Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.
An imidazole derivative that is commonly used as a topical antifungal agent.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
An alpha adrenergic antagonist.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE that is the natural source of PILOCARPINE.
L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.
4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.
A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.
2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.
A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Fungal infection of keratinized tissues such as hair, skin and nails. The main causative fungi include MICROSPORUM; TRICHOPHYTON; and EPIDERMOPHYTON.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.
A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
A vasodilator that apparently has direct actions on blood vessels and also increases cardiac output. Tolazoline can interact to some degree with histamine, adrenergic, and cholinergic receptors, but the mechanisms of its therapeutic effects are not clear. It is used in treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 6,7-dihydropteridine to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine in the presence of NADP+. Defects in the enzyme are a cause of PHENYLKETONURIA II. Formerly listed as EC
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Type C cytochromes that are small (12-14 kD) single-heme proteins. They function as mobile electron carriers between membrane-bound enzymes in photosynthetic BACTERIA.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.

Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus. (1/8081)

Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8719-8726]. Previous work suggests that these enzymes play a protective role in chemical carcinogenesis [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2979-2985]. In this study, UGT1 and UGT2 gene expression was investigated in human oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma in addition to the characterization of individual UGT isoforms using recombinant protein. UGT mRNA expression was characterized by duplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and revealed the expression of UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent. UGT2 mRNA was present at significantly lower levels than UGT1 transcripts. This observation was in agreement with the analysis of catalytic activities in oesophageal microsomal protein, which was characterized by high glucuronidation rates for phenolic xenobiotics, all of which are classical UGT1 substrates. Whereas UGT1A9 was not regulated, differential regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 mRNA was observed between normal oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma. Expression and analysis in vitro of recombinant UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 demonstrated that UGT1A7, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 catalysed the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene, as well as other environmental carcinogens, such as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4, 5-beta)-pyridine. Although UGT1A9 was not regulated in the carcinoma tissue, the five-fold reduction in 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene glucuronidation could be attributed to regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10. These data elucidate an individual regulation of human UGT1A and UGT2B genes in human oesophagus and provide evidence for specific catalytic activities of individual human UGT isoforms towards environmental carcinogens that have been implicated in cellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Raf-1 is activated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB203580. (2/8081)

SB203580 (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imi dazole) is widely used as a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here, we report that SB203580 activates the serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 in quiescent smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The concentrations of SB203580 required lie above those necessary to inhibit p38 MAPK and we were unable to detect basal levels of active p38 MAPK. SB203580 does not directly activate Raf-1 in vitro, and fails to activate Ras, MEK, and ERK in intact cells. In vitro, however, SB203580-stimulated Raf-1 activates MEK1 in a coupled assay. We conclude that activation of Raf-1 by SB203580 is not mediated by an inhibition of p38 MAPK, is Ras-independent, and is uncoupled from MEK/ERK signaling.  (+info)

An inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase protects neonatal cardiac myocytes from ischemia. (3/8081)

Cellular ischemia results in activation of a number of kinases, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); however, it is not yet clear whether p38 MAPK activation plays a role in cellular damage or is part of a protective response against ischemia. We have developed a model to study ischemia in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. In this model, two distinct phases of p38 MAPK activation were observed during ischemia. The first phase began within 10 min and lasted less than 1 h, and the second began after 2 h and lasted throughout the ischemic period. Similar to previous studies using in vivo models, the nonspecific activator of p38 MAPK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, anisomycin, protected cardiac myocytes from ischemic injury, decreasing the release of cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase by approximately 25%. We demonstrated, however, that a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB 203580, also protected cardiac myocytes against extended ischemia in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effect was seen even when the inhibitor was present during only the second, sustained phase of p38 MAPK activation. We found that ischemia induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and that SB 203580 reduced activation of caspase-3, a key event in apoptosis. These results suggest that p38 MAPK induces apoptosis during ischemia in cardiac myocytes and that selective inhibition of p38 MAPK could be developed as a potential therapy for ischemic heart disease.  (+info)

In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog. (4/8081)

1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects.  (+info)

p38 but not p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for nitric oxide synthase induction mediated by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 macrophages. (5/8081)

Protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, -betaI, and -delta are known to be involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p44/42 and p38 in the LPS effect was studied further. LPS-mediated NO release and the inducible form of NO synthase expression were inhibited by the p38 inhibitor, SB 203580, but not by the MAPK kinase inhibitor, PD 98059. Ten-minute treatment of cells with LPS resulted in the activation of p44/42 MAPK, p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Marked or slight activation, respectively, of p44/42 MAPK or p38 was also seen after 10-min treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, but c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation did not occur. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genestein, attenuated the LPS-induced activation of both p44/42 MAPK and p38, whereas the PKC inhibitors, Ro 31-8220 and calphostin C, or long-term treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate resulted in inhibition of p44/42 MAPK activation, but had only a slight effect on p38 activation, indicating that LPS-mediated PKC activation resulted in the activation of p44/42 MAPK. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-specific DNA-protein-binding activity in the nuclear extracts was enhanced by 10-min, 1-h, or 24-h treatment with LPS. Analysis of the proteins involved in NF-kappaB binding showed translocation of p65 from the cytosol to the nucleus after 10-min treatment with LPS. The onset of NF-kappaB activation correlated with the cytosolic degradation of both inhibitory proteins of NF-kappaB, IkappaB-alpha and IkappaB-beta. IkappaB-alpha was resynthesized rapidly after loss (1-h LPS treatment), whereas IkappaB-beta levels were not restored until after 24-h treatment. SB 203580 but not PD 98059 inhibited the LPS-induced stimulation of NF-kappaB DNA-protein binding. Thus, activation of p38 but not p44/42 MAPK by LPS resulted in the stimulation of NF-kappaB-specific DNA-protein binding and the subsequent expression of inducible form of NO synthase and NO release in RAW 264.7 macrophages.  (+info)

Conformation-dependent inhibition of gastric H+,K+-ATPase by SCH 28080 demonstrated by mutagenesis of glutamic acid 820. (6/8081)

Gastric H+,K+-ATPase can be inhibited by imidazo pyridines like 2-methyl-8-[phenylmethoxy] imidazo-(1,2a) pyridine 3-acetonitrile (SCH 28080). The drug shows a high affinity for inhibition of K+-activated ATPase and for prevention of ATP phosphorylation. The inhibition by SCH 28080 can be explained by assuming that SCH 28080 binds to both the E2 and the phosphorylated intermediate (E2-P) forms of the enzyme. We observed recently that some mutants, in which glutamic acid 820 present in transmembrane domain six of the catalytic subunit had been replaced (E820Q, E820N, E820A), lost their K+-sensitivity and showed constitutive ATPase activity. This ATPase activity could be inhibited by similar SCH 28080 concentrations as the K+-activated ATPase of the wild-type enzyme. SCH 28080 also inhibited ATP phosphorylation at 21 degrees C of the mutants E820D, E820N, and E820A, although with varying efficacy and affinity. ATP-phosphorylation of mutant E820Q was not inhibited by SCH 28080; in contrast, the phosphorylation level at 21 degrees C was nearly doubled. These findings can be explained by assuming that mutation of Glu820 favors the E1 conformation in the order E820Q >E820A >E820N >wild-type = E820D. The increase in the phosphorylation level of the E820Q mutant can be explained by assuming that during the catalytic cycle the E2-P intermediate forms a complex with SCH 28080. This intermediate hydrolyzes considerably slower than E2-P and thus accumulates. The high tendency of the E820Q mutant for the E1 form is further supported by experiments showing that ATP phosphorylation of this mutant is rather insensitive towards vanadate, inorganic phosphate, and K+.  (+info)

Signal transduction triggered by lipid A-like molecules in 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells. (7/8081)

