HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Fractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Genes, T-Cell Receptor: DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Immunogenetic Phenomena: GENETIC PHENOMENA characterizing IMMUNITY and the immune response.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.HLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Statistical Distributions: The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.HLA-B8 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.Mice, Inbred C57BLCytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.DNA Probes, HLA: DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.HLA-B35 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.HLA-DR2 Antigen: A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.HLA-DR5 Antigen: A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
"IMGT/HLA database-a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex". Tissue Antigens. 55 (3): 280-7. doi: ... IMGT/V-QUEST for IG and TR sequence analysis, IMGT/ Collier-de-Perles and IMGT/StructuralQuery for IG variable domain structure ... Robinson J, Waller MJ, Fail SC, Marsh SG (December 2006). "The IMGT/HLA and IPD databases". Hum. Mutat. 27 (12): 1192-9. doi: ... For example, it was useful to examine the functional relationship between TAP peptide transport and HLA class I antigen ...
Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96-112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European ... HLA-A36 (A36) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, Barnstable CJ, Solomon E, Bodmer WF (February 1978). "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in ... A36 is rare HLA-A allele group. A36 has a high false serotyping rate to A1. A36 is largely limited to Africa. Outside Africa ...
2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ... derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database: http://www. ... HLA-B73 (B73) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the HLA-B*7301 gene product. Part of B*7301 is similar to the HLA- ... Hoffmann HJ, Kristensen TJ, Jensen TG, Graugaard B, Lamm LU (1995). "Antigenic characteristics and cDNA sequences of HLA-B73". ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, ... HLA-B49 (B49) is an HLA-B serotype. B49 is a split antigen from the B21 broad antigen, the sister serotype B50. The serotype ... 1992). "Serologic cross-reactivities poorly reflect allelic relationships in the HLA-B12 and HLA-B21 groups. Dominant epitopes ... For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial) Hildebrand WH, Madrigal JA, Belich MP, et al. ( ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, ... HLA-B56 (B56) is an HLA-B serotype. B56 is a split antigen from the B22 broad antigen, sister serotypes are B54 and B55. The ... For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial) Marsh SG, Albert ED, Bodmer WF, et al. (2005). "Nomenclature for factors of ... serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*56 gene products. ( ...
Tissue Antigens. 41 (2): 72-80. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1993.tb01982.x. PMID 8475492. Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European ... HLA-A43 (A43) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic cell hybrids: requirement for beta2 microglobulin". Tissue Antigens. 11 ... A43 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A43 is a sister serotype of A25, A26, A34, and A66. A43 is more ...
... (B61) is an HLA - B serotype. B61 is a split antigen serotype that recognizes certain B40 serotypes. Ways JP, Lawlor DA ... Robinson J, Waller MJ, Fail SC, Marsh SG (2006). "The IMGT/HLA and IPD databases". Hum. Mutat. 27 (12): 1192-9. doi:10.1002/ ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ... Wan AM, Parham P (1987). "A transposable epitope of HLA-B7, B40 molecules". Immunogenetics. 25 (5): 323-8. doi:10.1007/ ...
One haplotype found in caucasians is the HLA-A1-B37-Cw6-DR10-DQ5. derived from IMGT/HLA White A, Rostom A (1994). "HLA antigens ... HLA-DR10 (DR10) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*1001 gene product. The serological reaction of DR10 is relatively ... HLA-DR10 is not genetically linked to DR51, DR52 or DR53, but is linked to HLA-DQ1 and DQ5 serotypes. ... Kübler K, Arndt P, Wardelmann E, Krebs D, Kuhn W, van der Ven K (2006). "HLA-class II haplotype associations with ovarian ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, ... For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial) B7, previously HL-A7, was one of the first 'HL-A' antigens recognized, largely ... HLA-B7 (B7) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*07 gene products. ( ... A more recent study looked at a number of linked gene-alleles and found I82-2:D6S265-1:HLA-A3:D6S128-2:HLA-F1:D6S105-8 was ...
Tissue Antigens. 43 (4): 209-18. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1994.tb02327.x. PMID 7521976. derived from IMGT/HLA. ... HLA-B15 (B15) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the B*15 gene-allele protein products of HLA-B. B15 is a broad ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ... April 1994). "HLA-B15: a widespread and diverse family of HLA-B alleles". ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, ... The serotype identifies the B*38 allele products of the HLA-B gene-locus. B38 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B16, and ... Genetics and HLA antigens". Baillière's Clinical Rheumatology. 8 (2): 263-76. doi:10.1016/S0950-3579(94)80018-9. PMID 8076387. ... Linkage studies indicate a factor in the HLA-class I region is more greatly associated, with HLA-B38 so far the only linked ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, ... HLA-B58 (B58) is an HLA-B serotype. B58 is a split antigen from the B17 broad antigen, the sister serotype B57. The serotype ... March 2005). "HLA-B*5801 allele as a genetic marker for severe cutaneous adverse reactions caused by allopurinol". Proc. Natl. ... HLA-B*5801 is involved in allopurinol sensitive drug induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Allopurinol is a frequent cause of ...
