Interleukin-18 Receptor beta Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that plays a role in receptor signaling by association of its cytoplasmic domain with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Interleukin-10 Receptor beta Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-10 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with TYK2 KINASE.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Oncostatin M Receptor beta Subunit: An ONCOSTATIN M-specific receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the ONCOSTATIN M TYPE II RECEPTOR.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit: A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR; the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR; and the GM-CSF RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this shared beta subunit.Receptors, Interleukin-3: High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Interleukin-2 Receptor beta Subunit: A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR and the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this beta subunit and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.STAT4 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-12 in T-LYMPHOCYTES. Stat4 is an important signaling molecule for differentiation in TH1 CELLS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Interleukin-12 Receptor beta 1 Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-12 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with TYK2 KINASE 1.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.STAT2 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to TYPE I INTERFERONS. Stat2 protein is associated constitutively with INTERFERON REGULATORY FACTOR-9. After PHOSPHORYLATION Stat2 forms the IFN-STIMULATED GENE FACTOR 3 COMPLEX to regulate expression of target GENES.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Receptors, Interleukin-12: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.STAT Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors containing SH2 DOMAINS that are involved in CYTOKINE-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. STAT transcription factors are recruited to the cytoplasmic region of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and are activated via PHOSPHORYLATION. Once activated they dimerize and translocate into the CELL NUCLEUS where they influence GENE expression. They play a role in regulating CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. STAT transcription factors are inhibited by SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING PROTEINS and PROTEIN INHIBITORS OF ACTIVATED STAT.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interleukin-12 Receptor beta 2 Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-12 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with JANUS KINASE 2.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta: DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.PPAR-beta: One of the PPAR nuclear transcription factors.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Inbred BALB CPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel beta Subunits: The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.Janus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Retinoid X Receptor betaIntegrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Tryptophan Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.1.20.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Janus Kinases: A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Janus Kinase 3: A Janus kinase subtype that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cell. It is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS including ones that utilize the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.PPAR delta: A nuclear transcription factor. It is activated by PROSTACYCLIN.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome: An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 2: An orphan nuclear receptor that is expressed at high levels in neuronal tissues, the RETINA; EPIDIDYMIS; and VAS DEFERENS. The receptor is believed to play a role in regulating a variety of functions including the processing of sensory information, the differentiation of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
  • Using a BiFC approach that detects stable interactions we show that fluorescence complementation of gp130 constructs tagged with matching `halves' of fluorescent proteins increases upon IL-6 stimulation. (biologists.org)
  • We detected a FRET signal between YFP- and CFP-tagged gp130 at the plasma membrane of unstimulated cells that does not increase upon IL-6 stimulation. (biologists.org)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that transient gp130 homodimers on the plasma membrane are stabilized by IL-6 whereas heterodimerization of gp130 with the LIFR is mainly triggered by the ligand. (biologists.org)
  • This view is supported by the observation that the simultaneous action of two IL-6 binding domains on two gp130 molecules is required to efficiently recruit a fluorescent IL-6 (YFP-IL-6) to the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • IL-10 is a cytokine with multiple, pleiotropic, effects in immunoregulation and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental allergens induce allergic inflammation through proteolytic maturation of IL-33. (ipbs.fr)
  • Attention will be given to the role of the soluble IL-6R, and we will provide a perspective into the clinical blockade of IL-6 activity in autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. (jci.org)
  • Many types of liver cancer develop as a result of a long-lasting inflammation/regeneration process that is induced by chronic viral infection (e.g., hepatitis B virus [HBV]/hepatitis C virus [HCV]), alcohol, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (springermedizin.de)
  • While IL-1α and IL-1β are mediators of inflammation, IL-1RA does not have agonistic effects or initiate downstream signaling. (biolegend.com)
