Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic related to penicillin.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)

In vitro activities of aminomethyl-substituted analogs of novel tetrahydrofuranyl carbapenems. (1/848)

CL 188,624, CL 190,294, and CL 191,121 are novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. The in vitro antibacterial activities of these THF carbapenems were evaluated and compared with those of biapenem, imipenem, and meropenem against 554 recent clinical isolates obtained from geographically distinct medical centers across North America. The antibacterial activities of the THF carbapenems were equivalent to that of biapenem, and the THF carbapenems were slightly more active than imipenem and less active than meropenem against most of the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but lacked significant activity against Pseudomonas isolates. In general, CL 191,121 was two- to fourfold more active than CL 188,624 and CL 190,294 against the staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates tested. CL 191,121 was twofold less active than imipenem against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and was as activity as imipenem against Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Biapenem and meropenem were two- and fourfold less active than CL 191,121, respectively, against the methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and E. faecalis. All the carbapenems displayed equivalent good activities against the streptococci. Biapenem was slightly more active than the other carbapenems against Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Time-kill curve studies demonstrated that the THF carbapenems were bactericidal in 6 h against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The postantibiotic effect exerted by CL 191,121 was comparable to or slightly longer than that of imipenem against isolates of S. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  (+info)

Resistance of artificial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem and tobramycin. (2/848)

Viable cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were entrapped in alginate gel layers and incubated in a minimal glucose (15 g/L)-yeast extract (2 g/L)-salt medium to form artificial biofilm-like structures. After cultivation for 2 days, the biomass distribution inside the polymer was highly heterogeneous. The cell number reached approximately 1011 cells/g gel in the outer regions of the gel structures whereas the inner areas were less colonized (c. 10(8) cells g/gel). Killing of immobilized organisms by imipenem and tobramycin were compared with free-cell experiments (inoculum c. 10(9) cells/mL). Sessile-like bacteria displayed a higher resistance to the two antibiotics used alone or in combination than did suspended cells. Exposure for 10 h to 20 x MIC imipenem and 15 x MIC tobramycin reduced the number of viable immobilized bacteria to 0.3% and 3%, respectively, of the initial cell population, whereas these antibiotic concentrations were much more efficient (bactericidal) against free-cell cultures (5 log kill in 6 h). A synergic effect of tobramycin and imipenem was detected on bacterial suspensions but not on biofilm-like structures. Effective diffusivity measurements showed that the diffusion of imipenem in the alginate layer was not hindered. A slight but significant enhancement of beta-lactamase induction in immobilized cells as compared with their suspended counterparts was insufficient to explain the high resistance of sessile-like bacteria.  (+info)

In-vitro selection of porin-deficient mutants of two strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduced susceptibilities to meropenem, but not to imipenem. (3/848)

We have evaluated the ability of imipenem and meropenem to select, in vitro, resistant mutants of two clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing both SHV and TEM beta-lactamases. Only meropenem selected mutants of both isolates for which the MICs of meropenem, but not imipenem, were markedly higher than those for the parent strains; the MICs of several other beta-lactam antibiotics, including beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, for these mutants were also higher than those for the parent strains. In contrast, the MICs for the imipenem-selected mutants were the same as, or similar to, those for the parent strains. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that an outer membrane protein in both parent strains was absent in the meropenem-selected mutants, but not in the imipenem-selected mutants. This protein is likely to be a porin, the absence of which is presumably associated with impaired beta-lactam permeability and, therefore, the reduced susceptibilities to these antibiotics exhibited by the mutant strains. We believe that this is the first report of the in-vitro selection of porin-deficient mutants of K. pneumoniae following exposure to meropenem.  (+info)

Negative regulation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane porin OprD selective for imipenem and basic amino acids. (4/848)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprD is a specific porin which facilitates the uptake of basic amino acids and imipenem, a carbapenem antibiotic. Resistance to imipenem due to the loss of OprD is an important mechanism for the loss of clinical effectiveness. To investigate the negative regulatory mechanisms influencing oprD expression, a gene upstream of the coregulated mexEF-oprN efflux operon, designated mexT, was cloned. The predicted 304-amino-acid mature MexT protein showed strong homology to LysR-type regulators. When overexpressed it induced the expression of the mexEF-oprN efflux operon while decreasing the level of expression of OprD. The use of an oprD::xylE transcriptional fusion indicated that it acted by repressing the transcription of oprD. Salicylate, a weak aromatic acid known to reduce porin expression and induce low levels of multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli, was able to induce imipenem resistance and reduce the expression of OprD but not multiple antibiotic resistance or OprN expression in P. aeruginosa. This was also demonstrated to occur at the level of transcription. Acetyl salicylate and benzoate, but not catechol, were also able to reduce the levels of OprD in the P. aeruginosa outer membranes. These OprD-suppressing compounds increased imipenem resistance even in a mexT-overexpressing and nfxC mutant backgrounds, suggesting that such resistance is independent of the MexT repressor and that oprD is influenced by more than a single mechanism of repression.  (+info)

In-vitro susceptibility of 1982 respiratory tract pathogens and 1921 urinary tract pathogens against 19 antimicrobial agents: a Canadian multicentre study. Canadian Antimicrobial Study Group. (5/848)

