The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
Infections with bacteria of the family Desulfovibrionaceae.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria causing a proliferative enteritis in animals, especially pigs, deer, horses, and rabbits.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.
An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
In addition, intestinal mucosa development was affected by the availability of feed and water: the number of villi per area ... The effects of fasting were specific to both time of fasting and the intestinal segment examined (duodenum, jejunum or ileum). ... may be responsible for negative changes in the morphology of the intestinal mucosa. Protein in the residual yolk is the source ... They showed that relative weight and length of the jejunum and ileum increased when chickens were supplied with feed and water ...
... producing drier intestinal contents that are more likely to get stuck. The ileum is the last part of the small intestine that ... The mucosa remains normal, so malabsorption is not expected to occur in this disease. Ileal hypertrophy may be idiopathic, with ... Horses with small intestinal obstruction will usually have an intestinal diameter of -10 cm with a wall thickness of 3-5mm. ... Small intestinal volvulus often occurs secondary to another disease process in adult horses, where small intestinal obstruction ...
... which bulges out above the surface of the intestinal mucosa. This pattern of development is not known to occur in birds or ... The endogenous development of the parasite is intra-cytoplasmic, within the epithelial cells of the ileum. The parasites lie ... Lainson R (March 2002). "Intestinal coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Brazilian lizards. Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., from ... but the meronts and gamonts of which are early on extruded to form a layer on the surface of the gut mucosa. Morphologically ...
Once released in the intestine, the enzyme enteropeptidase present in the intestinal mucosa activates trypsinogen by cleaving ... The freed vitamin B12 then binds to intrinsic factor which is then absorbed by the enterocytes in the ileum. The stomach is a ... Within the oral mucosa, and also on the tongue, palates, and floor of the mouth, are the minor salivary glands; their ... Within its mucosa are millions of embedded gastric glands. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. There ...
... s are found in the epithelia of the small intestine, namely the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and in the large ... The enterocytes in the small intestinal mucosa contain digestive enzymes that digest specific foods while they are being ... In histology, an intestinal gland (also crypt of Lieberkühn and intestinal crypt) is a gland found in between villi in the ... Intestinal glands contain adult stem cells referred to as intestinal stem cells. These cells have been used in the field of ...
The area of the large intestinal mucosa of an adult human is about 2 m2 (22 sq ft). The gut is an endoderm-derived structure. ... as well as any nutrients that may have escaped primary digestion in the ileum.[citation needed] Health-enhancing intestinal ... and immune elements elaborated by the intestinal mucosa. Microorganisms also are kept at bay by an extensive immune system ... Mucosa Submucosa Muscular layer Adventitia or serosa The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. The ...
The pancreas releases enzymes that aid in digestion so that nutrients can be broken down and pass through the intestinal mucosa ... From the jejunum, whatever food that has not been absorbed is sent to the ileum which connects to the large intestine.[30] The ...
The surface area of the human small intestinal mucosa, due to enlargement caused by folds, villi and microvilli, averages 30 ... The ileum joins to the cecum of the large intestine at the ileocecal junction. The jejunum and ileum are suspended in the ... The inner wall, or mucosa, of the small intestine, is lined with simple columnar epithelial tissue. Structurally, the mucosa is ... The ileum: The final section of the small intestine. It is about 3 m long, and contains villi similar to the jejunum. It ...
... intestinal mucosa MeSH A03.556.124.369.290 - enterocytes MeSH A03.556.124.369.320 - goblet cells MeSH A03.556.124.369.700 - ... ileum MeSH A03.556.124.684.249.400 - ileocecal valve MeSH A03.556.124.684.249.612 - meckel diverticulum MeSH A03.556.124.684. ... gastric mucosa MeSH A03.556.875.875.440.150 - chief cells, gastric MeSH A03.556.875.875.440.250 - enterochromaffin cells MeSH ... 500 - jejunum MeSH A03.556.249.124 - ileum MeSH A03.556.249.124.400 - ileocecal valve MeSH A03.556.249.124.612 - meckel ...
The area of the large intestinal mucosa of an adult human is about 2 m2.[19] ... Ileum: The final section of the small intestine. It is about 3 m long, and contains villi similar to the jejunum. It absorbs ... MucosaEdit. See also: Oral mucosa and Gastric mucosa. The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. The ... and immune elements elaborated by the intestinal mucosa.[31] Microorganisms also are kept at bay by an extensive immune system ...
... mucus and dead cells from intestinal mucosa. In immature animals, anorexia and diarrhoea usually occur about four days after ... The virus replicates in the cells of the crypt epithelium in the duodenum and jejunum and, to a lesser extent the ileum, colon ... Stools of affected animals usually contain large quantities of mucus and intestinal casts or "plugs" composed of fibrin, ...
... s, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells which line the inner surface of the small and ... Bile that was released and not used in emulsification of lipids are reabsorbed in the ileum. Also known as the enterohepatic ... IgA from plasma cells in the mucosa are absorbed through receptor-mediated endocytosis on the basolateral surface and released ... This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the enterocyte from the intestinal lumen. These include broken down ...
It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas, but it is also found widely in other cells ... It was also found not to be unique to intestinal mucosa and is present widely in many other cells and organisms. The term ... Emil L Smith; Max Bergmann (1944). "The peptidases of intestinal mucosa" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 153: 627-651. ... Erepsin is a mixture of enzymes contained in a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices that digest peptones into amino ...
Jejunal, duodenal mucosa or Brunner's tissue were each found in 2% of ectopic cases. Heterotopic rests of gastric mucosa and ... This blind segment or small pouch is about 3-6 cm (2 inch) long and may have a greater lumen diameter than that of the ileum. ... Torsions of intestine around the intestinal stalk may also occur, leading to obstruction, ischemia, and necrosis. A technetium- ... Secretion of gastric acid or alkaline pancreatic juice from the ectopic mucosa leads to ulceration in the adjacent ileal mucosa ...
The muscularis mucosae, a thin layer of smooth muscle. The epithelium, the most exposed part of the mucosa, is a glandular ... In the ileum there are occasionally Peyer's patches in the lamina propria. Brunner's glands are found in the duodenum but not ... Numerous intestinal glands as pocket-like invaginations are present in the underlying tissue. In the large intestines, villi ... Mucosa Submucosa Muscular layer Serosa or adventitia The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. It ...
... located in the mucosa layer of the ileum and extend into the submucosa layer. The number of Peyer's patches peaks at age 15-25 ... in the immune surveillance of the intestinal lumen and in facilitating production of the immune response within the mucosa. ... In the distal ileum, they are numerous and they form a lymphoid ring. At least 46% of Peyer's patches are concentrated in the ... FAE differs from typical small intestinal villus epithelium: it has fewer goblet cells therefore mucus layer is thinner, and it ...
Increased expression of ICAM-1 has been observed within the inflamed intestinal mucosa of ulcerative colitis, pouchitis and ... in which the caecum and terminal ileum are removed and the ileum is joined to the ascending colon, their Crohn's will nearly ... immune response that results in damage to the intestinal epithelium. Breaches in this critical barrier (the intestinal ... Chronic Intestinal Diseases of Dogs and Cats. 41 (2): 381-98. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.02.003. PMID 21486642. ...
However, other types occur, such as when a part of the ileum or jejunum prolapses into itself. The part that prolapses into the ... An anatomic lead point (that is, a piece of intestinal tissue that protrudes into the bowel lumen) is present in approximately ... This creates the classically described "red currant jelly" stool, which is a mixture of sloughed mucosa, blood, and mucus. A ... Cera, SM (2008). "Intestinal Intussusception". Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 21 (2): 106-13. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1075859. ISSN 1531- ...
Once released in the intestine, the enzyme enteropeptidase present in the intestinal mucosa activates trypsinogen by cleaving ... The next section is the jejunum and the third is the ileum). The duodenum is the first and shortest section of the small ... Within its mucosa are millions of embedded gastric glands. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. ... Most of the oral cavity is lined with oral mucosa, a mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucus, of which only a small ...
Human colonic mucosa is maintained by the colonic epithelial barrier and immune cells in the lamina propria (see intestinal ... where a stoma is created by pulling the terminal ileum through the abdomen. Intestinal contents are emptied into a removable ... Increased expression of ICAM-1 has been observed within the inflamed intestinal mucosa of ulcerative colitis sufferers, where ... Endoscopic findings in ulcerative colitis include: erythema (redness of the mucosa), friability of the mucosa, superficial ...
Patients with intestinal bypass develop diarrhea 4-6 times daily, the frequency of stooling varying directly with fat intake. ... Bypass of the terminal ileum, which is the specific site of vitamin B12 absorption, leads to Vitamin B12 deficiency with a ... The colonic absorption of oxalate has been attributed to: Exposure of colonic mucosa to excessive bile salts and possibly bile ... This happy result does not occur in every patient, but approximately one-third of those undergoing "intestinal bypass" have a ...
... s, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells found in the small intestine. A glycocalyx ... Bile that was released and not used in emulsification of lipids are reabsorbed in the ileum. Also known as the enterohepatic ... IgA from plasma cells in the mucosa are absorbed through receptor mediated endocytosis on the basolateral surface and released ... Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen. ...
The molecule functions as apart of adaptive response, such that contributes intestinal growth, proliferation effect, intestinal ... It is a gastrointestinal hormone, secreted from mucosal cells primarily of the colon and terminal ileum. It consists of 37 ... In 1948, Sutherland and De Duve identified a gastrointestinal glucagon-like material in gastric mucosa, the term " ... GLP-1 is derived from a class of intestinal hormones called incretin and the molecule exists in two forms GLP-1(7-37) and GLP-1 ...
