic soy broth (~ 6 log CFU/ml) ... A. baumannii strains are equipped with a multitude of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, rendering them resistant to most of the ... Acinetobacter baumannii is a major nosocomial pathogen causing a wide range of clinical conditions with significant mortality ... Two MDR A. baumannii isolates (ATCC 17978 and AB 251847) were separately cultured in tryptic soy broth (~ 6 log CFU/ml) ...
Imipenem-EDTA disk method for differentiation of metallo-β-lactamase-producing clinical isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and ... and imipenem and imipenem-EDTA MICs for these isolates were 32/1.5 and 256/8, respectively, by the MBL Etest. Antibiotic ... aeruginosa isolates from Hungary were screened for MBL production by phenotypic tests. The isolates were obtained from clinical ... of an Integron-Borne blaVIM-4 Type Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene from a Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolate ...
32 μg/ml for imipenem and 4 to ,32 μg/ml for meropenem. A similar situation was described for carbapenem-resistant isolates of ... clinical isolates susceptible to carbapenems were included (Table 1). Species were identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry ... 3 and Table 1). In carbapenemase-producing isolates, the observed peak corresponded to m/z 427 for all except three isolates. ... Bacterial isolates and carbapenemase detection.Well-typed bacterial carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates from the collection of ...
Our patients isolate was sensitive to amikacin and imipenem, but resistant to clarithromycin. It is difficult to determine if ... W.-J. Koh, O. J. Kwon, K. Jeon et al., "Clinical significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from respiratory ... The resistance-pattern confirmed that the isolate was sensitive to amikacin and imipenem, but resistant to clarithromycin. The ... Isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis caused by any organism is rare, making up about 2% of all cases of infective endocarditis ...
Forty-two multidrug resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae isolates were collected over a 4-month period. Antimicrobial susceptibility ... The isolates comprised diverse sequence types, the most common being ST152 in 7/42(17%) isolates; clone-specific O and K ... All isolates contained the blaCTX-M gene, whilst 41/42(97%) contained blaTEM, 36/42(86%) contained blaOXA and 35/42(83%) ... Diverse virulence genes that were not clone-specific were identified in all but one isolate. IncF, IncH and IncI plasmid ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from any body site, that meets the following criteria: *Resistant to imipenem, meropenem, or ... Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty- ... Isolate submission and laboratory testing. *CRPA Isolate Submission and Laboratory Testing Laboratory testing protocols for ... Carbapenem Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) Information for Health Professionals:. CRPA Sentinel Surveillance Case ...
  • Therefore, we investigated the presence of 16S RMTases in NDM-1-positive P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from different clinical specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • These 42 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were identified from urine (n = 14), blood (n = 13), pus/pus swab and other sources (n = 7), sputum (n = 5) and missing (n = 3) specimens of patients admitted to two referral hospitals over a four-month period from September to December in 2013 (Fig. 1 ). (nature.com)
  • From the 45 non-duplicate isolates of K. pneumoniae recovered from different clinical specimens, a high prevalence of ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (44.4%) was reported using the new lower CLSI breakpoints. (who.int)
  • This group was defined in 1978 as a group of biochemically similar strains isolated from different human specimens and sent to the CDC. (wikipedia.org)
  • All isolates were recovered from respiratory clinical specimens (endotracheal aspirate and sputum). (scielo.br)
  • isolated from various clinical specimens in a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India. (alliedacademies.org)
  • were recovered from various clinical specimens, namely pus (23 samples), urine (54 samples), CSF (12 samples), throat swab (4 samples), vaginal swab (1 sample) and unspecified swab samples (6 samples). (alliedacademies.org)
  • In This study comprises of 2758 samples of clinical specimen among 192 non-fermenting gram negative bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens like Respiratory tract samples, pus wound swab, urine and blood samples are taken as standard conventional methods. (ijcmas.com)
  • Although her initial urine culture yielded vancomycin-resistant enterococci, subsequent urine specimens failed to yield organisms with standard culture techniques, despite gram-positive cocci in chains being seen on gram stain. (upmc.edu)
  • A total of 1300 clinical specimens (included 588 burn swabs, 136 wound swabs, 50 from throat, 204 urine, 110 stool, 20 sputum, 162 blood, 15 ears and 15 eyes) were collected from patients in Hillah hospitals over one year period starting from March, 2014 to March, 2015. (edu.iq)
  • Based on univariate statistical analysis, resistance to imipenem and usage of mechanical ventilation showed a statistically significant effect separately to in-hospital mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ten clinical and ten environmental E. coli isolates were collected from children diarrhea and swim areas on Tigris River in Baghdad city, Iraq, respectively. (dovepress.com)
  • The genetic diversity among isolates was determined with ERIC-pcr. (ispub.com)
  • Detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins was performed by PCR and the ability to express these genes was assessed among isolates by RT-PCR. (scirp.org)
  • Canine skin samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for microbiological culture and sensitivity between January 2007 and June 2010, from which Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, were selected for this investigation. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of carbapenmase producing A. baumannii isolates obtained from Hillah hospitals. (edu.iq)
  • The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the nutritional requirement for P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from sputa and endotracheal aspirate of CF+ and CF-patients. (scielo.br)