The lipid A (endotoxin) moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicits rapid cellular responses from many cell types, including macrophages, lymphocytes, and monocytes. In CD14 transfected 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells, these responses include activation of the MAP kinase homolog, p38, activation of NF-kappaB, and transcription of kappa light chains, leading to the assembly of surface IgM. In this work, we explored the specificity of the response with regard to lipid structure, and the requirement for p38 kinase activity prior to NF-kappaB activation in control and CD14 transfected 70Z/3 (CD14-70Z/3) cells. A p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, was used to block p38 kinase activity in cells. CD14-70Z/3 cells were incubated with 1-50 microM SB203580, and then stimulated with LPS. Nuclear extracts were prepared, and NF-kappaB activation was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. SB203580 did not inhibit LPS induced NF-kappaB activation. In addition, LPS failed to activate p38 tyrosine phosphorylation in 70Z/3 cells lacking CD14, in spite of rapid NF-kappaB activation and robust surface IgM production with appropriate higher doses of LPS. LPS stimulation of p38 phosphorylation, NF-kappaB activation, and surface IgM expression were all blocked completely by lipid A-like endotoxin antagonists whether or not CD14 was present. Acidic glycerophospholipids and ceramides did not mimic lipid A-like molecules either as agonists or antagonists in this system. Our data support the hypothesis that lipid A-mediated activation of cells requires stimulation of a putative lipid A sensor that is downstream of CD14, but upstream of p38 and NF-kappaB.  (+info)

A chimeric gastric H+,K+-ATPase inhibitable with both ouabain and SCH 28080. (8/8081)

2-Methyl-8-(phenylmethoxy)imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine-3acetonitrile+ ++ (SCH 28080) is a K+ site inhibitor specific for gastric H+,K+-ATPase and seems to be a counterpart of ouabain for Na+,K+-ATPase from the viewpoint of reaction pattern (i.e. reversible binding, K+ antagonism, and binding on the extracellular side). In this study, we constructed several chimeric molecules between H+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunits by using rabbit H+,K+-ATPase as a parental molecule. We found that the entire extracellular loop 1 segment between the first and second transmembrane segments (M1 and M2) and the luminal half of the M1 transmembrane segment of H+, K+-ATPase alpha-subunit were exchangeable with those of Na+, K+-ATPase, respectively, preserving H+,K+-ATPase activity, and that these segments are not essential for SCH 28080 binding. We found that several amino acid residues, including Glu-822, Thr-825, and Pro-829 in the M6 segment of H+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit are involved in determining the affinity for this inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that a chimeric H+,K+-ATPase acquired ouabain sensitivity and maintained SCH 28080 sensitivity when the loop 1 segment and Cys-815 in the loop 3 segment of the H+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit were simultaneously replaced by the corresponding segment and amino acid residue (Thr) of Na+,K+-ATPase, respectively, indicating that the binding sites of ouabain and SCH 28080 are separate. In this H+, K+-ATPase chimera, 12 amino acid residues in M1, M4, and loop 1-4 that have been suggested to be involved in ouabain binding of Na+, K+-ATPase alpha-subunit are present; however, the low ouabain sensitivity indicates the possibility that the sensitivity may be increased by additional amino acid substitutions, which shift the overall structural integrity of this chimeric H+,K+-ATPase toward that of Na+,K+-ATPase.  (+info)