They are then coughed up and swallowed into the gut, where they parasitise the intestinal mucosa of the duodenum and jejunum. ... These autoinfective larvae penetrate the wall of the lower ileum or colon or the skin of the perianal region, enter the ... which can penetrate either the intestinal mucosa (internal autoinfection) or the skin of the perianal area (external ... The adult parasitic stage lives in tunnels in the mucosa of the small intestine. The genus Strongyloides contains 53 species, ...
During any intestinal surgery, for instance, during appendectomy, distal 2 feet of ileum should be checked for the presence of ... which are a distinctive feature of the ileum. A thin layer of smooth muscle called muscularis mucosae. A submucosa formed by ... Its circular folds are smaller and absent in the terminal part of the ileum. While the length of the intestinal tract contains ... The ileum follows the duodenum and jejunum and is separated from the cecum by the ileocecal valve (ICV). In humans, the ileum ...
It allows for the sampling or biopsying of small bowel mucosa, for the resection of polyps of the small bowel, and in the ... The double-balloon enteroscope can also be passed in retrograde fashion, through the colon and into the ileum to visualize the ... Using the assistance of friction at the interface of the enteroscope and intestinal wall, the small bowel is accordioned back ... Yen, HH; Chen, YY; Su, WW; Soon, MS; Lin, YM (2006). "Intestinal necrosis as a complication of epinephrine injection therapy ...
When large doses are given by mouth its absorption does not rely on the presence of intrinsic factor or an intact ileum. ... Untreated celiac disease may also cause impaired absorption of this vitamin, probably due to damage to the small bowel mucosa. ... intestinal parasites, certain medications, and some genetic disorders. Medications that may decrease absorption include proton ... This includes any form due to structural damage or wide surgical resection of the terminal ileum (the principal site of vitamin ...
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome can cause dark spots on the oral mucosa or on the lips or the skin around the mouth. Several GI diseases ... The normal thickness of the small intestinal wall is 3-5 mm, and 1-5 mm in the large intestine. Focal, irregular and ... The small intestine consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Inflammation of the small intestine is called enteritis, which ... Ulceration erodes the gastric mucosa, which protects the tissue of the stomach from the stomach acids. Peptic ulcers are most ...
Mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Peyer's patches. *Intestinal villus. *Intestinal gland. Duodenum. *Suspensory muscle ...
Mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Peyer's patches. *Intestinal villus. *Intestinal gland. Dozdehgirêk. *Suspensory muscle ...
One characteristic of bacillary dysentery is blood in stool,[7] which is the result of invasion of the mucosa by the pathogen. ... Shigella bacteria invade the intestinal mucosal cells but do not usually go beyond the lamina propria. Dysentery is caused when ... Duodenum/Jejunum/Ileum). *Enteritis *Duodenitis. *Jejunitis. *Ileitis. *Peptic (duodenal) ulcer *Curling's ulcer ...
The pink color of the esophageal mucosa contrasts to the deeper red of the gastric mucosa,[5][13] and the mucosal transition ... The mucosa is a stratified squamous epithelium of around three layers of squamous cells, which contrasts to the single layer of ... The wall of the oesophagus from the lumen outwards consists of mucosa, submucosa (connective tissue), layers of muscle fibers ... protecting the esophageal mucosa. In addition, the acute angle of His and the lower crura of the diaphragm helps this ...
ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރުގެ އެތެރޭގެ ތެތް ދުލިފަށް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Intestinal mucosa) އުފެދިފައިވަނީ ކަލަމްނަރ އެޕިތީލިއަލް ސެލް(އިނގިރޭސި ... ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރުގެ ފަހު ބައި ނުވަތަ އިލިއަމް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Ileum) އަކީ ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރު ބެހިފައިވާ 3 ބައިގެ ތެރެއިން އެންމެ ފަހަތަށް ... އިންޓެސްޓިނަލް ލައިޕޭސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Intestinal lipase): މިއީ އަނގަ، މައިދާ އަދި ޗިސްމޭ ފަދަ ގުނަވަން ތަކުން ދޫކުރާ ... ކުޑަ ގޮހޮރުގެ އެންޒައިމް (އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Intestinal enzyme)ތައް މައިގަނޑު ގޮތެއްގައި ހުންނަނީ މިޔޫކޯސަލް ސެލް(އިނގިރޭސި ...
It is a nematode (roundworm) and a common intestinal parasite or helminth, especially in humans.[7] The medical condition ... The gravid female pinworms settle in the ileum, caecum (i.e., beginning of the large intestine), appendix and ascending colon,[ ... 19] where they attach themselves to the mucosa[21] and ingest colonic contents.[24] ... The male and female pinworms mate in the ileum (i.e., last part of the small intestine),[19] whereafter the male pinworms ...
Mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Peyer's patches. *Intestinal villus. *Intestinal gland. Duodenum. *Suspensory muscle ... শোষণান্ত্র বা নিম্নান্ত্র (Ileum). *অন্ত্রধারক বা অন্ত্রাবরক (Mesenteric). *উপান্ত্র (Appendix). *বৃহদন্ত্র (Large intestine) ...
Serosa · Subserosa · Muscular layer · Circular folds · Submucosa · Mucosa (Muscularis mucosa, Peyer's patches, Intestinal ... by layer: Serosa · Muscular layer (Pyloric sphincter) · Submucosa · Gastric mucosa (Muscularis mucosa, Gastric rugae, Gastric ...
While the length of the entire intestinal tract contains lymphoid tissue, only the ileum has abundant Peyer's patches, which ... The interior surface of the jejunum-which is exposed to ingested food-is covered in finger-like projections of mucosa, called ... The jejunum lies between the duodenum and the ileum and is considered to start at the suspensory muscle of the duodenum, a ... The jejunum and the ileum are suspended by mesentery which gives the bowel great mobility within the abdomen. It also contains ...
Endoscopic image of Barrett's esophagus, which is the area of red mucosa projecting like a tongue. Biopsies showed intestinal ... Intestinal metaplasia[edit]. The presence of goblet cells, called intestinal metaplasia, is necessary to make a diagnosis of ... "Columnar Mucosa and Intestinal Metaplasia of the Esophagus: Fifty Years of Controversy". Annals of Surgery. 231 (3): 303-21. ... Intestinal/ Enteropathy. Small intestine (Duodenum/Jejunum/Ileum). *Enteritis *Duodenitis. *Jejunitis. *Ileitis. *Peptic ( ...
... pancreatic juice and intestinal juice. The intestinal walls are lined with villi, and their epithelial cells is covered with ... The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is a location where the oral mucosa is very thin, and underlain by a ... These B12-IF complexes travel to the ileum portion of the small intestine where cubilin receptors enable assimilation and ... The intestinal phase has two parts, the excitatory and the inhibitory. Partially digested food fills the duodenum. This ...
Ileum: Cubam, a receptor found in the terminal portion of the ileum is a specialized receptor complex. The complex is ... Cheilosis (stomatitis): Inflammation of the edges of the lips and the oral mucosa. Tabes dorsalis ("subacute combined ... there is a certain threshold for intestinal absorption hence, low or non-existent chance of intoxication, as opposed to fat- ... In the small bowel, a molecule named intrinsic factor (IF), allows vitamin B12 to be absorbed in the ileum. IGS is caused by a ...
Intestinal/ Enteropathy. Small intestine (Duodenum/Jejunum/Ileum). *Enteritis *Duodenitis. *Jejunitis. *Ileitis. *Peptic ( ... These are outpockets of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall.[1] They ... death of the affected intestinal wall cells, and intestinal perforation.[1] Newer theories have called this paradigm into ... Intestinal motility[edit]. Another theory suggests the degeneration of glial neurons in the myenteric plexus and the ...
Variable; classical mildly fibrotic polyp with disorganized mucosa and splaying of muscularis mucosae; also inflammatory, ... Intestinal/ Enteropathy. Small intestine (Duodenum/Jejunum/Ileum). *Enteritis *Duodenitis. *Jejunitis. *Ileitis. *Peptic ( ... Raised mucosa/submucosa with inflammation If dysplasia develops Inflammatory bowel disease, ulcers, infections, mucosal ... They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely movable and nontender. ...
Secretin is synthesized by S-cells, which are located in the duodenal mucosa as well as in the jejunal mucosa in smaller ... and a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosa. Beneath the mucosa lies the submucosa, consisting of fibrous ... The mucosa lining the stomach is lined with a number of these pits, which receive gastric juice, secreted by between 2 and 7 ... The inner part of the lining of the stomach, the gastric mucosa, consists of an outer layer of column-shaped cells, a lamina ...
Intestinal/ Enteropathy. Small intestine (Duodenum/Jejunum/Ileum). *Enteritis *Duodenitis. *Jejunitis. *Ileitis. *Peptic ( ... If the mucosa of the sigmoid looks normal and pink, a rectal tube for decompression may be placed, and any fluid, electrolyte, ... Intestinal malrotation, enlarged colon, Hirschsprung disease, pregnancy, abdominal adhesions, chronic constipation[1][3]. ... Risk factors include a birth defect known as intestinal malrotation, an enlarged colon, Hirschsprung disease, pregnancy, and ...