A total of 3903 pathogens from 48 Canadian medical centres were tested against 19 antimicrobial agents. Five agents showed activity against > or = 90% of all 1982 respiratory tract pathogens tested (ciprofloxacin, 90%; cefoperazone, 91%; ticarcillin/clavulanate, 92%; ceftazidime and imipenem, 93% each). Nine agents had > or = 90% activity against Enterobacteriaceae from respiratory tract infection (cefotaxime and ticarcillin/clavulanate, 90% each; aztreonam, ceftizoxime and ceftriaxone, 91% each; ceftazidime, 93%; ciprofloxacin, 97%; imipenem and netilmicin, 98% each). Similarly, five agents had activity against > or = 90% of all 1921 urinary tract pathogens tested (ciprofloxacin and ticarcillin/clavulanate, 90% each; cefoperazone and netilmicin, 91% each; imipenem, 99%). Nine agents had > or = 95% activity against Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infection (ciprofloxacin, 95%; cefotetan, 97%; aztreonam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone and netilmicin, 98% each; imipenem, 99%). Seventeen agents had activity against > or = 95% of Staphylococcus aureus strains. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates ranged from 2% to 91%.  (+info)

Antibiotic dosing issues in lower respiratory tract infection: population-derived area under inhibitory curve is predictive of efficacy. (6/848)

Several lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) trials have documented a correlation between clinical response and area under the inhibitory curve (24 h AUC/MIC; AUIC). The AUIC values in these studies were based on measured MICs and measured serum concentrations. This study evaluates AUIC estimates made using population pharmacokinetic parameters, and MICs from an automated microbiological susceptibility testing system. A computer database review over 2 years yielded 81 patients at Millard Fillmore Hospital with a culture-documented gram-negative LRTI who had been treated with piperacillin and an aminoglycoside, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin or imipenem. Their AUIC values were estimated using renal function, drug dosages and MIC values. Outcome groups (clinical and microbiological cures and failures) were related to the AUIC values using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, linear regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. A significant breakpoint for clinical cures was an AUIC value at least 72 SIT(-1) x 24 h (inverse serum inhibitory titre integrated over time). All antibiotics performed significantly better above this value than below it. Clinical cure was well described by a Hill-type equation. Within the piperacillin/aminoglycoside regimen, most of the activity came from the piperacillin, which had a higher overall AUIC value than the aminoglycoside. AUIC estimations based upon MIC values derived from the automated susceptibility testing method differed from NCCLS breakpoint data and from tube dilution derived values in this hospital by as much as three tube dilutions. These automated methods probably overestimated the MIC values of extremely susceptible organisms. The lack of precise MIC estimates in automated clinical microbiology methods impairs the use of AUIC to prospectively optimize microbiological outcome. Even ignoring this limitation and using the values as they are reported, the results of this analysis suggest that AUIC targets between 72 and 275 SIT(-1) x 24 h are useful in predicting clinical outcome.  (+info)

Clinical and economic evaluation of subsequent infection following intravenous ciprofloxacin or imipenem therapy in hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia. (7/848)

A recent multicentre clinical study evaluated the safety and efficacy of i.v. ciprofloxacin therapy compared with imipenem-cilastatin in hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia. Monotherapy with i.v. ciprofloxacin was at least equivalent to imipenem in terms of bacteriological eradication and clinical response. In a single-centre, retrospective, post-therapy evaluation of persistent and subsequent infection, the incidence of gram-negative infections and associated costs were compared. The main elements of the economic analysis included costs of additional antimicrobial therapy and hospitalization. Thirty-two patients were randomized into the study, of whom 27 were efficacy-valid. The 13 patients randomized into the ciprofloxacin group were not significantly different from the 14 patients in the imipenem group in terms of clinical parameters. Clinical cure occurred in ten of 13 patients (77%) in the ciprofloxacin group and in seven of 14 (50%) in the imipenem group. Bacteriological eradication was achieved in 11 of 13 (85%) ciprofloxacin-treated and eight of 14 (57%) imipenem-treated patients. Five of 13 (38%) patients in the ciprofloxacin group and nine of 14 (64%) in the imipenem group experienced persistent or subsequent infection requiring post-treatment antimicrobials. In these five ciprofloxacin patients, three had cultures with gram-positive organisms only and two had cultures with both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. In the nine imipenem-treated patients requiring post-study antimicrobials, all had gram-negative bacteria and three also had gram-positive organisms. The incidence of subsequent gram-negative infection in the two groups (15% vs 64%) was significantly different (P < 0.05). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from seven patients in the imipenem group but only one in the ciprofloxacin group (P < 0.05). Subsequent costs for post-therapy antimicrobials and hospital stay while receiving study and post-study drug therapy were evaluated; the cost per patient cure was US$29,000 for ciprofloxacin and US$76,000 for imipenem. Initial treatment of severe pneumonia with ciprofloxacin resulted in significantly less subsequent gram-negative infection and was associated with substantially lower curative costs.  (+info)

Multiple roles for IL-12 in a model of acute septic peritonitis. (8/848)

The present study addressed the role of IL-12 in a murine model of septic peritonitis, induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Although CLP surgery induced IL-12 production at 6 and 24 h after surgery, IL-12 immunoneutralization was clearly deleterious in this model: 54% of CLP mice receiving preimmune serum survived, whereas mice administered IL-12 antisera prior to CLP experienced a 25% survival rate. IL-12 immunoneutralization not only led to increased mortality, but also appeared to promote a shift away from IL-12 and IFN-gamma, in favor of IL-10. This cytokine shift corresponded to changes in bacterial load, as CLP mice receiving IL-12 antiserum yielded more CFUs from the peritoneal cavity at 24 h after CLP. To address the role of bacterial infection in IL-12 antiserum-induced mortality following CLP, antibiotics were administered for 4 days after surgery. Despite regular antibiotic administration, IL-12 immunoneutralization still reduced survival in CLP mice. Furthermore, histology of the ceca revealed that mice administered IL-12 antisera failed to show typical organization of the damaged cecum wall. Accordingly, Gram staining revealed bacteria within peritoneal fluids from these mice, while peritoneal fluids from CLP mice that received preimmune serum and antibiotics were free of bacteria. Altogether, these data suggested multiple important roles for IL-12 in the evolution of murine septic peritonitis.  (+info)

Some common types of Acinetobacter infections include:

1. Pneumonia: This is an infection of the lungs that can cause fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections of the bladder, kidneys, or ureters that can cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
3. Bloodstream infections (sepsis): This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause widespread inflammation. Symptoms can include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and shortness of breath.
4. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are infections of the skin and underlying tissues that can cause redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.
5. Bacteremia: This is a condition in which bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause an infection.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the heart valves, which can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and shortness of breath.