... (B51) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*51 gene products. B51 is a split antigen of ... derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database: http://www. ... January 2003). "Cloning and sequencing full-length HLA-B and -C genes" (PDF). Tissue Antigens. 61 (1): 20-48. doi:10.1034/j. ... 1981). "Host factors and susceptibility to rubella virus infection: the association of HLA antigens". J. Med. Virol. 7 (4): 287 ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, ... HLA-B54 (B54) is an HLA-B serotype. B54 is a split antigen from the B22 broad antigen, sister serotypes are B55 and B56. The ... HLA-serotype tutorial Hildebrand WH, Madrigal JA, Little AM, Parham P (1992). "HLA-Bw22: a family of molecules with identity to ... HLA-B7 in the alpha 1-helix". J. Immunol. 148 (4): 1155-62. PMID 1737933. Marsh SG, Albert ED, Bodmer WF, et al. (2005). " ...
derived from IMGT/HLA Bardin T, Legrand L, Naveau B, Marcelli-Barge A, Debeyre N, Lathrop G, Poirier J, Schmid M, Ryckewaert A ... "HLA-DR antigens in rheumatoid arthritis. A Swiss collaborative study; final report. Swiss Federal Commission for the Rheumatic ... HLA-DR1 is not genetically linked to DR51, DR52 or DR53, but is linked to HLA-DQ1 and DQ5 serotypes. Fernández MM, Guan R, ... HLA-DR1 (DR1) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*01 gene products. The serology for the most commom DR1 alleles is ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA. ... HLA-B35 (B35) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*35 gene products. B35 is one of the largest B ... For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial). This variant is particularly susceptible to HIV infection. Marsh SG, Albert ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". ...
2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ... derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). "New allele frequency database: http://www. ... HLA-B47 (B47) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the HLA-B*47 gene products (B*4701, B*4702, B*4703) . Comparison of ... The CYP21 gene is located close to B47 between HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 locus. Marsh SG, Albert ED, Bodmer WF, et al. ( ...
"DT" and HLA-B"NM5" antigens". Hum. Immunol. 44 (2): 103-10. doi:10.1016/0198-8859(95)00082-F. PMID 8847228. derived from IMGT/ ... HLA-B81 (B81) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the HLA-B*8101 and B*8102 (very rare) gene products. B81 is more ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ... HLA-B81 corresponds to a single allele B*8101. There are no characterized haplotypes of this allele that span multiple regions ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA. ... The serotype identifies certain B*15 gene-allele protein products of HLA-B. B77 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B15. ... HLA-B77 (B77) is an HLA-B serotype. ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". ...
derived from IMGT/HLA Arnett FC, Olsen ML, Anderson KL, Reveille JD (1991). "Molecular analysis of major histocompatibility ... Waine GJ, Ross AG, Williams GM, Sleigh AC, McManus DP (1998). "HLA class II antigens are associated with resistance or ... HLA-DQ7 (DQ7) is an HLA-DQ serotype that recognizes the common HLA DQB1*0301 and the less common HLA DQB1*0304 gene products. ... HLA DQB1*0301 in Turks is associated with Thymoma but the risk may be associated with HLA class I loci. DQA1*0601:DQB1*0301 ( ...
... is a HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the B*45 gene-allele protein products of HLA-B. B14 is a broad antigen composed to ... Robinson J, Waller MJ, Fail SC, Marsh SG (2006). "The IMGT/HLA and IPD databases". Hum. Mutat. 27 (12): 1192-9. doi:10.1002/ ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ... In the case of B14 the recognition of the broad antigen is more useful than split antigen recognition because of the relatively ...
derived from IMGT/HLA Klitz W, Maiers M, Spellman S, et al. (October 2003). "New HLA haplotype frequency reference standards: ... high-resolution and large sample typing of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in a sample of European Americans". Tissue Antigens. 62 (4): ... HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQB1*02 are almost synonymous in meaning. DQ2 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA ... HLA-DQ2 (DQ2) is a serotype group within HLA-DQ (DQ) serotyping system. The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, ... HLA-B18 (B18) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*18 gene products. (For terminology help see: ... HLA-serotype tutorial) B*1801, the most common allele is at highest frequencies in Northern Italy and the Balkans, a peak ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, ... HLA-B42 (B42) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the HLA-B*4201 and *4202 gene products. HLA-B*4201 is common in ... For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial) Serological typing for B*4201 and B*4202 is relatively efficient. Marsh SG, ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". ...