Under microscopy, the duodenum has a villous mucosa. This is distinct from the mucosa of the pylorus, which directly joins to ... The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the shortest part of the small intestine . In humans, the duodenum is a ... The intestinal section was so called by Greek physician Herophilus (c.335-280 B.C.E.) for its length, about equal to the ... The first part of the duodenum is the most common location of ulcers as it is where the acidic chyme meets the duodenal mucosa ...
The parapharyngeal space is shaped like an inverted pyramid. Lateral and inferior to the parapharyngeal space is the carotid sheath, containing the internal carotid artery and cranial nerves IX, X and XI. Behind both the parapharyngeal space and carotid space lies the retropharyngeal space, and deep to this a potential space known as the danger space. The danger space serves as an important pathway for complicated infections of the posterior pharynx to enter the chest and spinal column. Anterior to the parapharyngeal space is the masticator space which contains the lower dental row, muscles of mastication, the inferior alveolar nerve as well as branches of cranial nerve V. Lateral to the parapharyngeal space lies the parotid space, which contains the parotid gland, the external carotid artery and cranial nerve VII.[1] Although initial evaluation is typically by physical exam and endoscopy, follow up with CT and MRI usually is needed if surgical intervention is planned.[2] Bony anatomy around the ...
Malating bituka (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) • Vermiform appendix • Ileocecal valve Maragul bituka: Cecum • Colon (ascending ... intestinal villus • crypts of Lieberkühn • circular folds • taenia coli • haustra • epiploic appendix ... Ing duodenum a dinding atin yang mangalating sapin da reng cells nung nu iti ing bibilug keng muscularis mucosae. Ing duodenum ...
stimulate gene expression of glucose transporters in the intestinal mucosa, regulating glucose absorption[98] ... An important action of some fibers is to reduce the reabsorption of bile acids in the ileum and hence the amount and type of ... Balances intestinal pH[77] and stimulates intestinal fermentation production of short-chain fatty acids[1] ... Spiller, Gene; Margo N. Woods; Sherwood L. Gorbach (27 June 2001). Influence of fiber on the ecology of the intestinal flora. ...
... pancreatic juice and intestinal juice. The intestinal walls are lined with villi, and their epithelial cells is covered with ... The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is a location where the oral mucosa is very thin, and underlain by a ... These B12-IF complexes travel to the ileum portion of the small intestine where cubilin receptors enable assimilation and ... Different phases of digestion take place including: the cephalic phase, gastric phase, and intestinal phase. ...
Rûviya badayî (Ileum) 3.5 m. Erk[biguherîne]. Givêrdariya kîmyayî ya rûnan pêşî di rûviya zirav de pêk tê. Bi hatina zefran û ... Intestinal lymph trunk SnMB Small+intestine Kod Şablon:TerminologiaAnatomica Dorlands/Elsevier Rûviya zirav ... Gastric mucosa *Muscularis mucosa. *Gastric rugae. *Gastric pits. *Gastric gland. *Cardiac glands ...
Intestinal/ Enteropathy. Small intestine (Duodenum/Jejunum/Ileum). *Enteritis *Duodenitis. *Jejunitis. *Ileitis. *Peptic ( ... On colonoscopy, the mucosa of the colon typically looks normal, but biopsies of affected tissue usually show deposition of ...
stimulate gene expression of glucose transporters in the intestinal mucosa, regulating glucose absorption[112] ... One action of some fibers is to reduce the reabsorption of bile acids in the ileum and hence the amount and type of bile acid ... Balances intestinal pH[87] and stimulates intestinal fermentation production of short-chain fatty acids[1] ... Spiller G, Woods MN, Gorbach SL (27 June 2001). Influence of fiber on the ecology of the intestinal flora. CRC handbook of ...
"Endocrine cells in the human oxyntic mucosa. A histochemical study". Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 23 (9): 1089-99 ... "Interaction between gastric and upper small intestinal hormones in the regulation of hunger and satiety: ghrelin and ... Ileum. *Enteroglucagon. *Peptide YY. Liver/other. *Insulin-like growth factor *IGF-1 ...
Ileum/anatomy & histology , Ileum , Ileum/physiology , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestinal Mucosa/ ... Cell proliferation of the ileum intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats treated with ascorbic a ... Cell proliferation of the ileum intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats treated with ascorbic acid ... About 2500 crypt cells from the intestinal mucosa were counted in order to obtain the metaphasic indexes. The height and depth ...
Ileum / physiopathology * Immunoglobulin A, Secretory / metabolism * Interleukin-6 / blood * Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology* ... The damage of mucosa tended to be less pronounced after 3-day bifidobacteria-supplemented formula compared with control group ( ... The aim of this study was to characterize the potential role of intestinal bifidobacteria in the pathogenesis of gut-derived ... The positive sIgA expression in lamina propria and ileum mucosal injury were evaluated light microscopically by blinded ...
Our aim was to compare 5-HT disposition in the intestinal mucosa of neonatal and adult guinea pigs. METHODS 5-HT was locally ... Mechanically stimulating the mucosa with a fine glass probe evoked an additional current in adult but not neonatal tissues. ... 5-HT intestinal content was measured using immunohistochemistry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical ... Postnatal maturation of 5-HT signaling may be important for development of neurohumoral control of intestinal motor reflexes. ...
Hyperaemia associated with diffuse and severe thickening of the intestinal mucosa compatible with PE. B) Histologic section of ... A) Terminal ileum. Equine isolate-infected foal euthanized on day 24 pi. ... Ileal mucosa of equine isolate-infected pigs euthanized 21 days pi. Absence of hyperplastic enterocytes or L. intracellularis ... Ileal mucosa of porcine isolate-infected pigs euthanized 21 days pi. Diffuse presence of the bacteria in the apical cytoplasm ...
We have earlier documented adaptative changes in the terminal ileum after total colectomy, and straight ileo-anal anastomosis. ... Ileum / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Proctocolectomy, Restorative*. Time Factors. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a ... All the patients showed adaptative changes in the ileum. The ileal mucosa was completely transformed into colonic type by the ... AIM: To correlate the morphologic and functional changes in the ileal mucosa after total colectomy and hand-sewn straight ileo- ...
... that are able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we show that CD-associated AIEC strains adhere to the ... The ileal mucosa of Crohn disease (CD) patients is abnormally colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) ... Ileum / immunology * Ileum / microbiology * Intestinal Mucosa / immunology * Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology * Male * ... The ileal mucosa of Crohn disease (CD) patients is abnormally colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) that are able to ...
C) Fibrous cord attaching ileum to abdominal wall. (D) Intestinal-umbilical fistula. Intestinal mucosa extends to skin surface ... The cyst may contain intestinal or gastric mucosa. (F) Umbilical sinus ending in a fibrous cord attaching to the ileum. (G, H) ... Photograph of newborn with intestinal prolapse through a patent omphalomesenteric duct. Both the proximal and distal limbs of ... Laparoscopic view of remnant fibrous band of omphalomesenteric duct, which extends from umbilicus to terminal ileum below. ...
Some diamine oxidase may be directed to the intestinal lumen, particularly into the distal ileum. Proteins stimulate the ... Intestinal ischemia also releases diamine oxidase from the intestinal mucosa by villus epithelial exfoliation and by its ... Nutrients regulate diamine oxidase release from intestinal mucosa Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... the apical cells of the intestinal mucosa contain a wide range of enzymes that participate in the process of digestion and ...
... capsule encoding the viaB locus reduces interleukin-17 expression and mucosal innate responses in the bovine intestinal mucosa ... Host responses in the bovine terminal ileum during infection of ligated loops with the indicated strains of serotype ... Capsule Encoding the viaB Locus Reduces Interleukin-17 Expression and Mucosal Innate Responses in the Bovine Intestinal Mucosa ... Capsule Encoding the viaB Locus Reduces Interleukin-17 Expression and Mucosal Innate Responses in the Bovine Intestinal Mucosa ...
intestinal Parts duodenum jejunum ileum Components intestinal mucosa intestinal muscularis mucosae intestinal (...) ... ileum. Components. intestinal mucosa intestinal muscularis mucosae intestinal submucosa intestinal muscularis intestinal ... Mucosal biopsy of the rectum, colon, and distal ileum. Hum Pathol. 1982 Nov;13(11):981-1012. PMID: 6759364 ...
Recent data suggest that the intestinal mucosa contributes to the maintenance of the gut barrier by secreting antimicrobial ... Blood, adipose depots, liver, cecal content, and intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon) were collected at death and ... 2003) Fructans in the diet cause alterations of intestinal mucosal architecture, released mucins and mucosa-associated ... Measurement of Endocannabinoid Intestinal Levels.. Intestinal endocannabinoids were measured using an LTQ Orbitrap mass ...
We report here our success in isolating and cryopreserving intestinal mucosa from the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of human ... Intestinal Mucosa Isolation and Cryopreservation. Isolation of mucosa from human intestines was performed via enzymatic ... Upon collagenase digestion, the intestinal mucosa detached from the intestine as large sheets consisting mainly of intestinal ... Cryopreserved Human Intestinal Mucosa. Albert P. Li, Novera Alam, Kirsten Amaral, Ming-Chih David Ho, Carol Loretz, Walter ...
... a terminal ileum segment with 8 cm length was collected, and the mucosa was gently everted. At one end, the gut segment was ... Intestinal Permeability Determination. The intestinal permeability was determined by measurement of intestinal clearance of ... Intestinal MDA, SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX Determination. The terminal ileum was homogenized and centrifuged at a speed of 4,000 rpm ... Intestinal Levels of MDA, SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX. The results are shown in Figure 7. The intestinal levels of MDA, SOD, CAT, and ...