Acinetobacter infections are often caused by the bacteria entering the body through a wound or surgical incision. They can also be spread through contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment in healthcare settings.

Treatment of Acinetobacter infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, which may be administered intravenously or orally. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Prevention of Acinetobacter infections is important for reducing the risk of these infections occurring in healthcare settings. This can include proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and effective cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment.

Overall, Acinetobacter infections are a significant concern in healthcare settings, and prompt recognition and treatment are critical for preventing serious complications and improving patient outcomes.

Pseudomonas infections are challenging to treat due to the bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antibiotics. The treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.

Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:

* Pneumonia
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Meningitis
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis

Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:

* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.

Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.

Previous article'Etiology' Next article 'Esophageal Cancer'

Klebsiella Infections can occur in anyone, but certain groups of people are at higher risk, such as premature infants, people with weakened immune systems, and those with chronic medical conditions like diabetes, liver or kidney disease.

Symptoms of Klebsiella Infections include fever, chills, cough, difficulty breathing, painful urination, redness and swelling in the affected area, and in severe cases, sepsis and death.

Diagnosis of Klebsiella Infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures and urine cultures.

Treatment of Klebsiella Infections usually involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent it from spreading. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide appropriate care and monitoring.

Prevention of Klebsiella Infections includes good hand hygiene, proper cleaning and disinfection of equipment and surfaces, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have the infection. Vaccines are also available for certain types of Klebsiella Infections, such as pneumonia.

Complications of Klebsiella Infections can include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and sepsis, which can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.

Recovery from Klebsiella Infections usually occurs within a few days to a week after antibiotic treatment is started, but in severe cases, recovery may take longer and may require hospitalization and close monitoring.

In conclusion, Klebsiella Infections are a type of bacterial infection that can affect various parts of the body, and can be mild or severe. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are essential to prevent complications and ensure a successful recovery. Proper hygiene practices and vaccines are also important for preventing the spread of these infections.

In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.

Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:

1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.

Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.

In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.

The most common bacteria that cause pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known as pneumococcus), Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria can infect the lungs through various routes, including respiratory droplets, contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person.

Symptoms of pneumonia may include cough, fever, chills, shortness of breath, and chest pain. In severe cases, pneumonia can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, sepsis, and death.

Diagnosis of pneumonia typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood cultures. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Vaccines are also available to protect against certain types of bacterial pneumonia, particularly in children and older adults.

Preventative measures for bacterial pneumonia include:

* Getting vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying hydrated and getting enough rest
* Quitting smoking, if applicable
* Managing underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or heart disease

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms of pneumonia develop, particularly in high-risk populations. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for patients with bacterial pneumonia.

Bacteroides infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by the Bacteroides genus of bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the human gut and play an important role in the digestive process, but they can also cause infections in various parts of the body.

Types of Bacteroides Infections:

1. Bacteroides fragilis: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides fragilis bacterium and is typically found in the gut, skin, and respiratory tract.
2. Bacteroides vulgatus: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides vulgatus bacterium and is commonly found in the gut and respiratory tract.
3. Bacteroides caccae: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides caccae bacterium and is typically found in the gut and skin.
4. Bacteroides distasonis: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides distasonis bacterium and is commonly found in the gut and respiratory tract.
5. Bacteroides eggerthii: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides eggerthii bacterium and is typically found in the gut and skin.

Causes and Risk Factors:

Bacteroides infections can occur due to a variety of factors, including:

1. Weakened immune system: People with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking immunosuppressive drugs, are more susceptible to Bacteroides infections.
2. Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the skin or gut can provide an entry point for Bacteroides bacteria to enter the body and cause an infection.
3. Surgery: People who have undergone surgery, particularly gastrointestinal surgery, are at risk of developing Bacteroides infections.
4. Contaminated medical devices: Medical devices such as catheters or implantable devices can become contaminated with Bacteroides bacteria and cause an infection.
5. Poor hygiene: Poor hygiene practices, such as not washing hands regularly or not sterilizing medical equipment, can increase the risk of developing a Bacteroides infection.
6. Smoking: Smoking can weaken the immune system and increase the risk of developing Bacteroides infections.
7. Diabetes: People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing Bacteroides infections, particularly in the skin and soft tissues.
8. Obesity: Obesity can increase the risk of developing Bacteroides infections, particularly in the gut and respiratory tract.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of Bacteroides infections vary depending on the location of the infection and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms of Bacteroides infections include:

1. Skin infections: Redness, swelling, warmth, and pain at the site of the infection. Pus-filled abscesses may also develop.
2. Respiratory infections: Coughing, difficulty breathing, chest pain, and fever.
3. Gastrointestinal infections: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
4. Bone and joint infections: Pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb.
5. Urinary tract infections: Painful urination, frequency of urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
6. Sepsis: Fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion or disorientation.