298497955 - EP 0765328 B1 2000-08-30 - PIRYDYL IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES AND PROCESSES FOR THE PREPARATION THEREOF - [origin: WO9534564A1] Novel pyridyl imidazole derivatives of formula (I) inhibit effectively the action of angiotensin II and have a superior antihypertensive activity, wherein A is a straight, branched or cyclic C1-C6 alkyl or alkenyl group, OR 1 (wherein R 1 is a hydrogen, or a straight, branched or cyclic C1-C6 alkyl or alkenyl radical), or NR 2 R 3 (wherein R 2 and R 3 are independently a hydrogen, or a straight, branched or cyclic C1-C6 alkyl radical); B is a group of formula (II); D is a hydrogen; a halogen; a straight, branched or cyclic C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl or C2-C6 alkynyl group which is optionally substituted with OH, a C1-C4 alkoxy radical, CO2R 1 , COR 1 , CON(R 1 )2 or N(R 1 )2, wherein R 1 is the same as defined above; tetrazol-5-yl; a perfluoro-C1-C4 alkyl group; or N(R 1 )2, OR 1 , CO2R 1 or CON(R 1 )2, wherein R 1 is the same as defined above; E is a hydrogen; a
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An efficient route to C-4 linked imidazole nucleosides. T2 - synthesis of 2-carbamoyl-4-(2′-deoxy-β-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole. AU - Bergstrom, Donald E.. AU - Zhang, Peiming. N1 - Funding Information: The National Institutes of Health is gratefully acknowledgedf or supporto f this researcht hrough NM Grants AI20480 and A126029. We also gratefully acknowledget he supportb y the Walther Cancer Institute.. PY - 1991/11/4. Y1 - 1991/11/4. N2 - The first synthesis of an imidazole C-nucleoside linked through C-4, 2-carbamoyl-4-(2′-deoxy-β-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole was achieved by way of a nine-step sequence starting from 2-deoxy-3,5-di-O-p-toluoyl-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl chloride.. AB - The first synthesis of an imidazole C-nucleoside linked through C-4, 2-carbamoyl-4-(2′-deoxy-β-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole was achieved by way of a nine-step sequence starting from 2-deoxy-3,5-di-O-p-toluoyl-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl chloride.. UR - ...
CAS Number:24155-42-8 Name:1H-Imidazole-1-ethanol,a-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)- Superlist Name:alpha-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol Formula:C11H10Cl2N2O Molecular Weight:257.12 Synonyms:Imidazole-1-ethanol,a-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-...
CAN catalyzed one-pot synthesis of Imidazole derivatives in PEG-400 as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor for benefit in atherosclerosis, Zong-Sheng Guo, Xin-Chun Yang
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This work provides a simple but efficient way of constructing violet fluorescent helical nanofibers by the self-assembly of chiral π-π conjugated molecules, phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole (PIM) derivatives. PIM derivatives are well-known functional molecules, but the construction of PIM into functional architec
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1H-Imidazole-1-carboxamide, 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-N,3,4-triphenyl- | C22H17N3O2 | CID 71401602 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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2-14C]2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine ([14C]PhIP), a putative human carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in well-done cooked meat, was administered orally to three colon cancer patients undergoing a partial colonectomy. Forty-eight to seventy-two hours prior to surgery, subjects received a 70-84 μg dose of 14C. Urine and blood were analyzed by HPLC for PhIP and PhIP metabolites. Metabolites were identified based on HPLC co-elution with authentic PhIP metabolite standards, mass spectral analysis and susceptibility to enzymatic cleavage. In two subjects, ~90% of the administered [14C]PhIP dose was eliminated in the urine, whereas in the other, only 50% of the dose was found in the urine. One subject excreted three times more radioactivity in the first 4 h than did the others. Twelve radioactive peaks associated with PhIP were detected in the urine samples. The relative amount of each metabolite varied by subject, and the amounts of each metabolite within subjects changed over ...
SB203580 is a pyridinyl imidazole inhibitor widely used to elucidate the roles of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase.. SB203580 inhibits also the phosphorylation and activation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt). Both kinases are involved in a wide array of signaling pathways, including the TLR signaling pathway. Moreover, several studies suggest that p38 MAPKs regulate distinct phases of autophagy. p38 can elicit autophagy via Beclin1. Contrarily, p38α has also been reported to inhibit autophagy by interfering with the trafficking of Atg9.
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Imidazole derivatives have attracted significant interests in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. Aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on two imidazole derivatives (i.e., imidazole and 2-methylimidazole) by various analytical methods. The biofield treatment was done by Mr. Trivedi on both the compounds and both control and treated samples of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole were characterized with respect to physical, and structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallite size varied in a different way for imidazole and 2-methylimidazole due to the presence of methyl group in 2-c position although their core was same. Treated sample of ...
- COSTEL MOLDOVEANU, VIOLETA VASILACHE, IOAN-MARIAN RISCA Biological Effects of Some New Imidazole Derivatives on Spruce (Picea Abies) Germination
A single dose of zoledronic acid should not exceed 5 mg and the duration of infusion should be no less than 15 minutes [see Dosage and Administration (2)].. Zoledronic Acid Injection is contraindicated in patients with creatinine clearance less than 35 mL/min and in those with evidence of acute renal impairment [see Contraindications (4)]. If history or physical signs suggest dehydration, Zoledronic Acid Injection therapy should be withheld until normovolemic status has been achieved [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].. Zoledronic acid should be used with caution in patients with chronic renal impairment. Acute renal impairment, including renal failure, has been observed following the administration of zoledronic acid, especially in patients with pre-existing renal compromise, advanced age, concomitant nephrotoxic medications, concomitant diuretic therapy, or severe dehydration occurring before or after zoledronic acid administration. Acute renal failure (ARF) has been observed in patients after a ...
A single dose of zoledronic acid should not exceed 5 mg and the duration of infusion should be no less than 15 minutes [see Dosage and Administration (2)].. Zoledronic Acid Injection is contraindicated in patients with creatinine clearance less than 35 mL/min and in those with evidence of acute renal impairment [see Contraindications (4)]. If history or physical signs suggest dehydration, Zoledronic Acid Injection therapy should be withheld until normovolemic status has been achieved [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].. Zoledronic acid should be used with caution in patients with chronic renal impairment. Acute renal impairment, including renal failure, has been observed following the administration of zoledronic acid, especially in patients with pre-existing renal compromise, advanced age, concomitant nephrotoxic medications, concomitant diuretic therapy, or severe dehydration occurring before or after zoledronic acid administration. Acute renal failure (ARF) has been observed in patients after a ...
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The maximum recommended dose of zoledronic acid in hypercalcemia of malignancy (albumin-corrected serum calcium greater than or equal to 12 mg/dL [3.0 mmol/L]) is 4 mg. The 4 mg dose must be given as a single-dose intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes. Patients who receive zoledronic acid should have serum creatinine assessed prior to each treatment.. Dose adjustments of zoledronic acid are not necessary in treating patients for hypercalcemia of malignancy presenting with mild-to-moderate renal impairment prior to initiation of therapy (serum creatinine less than 400 µmol/L or less than 4.5 mg/dL).. Patients should be adequately rehydrated prior to administration of zoledronic acid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].. Consideration should be given to the severity of, as well as the symptoms of, tumor-induced hypercalcemia when considering use of zoledronic acid. Vigorous saline hydration, an integral part of hypercalcemia therapy, should be initiated promptly and an attempt should ...
Prior to administration of each dose of zoledronic acid, obtain a serum creatinine and creatinine clearance should be calculated based on actual body weight using Cockcroft-Gault formula before each zoledronic acid dose. Zoledronic acid is contraindicated in patients with creatinine clearance less than 35 mL/min and in those with evidence of acute renal impairment. A 5 mg dose of zoledronic acid administered intravenously is recommended for patients with creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 35 mL/min. There are no safety or efficacy data to support the adjustment of the zoledronic acid dose based on baseline renal function. Therefore, no dose adjustment is required in patients with CrCl greater than or equal to 35 mL/min [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] ...
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CAS NO:568595-25-5; Chemical name:1H-Imidazole-2-carboxamide,1-[2-[[4-[[2-[(1E)-2-[2-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethenyl]-4-oxazolyl]methoxy]-2-methylphenyl]methoxy]ethyl]- ; physical and chemical property of 568595-25-5, 1H-Imidazole-2-carboxamide,1-[2-[[4-[[2-[(1E)-2-[2-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethenyl]-4-oxazolyl]methoxy]-2-methylphenyl]methoxy]ethyl]- is provided by