... (A11) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A "A" serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European Bioinformatics Institute Gregoriadis S, Zervas J, Varletzidis E, Toubis M, Pantazopoulos ... "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic cell hybrids: requirement for beta2 microglobulin". Tissue Antigens. 11 ... Kim SJ, Choi IH, Dahlberg S, Nisperos B, Kim JD, Hansen JA (March 1987). "HLA and leprosy in Koreans". Tissue Antigens. 29 (3 ...
... the international repository of HLA SFVTs will be maintained at IMGT/HLA database.[14] A tool to convert HLA alleles into their ... "Frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ phenotypes in the United Arab Emirates population". Tissue Antigens. 66 (2): ... HLA-C. Minor genes are HLA-E, HLA-F and HLA-G. β2-microglobulin binds with major and minor gene subunits to produce a ... HLA-DR *α-chain encoded by HLA-DRA locus. *4 β-chains (only 3 possible per person), encoded by HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5 loci ...
... neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA ... In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry ... A neural network trained on diverse datasets improves prediction of HLA class II epitope presentation. ... expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. Because it leverages these diverse training data and our ...
IPD-IMGT/HLA (Immuno Polymorphism Database-International Immunogenetics project/Human Leucocyte Antigen). ...
IPD-IMGT/HLA (Immuno Polymorphism Database-International Immunogenetics project/Human Leucocyte Antigen). ...
... antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukoc ... The IPD and IMGT/HLA database: allele variant databases. Nucleic Acids Res 2015; 43:D423. ... The earliest HLA associations with rheumatic diseases, such as the association of the HLA-B*27 allele at the HLA-B gene with ... antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is ...
... typing for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) has become critical for bone marrow transplants. Research has also indicated that ... Robinson, J. (2000) IMGT/HLA Database Statistics ,http://www3.ebi.ac.uk/Ser-vices/imgt/hla/cgi-bin/statistics.cgi, ... which includes HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C genes; class II, containing the HLA-D genes; and class III, composed of numerous protein ... 1995) Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system. Tissue Antigens 46, 1-18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Consensus sequences were obtained from the IMGT/HLA Sequence Database (www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/align.html). ... Antigen presentation subverted: Structure of the human cytomegalovirus protein US2 bound to the class I molecule HLA-A2. ... Antigen presentation subverted: Structure of the human cytomegalovirus protein US2 bound to the class I molecule HLA-A2 ... Antigen presentation subverted: Structure of the human cytomegalovirus protein US2 bound to the class I molecule HLA-A2 ...
Tissue Antigens 21:260-261.. OpenUrlPubMed. *↵. *Robinson J, et al.. (2013) The IMGT/HLA database. Nucleic Acids Res 41:D1222- ... 2017) Dominant protection from HLA-linked autoimmunity by antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Nature 545:243-247. ... 1977) Association of Parkinsons disease with HLA-B17 and B18 antigens. Nouv Presse Med 6:4144. ... 2011) HLA rs3129882 variant in Chinese Han patients with late-onset sporadic Parkinson disease. Neurosci Lett 501:185-187. ...
Automation of an HLA sequencing panel using technology from Beckman Coulter The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system is a ... genes exhibit high levels of polymorphism and more than 12,500 HLA alleles have now been characterized in the IPD-IMGT/HLA ...
Here we describe a computational strategy, SNP2HLA, to impute classical alleles and amino acid polymorphisms at class I (HLA-A ... For amino acid polymorphisms within HLA genes, we achieve 98.6% and 99.3% accuracy using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500 K and ... Long-range linkage disequilibrium between HLA loci and SNP markers across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region ... We imputed HLA alleles in an independent data set from the British 1958 Birth Cohort (N = 918) with gold standard four-digit ...
For example, novel sequence variants (representing HLA alleles not yet characterized in the IMGT/HLA sequence database) may ... The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes represent the most diverse loci in the human genome with over 14,000 alleles identified ... These include the use of informatics software to query the IMGT/HLA sequence database and assign the most likely combination of ... The IPD and IMGT/HLA database: allele variant databases. Nucleic Acids Research. 2015; 43:D423-431. ...
Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96-112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European ... HLA-A36 (A36) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, Barnstable CJ, Solomon E, Bodmer WF (February 1978). "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in ... A36 is rare HLA-A allele group. A36 has a high false serotyping rate to A1. A36 is largely limited to Africa. Outside Africa ...
Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID 15787720. derived from IMGT/HLA Middleton D, ... HLA-B49 (B49) is an HLA-B serotype. B49 is a split antigen from the B21 broad antigen, the sister serotype B50. The serotype ... 1992). "Serologic cross-reactivities poorly reflect allelic relationships in the HLA-B12 and HLA-B21 groups. Dominant epitopes ... For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial) Hildebrand WH, Madrigal JA, Belich MP, et al. ( ...