Diagnosis:

Bacteroides infections can be difficult to diagnose because the bacteria can be found on the skin and in the gut of healthy individuals. However, there are several tests that can help healthcare providers diagnose a Bacteroides infection:

1. Blood cultures: Blood cultures can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in the bloodstream.
2. Urine cultures: Urine cultures can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in the urinary tract.
3. Surgical wound cultures: Surgical wound cultures can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in wounds.
4. Imaging studies: Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help healthcare providers visualize the location and extent of the infection.
5. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) testing: PCR testing can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides DNA in a sample of blood or tissue.

Treatment:

The treatment of Bacteroides infections depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the individual's overall health. Some common treatments for Bacteroides infections include:

1. Antibiotics: Bacteroides bacteria are typically resistant to antibiotics, but some strains may be susceptible to certain types of antibiotics such as cefoxitin, imipenem-cilastatin, and meropenem.
2. Surgical drainage: If the infection is localized and does not respond to antibiotic therapy, surgical drainage may be necessary to remove the infected tissue or fluid.
3. Supportive care: Patients with severe Bacteroides infections may require hospitalization and supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and monitoring of vital signs.
4. Probiotics: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can help restore the balance of gut flora and may be used to treat Bacteroides infections.
5. Enzyme-based therapy: Enzyme-based therapy, such as collagenase, can be used to break down the extracellular matrix that surrounds the bacteria and help eliminate them from the body.

Prevention:

Preventing Bacteroides infections is challenging, but there are some measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of infection. These include:

1. Proper wound care: Wounds should be cleaned and covered with sterile dressings to prevent bacterial growth.
2. Good hygiene: Hands should be washed frequently, especially after contact with wounds or contaminated surfaces.
3. Proper sterilization of medical equipment: All medical equipment should be properly sterilized before use to prevent the spread of infection.
4. Vaccination: Vaccines are available for some types of Bacteroides, such as the Bacteroides fragilis vaccine, which can help prevent infections caused by this bacterium.
5. Antibiotic stewardship: Antibiotics should be used judiciously and only when necessary to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Overall, Bacteroides infections can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but with appropriate management and prevention strategies, patients can recover fully. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early intervention can improve outcomes.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:

* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)

The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Weakness
* Confusion
* Shortness of breath

Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for bacteremia include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures

Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.