  • IL-17A and IL-17F share similar biological functions, recruiting granulocytes and inducing inflammation. (biolegend.com)
  • Through my investigations on the functions of the transcription factor p50, a subunit of NF-kB, my group have shown that inflammation results in telomere damage and ageing.We have also discovered that p50 is an important tumour suppressor, since mice lacking p50 develop spontaneous age-related liver cancer and this is predominantly driven by neutrophils. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This work has recently identified the alarming IL-1alpha as an epithelial-derived stimulator of fibroblast expression of the monocyte chemokine CCL2, the latter a mediator of inflammation and fibrosis. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Our results show that IFNα/β induced IL-10 production from macrophages and Th17 cells, which in turn negatively regulated Th17 function in autoimmune diseases such as Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human MS. In a chronic colitis model resembling human IBD, we also found that IL-10 inhibited inflammasome/IL-1 pathway, and the pathogenicity of Th17 cells, leading to reduced chronic intestinal inflammation. (omicsonline.org)
  • IL-10, produced by innate immune cells as well as T and B cells, functions as one of major negative feedback mechanisms to dampen uncontrolled production of inflammatory cytokines and excessive inflammation [ 32 - 40 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Fifth, strategies blocking T-cell function are useful for attenuating mucosal inflammation in mice with experimental colitis [ 10 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • IL-12p40 and IL-18 in crescentic glomerulonephritis: IL-12p40 is the key Th1-defining cytokine chain, whereas IL-18 promotes local inflammation and leukocyte recruitment. (labome.org)
  • IL-17, a key cytokine of Th17, plays critical roles in the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of inflammation ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Delineating the Role of Histamine-1- and -4-Receptors in a Mouse Model of Th2-Dependent Antigen-Specific Skin Inflammation. (mh-hannover.de)
  • The capsaicin- and heat-sensitive ion channel TRPV1, expressed on a subpopulation of nociceptive neurons, has been shown to play an important role in inflammation-induced heat hypersensitivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Members of the IL-6 cytokine family are involved in chronic pain during chronic inflammation like rheumatoid arthritis and this is at least partially due to the sensitization of primary nociceptive afferents innervating the inflamed tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inflammation is also induced by reactions of the immune system (hypersensitivity) in the body, which causes a disruption of tissue homeostasis. (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • For example, during inflammation immune system macrophage cells could be activated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), through the recognition of a pathogen endotoxin such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • With this as an ultimate goal, we are examining the ability of a novel adjuvant, cationic liposome DNA complexes (CLDC)(Juvaris Biotherapeutics), to induce durable CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity and humoral immunity to influenza A. The molecular and cellular components of the innate immune system that are required for immunogenicity are of particular interest. (stanford.edu)
  • Interleukin-21 is a cytokine that has potent regulatory effects on cells of the immune system , including natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells that can destroy virally infected or cancerous cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Thus, IL-21 may contribute to the mechanism by which CD4+ T helper cells orchestrate the immune system response to viral infections. (wikidoc.org)
  • The transcription factor STAT3 has multiple functions in fertility, embryonal development, the acute-phase response of the liver and the regulation of immune responses ( Levy and Lee, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • Today the major components of immunopathology of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis are defects of immune response, mediated by IL-17 and IL-22. (mif-ua.com)
  • Therefore, interleukin network represents an interesting pharmacological target, modulation of which using either biological or small chemical agents could contribute to suppression of excessive activated immune system and successfully treat the diseases that they are involved in. (intechopen.com)
  • The receptor is involved in the regulation of immune tolerance by controlling regulatory T cells (TREGs) activity. (genecards.org)
  • To keep immune homeostasis, the immune system develops a number of negative feedback mechanisms, such as the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, to dampen excessive production of inflammatory cytokines and uncontrolled activation of immune cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that both innate immune system such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and adaptive immune system such as T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases [ 5 - 10 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Measles virus infection is characterized by virus-induced immune suppression that creates susceptibility to opportunistic infections. (asm.org)
  • Interference with STAT-inducible transcription may provide a novel intracellular mechanism for measles virus-induced cytokine inhibition that links innate immune evasion to adaptive immune suppression. (asm.org)
  • Prompt recognition of bacterial pathogens is paramount in the defense against infection, and, among the mechanisms that initiate the immune cascade, IL-6 plays a central role. (cdc.gov)