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Imidazole, appears in a number of pharmaceuticals, is characterized by a ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms at nonadjacent positions. The simplest member of the imidazole family is itself, a compound with molecular formula C3H4N2. Labs can produce it and its derivatives, like clotrimazole and econazole, synthetically. This allows for efficient mass production in a controlled environment.. The chemical was first prepared in 1858. Other imidazole compounds have been known longer: allantoin (discovered in 1800) and parabanic acid were prepared in 1837 from uric acid. The amino acid histidine and its decomposition product histamine have the structure, as does biotin, a growth factor for both humans and yeast.. Patients may be told to take an imidazole to treat a fungal infection because it has a broad mechanism of action and is usually easy to use. It can be applied topically to skin infections as well as fungal infections in the eyes and orifices, like vaginal ...
Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors. The safety analysis includes patients treated in the core and extension phases of the trials. The analysis includes the 2042 patients treated with zoledronic acid 4 mg, pamidronate 90 mg, or placebo in the three controlled multicenter bone metastases trials, including 969 patients completing the efficacy phase of the trial, and 619 patients that continued in the safety extension phase. Only 347 patients completed the extension phases and were followed for 2 years (or 21 months for the other solid tumor patients). The median duration of exposure for safety analysis for zoledronic acid 4 mg (core plus extension phases) was 12.8 months for breast cancer and multiple myeloma, 10.8 months for prostate cancer, and 4.0 months for other solid tumors.. Table 6 describes adverse events that were reported by 10% or more of patients. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug.. ...
Please see the individual PI for full indication and prescribing information.. Zoledronic Acid Injection is indicated for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy defined as an albumin-corrected calcium (cCa) , 12 mg/dL [3.0 mmol/L] using the formula: cCa in mg/dL=Ca in mg/dL + 0.8 (4.0 g/dL _ patient albumin (g/dL)).. Zoledronic Acid injection is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma and patients with documented bone metastases from solid tumors, in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. Prostate cancer should have progressed after treatment with at least one hormonal therapy.. Zoledronic acid injection is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma and patients with documented bone metastases from solid tumors, in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. Prostate cancer should have progressed after treatment with at least one hormonal therapy.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of Imidazole C1- and C3-Ribonucleoside Phosphoramidites for Probing Catalytic Mechanism in Ribozyme. AU - Harusawa, Shinya. AU - Fujii, Kensuke. AU - Nishiura, Masayoshi. AU - Araki, Lisa. AU - Usami, Yoshihide. AU - Zhao, Zheng-yun. AU - Lilley, David M. J.. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Synthesis of C4-linked imidazole N-pivaloyloxymethyl (P0M)-2-O-cyanoethylated (CE) C-1- and C-3-ribonucleoside phosphoramidites 1a and 1b is described. These phosphoramidite products were incorporated into RNA sequence through solid phase phosphoramidite approach, providing RNA with imidazole linked through different length to sugar residue, to study the mechanism of a ribozyme.. AB - Synthesis of C4-linked imidazole N-pivaloyloxymethyl (P0M)-2-O-cyanoethylated (CE) C-1- and C-3-ribonucleoside phosphoramidites 1a and 1b is described. These phosphoramidite products were incorporated into RNA sequence through solid phase phosphoramidite approach, providing RNA with imidazole ...
A new synthetic approach to thieno[2,3-d]imidazoles is presented on the basis of the N′-(3-halothiophen-2-yl)amidine cyclization under copper-catalyzed cross-coupling. Using commercially available starting materials such as 2-aminothiophenes or their Boc-protected derivatives and copper catalysts, this method offers a convenient route to a wide range of thieno[2,3-d]imidazole derivatives, especially the 5-alkyl-subtituted thieno[2,3-d]imidazoles.. Liubchak K.; Tolmachev A.; Nazarenko K ...
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 1-{(4s)-1-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-7-yl]-4-hydroxy-3-pentanyl}-1h-imidazole-4-carboxamide (C22H21ClN4O3) from the PQR.
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This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Chemical structure of 1-[2-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)ethyl]-5-(propan-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-2-thiol. See its properties and synonyms.
Jia, Y-Yan.; Fan, J-Jing.; Yin, X-Ge.; Zhao, W-Long., 2013: Bis{1-[(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)meth-yl]-1H-imidazole-κN (3)}bis-(3,5-dicarb-oxy-benzoato-κ(2) O (1),O (1'))nickel(II) octa-hydrate
Patients with advanced breast cancer frequently develop bone metastases, and at this stage, the disease is considered incurable. Here, we show that a 6-week course of weekly administration of doxorubicin (2 mg/kg), followed 24 hours later by the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (100μg/kg), causes substantial inhibition of MDA-MB-436 breast tumor burden in bone of immunocompromised mice, compared with administration of the single agents. Molecular analysis of tumors from animals treated sequentially with doxorubicin followed by zoledronic acid showed reduced numbers of proliferating tumor cells and decreased expression of cyclins E1, B, D1, and D3 as well as cdk2 and cdk4. Tumors from the sequential treatment group also displayed increased levels of apoptosis, increased expression of bcl2-associated X protein, decreased expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2, and activation of caspase 3, 8, and 9. Zoledronic acid caused a small reduction in tumor volume, reduced tumor cell ...
Imidazole derivatives (e.g. metronidazole and ornidazole) in formulations for vaginal administration are classified in this group. Parenteral formulations are classified in J01XD, as they are mainly used in anaerobic infections. Imidazole derivatives in oral (including tablets used for the treatment of gynecological infections only) and rectal dosage forms are classified in P01AB. Metronidazole for topical use in skin disorders is classified in D06BX - Other chemotherapeutics. ...
Imidazole derivatives (e.g. metronidazole and ornidazole) in formulations for vaginal administration are classified in this group. Parenteral formulations are classified in J01XD, as they are mainly used in anaerobic infections. Imidazole derivatives in oral (including tablets used for the treatment of gynecological infections only) and rectal dosage forms are classified in P01AB. Metronidazole for topical use in skin disorders is classified in D06BX - Other chemotherapeutics ...
Potent DBH inhibitors having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R is --CO2 H or --CH2 NHR1 can be used to inhibit DBH activity in mammals.
Ionic liquids (ILs) with aprotic heterocyclic anions (AHA) are attractive candidates for CO2 capture technologies. In this study, a series of AHA ILs with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([emim](+)) cations were synthesized, and their physical properties (density, viscosity, and ionic conductivity) were measured. In addition, CO2 solubility in each IL was determined at room temperature using a volumetric method at pressures between 0 and 1 bar. The AHAs are basic anions that are capable of reacting stoichiometrically with CO2 to form carbamate species. An interesting CO2 uptake isotherm behavior was observed, and this may be attributed to a parallel, equilibrium proton exchange process between the imidazolium cation and the basic AHA in the presence of CO2, followed by the formation of transient carbene species that react rapidly with CO2. The presence of the imidazolium-carboxylate species and carbamate anion species was verified using H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. While the reaction between CO2 ...
The use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the separation of imidazole and its derivatives is reported. In the first part of the investigation, efforts were focused on method development, where the effects of buffer pH, types of buffer modifiers and modifier concentration on the separation of these compounds were examined. The second part was focused on method validation, where the ruggedness, selectivity, limits of detection and linearity were investigated. In the final part, the CE method was applied to commercial-grade imidazole. A comparison of the results obtained using the CE system was made with those obtained by HPLC. Good correlation between the two sets of results was obtained and superior efficiencies and better peak shapes for most of the imidazoles were also achieved using the CE system. © 1994 ...
R 75251, a new inhibitor of steroid biosynthesis.: R 75251, a new imidazole derivative, inhibited the conversion of androgens to estrogens, of progestins to and
The development of imidazoles with an heterocyclic substituent in 2-position from readily available inexpensive starting materials has been an active topic in modern organic chemistry (Jiang et al., 2009; Wu et al., 2010; Eseola et al., 2010). Our group is interested in the research of chiral imidazolium derivatives derived from natural amino acids (Mao et al., 2010; Yang et al., 2012; Xiao et al., 2012). A convenient and highly efficient one-pot-multicomponent protocol has been developed for the synthesis of the title compound from L-phenylalaninol, 5-bromothiophene-2-carbaldehyde, dibenzoyl and ammonium acetate.. The molecular structure of the title compound is shown in Figure 1. As expected, the imidazole core (C7/C8/N2/C24/N1) is essentially planar, the maximum deviation being 0.008 (3) Å for atom C24. The dihedral angle between the 5-bromothiophenyl ring and imidazole ring is 76.90 (8)°. The dihedral angles between the two phenyl substituents (C1-C6, C9-C14) and the imidazole ring are ...