At high doses, imipenem is seizurogenic. Imipenem acts as an antimicrobial through inhibiting cell wall synthesis of various ... Not many species are resistant to imipenem except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Oman) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Imipenem is ... Imipenem was patented in 1975 and approved for medical use in 1985. It was discovered via a lengthy trial-and-error search for ... Imipenem has a broad spectrum of activity against aerobic and anaerobic, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is ...
"Cilastatin/imipenem/relebactam - AdisInsight". Springer International Publishing AG. Retrieved 29 April 2016. "FDA approves new ... used in combination with imipenem/cilastatin (Recarbrio). β-lactamase inhibitors with other types of non β-lactam cores: ...
... whereas imipenem is usually administered as a 20-minute to one hour infusion. Meropenem is somewhat less potent than imipenem ... Imipenem, the first clinically used carbapenem, was developed at Merck and Co. It was approved for use in the United States in ... Imipenem and meropenem are useful in cases in which P. aeruginosa is a suspected pathogen. A 2015 meta analysis concluded that ... Unlike imipenem, which produced an unacceptable rate of seizures in a phase 2 trial, meropenem is effective for the treatment ...
imipenem,co-amoxiclav,clofazimine,prochlorperazine,metronidazole. On 28 December 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ... Chambers, H. F.; Turner, J.; Schecter, G. F.; Kawamura, M.; Hopewell, P. C. (2005). "Imipenem for Treatment of Tuberculosis in ... imipenem-cilastatin/meropenem, amikacin/streptomycin, ethionamide/prothionamide, p-aminosalicylic acid) For patients with RR-TB ...
cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem or piperacillin-tazobactam; plus ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, ... A third generation cephalosporin (ceftazidime) + carbapenems (imipenem) + beta lactam & beta lactamase inhibitors (piperacillin ...
Examples of carbapenems include meropenem and imipenem. "Feedback for Practical 10: Antimicrobial Agents". Archived from the ...
Susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. ...
One such derivative, imipenem, was formulated in 1985. Imipenem, an N-formimidoyl derivative of thienamycin, is rapidly ... To prevent its rapid degradation, imipenem is normally coadministered with cilastatin, an inhibitor of this enzyme. Nicolaou, K ...
H. histolytica is also susceptible to metronidazole and imipenem. However, advanced gas gangrene infections caused by H. ...
Unlike imipenem, it is stable to dehydropeptidase-1, so can be given without cilastatin. In 2016, a synthetic peptide- ... The overall spectrum is similar to that of imipenem, although meropenem is more active against Enterobacteriaceae and less ... Meropenem has a reduced potential for seizures in comparison with imipenem. Several cases of severe hypokalemia have been ...
Imipenem/relebactam: carbapenem/ β-lactamase inhibitor combination (cell wall synthesis inhibitor). FDA approved on 16 July ...
It is a strong beta-lactamase inducer, as are certain other antibiotics (such as imipenem). However, cefoxitin is a better ... coli to carbapenems such as imipenem and ertapenem. "Cefoxitin International". Drugs.com. 2 November 2020. Retrieved 8 November ... substrate than imipenem for beta-lactamases. In the presence of cefoxitin, bacteria that make beta-lactamases will increase ...
Meropenem, imipenem and the cefoperazone-sulbactam combination (Sulperazone) are also effective. Intravenous amoxicillin- ... B. pesudomallei are generally susceptible to ceftazidime, meropenem, imipenem, and co-amoxiclav. These drugs generally kill ...
Bégué P, Quinet B, Baron S, Challier P, Fontaine JL, Lasfargues G (1989). "[Clinical and pharmacokinetic study of imipenem/ ...
Imipenem alone is an effective antibiotic and can be given without cilastatin. Cilastatin itself does not have antibiotic ... Thus imipenem/cilastatin, like amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, is a commonly used combination product. Keynan S, Hooper NM, Felici ... Dehydropeptidase is an enzyme found in the kidney and is responsible for degrading the antibiotic imipenem. Cilastatin can ... therefore be combined intravenously with imipenem in order to protect it from degradation, prolonging its antibacterial effect ...
Many studies use media with 1 to 2 mg/L of imipenem. However, bacteria that produce OXA-48 or OXA-181 result in low-level ... Therefore, more recent screening media use broth containing 0.5-1 mg/L imipenem or 0.5 mg/L ertapenem. The downsides to this ... each imipenem MIC doubling dilution doubled the probability of death. This classification scheme correctly predicted 82.6% of ... such as imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem and doripenem) and monobactams. These antibiotics share common structure and mechanism ...
Clostridia are also susceptible to tetracyclines, carbapenems (imipenem), metronidazole, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol. The ...
Imipenem Tebipenem Minamimura M, Taniyama Y, Inoue E, Mitsuhashi S (July 1993). "In vitro antibacterial activity and beta- ...
Cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin from the β-Lactam antibiotic class.[more detail needed] Imipenem (a carbapenem) is ...
This bacterium is susceptible to the β-lactam antibiotics imipenem, ceoxitin, and ticarcillin. B. wadsworthia is a Gram- ...
Minocycline is usually substituted when a sulfa cannot be given; high-dose imipenem and amikacin have also been used in severe ...
... in a recent comparison of ciprofloxacin and imipenem for bacteremia involving an ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, imipenem ... Plasmid-mediated IMP-type carbapenemases (IMP stands for active-on-imipenem), 19 varieties of which are currently known, became ... For infections caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella species, treatment with imipenem or meropenem has been ... CcrA was known before imipenem was introduced, and producers have shown little subsequent increase. Originally described from ...
The imipenem/cilastatin, clindamycin, or combinations containing an inhibitor of beta-lactamases (i.e. Augmentin, Unasyn) are ... can be resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, but remain susceptible to imipenem, cefoxitin, and amoxicillin combined ...
"Refractory Craniofacial Actinomycetoma Due to Streptomyces somaliensis That Required Salvage Therapy with Amikacin and Imipenem ...
Kelmer, G.; Tatz, A.J.; Kdoshim, E.; Britzi, M.; Segev, G. (October 2017). "Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of imipenem ... Limb perfusion of carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem and meropenem have been studied in horses. However, a retrospective ...
Among one set of isolates from Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 13 (35%) were susceptible to imipenem only, and two (4%) were ... Wood GC, Hanes SD, Croce MA, Fabian TC, Bougher BA (2002). "Comparison of ampicillin-sulbactam and imipenem-cilastatin for the ...
... in vitro effects of cephaloglycin and imipenem". J Am Soc Nephrol. 1 (5): 815-21. doi:10.1681/ASN.V15815. PMID 2133431. Tune B ...
Rehman, Md Tabish; Shamsi, Hira; Khan, Asad U (2014). "Insight into the Binding Mechanism of Imipenem to Human Serum Albumin by ... "A Plasmid-Borne blaOXA-58 Gene Confers Imipenem Resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from a Lebanese Hospital". ...