12, 13] Inside human hosts, the flukes then attach to the small intestinal mucosa and, depending on the severity of infection, ... H heterophyes are observed in the human intestine, jejunum, and ileum. The illustrative life cycle schematic for H heterophyes ... encoded search term (Intestinal Flukes) and Intestinal Flukes What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ... The adult worm (see image below) causes traumatic, toxic, and obstructive damage to the intestinal mucosa. Deep inflammatory ...
Oxytocin evokes a pulsatile PGE2 release from ileum mucosa and is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury [ ... It may also have benefits as a treatment for a number of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and intestinal problems. ... This helps to encourage the repair of intestinal injury and to protect against such injury. ...
Many authors have studied the mucosa of the intestinal segments used to replace the bladder. They found histologic evidence of ... malignancy on urinary derivations using the ileum is rarely reported. Therefore, reports of adenocarcinoma of the ileum after ... The use of intestinal segments for bladder reconstruction after radical cystectomy for invasive carcinoma is used all over the ... In general, intestinal urinary derivations are considered to be at low risk for malignancy. Malignant changes after a ...
The intestinal muscularis mucosa degenerates, leading to pseudodiverticula in the colon and ileum. Interstitial and ... Tetracycline 500 mg po bid or another broad-spectrum antibiotic can suppress overgrowth of intestinal flora and may alleviate ...
The distribution and density of Clostridium difficile toxin receptors on the intestinal mucosa of neonatal pigs. Vet Pathol. ... Diminished Clostridium difficile toxin A sensitivity in newborn rabbit ileum is associated with decreased toxin A receptor. J ... 2-5 It has been proposed that the immature intestinal mucosa of the neonate might lack receptors for C. difficile toxin, ... Rolfe RD, Song W. Purification of a functional receptor for Clostridium difficile toxin A from intestinal brush border ...
Oxytocin-evokes-a-pulsatile-PGE2-release-from-ileum-mucosa-and-is-required-for-repair-of-intestinal-srep11731-s2.ogv 44 s, 720 ...
Mucosa normal. Selektiv defekt i intestinal Cl-/ HCO3- ionebytte transport systemet i ileum og colon. Autosomal ressesiv arv. ... Mucosa tynn med dårlig cellularitet og varierende grad av villusatrofi.. *Kronisk intestinal svikt.. Intestinal svikt som ... Mucosa normal.. Na+/H+ bytte defekt i ileum og colon.. Diagnose: Måling av elektrolytter i avføring.. Behandling: Iv., etter ... Mucosa normal.. Diagnose: Intestinal biopsi med måling av enterokinaseaktivitet.. Behandling: Proteinhydrolysat.. Spesifikke ...
... in vitro everted intestinal sac bioassay, which provides a measure of adhesion of the polymers to intestinal mucosa. In the ... but still in close apposition to the mucosa, nonetheless. No spheres were found in the lower GI tract, distal to the ileum. ... in vitro everted intestinal sac bioassay which provides a measure of adhesion of the polymers to intestinal mucosa. ... The intestinal mucosa is formed of a continuous sheet of epithelial cells of absorptive and mucin-secreting cells. Overlying ...
Intestinal injury scores indicating injury to the jejunum and ileum were found to be highest in the IR group, while, in the ... Prophylactic Ozone Administration Reduces Intestinal Mucosa Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat. Ozkan ... IR caused an increase in intestinal injury score. The intestinal epithelium maintained its integrity and decrease in intestinal ... Intestinal samples from the proximal jejunum and distal ileum were fixed with 10% formalin. After tissue processing, all ...
The infection may continue caudally and involve the ileum, but it rarely affects the colon. Necrosis of the mucosa is ... Clostridium perfringens, Gram-stained smear from intestinal epithelial surface, high power. Note the characteristic intensely ... acute cases at 3-5 days may have gas bubbles in the wall of the jejunum and necrosis of the mucosa of the jejunum and ileum. ... but diagnosis is usually possible by histologic examination of the jejunum and ileum or by observation of clostridia in mucosal ...
The infection may continue caudally and involve the ileum, but it rarely affects the colon. Necrosis of the mucosa is ... Overview of Intestinal Diseases in Pigs. *Clostridium difficile Enteritis in Pigs. *Clostridium perfringens Type A Enteritis in ... acute cases at 3-5 days may have gas bubbles in the wall of the jejunum and necrosis of the mucosa of the jejunum and ileum. ... but diagnosis is usually possible by histologic examination of the jejunum and ileum or by observation of clostridia in mucosal ...
Peyers patches (PP; lymphoid follicles predominantly found in the ileum of the small intestine) are a primary immune inductive ... CD4+ T cell down-regulation in human intestinal mucosa: evidence for intestinal tolerance to luminal bacterial antigens. J. ... Preventing Intolerance: The Induction of Nonresponsiveness to Dietary and Microbial Antigens in the Intestinal Mucosa. Donald W ... Man the barrier: strategic defenses in the intestinal mucosa. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 1:59. ...
... and proliferating/regenerating epithelial cells as well as of T and B lymphocytes in the mucosa and lamina propria of the ileum ... Data regarding long-term intestinal and extra-intestinal sequelae of infection are scarce, however. We therefore challenged ... and proliferating/regenerating epithelial cells as well as of T and B lymphocytes in the mucosa and lamina propria of the ileum ... and were accompanied by enhanced pro-inflammatory mediator secretion in ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes that was most ...
AIM: To characterize the role of IL-8 in the contraction of rat intestinal segments ... but whose effects on intestinal motility are unknown. ... but seems to involve protein synthesis by intestinal mucosa.. ... CONCLUSION: In vitro, IL-8 increases contractile response of the ileum to ACh in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is not ... AIM: To characterize the role of IL-8 in the contraction of rat intestinal segments. METHODS: Contractile response to ...
... aspects Colorectal diseases Environmental aspects Risk factors Gastrointestinal diseases Intestinal diseases Intestinal mucosa ... The effect of peritoneal air exposure on intestinal mucosal barrier.(Research Article, Report) by Gastroenterology Research ... It is suggested that terminal ileum is the most sensitive section of the intestinal tract [9]. 2.3. D-Lactate (D-LA) ... The intestinal tract is one of the target organs during various stresses [3]. Damage to the intestinal mucosa barrier will ...
Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins, are negative in terms of intestinal health, where beneficial bacteria ... Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated ... Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated ... leucocyte and lymphocyte infiltration were observed at lamina propria of the intestinal mucosa. In the duodenum and ileum, AFB1 ...
... β1/Smad signaling in diabetic colon mucosa, Cell Biology International" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... Cell proliferation of the ileum intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats treated with ascorbic acid ... Extracellular matrix remodeling and TGF‐β1/Smad signaling in diabetic colon mucosa. DArpino, Maria Cecilia; Fuchs, Alicia G.; ... Morpho‐mechanical intestinal remodeling in type 2 diabetic GK rats-is it related to advanced glycation end product formation ...