In chemistry, residue refers to a portion of a larger molecule, such as a methyl group. In biochemistry and molecular biology, a residue refers to a specific monomer within the polymeric chain of a polysaccharide, protein or nucleic acid. For example, one might say, The histidine residue is considered to be basic due to its imidazole ring. Note that a residue is different from a moiety, which, in the above example would be constituted by the imidazole ring or the imidazole moiety. Note the origin of this usage: during the process by which monomeric building blocks (e.g. amino acids) are strung together into a polymeric chain (e.g. a protein), some material (typically adding up to one molecule of water) is discarded from each building block, and only a residue of the building block ends up in the finished product. Template:Chemistry-stub nl:Residu (chemie) ...
Zoledronic acid is a drug that can be used when cancer has spread to the bones. It also helps to lower raised calcium levels in the blood.
Links to sites outside of Pfizer Medical Information are provided as a resource to the viewer. This third-party website is neither owned nor controlled by Pfizer, and Pfizer does not endorse and is not responsible for the content or services of this site. ...
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Native protein purification regimens use buffer conditions that preserve the native, three-dimensional structure and surface charge characteristics of a selected soluble protein during harvest from an expression host. The low affinity of TALON resin for non-his-tagged proteins minimizes contaminant carryover. In addition, increasing buffer ionic strength can minimize nonspecific interactions. When purifying proteins under native conditions, imidazole elution results in fewer co-elution impurities than pH elution, making it a better choice for downstream applications which are not affected by the presence of imidazole.. Regardless of the conditions used and the nature of the his-tagged protein being purified, most applications will benefit from the presence of 100-500 mM NaCl in the IMAC (Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromtography) buffer. In many cases, adding glycerol or ethylene glycol neutralizes nonspecific hydrophobic interactions. Small amounts of nonionic detergent may also dissociate ...
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While reprocessing is ongoing please note that substances whose registration dossiers are not yet processed can incorrectly state in the Infocard that they are not registered under REACH. In these cases if there is a link to a REACH registered substance factsheet then the substance IS registered. The correct total tonnage band can be found in the factsheet(s) for the substance ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Imidazole, triazole, and thiazole antifungals[edit]. Azole antifungal drugs (except for abafungin) inhibit the enzyme ...
It is an imidazole and works by affecting the production of ergosterol required for the fungal cell membrane thereby slowing ... As an antifungal, ketoconazole is structurally similar to imidazole, and interferes with the fungal synthesis of ergosterol, a ... Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole. It is a nonsteroidal compound. It is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers, ... 586-. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. Heeres J, Backx LJ, Mostmans JH, Van Cutsem J (August 1979). "Antimycotic imidazoles. part 4. ...
Anti-fungal: imidazoles, polyenes. Anti-inflammatory: NSAIDs, corticosteroids. Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors. Anti- ...
... is a valuable building block in organic synthesis, especially in the synthesis of heterocycles such as imidazoles. A ... Snyder, H. R.; Handrick, R. G.; Brooks, L. A. (1942). "Imidazole". Organic Syntheses. 22: 65.; Collective Volume, 3, p. 471 ...
Snyder, H. R.; Handrick, R. G.; Brooks, L. A. (1942). "Imidazole". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, 3, p. 471 Alvin P. ...
J., Reedijk; G.C., Verschoor (1973-04-15). "Pyrazoles and imidazoles as ligands. XX. The crystal and molecular structure of ... octahedral geometries for Cadmium tetrafluoroborate complexes with nitrogen-containing ligands such as pyrazoles and imidazoles ...
Purines, pyrimidines, and imidazoles. Part XVII. A synthesis of willardiine". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 583. ...
With the N-methyl group, this particular derivative of imidazole cannot tautomerize. It is slightly more basic than imidazole, ... Reedijk,R. (1969). "Pyrazoles and imidazoles as ligands. II. Coordination compounds of N-methyl imidazole with metal ... The main one is acid-catalysed methylation of imidazole by methanol. The second method involves the Radziszewski reaction from ... Similarly, 1-methylimidazole may be synthesized by first deprotonating imidazole to form a sodium salt followed by methylation ...
1. Imidazole derivatives". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 24 (10): 1139. doi:10.1021/jm00142a005. PMID 7199088. Cross, Peter E ... One convenient synthesis starts with the O-chloroethyl ether of p-hydroxybenzamide and proceeds bydisplacement with imidazole ... 1. 1-[(Aryloxy)alkyl]-1H-imidazoles". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 28 (10): 1427. doi:10.1021/jm00148a009. PMID 3930740. v t ...
Ebel K, Koehler H, Gamer AO, Jäckh R (2002). "Imidazole and Derivatives.". In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ...
... is an antifungal medication of the imidazole class used to treat infections caused by a fungus or yeast. It is ... Antimycotic imidazole derivative. A displacement reaction between 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanol and 2- ...
This bicyclic compound consists of the fusion of benzene and imidazole. It is a colorless solid. Benzimidazole is produced by ... doi: 10.1002/14356007.a16_487.pub2 Grimmett, M. R. (1997). Imidazole and benzimidazole synthesis. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN ...
Grimmett, M. R. (1997). Imidazole and Benzimidazole Synthesis. Academic Press. pp. 71ff. ISBN 9780080534459.. ...
... (Preferred IUPAC name: 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole) is one of three isomers of the nitrogen-containing heterocycle ... Ishihara, M.; Togo, H. (2006). "An Efficient Preparation of 2-Imidazolines and Imidazoles from Aldehydes with Molecular Iodine ... Imidazoles can be prepared from dehydrogenation of imidazolines. Imidazoline receptor Imidazolidine Liu, H.; Du, D.-M. (2009 ...
These include indoles, flavones, benzoflavones, imidazoles and pyridines. These compounds are metabolized rapidly, but ...
... is an imidazole derivative. Its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in in vivo and in vitro studies to be ...
A novel synthesis of 5-amino-1-(.beta.-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide and 5-amino-1-(.beta.-D-ribopyranosyl)imidazole- ... resulting in the formation of the imidazole ring. Reaction with alkoxide then converts the nitrile nearest the sugar to an ...
A common base is imidazole. The titration cell also consists of a smaller compartment with a cathode immersed in the anode ...
This variety tolerates imidazole herbicides. It was bred by traditional breeding techniques that are not considered to be ...
Most of these administered drugs are variants of imidazoles. The treatment of onychomycosis involves the administration of ...
She created a protocol which achieved the autonomous reproduction of imidazole, an ingredient of histadine and histamine with ... Ranganathan, Darshan; Rathi, Ramesh (1986). "Imidazole synthesis on a solid support". Tetrahedron Letters. 27 (22): 2491-2492. ...
... of the imidazole series". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 36 (22): 3368-3372. doi:10.1021/jo00821a022.. ...
... imidazole > 3-methylnaphth[1,2-d]imidazole. Since the addition of the amide ion proceeds quickly with these substrates, the ...
The imidazole ring of the NHC ligand is angled away from the metal center, yet the substituents at the 1,3 positions of the ... Schaub, Thomas; Radius, Udo (2010). "1,3-Dialkyl-Imidazole-2-Ylidenes". Inorg. Synth. 35: 78-83. doi:10.1002/9780470651568.ch4 ... imidazole ring are angled towards it. The presence of the ligand inside of the metal coordination sphere affects the metal ...
... is an antimicrobial medication used to treat African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Balamuthia infections,[2] babesiosis, and to prevent and treat pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in people with poor immune function.[1] In African trypanosomiasis it is used for early disease before central nervous system involvement, as a second line option to suramin.[1] It is an option for both visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis.[1] Pentamidine can be given by injection into a vein or muscle or by inhalation.[1] Common side effects of the injectable form include low blood sugar, pain at the site of injection, nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and kidney problems.[1] Common side effects of the inhaled form include wheezing, cough, and nausea.[1] It is unclear if doses should be changed in those with kidney or liver problems.[1] Pentamidine is not recommended in early pregnancy but may be used in later pregnancy.[1] Its safety during breastfeeding is unclear.[3] Pentamidine is in the ...
The substance appears to have a slight toxicity in higher doses, with effects such as liver and intestinal disorders at high exposure in test animals (just below LD50 level).[citation needed] Some reproductive disorders and decreasing weaning weight have been observed, also at high exposure. Effects on humans from use as a drug include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, or headache; very rarely also ringing in the ears, vision changes, stomach pain, yellowing eyes and skin, dark urine, fever, fatigue, increased thirst and change in the amount of urine occur.[citation needed] Carcinogenic effects have been shown at higher doses.[11] ...