HLA-B is the most polymorphic gene in the MHC class I region, comprised of 4,765 HLA-B alleles (IPD-IMGT/HLA Database Release ... Multiplexed nanopore sequencing of HLA-B locus in Māori and Polynesian samples The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a ... Long read nanopore sequencing for detection of HLA and CYP2D6 variants and haplotypes Haplotypes are often critical for the ... Accurate typing of class I human leukocyte antigen by Oxford nanopore sequencing Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION has ...
HLA-B is the most polymorphic gene in the MHC class I region, comprised of 4,765 HLA-B alleles (IPD-IMGT/HLA Database Release ... Multiplexed nanopore sequencing of HLA-B locus in Māori and Polynesian samples The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a ... Accurate typing of class I human leukocyte antigen by Oxford nanopore sequencing Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION has ...
Question 7: IMGT/HLA Sequence Database at ________. BioModels Database. European Bioinformatics Institute. Wellcome Trust ... Question 3: HLA class III antigens encode components of the ________.. Mannan-binding lectin pathway. Complement system. ... Question 1: The human leukocyte antigen system (HLA) is the name of the ________ (MHC) in humans.. Major histocompatibility ... preimplantation genetic diagnosis may be used to give rise to a sibling with matching HLA, although there are ethical ...
HLA) system allowed improved donor selection , including HLA-identical related and unrelated donors. Besides bone marrow (BM) ... HLA) system allowed improved donor selection , including HLA-identical related and unrelated donors. Besides bone marrow (BM) ... Exciting insights into the genetics of the human leukocyte antigen ( ... Exciting insights into the genetics of the human leukocyte antigen ( ...
Tissue Antigens 2010 75: 291-455.. *Robinson J, Halliwell JA, Hayhurst JD, Flicek P, Parham P, Marsh SGE. The IPD and IMGT/HLA ... HLA 2016 87: 471-2.. *Huo MR, Xi B, Yu Y, Li D. Identification of a novel HLA-DRB1*07 allele, HLA-DRB1*07:01:19. HLA 2016 87: ... IMGT/HLA Database using the sequence submission tool provided (2). The IMGT/HLA Database may be accessed via the world wide web ... HLA 2016 87: 462-4.. *Wang X, Wang J, Zhang Y, Li Q, Ru K. A new HLA-B allele, B*52:44, sequenced in a Chinese individual. HLA ...
IMGT/HLA database-a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex. Tissue Antigens. 2000, 55 (3): 280-287. ... HLA) region of chromosome 6. To this end, we used the 6,944 sequences contained in Release 3.5 of the IMGT/HLA database[41, 42 ... Robinson J, Mistry K, McWilliam H, Lopez R, Parham P, Marsh SG: The IMGT/HLA database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011, 39 (Database ... Lastly, we examined the possibility that the orphan reads originate from the highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen ( ...
We have established a straightforward three-step workflow for high-throughput HLA typing: Exons 2 and 3 of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 ... Therefore, we have taken advantage of recent improvements in NGS to develop a workflow for low-cost, high-resolution HLA typing ... A close match of the HLA alleles between donor and recipient is an important prerequisite for successful unrelated ... of HLA class I genes; only exon 2 for HLA class II genes) represent the antigen recognition site and are therefore regarded as ...
Similar to the HLA genes, the MICA gene is highly polymorphic. One hundred alleles have been reported (according to IMGT ... MICA molecules are considered non-classical MHC class I molecules rather than human leukocyte antigens (HLA) since they are not ... The Impact of The Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Related Chain A (MICA) and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DP ... Nucleotide sequence analysis of the HLA class I region spanning the 237-kb segment around the HLA-B and -C genes. ...
Tissue Antigens. 2010 75:291-455.. * Robinson J, Halliwell JA, McWilliam H, Lopez R, Parham P, Marsh SGE. The IMGT/HLA database ... IMGT/HLA Database using the sequence submission tool provided (2). The IMGT/HLA Database may be accessed via the world wide web ... Tissue Antigens. 2013 81:450-1.. *Zhang KY, Zhang ZX, Liu N, Ni L, Shan XY. The novel allele HLA-A*02:145 differs from HLA-A*02 ... Tissue Antigens. 2013 81:459-60.. *Ni L, Shan X, Wang L, Zhixin Z, Gong Z. Identification of the novel HLA-B allele, HLA-B*39: ...
HLA) genes located within the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 are probably the most polymorphic ... IMGT/HLA database-a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex. Tissue Antigens 55, 280-287.PubMed ... 1993) Structural heterogeneity in HLA-B70, a high-frequency antigen of black populations. Tissue Antigens 42, 509-517.PubMed ... The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes located within the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 are probably ...