  • This activity results in the identification of a series of potentially novel therapeutic targets that could restore proper immune regulation in type 1 diabetes by augmenting the IL-2 pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interferes also with antigen presentation by reducing the expression of MHC-class II and co-stimulatory molecules, thereby inhibiting their ability to induce T cell activation (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • More specifically, PEGylated recombinant human IL-10 (PEG-rHuIL-10) has been shown to enhance CD8+ T cell secretion of the cytotoxic molecules Granzyme B and Perforin and potentiate T cell receptor dependent IFNγ secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated Jaks phosphorylate tyrosine residues in the membrane distal cytoplasmic part of the receptor and the phosphotyrosine motifs are docking sites for signalling molecules containing SH2 or PTB domains. (biologists.org)
  • 1988 ). Consecutive work demonstrated that CD69 expression does not depend on the nature of a specific stimulus as many different classes of molecules, such as concanavalin A, anti-CD3 antibody, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), type I interferons (IFN), lipopolysaccharide, etc., can induce the expression of CD69. (springer.com)
  • IL-21R deficiency limited IL-23R (show IL23R ELISA Kits ) expression on Th17 cells and inhibited expression of key molecules for pathogenic Th17 cell generation. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Macrophage interaction with FN and other ECM molecules on the biomaterial surface has been shown to induce a variety of inflammatory responses, thus both FN and IL-1 can be utilized as model molecules to better understand the mechanisms of material-mediated macrophage responses. (biologicalworld.com)
  • The interleukin (IL)-20 subfamily of cytokines is part of the IL-10 family and comprises five related molecules, including IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24 and IL-26 [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-10 can be produced by monocytes upon PD-1 triggering in these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intermediate-affinity IL-2R is more broadly expressed on T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and monocytes, whereas the high-affinity IL-2R is only constitutively expressed on regulatory T-cells (Tregs) ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In recent years, significant progress was made in improving their pharmacological performance - pharmacokinetics (longer half-life) and pharmacodynamics properties (better efficacy because of stronger affinity to human receptor), and safety profile (less antigenic and immunogenic reactions). (intechopen.com)
  • We have previously enhanced the antiproliferative activity of IFN-α2 by increasing its binding affinity to either IFNAR1 or IFNAR2. (asm.org)
  • The H57y-E58N-Q61S triple mutant (YNS mutant), which binds IFNAR1 ∼50-fold tighter than the wild type (WT), exhibited ∼100-fold-higher antiproliferative potency ( 17 ), while a mutation on IFN-α2, where the C-terminal tail was replaced with that of IFN-α8, resulted in 20-fold-increased binding affinity to IFNAR2 and 10-fold-increased antiproliferative potency ( 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Moreover, we have recently demonstrated that the stability of the ternary interferon-receptor complex rather than the affinity to the individual subunits dictates biological activity ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor alpha (IL2RA) and beta (IL2RB) chains, together with the common gamma chain (IL2RG), constitute the high-affinity IL2 receptor. (genecards.org)
  • Homodimeric alpha chains (IL2RA) result in low-affinity receptor, while homodimeric beta (IL2RB) chains produce a medium-affinity receptor. (genecards.org)
  • IL2R exists in 3 different forms: a high affinity dimer, an intermediate affinity monomer (beta subunit), and a low affinity monomer (alpha subunit). (genecards.org)
  • CD132), or the high-affinity (Kd = 10 −11 M) trimeric IL-2R comprising IL-2Rα (CD25), IL-2Rβ, and γc. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 19 , 20 In contrast to IL-2Rα, which binds IL-2 with low affinity and is expressed mainly on activated T cells, IL-15Rα has a relatively high affinity for IL-15, and IL-15Rα mRNA is expressed more broadly. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 113 Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha (LIFR) Antikörper von 15 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The predominant role of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor in skeletal muscle regeneration appears to be in regulating the inflammatory response rather than directly effecting myogenic cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • A study in mice has shown that IL-10 is also produced by mast cells, counteracting the inflammatory effect that these cells have at the site of an allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 5 (colony-stimulating factor, eosinophil) ( IL-5 ) is produced by Th2 cells and mast cells after activation by mitogens or antigens [ 1 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • STAT4 is activated when cells are treated with interleukin-12, a key cytokine regulator of cell-mediated immunity. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Subconfluent cells were serum-starved before exposure to activation dosages of IFN-gamma (10 ng/ml) and IFN-alpha (1000 IU/ml and 5000 IU/ml). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • C-type lectin receptor DCIR modulates immunity to tuberculosis by sustaining type I interferon signaling in dendritic cells. (ipbs.fr)
  • Distinct spatial relationship of the interleukin-9 receptor with interleukin-2 receptor and major histocompatibility complex glycoproteins in human T lymphoma cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • For tachyzoites to be able to grow, they must establish a replicative niche within their host cells and do so by inducing a number of changes to host cell signaling, transcription, and organellar/cytoskeletal organization - . (prolekare.cz)