In contrast to imipenem, doripenem and meropenem, it is not active against Enterococcus, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species ... Regarding pharmacokinetics, imipenem, doripenem and meropenem have lower plasma protein bindings (up to 25%) and shorter half- ... Imipenem/Cilastatin, and Meropenem) on Serum Valproic Acid Concentrations". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 38 (5): 587-92. doi: ... ertapenem has slightly better activity against many Gram-negative bacteria than other carbapenems such as imipenem. ...
June 2018). "Relebactam Is a Potent Inhibitor of the KPC-2 β-Lactamase and Restores Imipenem Susceptibility in KPC-Producing ... In the United States, relebactam is approved for use in the combination imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam (Recarbrio). Avibactam ...
... (UNII: 71OTZ9ZE0A) (IMIPENEM ANHYDROUS - UNII:Q20IM7HE75) IMIPENEM ANHYDROUS. 1 kg in 1 kg. ...
Why is imipenem and meropenem resistance important? Imipenem and meropenem are carbapenem antimicrobial agents used to treat a ... Imipenem degrades easily. Studies suggest meropenem may be more stable than imipenem. However, for either antimicrobial agent, ... How much resistance to imipenem or meropenem occurs in clinical isolates? In general, resistance to these carbapenems is rare. ... What Gram-negative organisms are resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem? Published reports indicate some resistance in a ...
Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection Imipenem and cilastatin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused ... Imipenem, Cilastatin, and Relebactam Injection Imipenem, cilastatin, and relebactam injection is used to treat adults with ...
Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Use imipenem and cilastatin injection until you finish the prescription, even if you feel better. If you stop using imipenem ... Before using imipenem and cilastatin injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to imipenem or cilastatin ... Use imipenem and cilastatin injection exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed ...
Because imipenem is rapidly inactivated by renal dehydropeptidase I (DHP-1), it is given in combination with cilastatin (sye ... Imipenem (im i pen em) is a broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic which is used for severe bacterial infections caused by ... Imipenem/cilastatin was approved for use in the United States in 1985. Imipenem-cilastatin is indicated for the treatment of ... a DHP-I inhibitor which increases half-life and tissue penetration of imipenem. Imipenem-cilastatin, like other carbapenems, ...
Because imipenem is rapidly inactivated by renal dehydropeptidase I (DHP-1), it is given in combination with cilastatin (sye ... Imipenem (im i pen em) is a broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic which is used for severe bacterial infections caused by ... Imipenem/cilastatin was approved for use in the United States in 1985. Imipenem-cilastatin is indicated for the treatment of ... a DHP-I inhibitor which increases half-life and tissue penetration of imipenem. Imipenem-cilastatin, like other carbapenems, ...
"cilastatin"[All Fields] OR ("imipenem"[All Fields] OR ("imipenem"[All Fields] AND "anhydrous"[All Fields])). Search. ...
The MIC for imipenem for RT017, the imipenem-resistant isolates, was ,32 mg/L (Table 1); the MIC for the 2 non-RT017 isolates ... We describe imipenem-resistant and imipenem-susceptible clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile ribotype 017 in Portugal. ... Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile RT017 imipenem-resistant isolates from hospital A and imipenem-susceptible isolates ... Mutations differentiating Clostridium difficile RT017 imipenem-resistant isolates found at hospital A from imipenem-susceptible ...
IMIPENEM (UNII: 71OTZ9ZE0A) (IMIPENEM ANHYDROUS - UNII:Q20IM7HE75) IMIPENEM ANHYDROUS. 1 kg in 1 kg. ... IMIPENEM powder. Out of scope - Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm normal forms. Out of scope information ... IMIPENEM powder. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will be specified as ... IMIPENEM powder. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. https:// ...
LBXMI2 - Imipenem 2. Variable Name: LBXMI2. SAS Label: Imipenem 2. English Text: Imipenem 2 Target: Both males and females 1 ... LBXMI1 - Imipenem 1. Variable Name: LBXMI1. SAS Label: Imipenem 1. English Text: Imipenem 1. Target: Both males and females 1 ...
Imipenem-relebactam susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli by agar dilution, disk diffusion, and gradient strip ... Dive into the research topics of Imipenem-relebactam susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli by agar dilution, disk ...
Find information on Imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... "Imipenem/cilastatin." Daviss Drug Guide, 18th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2023. Anesthesia Central, anesth.unboundmedicine.com/ ... anesthesia/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51400/11.0/imipenem_cilastatin. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Imipenem/cilastatin. ... Imipenem/cilastatin [Internet]. In: Daviss Drug Guide. F.A. Davis Company; 2023. [cited 2023 June 08]. Available from: https ...
Available Strength of Imipenem and Cilastatin ...
Imipenem-cilastatin is used for the treatment of multiple-organism infections in which other agents either do not provide wide- ... Imipenem is a thienamycin derivative with greater potency and broader antimicrobial spectrum than other beta-lactam antibiotics ... multicenter study comparing two regimens with imipenem-cilastatin. Intensive Care Med. 2003 Nov. 29(11):1974-80. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Imipenem containing regimen through port-a-cath for ambulatory XDR-TB and pre XDR-TB patients: A mixed methods study on ... Ambulatory management of pre- and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis patients with imipenem delivered through port-a-cath ... Ambulatory management of pre- and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis patients with imipenem delivered through port-a-cath ...
Novel carbapenem-β-lactamase inhibitor combination, imipenem/relebactam (IMI-REL), has been recently approved for treatment of ... Successful Treatment of Bloodstream Infection due to a KPC-Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae Resistant to Imipenem/Relebactam in ... Novel carbapenem-β-lactamase inhibitor combination, imipenem/relebactam (IMI-REL), has been recently approved for treatment of ...
Imipenem 1. S. Imipenem+chelators 3. 1. ---. Levofloxacin 0.5. S. Meropenem <=0.12. S. ...
AMP, ampicillin; CAX, ceftriaxone; CIP, ciprofloxacin; F, female; GM, gentamicin; ID, identification; IMP, imipenem; M, male; ...
Imipenem. 22. 4. 8. ,0.5-8. 2. 4. 100. Linezolid. 22. 4. 16. ,2-16. 4. 8. 100. ...
Insights into the periplasmic proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii AB5075 and the impact of imipenem exposure. A proteomic ... Insights into the periplasmic proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii AB5075 and the impact of imipenem exposure. A proteomic ... Insights into the periplasmic proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii AB5075 and the impact of imipenem exposure. A proteomic ... grown in the absence and presence of imipenem (IMP). Through the proteomic approach, 65 unique periplasmic proteins common in ...
Single dose imipenem-cilastatin compared with three doses of cefuroxime and metronidazole as prophylaxis in elective colorectal ... Entra nei temi di ricerca di Single dose imipenem-cilastatin compared with three doses of cefuroxime and metronidazole as ...