... human leukocyte antigen) HLA-A, HLA-B si HLA-C, in timp ce moleculele MHC de clasa II includ HLA-DR, HLA-DQ si HLA-DP. Aceste ... 3. HLA Nomenclature. IMGT/HLA database. www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/nomenclature/index.html. Ref Type: Internet Communication. ... 965 HLA-A, 1543 HLA-B, 626 HLA-C, 9 HLA-E, 21 HLA-F, 46 HLA-G, 855 HLA-DRB, 35 HLA-DQA1, 107 DQB1, 28 HLA-DPA1, 138 HLA-DPB3. ... Genele HLA sunt localizate in 6 sub-regiuni care se succed in urmatoarea ordine: HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-B, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-DP, ...
IMGT/HLA database--a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex. Tissue Antigens. 2000;55:280-7. ... Neefjes J, Jongsma MLM, Paul P, Bakke O. Towards a systems understanding of MHC class I and MHC class II antigen presentation. ... The MHC plays a vital role in antigen presentation to the immune system, so selection is expected to maintain diversity to ... Briles W, McGibbon W, Irwin M. On multiple alleles effecting cellular antigens in the chicken. Genetics. 1950;35:633-52. ...
The next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies could be used for high throughput HLA typing but in silico methods are still ... and therefore is the only platform capable of having exon 2 and exon 3 of HLA genes on the same read to unequivocally solve the ... HLA) genes are critical genes involved in important biomedical aspects, including organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases ... There are 10,533 HLA alleles in the IMGT/HLA Database [6] and the number is still increasing. The HLA genes are the most ...
  • For A36, the alpha "A" chain are encoded by the HLA-A*36 allele group and the β-chain are encoded by B2M locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using standard Sanger sequencing methodology, both alleles of a particular HLA locus are amplified and sequenced together resulting in multiple heterozygous positions in the electropherogram tracing. (cap.org)
  • Although automation and microfluidic PCR technology were able to mitigate some of these issues, the amplicon-based sequencing approach was gradually replaced by a shotgun sequencing strategy (Figure 2B) in which long-range PCR is used to amplify each HLA locus in a single reaction 4-7 . (cap.org)
  • Concordant results between studies of different ethnic groups serves to support the HLA association for both groups, and discordant results may mean that the allele is simply a marker for the actual locus, or that the different ethnic groups have different HLA disease susceptibility alleles. (chori.org)
  • The HLA-DRB4 promoter polymorphism is associated with differential expression of this locus 4 and this occurs at the level of mRNA production 3 . (dorak.info)
  • This, in turn, allows for sequencing of each allele separately and avoiding ambiguous HLA typing results observed when performing locus-specific sequencing. (cttjournal.com)
  • An individual's HLA type at an HLA locus is made up of the two HLA alleles (or two copies of a single HLA allele if homozygous) present at the individual's two copies of the HLA locus. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Four-locus high-resolution HF (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1) were used for adult donors. (ukessays.com)
  • Generally found on antigen presenting cells, is an antigen presenting molecule. (chemeurope.com)
  • Almost all of the HLA class I polymorphisms are clustered in exons 2 and 3, which code for the α1 and α2 extracellular domains of the HLA molecule. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that the type 1 diabetes susceptibility molecule HLA-A24 presents a naturally processed PPI signal peptide epitope. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The image off to the side shows a piece of a poisonous bacterial protein (SEI peptide) bound within the binding cleft portion of the HLA-DR1 molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Important modulator in the HLA class II restricted antigen presentation pathway by interaction with the HLA-DM molecule in B-cells. (genecards.org)
  • Forms a heterotetrameric complex with an HLA-DM molecule during intracellular transport in endosomal/lysosomal compartments in B-cells. (genecards.org)
  • Both of these mechanisms highlight that the unique interaction between drug, T-cell receptor and MHC molecule is a key factor in the development of immune-mediated adverse reactions to drugs and, as such, the study of HLA alleles represents a logical route to study the genetic basis of such immune-mediated reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HLA nomenclature evolved utilizing serological typing reagents resulting in a "language of HLA", with initial groupings based primarily on antibody recognition of the HLA molecule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the β1 chain of the HLA-DR molecule encoded by HLA-DRB1 is characterized by three regions of amino acid sequence hypervariability and the third hypervariable region (3rd HVR) is thought to be the most important site for T-cell recognition [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • • The structure recognized by an antibody is called an antigenic determinant or epitope . • In contrast, an epitope composed of a single segment of polypeptide chain is termed a continuous or linear epitope . • The interaction between an antibody and its antigen can be disrupted by high salt concentrations, extremes of pH, detergents, and sometimes by competition with high concentrations of the pure epitope itself. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?highlight=epitope&rid=imm.section.335#341 ">Antibodies bind to conformational shapes on the surfaces of antigens (Janeway Immunobiology Section 3.8) - The interaction of the antibody molecule with specific antigen. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Ribbon diagrams of HLA-A2 heavy chain (yellow), β 2 -microglobulin (gray), US2 at binding site 1 (magenta), US2 at binding site 2 (cyan), and ball-and-stick model of the Tax peptide (green). (pnas.org)