... is an imidazole derivative which works by inhibiting the growth of individual Candida or fungal cells by altering ...
InChI=1S/C58H73N7O17/c1-5-6-7-24-82-40-22-18-35(19-23-40)33-10-8-32(9-11-33)34-12-14-37(15-13-34)51(74)59-41-26-43(70)54(77)63-56(79)47-48(71)29(2)27-65(47)58(81)45(31(4)67)61-55(78)46(50(73)49(72)36-16-20-38(68)21-17-36)62-53(76)42-25-39(69)28-64(42)57(80)44(30(3)66)60-52(41)75/h8-23,29-31,39,41-50,54,66-73,77H,5-7,24-28H2,1-4H3,(H,59,74)(H,60,75)(H,61,78)(H,62,76)(H,63,79)/t29-,30+,31+,39+,41-,42?,43+,44?,45?,46?,47?,48-,49+,50+,54+/m0/s1 ...
... , also known as selenium sulfide, is a medication used to treat pityriasis versicolor, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and dandruff.[1] It is applied to the affected area as a lotion or shampoo.[2] Dandruff frequently returns if treatment is stopped.[3] Side effects include hair loss, irritation of the skin, weakness, and feeling tired.[1] Use is not recommended in children less than 2-5 years old.[3][1] Use in pregnancy or breastfeeding has not been studied.[4] Selenium disulfide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SeS2.[5] Selenium disulfide was approved for medical use in the United States at least as early as 1951.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] Selenium disulfide is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[2] In the United States a month of treatment costs less than 25 USD.[2] In the United Kingdom 100 ml of 2.5% shampoo costs the NHS about ...
Imidazole antifungals. *Lanosterol 14α-demethylase inhibitors. *Antiinfective agent stubs. *Dermatologic drug stubs ...
... is a imidazole (CHEBI:14434) 1H-imidazole (CHEBI:16069) is a mancude organic heteromonocyclic parent ... 1H-imidazole (CHEBI:16069) is conjugate base of imidazolium cation (CHEBI:50059) 1H-imidazole (CHEBI:16069) is tautomer of 4H- ... 1H-imidazole (CHEBI:16069) is a monocyclic heteroarene (CHEBI:38179) 1H-imidazole (CHEBI:16069) is conjugate acid of ... imidazolyl group (CHEBI:50052) is substituent group from 1H-imidazole (CHEBI:16069). 4H-imidazole (CHEBI:51802) is tautomer of ...
imidazoles synonyms, imidazoles pronunciation, imidazoles translation, English dictionary definition of imidazoles. A group of ... Related to imidazoles: clotrimazole, Triazoles. imidazoles. A group of antifungal drugs, used mainly to treat infections of the ... Synthesis of Imidazoles. Imidazoles are present in various pharmacologically active compounds which act as antituberculosis ... Imidazoles - definition of imidazoles by The Free Dictionary ...
The action of sulfuric-nitric nitrating mixture on imidazole and its nitro derivatives has given di- and trinitroimidazoles. ... The nitration of imidazole and its derivatives has been studied. ... Nitration of imidazoles with various nitrating agents. *Authors ... The nitration of imidazole and its derivatives has been studied. The action of sulfuric-nitric nitrating mixture on imidazole ... Acetic Nitrate Organic Chemistry Nitric Acid Imidazole These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This ...
Wadso, I., Heats of hydrolysis of N-acetylated imidazole, 1,2,4-triazole and tetrazole, Acta Chem. Scand., 1960, 14, 903-908. [ ... Other names: Imidazole; Glyoxalin; Glyoxaline; Imidazol; Imutex; Methanimidamide, N,N-1,2-ethenediyl-; Miazole; 1,3-Diaza-2,4- ... n-Butyliso-butyraldimine, n-butylisobutylamine, pyrazole, and imidazole, J. Chem. Soc., 1962, 2927-2931. [all data] ... imidazole, pyridazine, and pyrimidine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1986, 108, 3237. [all data] ...
Salts of imidazole where the imidazole ring is the cation are known as imidazolium salts (for example, imidazolium chloride or ... The name "imidazole" was coined in 1887 by the German chemist Arthur Rudolf Hantzsch (1857-1935). Imidazole is a planar 5- ... Imidazole was first reported in 1858 by the German chemist Heinrich Debus, although various imidazole derivatives had been ... Imidazole has become an important part of many pharmaceuticals. Synthetic imidazoles are present in many fungicides and ...
Dear colleagues, can anyone direct me to a commercial source of imidazole glycerol or imidazole acetol? Please refrain from ... source imidazole glycerol ?. mpage at mpage at Fri Jun 16 05:05:53 EST 1995 *Previous message ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
... , Azole Antifungal, Clotrimazole, Lotrimin, Econazole, Spectazole, Oxiconazole, Oxistat, Sulconazole, ... Imidazole Antifungal. Imidazole Antifungal Aka: Imidazole Antifungal, Azole Antifungal, Clotrimazole, Lotrimin, Econazole, ... Imidazole antifungal, Imidazole antifungal (product), Imidazole antifungal (substance). Spanish. antifúngico imidazol, ... A broad spectrum imidazole derivative with antifungal activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully ...
Other names in common use include imidazole acetylase, and imidazole acetyltransferase. Kinsky SC (January 1960). "Assay, ... In enzymology, an imidazole N-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:imidazole N-acetyltransferase. ... imidazole ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + N-acetylimidazole Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA ...
... is a 1-(phosphoribosyl)imidazole (CHEBI:37292) 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D- ... ribosyl)imidazole (CHEBI:28843) is a aminoimidazole (CHEBI:22512) 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole (CHEBI:28843) is ... CHEBI:28843 - 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... 5-amino-1-(5-phosphonato-D-ribosyl)imidazol-3-ium (CHEBI:58592) is conjugate base of 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole ( ...
Substantially following the procedure of Example 6, the benzyl imidazole was converted to 1-benzyl-2-aminomethyl imidazole ... 1-benzyl-2-formyl imidazole, was prepared. Substantially following the procedure of Example 7, the benzyl imidazole was ... 2-(aminoalkylthio)imidazoles as dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitors. US4935438 *. Dec 29, 1987. Jun 19, 1990. Smithkline Beckman ... Angiotensin II receptor blocking imidazoles. US5153197 *. Nov 13, 1989. Oct 6, 1992. E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company. ...
DYE-DECOLORIZING PEROXIDASE(4r)-2-Methylpentane-2,4-Diol(4s)-2-Methyl-2,4-Pentanediol4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-Piperazine Ethanesulfonic AcidAcetate IonBeta-D-Mannose
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... Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 May 1;16(9):2505-8. doi: ...
Imidazole. Regulatory process names 16 Translated names 22 CAS names 1 IUPAC names 19 Trade names 1 Other identifiers 6 ...
Imidazole salicylate *Molecular FormulaC10H10N2O3 ... Imidazole compd. wi. th salicylic acid Imidazole salicylat. e [ ...
... Ali Javid,1 Majid M. Heravi,2 F. ... Ali Javid, Majid M. Heravi, F. F. Bamoharram, and Mohsen Nikpour, "One-Pot Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Imidazoles Catalyzed ...
193s) Properties of Imidazole Solvents for CO2 Capture. *Conference: AIChE Annual Meeting ... Imidazoles are unique classes of organic solvents that feature properties similar to aqueous amine solvents and ionic liquids ( ... Imidazole-based solvents possess many desirable features for CO2 capture processes including low viscosities (, 5 cP), very low ... However, to date, the utility of the imidazole platform has not been considered, despite its potential advantages over both ILs ...
Imidazole, 5g (29ZE52)? Graingers got your back. Price:$602.00. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for ...
By reacting this organolithium compound with carbonyl electrophiles 2-(hydroxyalkyl)imidazoles and 2-(aminoalkyl)imidazoles ... and an aromatic aldehyde to provide a broad range of triaryl-1H-imidazoles or 2-aryl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazoles in very ... A one-pot, four-component synthesis of 1,2,4-trisubstituted 1H-imidazoles was achieved in very good yields by heating a mixture ... An improved and rapid one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl imidazoles in a room temperature ionic liquid does not need any added ...
... ... 1,2,4-trimethyl-5-nitro-imidazole
Imidazole ReagentPlus®, 99%; CAS Number: 288-32-4; EC Number: 206-019-2; Synonym: 1,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene, Glyoxaline; ... Imidazole is a biocompatible molecule that is used as a scaffold for biomimetic applications. It is used as a bioreagent with ...
... imidazole; CAS Number: 25371-96-4; Synonym: TRIM; Linear Formula: C10H7F3N2; find Sigma-Aldrich-T7313 MSDS, related peer- ...
Topical imidazoles. Class Summary. These medications are broad-spectrum antifungals that are commonly used in the treatment of ... Ketoconazole is an imidazole broad-spectrum antifungal agent; it inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, causing cellular ...
Abstract Trichloroisocyanuric acid was found to be a highly efficient homogeneous catalyst for synthesis of imidazoles via one- ... Trichloroisocyanuric acid Imidazoles Three-component reaction Homogeneous catalyst Electronic supplementary material. The ... Trichloroisocyanuric acid was found to be a highly efficient homogeneous catalyst for synthesis of imidazoles via one-pot, ... Trichloroisocyanuric acid-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles. ...
Novel imidazole-5-acetic acid derivatives of the formula: ##STR1## wherein R1 is lower alkyl, cycloalkyl or, phenyl which may ... Imidazole and benzimidazole derivatives. US5208234 *. 10 Mar 1992. 4 May 1993. E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc.. Substituted imidazole ... Novel substituted imidazoles, their preparation and use. US4880804 *. 7 Jan 1988. 14 Nov 1989. E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And ... Imidazole with angiotensin II antagonist properties. US5332820 *. 20 May 1991. 26 Jul 1994. E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And ...