  • Absence of hyperplastic enterocytes or L. intracellularis antigen associated with diffuse presence of goblet cells in the intestinal epithelium. (
  • The intestinal epithelium maintained its integrity and decrease in intestinal injury score was detected in Ozone + IR group. (
  • More recent work has shown that gut bacteria can also be taken up by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 + M cells in the non-follicle-associated epithelium of intestinal villi ( 2 ). (
  • Finally, Giardia appears to be able to influence a number of important physiological events within the intestinal lumen and to interfere with the digestive process as well as the absorptive function of the small intestinal epithelium (4) . (
  • Furthermore, HE/HF-fed OP rats had significantly lower plasma GLP-1 levels, decreased protein levels of GLP-1 in the intestinal epithelium, and reduced number of L cells in the distal ileum. (
  • DCA caused injury of ileal mucosal epithelium and increased lymphocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium in the ileal mucosa, suggesting that the gastrointestinal immunity could be altered by some bile acids via increase in expression of adhesion molecules on microvessels. (
  • The organisms employed differed in various biologic attributes including the ability to invade the ileal epithelium, multiply within the mucosa, elicit an acute inflammatory reaction, and disseminate across the intestinal wall. (
  • Acroeimeria is a genus of parasites that contains those species which initially develop immediately beneath the brush-border of the intestinal epithelium, but the meronts and gamonts of which are early on extruded to form a layer on the surface of the gut mucosa. (
  • The epithelium at the base of the in- testinal villi invaginates downward at various points to form nar- row pouches that open through pores into the intestinal lumen. (
  • The intestinal epithelium is an important site for the absorption of orally administered drugs via paracellular and transcellular routes and is exposed to a variety of factors present in the intestinal lumen. (
  • In contrast, S. dublin SVA47 was found predominantly in the columnar enterocytes of the jejunum and ileum and the follicle-associated epithelium over the Peyer's patches. (
  • We now demonstrate that NEC in mice and humans is associated with increased expression of TLR4 in the intestinal mucosa and that physiological stressors associated with NEC development, namely, exposure to LPS and hypoxia, sensitize the murine intestinal epithelium to LPS through up-regulation of TLR4. (
  • The intraepithelial lymphocytes, which are located in the basal membrane of the intestinal epithelium between the enterocytes, are part of the GALT. (
  • In present case the thoracic duplication had epithelium resembling gastric, oesophageal and bronchogenic mucosa, while the small intestinal duplication mucosa resembled the ileum with islands of gastric mucosa. (
  • These data suggest that alteration of the balance between pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins in the site of injury is a possible mechanism by which EGF maintains intestinal integrity and protects intestinal epithelium against NEC injury. (
  • 4. Autoradiographic estimates of turnover time in the intestinal epithelium using tritiated thymidine reveal good agreement between the time needed to replace completely the epithelium of the ileum (62 hr) and the duration of the rapid decline in PVP uptake (approximately 3 days). (
  • The epithelium and underlying connective tissue,the lamina propria, form the mucosa of the digestive tract. (
  • AIM: To correlate the morphologic and functional changes in the ileal mucosa after total colectomy and hand-sewn straight ileo-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. (
  • The ileal mucosa was completely transformed into colonic type by the end of one year, colonoscopically (spacious lumen characteristic of colon), radiologically (disappearance of ileal characteristics with rectosigmoid-like appearance), histologically (blunting of villi with increase in goblet cells), and histochemically (sialomucin pattern to sulfomucin pattern). (
  • The ileal mucosa of Crohn disease (CD) patients is abnormally colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) that are able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • Ileal mucosa of porcine isolate-infected pigs euthanized 21 days pi. (
  • As early as 10 days post-infection, mice were suffering from subacute ileitis as indicated by mild-to-moderate histopathological changes of the ileal mucosa. (
  • They form a biofilm on the surface of the ileal mucosa owing to abnormal expression of the specific host receptor CEACAM6 that recognizes the type 1 pili variant expressed by CD-associated E. coli bacteria [12] , [13] . (
  • 6pieces) Section show ileal mucosa without villous arophy. (
  • Biopsies from terminal illeum (3 pieces) Section show ileal mucosa without villous atrophy. (
  • A mucosal scraping was made by rubbing the ileal mucosa with a cotton-tipped swab and cultured aerobically as well as anaerobically. (
  • The small intestines were first dissected into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, followed by collagenase digestion of the intestinal lumen. (
  • Less acute cases at 3-5 days may have gas bubbles in the wall of the jejunum and necrosis of the mucosa of the jejunum and ileum. (
  • Subacute and chronic forms of the disease in piglets 6-14 days old are easily confused at necropsy with Isospora suis enteritis, but diagnosis is usually possible by histologic examination of the jejunum and ileum or by observation of clostridia in mucosal smears (Gram or Giemsa stain). (
  • The jejunum and ileum of the small intestine are typically covered in macroscopic lesions, sometimes extending to the duodenum or ceca. (
  • It has been estimated that the efficiency of water absorption is 44% and 70% of the ingested load in the jejunum and ileum respectively. (
  • They showed that relative weight and length of the jejunum and ileum increased when chickens were supplied with feed and water post hatch. (
  • The jejunum and ileum demonstrate dilation, with the degree of distension correlating with severity of disease. (
  • small intestine the proximal portion of the intestine, about 20 feet long, smaller in caliber than the large intestine, extending from the pylorus to the cecum and comprising the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. (
  • Samples of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were taken for histopathological examination and a section of ileum was collected for microbiological examination from each animal. (
  • Nonfat nutrients appear to increase diamine oxidase in the intestinal lumen. (
  • Necrosis of the mucosa is accompanied by blood loss into the intestinal wall and lumen. (
  • Related work has shown that, in addition to transporting IgG across the intestinal epithelial barrier into the lumen, the human neonatal FcR can recycle bound luminal Ag back into the GALT for processing by DC and presentation to T cells in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) ( 5 ). (
  • However, the net absorption depends not only upon these processes but upon the extent of back diffusion of the transported material back into the intestinal lumen through "leaky" intercellular junctions. (
  • 2003) hypothesized that the absence of physical stimuli caused by feed in the intestinal lumen and the specific need for certain nutrients, such as water, may be responsible for negative changes in the morphology of the intestinal mucosa. (
  • The poor blood supply also has effects on the vascular endothelium, leading to an increased permeability which first leaks plasma and eventually blood into the intestinal lumen. (
  • In a non-strangulating infarction, blood supply to a section of intestine is occluded, without any obstruction to ingesta present within the intestinal lumen. (
  • Tauro Colic Acid Natrium (tauro-CANa, 4 mM) or DCA (4 mM), PBS were injected into the intestinal lumen. (
  • It is primarily associated with mature enterocytes in the villus tips ( 21 ), and the tissue content of the enzyme increases along the small intestines, being lower in the duodenum and higher in the distal ileum ( 15 ). (
  • The effects of fasting were specific to both time of fasting and the intestinal segment examined (duodenum, jejunum or ileum). (
  • Fasting between 0 and 48 hours post hatch decreased crypt size, the number of crypts per villus, crypt proliferation, villus area, and the rate of enterocyte (intestinal absorptive cells) migration in the duodenum and jejunum. (
  • In normal adults, Cdx2 is expressed in mucosa from the duodenum to the distal colon but not in gastric or esophageal mucosa ( 5 ). (
  • The cause of diarrhea in celiac sprue is multifactorial, resulting from impaired absorption by the duodenum and jejunum, and net secretion by jejunal mucosa. (
  • GBP had no effect on villi length or total mucosa height in any of the intestinal segments analyzed, whereas duodenum (GBP 37.6±3.4 cells/μm2 versus sham 26.5±2.8 cells/μm2) and ileum (GBP 127±1.2 cells/μm2 versus sham 84.7±9.9 cells/μm2) of the GBP-pigs displayed higher proliferation, as assessed by Ki67 immunoreactivity. (
  • It includes the duodenum, jejunum, ileum (small intestine), and colon (large intestine) and is responsible for the completion of digestion and the absorption of nutrients and water. (
  • We have earlier documented adaptative changes in the terminal ileum after total colectomy, and straight ileo-anal anastomosis. (
  • A ) Terminal ileum. (
  • Before success is declared, the enema fluid must reach the terminal ileum. (
  • METHODS: Contractile response to acetylcholine (ACh 10-6 M) in terminal ileal segments (including mucosa) from Wistar rats was measured before and after incubation (15, 30, 60 or 90 min) with IL-8 (1 ng/mL), and after 60 min of incubation with different doses of IL-8 (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 10 and 100 ng/mL). (
  • The selection of terminal ileum as the investigation site was based on previous publications [68]. (
  • These studies have indicated that the terminal ileum is the major site for observation of damage to gut barrier functions following exposure to various injuries. (
  • DC-SIGNR expression was restricted to endothelial cells in approximately one-third of the capillaries in the terminal ileum. (
  • A colonoscopy disclosed multiple ulcers lesions [ Images A & B ] in the terminal ileum and right-ascending and transverse colon. (
  • The histology of the ulcers disclosed a dense inflammatory infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells, mainly in the mucosa and scanty in the submucosa, with histiocyte accumulation both in the terminal ileum and colon. (
  • Involved Peyer's patches are generally in the terminal ileum within 60 cm of the ileo-cecal junction and in the cecum itself. (
  • In summary, baicalin could ameliorate LPS-induced iNOS and NO overproduction in mucosa of rat terminal ileum via inhibition of p38 signalling cascade and activation of PPARγ pathway. (
  • Since 915 urinary and intestinal mucosa (mainly terminal ileum) the organisms and has acceptable long term treatment of fistulas. (
  • In patients with CD, post-surgical exposure to luminal contents of the terminal ileum is associated with increased inflammation, and diversion of the faecal stream is associated with improvement [4] . (
  • The terminal ileum is the most frequently affected gastrointestinal part. (
  • This is attributed to the high prevalence of lymphoid tissue in the terminal ileum and a longer contact time of luminal contents with the small bowel. (
  • Colonic biopsies (together with terminal illeum) Section show multiple pieces of colonic mucosa. (
  • Results We found that adult Nod2 -deficient mice display a substantially altered microbial community structure and a significantly elevated bacterial load in their faeces and terminal ileum compared to their wild-type counterparts. (