  • HLA-A2 heavy chain (yellow), β 2 -microglobulin (gray), US2 (magenta), Tax peptide (green). (pnas.org)
  • The high allelic diversity in the HLA genes reflects HLA protein function in binding and presenting a diverse array of peptide ligands derived from microbial pathogens. (cap.org)
  • Surrogate β-cell lines secreting proinsulin and expressing HLA-A24 were generated and their peptide ligandome examined by mass spectrometry to discover naturally processed and HLA-A24-presented PPI epitopes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Finally, in a previous study, we recapitulated the CD8 T-cell pathway of selective β-cell death in vitro by showing that T-cell clones generated from the blood of a patient, which recognize a peptide of preproinsulin (PPI) presented by HLA-A2*0201, can mediate specific β-cell killing ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Modifies peptide exchange activity of HLA-DM. (genecards.org)
  • With JIA-OP, we identified a set of single AA SFs, and SFs in which they occur, particularly pockets of the peptide binding site, that account for the major disease risk attributable to HLA DRB1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The structural variation that distinguishes the allotypes of HLA-A, -B, and -C is germline encoded and concentrated on residues of the α 1 and α 2 domains that bind the peptide or engage with NKR or TCRs. (jimmunol.org)
  • CDR3 is the TCR motif that directly binds MHC-presented peptide epitopes and this binding interaction is the main factor conferring T cell antigen specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our bioinformatic analysis indicates that there may be a connection between the different HLA alleles associated with DILI caused by therapeutically and structurally different drugs, possibly through peptide binding of one of the HLA alleles that defines the causal haplotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first immunization was performed with a non-self antigen while the second challenge was performed with a myelin-derived peptide known to drive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The antigen specificity of CTL is commonly measured using synthetic peptide epitopes in IFN-γ ELISpot or cytolytic assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T cells by endogenous tumor antigen and peptide vaccines. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, a recent study described a screening platform to detect neo-antigen-specific CD4+ T cells [ 5 ] based on exome and RNA sequencing of the tumor followed by peptide synthesis and co-culture of neo-antigen-loaded B cells and CD4+ T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The UniProt sequential residue numbering scheme is used for residue numbering, which requires subtraction of the signal peptide (24 residues) for mapping to the IMGT/HLA residue numbering scheme. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 23. The TCR of claim 16, wherein the TCR recognizes a specific antigen. (google.com.au)
  • These particular antigens stimulate the multiplication of T-helper cells , which in turn stimulate antibody -producing B-cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In melanoma, tumor-specific clonotypes are highly enriched in the fresh CD8 + PD-1 + TIL subset ( 15, 16 ), which we hypothesize could be due to the oligoclonal expansion that occurs when T cells encounter their specific antigen in the tumor microenvironment in vivo ( 17 ), leading to the presence of predominant clonotypes within this population. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, for unknown reasons, circulating HLA antibody levels do not decrease in a significant number of sensitized kidney transplant candidates following desensitization therapy, and potential toxicity from medications could lead to unwarranted risk and poor outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 16th IHIW: analysis of HLA population data, with updated results for 1996 to 2012 workshop data (AHPD project report)," International Journal of Immunogenetics , vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 21-30, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • This brief review will summarize the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for HLA genotyping, highlighting the advantages of this approach over other molecular methods for typing HLA alleles. (cap.org)
  • An alternative approach takes advantage of the extended haplotype structure within the MHC to predict HLA alleles using dense SNP genotypes, such as those available from genome-wide SNP panels. (nih.gov)
  • We utilized novel in silico strategies to examine HLA haplotype relationships among the alleles associated with DILI by using bioinformatics tools such as NetMHCpan, PyPop, GraphViz, PHYLIP and TreeView. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In total, 306 families (121 SSc and 185 controls) were HLA genotyped and parental HLA-haplotype origin was determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HLA DR3-DQ2 linkage and frequency indicates a strong possibility of a recent migration from either North or West Africa in which the DR3-DQ2 (notably DRB1*0302) and A*33-B*58 haplotypes were carried into and redistributed from Central Asia into the surrounding populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of selection pressure from infectious organisms, the HLA system now constitutes one of the major genetic differences between individuals and among different ethnic populations. (cap.org)
  • 1993) Structural heterogeneity in HLA-B70, a high-frequency antigen of black populations. (springer.com)
  • The high level of HLA polymorphism is maintained in populations by balancing selection, specifically pathogen-driven selection with heterozygote advantage. (chori.org)