... imidazoles was synthesized and evaluated for activity at alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. This class of agents has been ... Synthesis and evaluation of 2-(arylamino)imidazoles as alpha 2-adrenergic agonists J Med Chem. 1997 Jan 3;40(1):18-23. doi: ... The most potent member of this class, 2-[(5-methyl-1,4-benzodioxan-6yl)amino]imidazole, proved efficacious for the reduction of ... A series of 2-(arylamino)imidazoles was synthesized and evaluated for activity at alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. This ...
Acute tests on all three trophic levels were performed to examine the aquatic toxicity of the substance. Algae turned out to be the most sensitive species revealing an ErC50 (72h) of 50.8 mg/L while daphnids acute testing resulted in an EC50 (48h) of ,100 mg/L, respectively. Effects towards fish were found in the same range providing a LC50 (96h) of ,100 mg/L. Thus, the substance is acutely harmful to aquatic organisms. ...
This list contains biological and chemical agents, in accordance with Art. 7 and points 2 and 3 of the Annex to Directive 94/33/EC, to which young persons (under 18 years of age) may not be exposed at the workplace. The list is a non-exhaustive inventory of such substances based on: 1) agents of risk groups 3 and 4 under Directive 2000/54/EC; 2) Table 3 of Annex VI to the CLP Regulation; 3) and Annex I of Directive 2004/37/EC.. ...
  • The nitration of imidazole and its derivatives has been studied. (
  • The action of sulfuric-nitric nitrating mixture on imidazole and its nitro derivatives has given di- and trinitroimidazoles. (
  • Imidazole was first reported in 1858 by the German chemist Heinrich Debus, although various imidazole derivatives had been discovered as early as the 1840s. (
  • The synthesis of derivatives of 2,3-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]imidazole from 1,2-dialkylimidazolines or 1,2-diarylkylimidazolines and phenacyl bromides with subsequent heating of the 1,2-disubstituted 3-phenacyl-imidazolinium bromides in aqueous or ethanolic solution in the presence of bases has been effected. (
  • A NHC-copper-catalyzed isocyanide insertion into alcohol to form an N -arylformimidate intermediate and subsequent base-promoted cycloaddition with benzyl isocyanide derivatives enables a straightforward and high-yielding synthesis of 1,4-diaryl-1 H -imidazoles. (
  • The present invention relates to novel imidazole derivatives which are of value as medicines and to their production and use. (
  • The commercially available 4-nitroimidazole, in a few simple steps (including Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution of Hydrogen), was transformed into: 4-aminoimidazoyl-5-carboximes, N -[1-(4-amino-1 H -imidazol-5-yl)methylidene]- N -(aryl)amine derivatives or into 4-amino-5-aminomethyl-imidazole. (
  • Derivatives of imidazole, called imidazoles, a common family heterocycles with sharing the 1,3-C3N2 ring, but varying substituents. (
  • First, the properties of imidazole derivatives were used to synthesize a palladium-NHC catalyst that was used for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling in neat water. (
  • Synonyms: 4-Benzyloxybenzyl imidazole-1-carboxylate polymer-bound Carbonylimidazole, polymer-bound Molecular Weight: 0 MDL No.: MFCD01094080 Comments: This resin can be use with nucleophilic reagents. (
  • Imidazoles are present in various pharmacologically active compounds which act as antituberculosis agent [93] and antibacterial agent [94]. (
  • Both dexmedetomidine and clonidine are imidazole compounds and possess a high ratio of specificity for the [[alpha]. (
  • Other imidazole compounds have been known longer: allantoin (discovered in 1800) and parabanic acid were prepared in 1837 from uric acid. (
  • Imidazole is between the two nitrogen atoms of five membered heterocyclic compounds containing. (
  • The electrophysiologic effects of the imidazole-substituted diheterabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane compounds GLG-V-13 and KMC-IV-84 were evaluated in canine ventricular tissues using intracellular and extracellular recordings. (
  • The results demonstrate selective class III electrophysiologic properties for imidazole-substituted diheterabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane compounds. (
  • In this work, we present an in-depth phenotypic evaluation in T. cruzi of a new class of imidazole compounds, which were discovered in a previous phenotypic screen against different trypanosomatids and were designed as potential inhibitors of cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs). (
  • Imidazoles comprise a major class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds and have been found to be an integral part of many significant pharmacological active compounds in the field of medicinal chemistry. (
  • It was shown that glyoxal, formaldehyde, and ammonia condense to form imidazole (glyoxaline, as it was originally named). (
  • Dear colleagues, can anyone direct me to a commercial source of imidazole glycerol or imidazole acetol? (
  • Formation from other heterocycles Imidazole can be synthesized by the photolysis of 1-vinyltetrazole. (
  • Imidazoles are also of general synthetic utility, since they permit functional group and structural modifications to synthesize a number of substituted heterocycles. (
  • Heterocycles, Imidazoles, Microwave assisted synthesis. (
  • A rhodium(II)-catalyzed reaction of stable and readily available 1-sulfonyl triazoles with nitriles gives the corresponding imidazoles in good to excellent yields via rhodium iminocarbenoids intermediates. (
  • Reactive imidazole intermediates based on AB(2) and A(3) monomers, i.e. bis(methylol) propionic acid (bis-MPA) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) have successfully been synthesized and isolated on a 100 gram scale via a facile synthetic protocol using 1,1' -carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) as a key reagent. (
  • The robustness of the imidazole intermediates as bench stable precursors enabled the synthesis of a library of functional cyclic carbonates bearing relevant functionalities including hydrophilic PEGs, bioactive cholesterol and clickable groups. (
  • krusei must be treated with local imidazoles such as clotrimazole or ciclopirox olamine, or boric acid, as it is resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. (
  • Compared to an untransformed rat cell line, 3Y1, adenovirus 12-transformed cell lines of 3Y1 were highly sensitive to the cytotoxic action of an imidazole antibiotic, clotrimazole. (
  • The difference in [IC.sub.50] values of these complexes maybe ascribed to the imidazoles (HL) and copper ion. (
  • To quantitate proteins in eluates containing imidazole, we recommend the Bradford protein assay , which is based on the ability of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250 to form strong complexes with proteins. (
  • A class of Ag(I) N-heterocyclic carbene silver complexes, 1 - 3 , derived from 4,5-dichloro-1H-imidazole has been evaluated for their anticancer activity against the human cancer cell lines OVCAR-3 (ovarian), MB157 (breast), and Hela (cervical). (
  • WALMSLEY, Ryan S. e TSHENTU, Zenixole R. . Imidazole-based vanadium complexes as haloperoxidase models for oxidation reactions . (
  • Four imidazole-bound oxovanadium(IV) haloperoxidase model complexes were prepared. (
  • A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands ( 3 - 14 ) was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R). (
  • Combination chemotherapy of metastatic malignant schwannoma with vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and imidazole carboxamide: A case report. (
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by AICAR (5-amino-imidazole carboxamide riboside) is correlated with increased glucose transport in rodent skeletal muscle via an insulin-independent pathway. (
  • Comparative analysis of DNA alkylation by conjugates between pyrrole-imidazole hairpin polyamides and chlorambucil or seco-CBI. (
  • Many natural products, especially alkaloids, contain the imidazole ring. (
  • Spectrum offers a high quality selection of imidazole alkaloids which can be incorporated into many biological molecules, including histidine. (
  • Spectrum specializes in providing the top imidazole alkaloids but if you do not see the product, grade or form of the ingredient you require, just contact our chemical specialist at 800-772-8786. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Imidazole Antifungal. (
  • How does imidazole affect my quantitation of protein? (
  • Since imidazole absorbs UV radiation at 280 nm, an elution profile measured at 280 nm while purifying a 6xHis tagged protein by FPLC will show an increase in absorbance above the background signal allowing quantitation of your protein. (
  • How can I remove imidazole from a protein sample? (
  • I would like to know if imidazole could affect the binding of my protein to the column. (
  • 1-azabicyclooctanes) one can derive that the reorganization energies for the reactions of imidazoles with electrophiles are significantly higher than those for the other amines and that imidazoles are less nucleophilic than pyridines and 1-azabicyclooctanes of comparable basicity. (
  • A synthetic, imidazole derivate with broad-spectrum, antifungal activity. (
  • This review concludes various existing synthetic methods of imidazoles particularly focusing on microwave assisted approach developed up to 2011. (
  • The most potent member of this class, 2-[(5-methyl-1,4-benzodioxan-6yl)amino]imidazole, proved efficacious for the reduction of intraocular pressure upon topical administration and for the reduction of blood pressure upon intravenous administration. (
  • In addition to lysines, other electronrich guanidine, imidazole , amide, alcohol, and thiol functional groups within some amino acid side chains are expected to undergo acylation reactions when exposed to high enough concentrations of anhydrides. (
  • For synthesis of 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate, the carboxylate moiety is positioned in a small pocket proposed to facilitate nucleotide decarboxylation. (