  • The chief site of M. avium invasion of the intestinal mucosa is the terminal ileum. (
  • The terminal ileum was then prepared for histopathological studies and electron microscopy. (
  • Although NEC can affect any part of the large or small bowel, the most common location is the terminal ileum . (
  • Our data support the idea that the viaB region plays a role in reducing intestinal inflammation in vivo. (
  • A. muciniphila administration increased the intestinal levels of endocannabinoids that control inflammation, the gut barrier, and gut peptide secretion. (
  • In postoperative weeks (POW) 4, 6, 8, and 10, eight rats were randomly selected from each group to prepare samples for assessing systemic inflammation, intestinal mucosal barrier changes, and the status of intestinal oxidative stress. (
  • The advanced chronic kidney disease could induce intestinal mucosal barrier damage and further lead to systemic inflammation. (
  • However, in the pathological condition, damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier will result in intestinal bacterial and endotoxin translocation and further contribute to local and systemic inflammation [ 15 - 17 ]. (
  • We conclude that the here provided long-term kinetic survey of immunopathological sequalae following peroral low-dose T. gondii infection provides valuable corner stones for a better understanding of the complex interactions within the triangle relationship of (parasitic) pathogens, the host immunity and the commensal gut microbiota during intestinal inflammation. (
  • The low-dose T. gondii infection model may be applied as valuable gut inflammation model in future pre-clinical studies in order to test potential treatment options for intestinal inflammatory conditions in humans. (
  • However, data regarding long-term intestinal and extra-intestinal sequelae of peroral murine T. gondii post-infection resulting in intestinal inflammation are lacking due to the fatal immunopathological course within 1 week post infection (p.i). (
  • Therefore, the injury and inflammation in the intestinal tract are often considered as the driving force of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). (
  • Lymphatic drainage was demonstrated to be dysfunctional in CD pathogenesis, ultimately causing the failure of the resolution of intestinal inflammation. (
  • Conclusively, our study suggests that leukocyte trafficking through the intestinal lymphatic microvasculature can be controlled by modulating IL20RA, thus leading to the resolution of chronic inflammation in patients with CD. (
  • FC showed high accuracy in the assessment of intestinal inflammation and response to therapy, in particular in colonic disease, thus proving a good surrogate marker for these aims. (
  • Fecal calprotectin (f-CP) is a marker of intestinal inflammation. (
  • Intestinal bacteria are essential for the development of intestinal inflammation. (
  • NSAIDs, alcohol) and associated with low-grade intestinal inflammation. (
  • Colic can be divided broadly into several categories: excessive gas accumulation in the intestine (gas colic) simple obstruction strangulating obstruction non-strangulating infarction inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (enteritis, colitis) or the peritoneum (peritonitis) ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosa These categories can be further differentiated based on location of the lesion and underlying cause (See Types of colic). (
  • Gastric biopsies (2 pieces) Multiples pieces of non-specialised gastric mucosa showing mild chronic inflammation in the lamina propria. (
  • Only those strains which invaded the mucosa were accompanied by either mucosal inflammation or fluid exsorption. (
  • Furthermore, there was no correlation in ability of invasive organisms to evoke fluid secretion or in the intensity of mucosal inflammation, number of intramucosal salmonellae, or in ability to disseminate from the rabbit ileum. (
  • However, they report in BMC Veterinary Research , that the effects of these compounds on the intestinal barrier function and inflammation have never been investigated. (
  • 1,2 Intestinal inflammation, infiltration, ulceration, blood loss, and primary or secondary lymphangiectasia are well documented causes of PLE (Table 1). (
  • The data indicate that nonlipid nutrients did not increase diamine oxidase activity in the intestinal lymph, but the mucosal tissue content was significantly reduced in the distal small intestine, particularly after protein infusion. (
  • Mucosal biopsy of the rectum, colon, and distal ileum. (
  • Intestinal obstruction causes fluid and electrolyte losses from vomiting in proximal obstructions and from sequestration of fluid (within the intestines) in distal obstructions. (
  • Furthermore, intestinal contents entering the distal intestine inhibit gastric emptying. (
  • 1 Intestinal I/R is associated with the exacerbation of intestinal injury and a systemic inflammatory response leading to progressive distal organ impairment, finally resulting in cardiocirculatory, respiratory, hepatic, and renal failure. (
  • The mechanism by which baicalin modulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the mucosa of distal ileum was investigated in a rat model of acute endo-toxemia induced by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (
  • Third, we assessed intestinal peptide protein expression and circulating levels of GLP-1 and quantified GLP-1-expressing enteroendocrine cells (EECs) in the distal ileum to determine if HE/HF-feeding leads to decreases in endogenous GLP-1 in OP rats. (
  • A spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is a single intestinal perforation typically involving the antimesenteric border of distal ileum, which usually occurs without a defined prodrome in extremely premature infants in the first 1-2 weeks of life. (
  • Exploratory laparotomy showed a tubular duplication of the ileum, 75 cm long with proximal blind and distal communicating end ( Fig. 3 ). (
  • In addition, intestinal mucosa development was affected by the availability of feed and water: the number of villi per area decreased because villi size increased. (
  • In BB, the villi heights of intestinal mucosa were higher than that of MVF, except in ileum at days 20 and 56 post-hatch. (
  • Intestinal villi are considered the functional units of the digestive system because absorption through these structures is how digested molecules enter the blood or lymph purchase 20 gr benzac free shipping acne meds. (
  • Epithelial cells at the tips of the intestinal villi are continu- ously shed and are replaced by cells that are pushed up from the bases of the intestinal villi. (
  • The mucosa has no villi but contains glands that secrete mucus. (
  • A severe inflammatory response was seen from week 2 to week 5 and necrosis of intestinal villi was observed 6 weeks after infection. (
  • and small projections called intestinal villi. (
  • Up to 2 biopsies will be obtained from the gastric mucosa and of as many as 6 intestinal sites from each patient. (
  • Introduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) is associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and bioavailability of drugs, but whether these changes are induced by calorie restriction, the weight loss or surgery per se, remains uncertain. (
  • Recently, it was observed that intestinal-type gastric carcinoma developed from intestinal metaplasia in Cdx2-transgenic mice ( 4 ). (
  • This is the first direct evidence which shows that intestinal metaplasia is the precancerous lesion of gastric carcinoma. (
  • The duplication cysts contain gastric mucosa in 50% of cases resulting in ulceration, hemoptysis or hematemesis from perforation [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Histopathology revealed bronchogenic and ectopic gastric mucosa. (
  • In literature the mediastinal foregut duplication cysts are reported having neither intraspinal extension nor heterotopic gastric mucosa [ 7 ]. (
  • Furthermore, there had to be no evidence of gastric or intestinal displacement, that is, intussusception, volvulus or gastric ulceration. (
  • Furthermore, numbers of apoptotic and proliferating/regenerating epithelial cells as well as of T and B lymphocytes in the mucosa and lamina propria of the ileum were highest at day 10 post-infection, but declined thereafter, and were accompanied by enhanced pro-inflammatory mediator secretion in ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes that was most pronounced during the early phase of infection. (
  • BACKGROUND: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine highly expressed in inflammatory bowel diseases, but whose effects on intestinal motility are unknown. (
  • It is reported that peritoneal air exposure induces intestinal and systemic inflammatory response [1,2]. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory and oxidative stress-related processes contributing to small intestinal mucosa damage and to determine the extent to which green tea polyphenols could ameliorate the detrimental effects induced by IT. (
  • and 2 ) trefoil factor 3-induced Twist protein plays an important role in the modulation of inflammatory cytokine production in intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • Histologically, a part of intestinal mucosa was damaged by DCA, and inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the mucosa. (
  • While strains which invaded the mucosa caused an acute inflammatory reaction, not all such strains evoked fluid secretion. (
  • Overall, concluded Grilli and co-authors, OA+PB improved the maturation of the intestinal mucosa by modulating the local and systemic inflammatory pressure, ultimately resulting in a less permeable intestine, and eventually improving the growth of piglets prematurely weaned. (
  • These results indicate that invasion and infection of the normal intestine by M. avium results in a severe inflammatory response with segmental necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells in the intestinal mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease. (
  • The positive sIgA expression in lamina propria and ileum mucosal injury were evaluated light microscopically by blinded examiners. (
  • Diamine oxidase is continuously released from the intestinal epithelia into the lamina propria ( 20 , 27 ). (
  • Five layers are normally visible ultrasonographically in the intestinal wall: the hyperechoic mucosal surface, hypoechoic mucosa, hyperechoic submucosa, hypoechoic muscularis and hyperechoic serosa. (
  • Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors arise from neuroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa or submucosa [ 1 ]. (
  • Treatment of neonatal intestinal obstruction requires collaboration between the neonatologist and pediatric surgeon to ascertain the correct diagnosis and proceed with appropriate treatment. (
  • Intestinal duplication cyst is a rare condition and may be the cause of small bowel obstruction in children. (
  • Pain and shock may result from trauma, vascular occlusion, or complete intestinal obstruction. (
  • Surgical resection of the primary tumor and metastases is the only curative treatment and may alleviate symptoms caused by small intestinal obstruction or ischaemia and the carcinoid syndrome. (
  • 2 Children with CD or intestinal TB may present with symptoms of obstruction, pain, or a palpable mass in the right iliac fossa. (
  • There are usually intestinal perforation or obstruction symptoms. (
  • The lack of muscles in any part of the intestinal system leads to obstruction due to the absence of peristaltic movements and dilatation of the affected segment. (
  • The small intestine duplication presents with abdominal mass, intestinal obstruction or gastrointestinal bleeding [ 1 ]. (
  • In the normal condition, these microorganisms are located in the intestinal tract by the integrity of gut barrier including mechanical barrier, biological barrier, chemical barrier, and immunologic barrier. (