  • The HLA-A*24 supertype is present in 12-20% of Caucasian and ∼60% of Japanese populations, with HLA-A*2402 being the most common variant ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • High levels of KIR and HLA diversity are present in all seven African populations. (jimmunol.org)
  • Individuals in these African populations have a mean of 6.8-8.4 different interactions between KIR and HLA class I, compared with 2.9-6.5 for non-Africans. (jimmunol.org)
  • We demonstrated that many of the alleles that have been associated with liver injury induced by structurally diverse drugs (flucloxacillin, co-amoxiclav, ximelagatran, lapatinib, lumiracoxib) reside on common HLA haplotypes, which were present in populations of diverse ethnicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • R. R. Sokal and P. Menozzi, "Spatial autocorrelations of HLA frequencies in Europe support demic diffustion of early farmers," American Naturalist , vol. 119, pp. 1-17, 1982. (hindawi.com)
  • A comprehensive list of the 259 observed HLA alleles sequenced in the Lassa, Ebola and control groups (n=253) and their frequencies is presented in ( allele_frequencies.csv ). (andersen-lab.com)
  • Begovich, A. B. and Erlich, H. A. (1995) HLA typing for bone marrow transplantation. (springer.com)
  • A close match of the HLA alleles between donor and recipient is an important prerequisite for successful unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, those features allowed us to develop a high-throughput low-cost HLA sequencing workflow that would render typing of the transplantation-relevant genes and exons affordable for donor centers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study of HLA polymorphism has been led by transplantation biologists because of the implication of HLA matching in improving transplant outcome. (springer.com)
  • The test samples were obtained from potential donors of Bone Marrow Donor Registry of the I. P. Pavlov State Medical University in St. Petersburg and from a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia who underwent HLA testing for subsequent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (cttjournal.com)
  • However, these variations in HLA sequence also result in histoincompatibility of organs and tissues between individuals, greatly complicating surgical transplantation of organs and tissues. (beds.ac.uk)
  • HLA-typing has a key role in the compatibility upon any tissue transplantation and has been associated with more than 100 different diseases (primarily autoimmune diseases) and recently is associated to various drug positive and negative responses. (sixthresearcher.com)
  • A precise determination of HLA genotype in a patient and his/her donor is one of the basic conditions of successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). (uhkt.cz)
  • Thus, a single and comprehensive registry covering all of the significant transfusion and transplantation antigens is expected to become an important tool in providing an efficient service capable of delivering safe blood and quickly locating matching organs/stem cells. (ijpvmjournal.net)
  • Transplantation was 5/6 HLA-matched in 9 cases, 4/6 in 12 cases, and 3/6 in 5 cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • HLA B*48 haplotypes indicate a means of passage to the New World along the Siberian Coast, a possible land route of passage through Beringia or later by boat across the bering strait into the New World. (wikidoc.org)
  • HLA-DR53 specificity -encoded by HLA-DRB4 - is exclusively found in association with haplotypes encoding the DR4, DR7 and DR9 broad specificities (i.e., all DRB1*04, *07, *09 alleles). (dorak.info)
  • The null allele DRB4*0103102N has been found on HLA-DRB1*04:01, *04:02 and *04:04 haplotypes 13;14 . (dorak.info)
  • the most complex pattern is seen with type 1 diabetes and HLA DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes, with a hierarchy from very predisposing, through intermediate ("neutral"), to very protective effects, with consistent patterns in associations seen across ethnic groups [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A high diversity of HLA A-C-B haplotypes was observed. (jimmunol.org)
  • These include the use of informatics software to query the IMGT/HLA sequence database and assign the most likely combination of alleles, PCR amplification of only one allele, or the use of sequencing primers which anneal to only one of the two potential HLA alleles. (cap.org)
  • The resulting large PCR amplicons are fragmented to produce appropriately sized sequencing templates, and the short (100-250 bp) sequencing reads are aligned to re-create a full-length HLA sequence. (cap.org)
  • Paired-end sequencing can also be utilized to bioinformatically phase HLA sequence data over longer genetic distances (Figure 2C), including between exons. (cap.org)
  • Serotyping is capable of identifying most aspects of DQ isoform structure and function, however sequence specific PCR is now the preferred method of determining HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles , as serotyping cannot resolve, often, the critical contribution of the DQ α-chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luminex SSO HLA keying in uses SSO probes for specific sequence motifs that are destined to a couple of microbeads. (biodigestor.net)
  • When performing HLA studies, appropriate primers should be used to determine the nucleotide sequence in forward and reverse directions. (cttjournal.com)
  • Based on sequence information of HLA alleles from the IMGT/HLA database, the 5-biotinylated probes were designed. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1995). "Nucleotide sequence analysis of HLA-B*1523 and B*8101. (wikidoc.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we developed a multistep strategy that involved TCRB deep sequencing of the CD8 + PD-1 + T-cell subset, matching of TCRA-TCRB pairs by pairSEQ and single-cell RT-PCR, followed by testing of the TCRs for tumor-antigen specificity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Each T cell's specificity for antigens is determined by its T cell receptors (TCRs), which together across all T cells form a repertoire of millions of unique receptors in each individual. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Initially tools for prediction of HLA binding (often also - slightly inaccurately - called epitope prediction) were trained on data for each HLA allele independently, but the number of new alleles renders this approach more and more impractical. (cdc.gov)