Recombination experiments to reproduce non-susceptibility to imipenem in E. coli K12 C600 were not successful when only the ... Non-susceptibility to only imipenem observed in two clinical isolates suggested a new mechanism, described in the present study ... Recombination experiments to reproduce non-susceptibility to imipenem in E. coli K12 C600 were not successful when only the ... Non-susceptibility to only imipenem observed in two clinical isolates suggested a new mechanism, described in the present study ...
Elucidating the survival and response of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to imipenem at sub-lethal ... Most genes related to cell division, central carbon metabolism and nucleotide metabolism were downregulated after imipenem ... Elucidating the survival and response of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to imipenem at sub-lethal ... strains untreated and treated with sub-lethal concentrations of imipenem were investigated via phenotype microarrays (PM). The ...
Find information on Furosemide (Lasix) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
Antibiotics (imipenem). *Baclofen. *Medications used to treat mental health disorders (bupropion). *Painkillers (tramadol) ...
Imipenem/Cilastatin No. (%) of Patients Microbiologic/ Clinical Outcomes MSSA* 21. 14 (66.7)/13 (61.9). 19. 13 (68.4)/15 (78.9) ... for a total of 7 to 15 days to intravenous imipenem/cilastatin (500 to 1000 mg every 6 to 8 hours daily) followed by oral ...
Imipenem/Cilastatin Kabi Powder For Solution For Infusion 500mg/500mg Imipenem/Cilastatin Kabi Powder For Solution For Infusion ...
  • Imipenem and cilastatin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria, including endocarditis (infection of the heart lining and valves) and respiratory tract (including pneumonia), urinary tract, abdominal (stomach area), gynecological, blood, skin, bone, and joint infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antibiotics such as imipenem and cilastatin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Imipenem and cilastatin injection comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) or intramuscularly (into a muscle). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will tell you how long to use imipenem and cilastatin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may receive imipenem and cilastatin injection in a hospital, or you may administer the medication at home. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are using imipenem and cilastatin injection at home, use it at around the same times every day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Use imipenem and cilastatin injection exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you will be using imipenem and cilastatin injection at home, your healthcare provider will show you how to use the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ask your healthcare provider what to do if you have any problems injecting imipenem and cilastatin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should begin to feel better during the first few days of treatment with imipenem and cilastatin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Use imipenem and cilastatin injection until you finish the prescription, even if you feel better. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you stop using imipenem and cilastatin injection too soon or if you skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Imipenem and cilastatin injection is also sometimes used to treat patients who have fever and are at high risk for infection because they have a low number of white blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • or any of the ingredients in imipenem and cilastatin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How much resistance to imipenem or meropenem occurs in clinical isolates? (cdc.gov)
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates are intrinsically resistant to imipenem. (cdc.gov)
  • We describe imipenem-resistant and imipenem-susceptible clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile ribotype 017 in Portugal. (cdc.gov)
  • All ribotype 017 isolates carried an extra penicillin-binding protein gene, pbp5 , and the imipenem-resistant isolates had additional substitutions near the transpeptidase active sites of pbp1 and pbp3 . (cdc.gov)
  • In another study, isolates collected in a South Korea hospital during 2000-2009 were analyzed, and a resistance rate to imipenem of 8% (12% among RT017 isolates) was found ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • the MIC for the 2 non-RT017 isolates was 16 mg/L. The 22 imipenem-resistant RT017 isolates were found at hospital A throughout the study period, suggesting the existence of a persistent clone, a finding supported by whole-genome sequencing data ( Technical Appendix ). (cdc.gov)
  • Among the 25 RT017 isolates, 3 were imipenem-susceptible and from hospital B (MIC range 1.5-3 mg/L) ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In Vitro Activity of Imipenem/Relebactam Against Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Obtained from Intra-abdominal, Respiratory Tract, and Urinary Tract Infections in China: Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2015-2018. (bvsalud.org)
  • Considering the increasing incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in China , this study aimed to establish the in vitro effectiveness of imipenem /relebactam (IMI/REL) on clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates derived from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), respiratory tract infections (RTIs), and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in China between 2015 and 2018. (bvsalud.org)
  • Non-susceptibility to only imipenem observed in two clinical isolates suggested a new mechanism, described in the present study. (univ-lorraine.fr)
  • All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, imipenem and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. (scirp.org)
  • Imipenem and meropenem are carbapenem antimicrobial agents used to treat a variety of serious infections when an organism is resistant to the primary agent of choice. (cdc.gov)
  • What Gram-negative organisms are resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem? (cdc.gov)
  • We found 24 (12.6%) were resistant to imipenem. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the periplasmic space contains several proteins with crucial cellular functions, besides carbapenemases, we decided to study the periplasmic proteome of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii AB5075 strain, grown in the absence and presence of imipenem (IMP). (uniroma1.it)
  • Phenotypic responses of three genotypically distinct carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) strains untreated and treated with sub-lethal concentrations of imipenem were investigated via phenotype microarrays (PM). The gene expression and metabolism of the strain harboring bla NDM-1 before and after exposure to sub-lethal concentration of imipenem were further investigated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) and 1 H NMR spectroscopy respectively. (um.edu.my)
  • Novel carbapenem-β-lactamase inhibitor combination, imipenem/relebactam (IMI-REL), has been recently approved for treatment of infections with limited or no alternative treatment options. (unibo.it)
  • valacyclovir, imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam. (medscape.com)
  • In a pan-European study of ≈900 C. difficile strains, the overall rate of resistance to imipenem, an antimicrobial drug of the carbapenem class, currently widely used as a last-line drug to treat infections by gram-negative bacteria, was found to be 7.41%, and the geometric mean (GM) MIC of imipenem for RT017 strains was 5.91 mg/L ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, IMI/REL restored 66.3% susceptibility in imipenem -nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae . (bvsalud.org)