  • The intestinal tract is one of the target organs during various stresses [3]. (
  • However, when conditions in the intestinal tract change, the population of C. perfringens can increase and necrotic enteritis may appear. (
  • They are well versed in perioperative management of medically compromised patients undergoing radical procedures, and they are trained in medical and surgical management of intestinal tract complications due to disease or therapy. (
  • See also intestinal tract , and see color plates. (
  • South African pig producers refer to this syndrome as either haemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) or 'red gut', as a result of the intense red discolouration of the intestinal tract. (
  • The water-soluble GPR119 agonist, AR440006 (that cannot traverse epithelial tight junctions), elicited responses, when added apically or basolaterally in mouse and human colonic mucosae. (
  • Colonic mucosa had multinucleated giant cells and acid-fast staining was negative. (
  • We report here a novel in vitro enteric experimental system, cryopreserved human intestinal mucosa (CHIM), for the evaluation of enteric drug metabolism, drug-drug interaction, drug toxicity, and pharmacology. (
  • RESULTS The study showed that EHEC O157:H7 adhered to human intestinal mucosa. (
  • Direct visualization of the gastrointestinal mucosa by endoscopy and histopathological examination establishes a diagnosis in CD. (
  • Strains of Salmonella typhimurium were studied in the ligated rabbit ileal loop model to gain insight into the mechanisms whereby bacteria which invade the gastrointestinal mucosa evoke fluid exsorption. (
  • A bacterial property or factor, in addition to invasion of the gastrointestinal mucosa, seems to be responsible for fluid exsorptin. (
  • To better understand the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission at mucosal surfaces, we examined the expressions of the HIV adhesion molecule, dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), its closely related homologue DC-SIGNR, and HIV coreceptors by distinct DC populations in the intestinal and genital tracts of humans and rhesus macaques. (
  • Altered intestinal microbial community structure is a feature of Crohn's disease in humans. (
  • The intestinal muscularis mucosa degenerates, leading to pseudodiverticula in the colon and ileum. (
  • There were no different in thickness of muscularis externa in each intestinal segment at the day one and after the 20 days old. (
  • Peptide YY (PYY), an anorexigenic 36-amino acid peptide, is secreted primarily from the intestinal mucosa of the ileum and large intestine. (
  • Cells of the intestinal mucosa of the ileum and large intestine release the third hormone, peptide YY (PYY). (
  • METHODS Ultrastructural analysis of in vitro intestinal organ cultures of human small and large intestine was used to investigate adhesion of O157:H7 EHEC to intestinal surfaces. (
  • A specialized portion of the mesentery, the mesocolon, churn the chyme with digestive juices and bring it into contact supports the transverse portion of the large intestine along the with the mucosa. (
  • The large intestine extends from the ileum to the anus and is about 1.5 m (5 ft) in length. (
  • The first part of the large intestine is the cecum, a pouch on the right side into which the ileum empties. (
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the potential role of intestinal bifidobacteria in the pathogenesis of gut-derived bacterial translocation after burns and to analyze the effects of bifidobacterial supplement on gut barrier function. (
  • the apical cells of the intestinal mucosa contain a wide range of enzymes that participate in the process of digestion and absorption and the maintenance of the mucosal barrier. (
  • To investigate whether intestinal mucosal barrier was damaged or not in chronic kidney disease progression and the status of oxidative stress. (
  • The loss of intestinal mucosal barrier has been considered as one of the most important causes for the infection in various diseases [ 18 , 19 ]. (
  • The effect of peritoneal air exposure on intestinal mucosal barrier. (
  • Damage to the intestinal mucosa barrier will result in intestinal bacterial and endotoxin translocation and further contribute to local and systemic inflammations [4]. (
  • Investigations to explore the risk factors for damage to intestinal mucosal barrier and to develop the intervention approaches to restoring the barrier function are popular pursuits in modern surgical research. (
  • The present study was designed to investigate whether peritoneal air exposure leads to intestinal mucosal barrier damage and whether this effect is related to the duration of peritoneal air exposure under experimental conditions mimicking clinical operation room atmosphere. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: PAF may play some roles in the injury of intestinal mucus barrier function during endotoxemia. (
  • Alleviating hypotension is important because it is associated with intense portal vasoconstriction that causes the breakdown of the intestinal mucosal barrier allowing increased endotoxin absorption. (
  • Nucleotide-binding, oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2) recognises bacterial muramyl dipeptide and is regarded as a pivotal sensor molecule of the intestinal barrier. (
  • Although the pathogenesis of NEC remains incompletely understood, current thinking suggests that this disease develops in the stressed, premature host, after a disruption in the intestinal barrier, which leads to the translocation of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) ( 3 ). (
  • An increase in the circulating concentration of LPS may exert deleterious effects on the intestinal epithelial monolayer, characterized by a reduction in barrier integrity ( 8 , 9 , 10 ), while concomitantly activating the subepithelial leukocytes, leading to the proinflammatory cytokine release that characterizes NEC ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the ascorbic acid supplementation on the cellular proliferation on the ileum mucosa of diabetic rats . (
  • Summing up, the present work showed that there was no alteration in the cellular proliferation of the ileum of diabetic-induced rats supplemented with ascorbic acid . (
  • Rats were prepared with duodenal and intestinal lymph cannulas. (
  • Effects of platelet activating factor receptor antagonist in intestinal mucin-2 during endotoxemia on young rats]. (
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the roles of platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist in damage to intestinal mucin-2 (MUC2) during endotoxemia on young rats. (
  • Based on the characteristics of dexmedetomidine, we hypothesized that dexmedetomidine could attenuate intestinal mucosal injury and mortality in rats after intestinal I/R. (
  • Inhibitory effect of baicalin on iNOS and NO expression in intestinal mucosa of rats with acute endotoxemia. (
  • When exposed to a high-energy/high-fat (HE/HF) diet, OP rats become obese, which is accompanied by increased caloric intake ( 4 ), possibly from impaired postingestive intestinal feedback signaling ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • 1) Effect of bile acid exposure on intestinal mucosa: Thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) were collected from the thoracic duct of donor rats. (
  • We intravenously injected CFSE-fluorescence labelled TDL into recipient rats, and migration in intestinal mucosa was observed by a confocal microscope to evaluate the TDL migration. (
  • In some recipient rats, bile acids were injected into ligated ileum at both ends to evaluate the direct effect on intestinal mucosa. (
  • abstract = "Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease of premature infants. (
  • however, iodinated contrast or iohexol should be used when intestinal perforation is suspected but septic peritonitis cannot be demonstrated with abdominocentesis or diagnostic peritoneal lavage. (
  • Intestinal perforation is a possible complication of CD and, more rarely, of intestinal TB. (
  • Spontaneous intestinal perforation is a recently defined clinical entity. (
  • Herein we report an extremely low birthweight infant with spontaneous intestinal perforation, segmental absence of intestinal muscle and an ileal web as an underlying cause. (
  • We aimed to draw attention to the segmental absence of intestinal muscle which is rare but increasingly reported cause of spontaneous intestinal perforation and the importance of histopathologic examination of surgical specimens. (
  • Herein we present an ELBW infant with RDS who underwent surgery for spontaneous intestinal perforation due to segmental absence of intestinal muscle accompanied by an ileal web. (
  • Typhoid fever complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding and intestinal ulceration. (
  • The right dorsal colon may also develop ulceration, usually secondary to excessive NSAID use, which alters the homeostatic balance of prostaglandins that protect the mucosa. (
  • Spontaneous intestinal perforations are localized perforations without the typical clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of necrotizing enterocolitis. (
  • Torres and colleagues say their results indicate that 50 per cent corn replacement with low-tannin sorghum is suitable for broiler diets, whereas 100 per cent corn replacement with low-tannin sorghum had negative effects on the intestinal mucosa and performance of broilers at 42 days. (
  • In addition, our in vitro studies show that there is increased CEACAM6 expression in cultured intestinal epithelial cells after IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha stimulation and after infection with AIEC bacteria, indicating that AIEC can promote its own colonization in CD patients. (
  • Diamine oxidase metabolizes polyamines and histamine ( 2 , 18 ), and, on the basis of this action and the extracellular location, it is postulated that it prevents the absorption of polyamines and histamine originating from ingested food and intestinal bacteria ( 17 , 24 ). (
  • The investigators hope to learn what effect Vancomycin has on the bacteria that are present in stool, body fluid or intestinal tissue on someone who has BA and PSC and if so by what mechanism. (
  • In contrast, when pathogenic bacteria invade the intestinal mucosa, it is necessary to elicit strong T and B cell responses. (
  • Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins, are negative in terms of intestinal health, where beneficial bacteria are eliminated accompanied by an increase of the gut pathogen. (
  • Ingested bacteria invade small intestinal epithelial cell and are initially internalized in intestinal lymphoid cells and draining mesenteric lymph nodes. (
  • Dose-dependent inhibition of the abilities of AIEC strain LF82 to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial T84 cells was observed when bacteria were pre-treated with both exogenous meprin α and meprin β. (
  • We explore how specific aspects of the adaptive immune system are influenced by intestinal commensal bacteria. (
  • Although EGF has been shown to protect intestinal enterocytes from apoptosis, the mechanism of EGF-mediated protection against NEC is not known. (
  • High mucosal serotonin availability in neonatal guinea pig ileum is associated with low serotonin transporter expression. (
  • In vitro continuous amperometric monitoring of 5-hydroxytryptamine release from enterochromaffin cells of the guinea pig ileum. (
  • Real-time detection of serotonin release from enterochromaffin cells of the guinea-pig ileum. (
  • The chloroform, ethyl acetate methanol and water extracts were subjected for antidiarrhea activity in castor oil induced and gastrointestinal motility test in albino mice and effect on spasmogen induced contractility in isolated guinea pig ileum. (