  • A novel PPI epitope was identified and used to generate HLA-A24 tetramers and examine the frequency of PPI-specific T cells in new-onset HLA-A*24 + patients and control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • [ citation needed ] Foreign antigens presented by MHC class I attract killer T-cells (also called CD8 positive- or cytotoxic T-cells) that destroy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA polymorphism data is also utilized in anthropological studies, where the frequency of HLA alleles can be used as a marker for analysis of population genetics. (springer.com)
  • With JIA, and the many other HLA associated diseases, it is difficult to identify the combinations of biologically relevant amino acid (AA) residues directly involved in disease due to the high level of HLA polymorphism, the pattern of AA variability, including varying degrees of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and the fact that most HLA variation occurs at functionally important sites. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, deriving high-resolution HLA types subsequent to whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing or sequencing is often cost prohibitive for large samples. (nih.gov)
  • 1995) Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system. (springer.com)
  • Compiled by Steven G. E. Marsh for the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System. (alleles.org)
  • The registration and name of new HLA alleles is carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO) Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System. (cttjournal.com)
  • In some diseases requiring ________ , preimplantation genetic diagnosis may be used to give rise to a sibling with matching HLA, although there are ethical considerations. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A deeper understanding of the KIR and HLA genetic determinants of disease may provide insight into immunopathology, more effective patient management and the design of clinical trials for new therapeutic interventions. (chori.org)
  • Genetic studies suggest HLA-B alleles play an important role on HIV-1 transmission, progression, and control of HIV-1 infection. (bjid.org.br)
  • This individuality was absent from TCRβs from naive T cells, suggesting that the differences resulted from an individual's antigen exposure history, not genetic background. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Yucpa have an HLA-DQ8 frequency of ~80%, the highest DQ allele frequency in the world, this tribe shows little evidence of European genetic introgression, in addition the closest DQ8 frequency in terms of Africa are the isolated !Kung of Namibia. (wikidoc.org)
  • We have established a straightforward three-step workflow for high-throughput HLA typing: Exons 2 and 3 of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 are amplified by PCR on Fluidigm Access Array microfluidic chips. (biomedcentral.com)
  • for class II HLA alleles (HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1) we sequenced exon 2. (cttjournal.com)
  • Prediction accuracies for HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 range from 92.2% to 98.1% using a set of SNP markers common to the Illumina 1M Duo, OmniQuad, OmniExpress, 660K and 550K platforms. (nih.gov)
  • For amino acid polymorphisms within HLA genes, we achieve 98.6% and 99.3% accuracy using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500 K and Illumina Immunochip, respectively. (plos.org)
  • Accurate HLA typing at amino acid level (four-digit resolution) is critical in hematopoietic and organ transplantations, pathogenesis studies of autoimmune and infectious diseases, as well as the development of immunoncology therapies. (beds.ac.uk)
  • SSHAARP' (Searching Shared HLA Amino Acid Residue Prevalence) uses 'Generic Mapping Tools (GMT)' software and the 'GMT' R package to generate global frequency heat maps that illustrate the distribution of each user-defined map around the globe. (rdrr.io)
  • The 3rd HVR comprises amino acids 67-74 on the alpha helix of the HLA β1 chain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, for HLA class I, we will also discuss the tools available for the prediction of antigen processing [e.g., proteasomal cleavage and transport by transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)] - although their impact in the field is limited compared with that of tools for HLA binding prediction. (cdc.gov)
  • Haddock S.H., Quartararo C., Cooley P., Dao D.D. (2001) Low-Resolution Typing of HLA-DQA1 Using DNA Microarray. (springer.com)
  • The latest list of officially recognized HLA-DRB alleles can be found at the ANRC site . (dorak.info)
  • In addition, the results of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 typing by HLAscan using data generated by NextGen were identical to those obtained using a Sanger sequencing-based method. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • The Protrans reagent kits (Germany) were used as follows: PROTRANS S4 HLA-A * Cyclerstrips, PROTRANS S4 HLA-B * Cyclerstrips, PROTRANS S4 HLA-C * Cyclerstrips, PROTRANS S4 HLA-DRB1 * Cyclerstrip, PROTRANS S3 HLADQB1 * Cyclerstrips. (cttjournal.com)
  • High Resolution Allotyping of Four Alleles of HLA-DRB1*01 Group in Iranians Using Reverse-SSOPH Assay in Comparison with DNA Sequencing and PCR-SSP. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The primary purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that SSc risk is modulated according to whether the mother or the father transmitted an HLA-DRB1 allele and is impacted by DRβ1 3rd HVR charge. (biomedcentral.com)