  • Recombination experiments to reproduce non-susceptibility to imipenem in E. coli K12 C600 were not successful when only the common substitution was transferred, whereas recombination with DNA fragments including either the three substitutions (strain LSNy) or the two substitutions (strain VSBj) were successful. (univ-lorraine.fr)
  • The combination of imipenem and cilastatin is available generically and under the brand name Primaxin as 250 mg or 500 mg infusion bottles for IV use or 500 mg or 750 mg vials of lyophilized powder for im injection. (nih.gov)
  • Imipenem-cilastatin, like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell wall integrity and synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Why is imipenem and meropenem resistance important? (cdc.gov)
  • However, studies have shown false resistance to imipenem in commercially prepared test panels due to degradation of the drug or to a manufacturing problem where concentrations of imipenem were too low (1,2,4,5). (cdc.gov)
  • These clones could disseminate and contribute to imipenem resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary resistance to imipenem]. (nih.gov)
  • Imipenem is a thienamycin derivative with greater potency and broader antimicrobial spectrum than other beta-lactam antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • Insights into the periplasmic proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii AB5075 and the impact of imipenem exposure. (uniroma1.it)
  • Because imipenem is rapidly inactivated by renal dehydropeptidase I (DHP-1), it is given in combination with cilastatin (sye" la stat' in), a DHP-I inhibitor which increases half-life and tissue penetration of imipenem. (nih.gov)
  • Others, such as imipenem, have wide spectra of activity against aerobes and anaerobes. (medscape.com)
  • Imipenem containing regimen through port-a-cath. (msf.org)
  • Meropenem is slightly more active than imipenem against Gram-negative organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Imipenem (im" i pen' em) is a broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic which is used for severe bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. (nih.gov)
  • Imipenem-cilastatin is indicated for the treatment of severe or complicated skin, tissue, joint, respiratory tract, intraabdominal, urinary tract and urogenital infections as well as meningitis, endocarditis and sepsis due to susceptible organisms. (nih.gov)
  • Most genes related to cell division, central carbon metabolism and nucleotide metabolism were downregulated after imipenem treatment. (um.edu.my)
  • As a conclusion, the studied CRKP strain exhibited decrease in central carbon metabolism, cell division and nucleotide metabolism after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of imipenem. (um.edu.my)
  • Studies suggest meropenem may be more stable than imipenem. (cdc.gov)
  • Imipenem-cilastatin is used for the treatment of multiple-organism infections in which other agents either do not provide wide-spectrum coverage or are contraindicated because of potential toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • It works by helping imipenem stay active in your body for a longer period of time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 32 mg/L) at 48 h of growth but not at 24 h for most susceptible strains, MICs of imipenem were read at 24 h to avoid false resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Imipenem (im" i pen' em) is a broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic which is used for severe bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. (nih.gov)
  • Imipenem-cilastatin is indicated for the treatment of severe or complicated skin, tissue, joint, respiratory tract, intraabdominal, urinary tract and urogenital infections as well as meningitis, endocarditis and sepsis due to susceptible organisms. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of imipenem and cilastatin is available generically and under the brand name Primaxin as 250 mg or 500 mg infusion bottles for IV use or 500 mg or 750 mg vials of lyophilized powder for im injection. (nih.gov)
  • The most common side effects of imipenem are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, pruritus and injection site reactions. (nih.gov)
  • Our patient's imipenem-cilastatin dose had been increased 24 hours prior to his violent visual and auditory hallucinations because his renal function had improved. (medscape.com)
  • Imipenem/cilastatin combination inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). (medscape.com)
  • Safety and tolerance for imipenem-cilastatin was similar to that of these two cephalosporins. (nih.gov)
  • imipenem/cilastatin decreases effects of BCG intravesical live by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • imipenem/cilastatin decreases effects of cholera vaccine by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • In this phase 1, noncomparative study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT03230916), the PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target for imipenem was percent time of the dosing interval that unbound plasma concentration exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (%ƒT>MIC) of ≥30% (MIC = 2 µg/mL). (bvsalud.org)
  • This case report bridges a void in the medical literature with regards to the psychiatric adverse effects of imipenem-cilastatin. (medscape.com)
  • In large clinical trials, imipenem was associated with transient and asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferase levels in approximately 6% of patients given the drug for 5 to 14 days. (nih.gov)
  • These results informed imipenem / cilastatin /relebactam dose selection for further pediatric clinical evaluation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Parenterally administered imipenem/cilastatin has been associated with transient, mild serum aminotransferase elevations, but it is a rare cause of clinically apparent liver disease with jaundice. (nih.gov)
  • The cause of the mild, transient serum enzyme elevations during imipenem-cilastatin therapy is not known. (nih.gov)
  • There were more transient liver function test changes in the imipenem-cilastatin group, but the frequency was similar to that for beta-lactams in general. (nih.gov)
  • Therapeutic effects of imipenem-cilastatin on experimental intrauterine infections in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam in children with confirmed or suspected gram-negative bacterial infections: A Phase 1b, open-label, single-dose clinical trial. (bvsalud.org)
  • Imipenem / cilastatin /relebactam is approved for treatment of serious gram-negative bacterial infections in adults . (bvsalud.org)
  • More serious hepatic injury from imipenem/cilastatin is rare, but jaundice and liver test abnormalities have been reported in 0.1% of patients in prospective trials of the agent. (nih.gov)
  • Similar psychiatric symptoms developed 2 months later when he was treated with imipenem for a recurrent urinary tract infection. (medscape.com)
  • When imipenem and cilastatin is injected intravenously, it is usually infused (injected slowly) over a period of 20 minutes to 1 hour every 6 or 8 hours. (medlineplus.gov)
  • single doses of imipenem / cilastatin /relebactam were well tolerated with no significant safety concerns identified. (bvsalud.org)
  • A 64-year-old Hispanic man in septic shock due to urinary tract infection was initiated on imipenem-cilastatin and mechanically ventilated, following admission to hospital. (medscape.com)