  • The bark extracts did not inhibit the acetylcholine and histamine induced contraction of isolated guinea pig ileum up to 10 mg/ml concentrations. (
  • lymphoid follicles predominantly found in the ileum of the small intestine) are a primary immune inductive site of the GALT. (
  • Finally, the rectum contained cells that expressed high levels of DC-SIGN throughout the entire thickness of the mucosa, while solitary lymphoid nodules within the rectum showed very little staining for DC-SIGN. (
  • A primary aim of this study was therefore to determine the sidedness of GPR119 responses in murine and human GI mucosae using a water-soluble agonist, AR440006. (
  • 2 from the jejunum 5 cm from the Ligament of Trietz, and 2 from the ileum 10 cm from the ileocecal valve. (
  • In addition, the ileocecal valve may slow transit, especially when part of the ileum has been resected. (
  • Small bowel motility is three times slower in the ileum than in the jejunum. (
  • Small bowel carcinoid tumors account for about 20% of all carcinoid tumors with 90% occurring in the ileum. (
  • METHODS 5-HT was locally measured in vitro from intestinal segments using a diamond microelectrode and continuous amperometry. (
  • CONCLUSION: In vitro, IL-8 increases contractile response of the ileum to ACh in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • PB) on the intestinal integrity and functionality of weaned pigs and in vitro on Caco-2 cells. (
  • TLR4 activation in vitro led to increased enterocyte apoptosis and reduced enterocyte migration and proliferation, suggesting a role for TLR4 in intestinal repair. (
  • As transcription factors, Cdx2 proteins are important for regulating the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal cells and maintaining the intestinal phenotype by binding the promoters of several intestine-specific genes and activating transcription processes. (
  • reported that the activation of α 2 adrenoreceptor increased intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, 13 which indicates that α 2 adrenoreceptor agonist might be able to accelerate the wound healing process in the intestine. (
  • Intestinal ischemia also releases diamine oxidase from the intestinal mucosa by villus epithelial exfoliation and by its transportation into the bloodstream via an unknown mechanism ( 25 ). (
  • Recently, aberrant migration of lymphocytes to intestinal mucosa has been regarded one of critical pathogenesis of IBD. (
  • 1) A small number of lymphocytes adhered to intestinal microvessels in control group. (
  • The fluid, containing ingested food and liquids and digestive secretions, reaches the ileum mainly as an isotonic salt solution that is similar to plasma in its ionic sodium and potassium content. (
  • Intestinal juice moistens the chyme, helps buffer acids,and dissolves digestive enzymes and the products of digestion. (
  • The incidence of bacterial translocation and counts of Bifidobacterium, fungi and Escherichia coli in gut mucosa, as well as the sIgA levels in mucus of the small intestine were determined. (
  • Ileal lesions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), and to survive within macrophages. (
  • Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with mucosal damage and has a high rate of mortality. (
  • The mortality caused by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced intestinal injury remains high, and few techniques or drugs are effective enough to use clinically. (
  • Remarkably, immunopathological sequelae of T. gondii infection were not restricted to the intestines, but could also be observed in extra-intestinal tissues including the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and strikingly, in systemic compartments that were most prominent at day 10 post-infection. (
  • The uremia group presented an increase trend over time in the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10, serum D-lactate and diamine oxidase, and intestinal permeability, and these biomarkers were significantly higher than those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α induced persistent degradation of Twist protein in intestinal epithelial cells via a signaling pathway linked to proteasome, which was associated with prolonged activation of NF-κB. (
  • In contrast to tumor necrosis factor, trefoil factor 3 triggered transient activation of NF-κB and prolonged upregulation of Twist protein in intestinal epithelial cells via an ERK kinase-mediated pathway. (
  • The effects of replacing corn with low-tannin sorghum on broiler performance, carcass yield, integrity of mucosa of small intestine segments and activity of membrane enzymes of the jejunum has been investigated by K.A.A. Torres and colleagues at São Paulo State University in Brazil. (
  • 16) The various pathological lesions of intestinal TB are transverse ulcers, fibrosis, thickening and stricturing of the bowel wall, enlarged and matted mesenteric lymph nodes, omental thickening, and peritoneal tubercles. (
  • Interleukin-8 increases acetylcholine response of rat intestinal segments. (
  • AIM: To characterize the role of IL-8 in the contraction of rat intestinal segments. (
  • The jejunum appeared to be the most sensitive of the intestinal segments. (
  • The liver, pancreas and intestinal segments of the two breeds showed increased in relative weight at the 10 days post-hatch and after that the relationship were reversed. (
  • Day one post-hatch relative lengths of all intestinal segments in MVF were higher than BB. (
  • Also, GIP was increased in the GBP-pigs in all the intestinal segments analyzed. (
  • However, whether or not dexmedetomidine administration can provide protection against intestinal injury induced by intestinal I/R injury remains unclear. (
  • To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions, we isolated human intestinal lymphatic endothelial cells (HILECs) from surgical specimens of patients undergoing resection for complicated CD (CD HILEC) and from a disease-free margin of surgical specimens of patients undergoing resection for cancer (healthy HILEC). (
  • The immunohistopathological examination revealed that S. typhimurium SVA44 could be found in all layers of the intestinal mucosa and the lymphatic tissues of the Peyer's patches. (
  • Translocation of intestinal flora through immature mucosa has been postulated 5 . (
  • The failure to identify the parasite determinants responsible for the production of intestinal injury, diarrhoea, and malabsorption makes it impossible to provide a simple explanation for the molecular pathogenesis of giardiasis (4) . (
  • 3 Likewise, segmental absence of the intestinal muscle (SAIM) is also a rare condition and its pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated. (
  • Cavitation of mesenteric lymph nodes, splenic atrophy, and a flat small intestinal mucosa. (
  • This effect is not neurally mediated, but seems to involve protein synthesis by intestinal mucosa. (
  • We showed that Twist protein is constitutively expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • To examine the role of Twist protein in intestinal epithelial cells, we silenced the Twist expression by siRNA. (
  • Significant expression of P-gp protein in rat intestinal epithelial cells was confirmed by immunoblotting. (
  • Protein-losing enteropathy is uncommon in cats, and most cats with PLE are diagnosed with intestinal lymphoma or severe IBD. (
  • The diagnosis of intestinal TB is a challenge, due to its diverse clinical manifestations that mimic other infectious diseases, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. (
  • 5 Average calprotectin levels between 50 and 300 µg/mg are associated with numerous intestinal diseases and drugs (e.g. (
  • Elevations in serum bile acid concentrations are not pathognomonic for hepatic insufficiency, as nonhepatic diseases are well documented at increasing serum bile acids (intestinal disease, pancreatitis, anemia, diabetes mellitus, etc). (
  • Diamine oxidase is continuously released from the intestinal mucosa and carried to the circulation by the lymphatics. (
  • Triglycerides and fatty acids increased diamine oxidase in the intestinal lymph, and the longer-chain triglyceride was more effective. (
  • According to our observations, only lipids increase intestinal lymph diamine oxidase. (
  • Several factors increase and possibly regulate the release of diamine oxidase from the intestinal tissue. (
  • Ingestion of olive oil was also observed to increase intestinal lymph diamine oxidase activity ( 26 , 27 ), but how the long chain triglycerides release the enzyme from its source is still unclear. (
  • It is also unclear whether nutrients other than fat have an effect on intestinal diamine oxidase mobilization. (
  • The present study examined the action of all major food constituents on the release of intestinal diamine oxidase and compared their effects on enzyme transport into the intestinal lymph and on tissue content. (
  • Intestinal-type carcinoma is thought to develop from well-characterized sequential stages that include chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia ( 3 ). (
  • Ileum of a control rat in which a thin layer of mucus covering the epithelial surface and mucin-containing goblet cells appeared very distended. (
  • Ultrasonography can detect and define intestinal and other abdominal masses plus evaluate intestinal wall thickness (a normal small intestinal wall is 2 to 3 mm thick), the appearance and symmetry of the various wall layers, the number of peristaltic contractions, the pattern of intestinal contents (gas-hyperechoic, mucus-echogenic without acoustic shadowing, fluid-anechoic), the location of the lesion, and the extent of disease. (
  • Intestinal glands secrete intestinal juice, mucus,and hormones. (
  • Others will have lower intestinal findings (polyps) or complaints (e.g. occult blood in stool), or upper intestinal findings (dyspepsia, reflux), and will be undergoing lower endoscopy (colonoscopy) or upper endoscopy for routine medical management. (
  • These findings suggest that DC-SIGN + DCs could play a role in the transmission of primate lentiviruses in the ileum and the rectum whereas accessibility to DC-SIGN + cells is limited in an intact vaginal mucosa. (
  • These findings suggest that the expression of Cdx2 precedes that of Cdx1 and other intestine-specific genes in the progression of intestinal metaplasia from chronic gastritis. (
  • Interestingly, we demonstrate that these findings are also present in weaning mice, indicating a profound influence of Nod2 on the early development and composition of the intestinal microbiota. (
  • Our aim was to compare 5-HT disposition in the intestinal mucosa of neonatal and adult guinea pigs. (
  • Both drugs exhibited vectorial transport across rat ileum with significantly greater (2-4-fold) permeability in the serosal-to-mucosal than the mucosal-to-serosal direction, indicative of net mucosal secretion. (
  • Secondly, the investigators hope to learn to characterize human intestinal microbial communities (microbiome: the collection or collectivity of microorganisms) using molecular methods, examine the mechanisms of interaction between host and microbiome using genomic approaches, and determine how the microbiome both preserves local health and promotes pathology. (
  • Bovine intestinal organ culture was used to examine the pathology produced by the same EHEC strain in cattle. (
  • 2-5 It has been proposed that the immature intestinal mucosa of the neonate might lack receptors for C. difficile toxin, although other factors such as an immature immune response may also play a role. (
  • As no pathognomic clinical features exist, diagnosis is made by biopsy of intestinal mucosa. (
  • Three diagnoses were suspected: (1) primary intestinal tumor, (2) appendicular mucocele invading the neobladder, and (3) malignant degeneration in the neobladder. (
  • Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor (SI-NET) is the most common malignancy of the small intestine and the incidence is about one per 100,000 and is on the rise. (