  • subsequent movement of the aminoimidazole moiety reorients it for addition of CO2 at C4 to generate iso-5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate. (
  • A mitochondria-targeted imidazole-substituted fatty acid inhibits cytochrome c peroxidase and mitigates radiation-induced death. (
  • The isomerization of BH acetates or bromides with imidazole or triazoles provides facile access to functionalized allyl imidazoles or allyl triazoles [25-29]. (
  • In this paper, a small library of Baylis-Hillman reaction-derived imidazole and triazoles are synthesized and characterized. (
  • An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. (
  • 2. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the imidazole derivative or the pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof according to claim 1, together with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. (
  • In enzymology, an imidazole N-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + imidazole ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + N-acetylimidazole Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and imidazole, whereas its two products are CoA and N-acetylimidazole. (
  • By systematically varying the structures of the imidazole and/or amine components, we have characterized the key physical (viscosity, density), thermodynamic (vapor-liquid equilibrium and heat of reaction) and chemical properties of these systems, and have developed structure-property relationships and empirical models that accurately describe the properties of imidazoles and imidazole-amine hybrid solvents. (
  • Imidazoles possess many of the same desirable characteristics as ILs such as tunable chemical structures, low vapor pressure and good chemical/thermal stability. (
  • 1H-Imidazole-4-carbaldehyde Chemical Properties mp 174-177 °C(lit. (
  • Imidazole is used to elute tagged proteins bound to Ni ions attached to the surface of beads in the chromatography column. (
  • When purifying proteins under native conditions, imidazole elution results in fewer co-elution impurities than pH elution, making it a better choice for downstream applications which are not affected by the presence of imidazole. (
  • When purifying proteins under native conditions using imidazole elution, we recommend preparing buffers as indicated below. (
  • Imidazoles are unique classes of organic solvents that feature properties similar to aqueous amine solvents and ionic liquids (ILs), both of which have received a great deal of attention for CO2 capture applications. (
  • However, to date, the utility of the imidazole platform has not been considered, despite its potential advantages over both ILs and aqueous amine solvents. (
  • Imidazole-amine hybrids are able to exceed the 1:2 (mol:mol) stochiometric limitations of CO2-amine chemistry in a non-aqueous solvent, and are found to absorb up to 1:1 (mol:mol) CO2 per amine, while maintaining viscosities as low as 10 cP in a highly CO2-rich state. (
  • Sections about 50um thick are cut and placed in 0.2M Imidazole in which 4% aqueous OsO 4 is added. (
  • N- functionalized imidazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic molecules, and are well-known as components of pharmaceuticals and also serve as building blocks for imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs). (
  • NEBExpress Ni resin utilizes a highly selective, proprietary resin that requires less imidazole throughout the purification in comparison to conventional Ni NTA based resins. (
  • A ketone oxidation, employing catalytic HBr and DMSO, followed by imidazole condensation with aldehydes provides 2,4(5)-disubstituted imidazoles in good yields. (
  • A Schiff's base complex nickel catalyst (Ni-C) enables a highly efficient one-pot microwave-assisted synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles in excellent yields from aldehydes, benzil, and ammonium acetate. (
  • Many drugs contain an imidazole ring, such as certain antifungal drugs, the nitroimidazole series of antibiotics, and the sedative midazolam. (
  • The potent and selective activity of this imidazole-based PDE inhibitor class against T. cruzi constitutes a successful repurposing of research into inhibitors of mammalian PDEs. (
  • The imidazole moiety is a 5-membered heterocyclic ring, containing 2 nitrogen atoms and 3 carbon atoms. (
  • Two heterogeneous catalysts were prepared by first linking imidazole-4-carboxylic acid or 1-methylimidazole-2-carboxylic acid to chloromethylated polystyrene and subsequently reacting these polymer-anchored ligands with vanadyl sulphate. (
  • Ces sels sont d'excellents précurseurs de carbènes N-hétérocycliques (NHC) et sont couramment utilisés pour synthétiser des ligands en vue d'une utilisation en catalyse organométallique. (
  • Imidazole is classified as an alkaloid and belongs to the class of antifungals known as azole. (
  • The unshared electron pair of 1-bit nitrogen atom in imidazole ring participates in the cyclic conjugation, reduces the electron density of the nitrogen atom, and makes hydrogen of the nitrogen atom easily leave in the form of hydrogen. (
  • The unshared electron pair of 3-bit nitrogen atom in imidazole ring doesn't participates in the cyclic conjugation, while it occupies the sp2 hybridized orbital, can accept protons, and form salt with strong acid. (
  • This assay is more tolerant of higher imidazole concentrations than the Lowry and the biuret assay, which are more sensitive to imidazole because they involve the reduction of copper. (
  • Imidazole ketone erastin (IKE) is a potent, selective, and metabolically stable system xc- inhibitor and inducer of ferroptosis . (
  • 2-[(1-Methylpropyl)dithio]-1H-imidazole (IV-2) is a known inhibitor of the thioredoxin system. (
  • 2-[(1-Methylpropyl)dithio]-1H-imidazole (IV-2), also known as PX-12, is an inhibitor of the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system ( 1 ). (
  • Imidazole , appears in a number of pharmaceuticals, is characterized by a ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms at nonadjacent positions. (
  • Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4. (
  • Imidazole is a highly polar compound, as evidenced by its electric dipole moment of 3.67 D. It is highly soluble in water. (
  • The low-melting mixture urea-ZnCl 2 as reaction medium efficiently catalyzes the formation of imidazoles from a dicarbonyl compound, ammonium acetate, and an aromatic aldehyde to provide a broad range of triaryl-1 H -imidazoles or 2-aryl-1 H -phenanthro[9,10- d ]imidazoles in very good yields. (
  • 9. A compound according to claim 5, which is 1-benzyl-4-chloro-2-(4-chloro-3,5-dinitrophenyl)imidazole-5-acetic acid. (
  • The simplest member of the imidazole family is itself, a compound with molecular formula C3H4N2. (
  • Three component This method proceeds in good yields for substituted imidazoles. (
  • A ZnCl 2 -catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of benzimidates and 2 H -azirines provides multisubstituted imidazoles in good yields under mild reaction conditions. (
  • A one-pot, four-component synthesis of 1,2,4-trisubstituted 1 H -imidazoles was achieved in very good yields by heating a mixture of a 2-bromoacetophenone, an aldehyde, a primary amine, and ammonium acetate under solvent-free conditions. (
  • A copper-catalyzed, practical, and straightforward one-pot synthesis of multisubstituted imidazoles in good yields from arylacetic acids, N -arylbenzamidines, and nitroalkanes involves simultaneous activation of C-H and N-H bonds. (
  • A simple route via a copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction provides multisubstituted imidazoles in good yields and high regioselectivity using oxygen as an oxidant without the addition of expensive catalysts. (
  • The copper-catalyzed reaction between two different isocyanides produces imidazoles in good yields. (
  • An efficient copper-catalyzed regioselective diamination of terminal alkynes with amidines in the presence of Na 2 CO 3 , pyridine, a catalytic amount of CuCl 2 2H 2 O, and oxygen (1 atm), allows the synthesis of diverse 1,2,4-trisubstituted imidazoles in good yields. (
  • The study suggested that substitution of group at R1 position on imidazole ring with hydrophobic nature and low bulkiness are favourable for the antibacterial activity in the concerned microbes. (
  • While IL-based solvents have been the focus of many research efforts in areas such as CO2 capture, imidazoles have not been considered for these same applications. (
  • Despite these promising features, it has only been very recently that reports on the the relationships between imidazole structure and physical properties were reported, and the study of imidazoles as tailored solvents is still dwarfed by the body of knowledge available for ILs. (
  • An imidazole tautomer which has the migrating hydrogen at position 1. (
  • The example below applies to imidazole when R1 = R2 = hydrogen. (
  • The product will be a 1,4-disubstituted imidazole, but here since R1 = R2 = hydrogen, imidazole itself is the product. (
  • The reaction, shown below, produces imidazole when R1 = R2 = R3 = hydrogen. (
  • The reaction occurs with formamide, ethylenediamine, and hydrogen over platinum on alumina, and it must take place between 340 and 480 °C. This forms a very pure imidazole product. (
  • The hybrid B3LYP functional was employed with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set for the exploration about the solvent effect on hydrogen-bonded acetic acid…arginine, acetic acid…imidazole, acetic acid…phenol dyads, as well as the Tyr…Asp…Arg triads. (
  • The hydrogen bonded dyads, generated by acetic acid and one of phenol, imidazole, and arginine , as well as the Tyr…Asp…Arg triads are explored. (
  • Girish Kumar Gupta, Nidhi Rani and Vinod Kumar, "Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Imidazoles - A Review", Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry (2012) 9: 270. (
  • The absorbance of imidazole can vary depending on its source and purity, but elution buffer containing 250 mM imidazole usually has an A 280 of 0.2-0.4. (