  • All of the IL-20 receptors, IL-20RA, IL-20RB, and IL-22RA1 were expressed in HTM cells. (molvis.org)
  • The Duolink assay demonstrated that the type I (IL-20RA-IL-20RB) and type II (IL-22RA1-IL-20RB) receptors were expressed in HTM cells and dermal fibroblasts. (molvis.org)
  • However, in the HTM cells, the type I receptor was present at significantly higher levels, while the type II receptor was preferentially used in the dermal fibroblasts. (molvis.org)
  • IL-21 is expressed in activated human CD4 + T cells but not in most other tissues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Interleukin-21 is also produced by Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) cancer cells (which is surprising because IL-21 was thought to be produced only in T cells ). (wikidoc.org)
  • The IL-21 receptor ( IL-21R ) is expressed on the surface of T, B and NK cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Besides, these mice with impaired IL-21 signaling had more dramatic exhaustion of LCMV-specific CD8+ T cells , suggesting that IL-21 produced by CD4+ T cells is required for sustained CD8+ T cell effector activity and then, for maintaining immunity to resolve persistent viral infection. (wikidoc.org)
  • Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor with many important functions in the biology of normal and transformed cells. (springer.com)
  • Besides other functions, STAT3 is an important regulator of normal stem cells and cancer stem cells. (springer.com)
  • This review will provide basic information about STAT3 and its regulation and will focus on its role(s) in stem cells and cancer stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the ability to repair DSBs in cancer cells confers radioresistance, while RT reaching normal cells induces, among other side effects, the development of secondary malignancies. (frontiersin.org)
  • These agents work by either targeting the cytokine directly or by inhibiting cytokine binding to their specific receptors on the surface of cells. (jci.org)
  • We measured nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of STAT3 in single cells by bleaching the YFP moiety of double-labelled STAT3-CFP-YFP in the cytoplasm. (biologists.org)
  • Weighing approximately 1.5 kg, microbial residents in the GI tract outnumber human cells 10-fold and genome size 100-fold. (hindawi.com)
  • 3 This review, therefore, focuses on the present understanding of the role of MYD88 (L265P) in NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) activation and its association with the B-cell receptor (BCR) cascade. (haematologica.org)
  • A proinflammatory cytokine, IL-18 is known to induce IFN-γ, IL-2, and GM-CSF production from Th1 cells. (biolegend.com)
  • IL-33 is known to be a chemoattractant for Th2 cells and stimulates them to produce Th2-associated cytokines. (biolegend.com)
  • A low number of receptors suffices for antiviral response and is thus a robust feature common to all cells. (asm.org)
  • Like all T cells, they express the T cell receptor - CD3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some APCs also bind native (or unprocessed) antigens to their surface, such as follicular dendritic cells , but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourth, colitis can be induced in immunodeficient mice by transfer of naïve T cells [ 9 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • This study was designed to assess the epigenetic alterations in blood cells, induced by occupational exposure to multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Moreover, in mice with collagen-induced arthritis, lentivirus-mediated CTR9 overexpression in the joints ameliorated arthritis severity, decreasing the frequency of CD4 + IL-17 + T cells in lymph nodes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria induces a diverse array of biologic responses in mammalian cells and initiates inflammatory, complement, and coagulation cascades. (asm.org)
  • The original Th paradigm contrasted IFNγ-producing Th1 cells, important for host defense against intracellular pathogens, with Th2 cells, which produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and are involved in the protection against parasitic infections. (nature.com)
  • And (2) how is the responsiveness to these IL-6 class cytokines controlled during malignant transformation of epithelial cells? (roswellpark.org)
  • The information gain on inflammatory mediators and receptor functions in tissue culture model system are currently applied to the identification of regulatory processes in complex reconstituted systems using 3-dimensional cultures of primary cells isolated from the lung. (roswellpark.org)
  • Report increased levels of IL-21R in the skeletal muscle endothelial cells of patients with peripheral arterial disease compared to control individuals. (antibodies-online.com)
  • IL-21R on B cells is upregulated in allergic rhinitis patients when compared to controls. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Effect of IL-24 on H 2 O 2 treated FHs74Int cells and on pdMFs was measured by MTT, LDH, Annexin V assays, real-time RT-PCR and by fluorescent microscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, as duodenal epithelial cells and duodenal MFs play prominent role in the remodeling of injured mucosa, we examined the effect of IL-24 on these cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A simplified schematic of IL-2 signaling in both Tregs and conventional T cells (Tconv), or differentiated (i.e. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For Tconv cells, high concentrations of IL-2 can cause activation-induced cell death (AICD), whereas moderate to low concentrations of IL-2 induce effector or memory phenotypes, respectively ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IL-15Rα is known to " trans -present" IL-15 to an IL-2Rβ/γ c heterodimeric receptor on responding cells to initiate signaling. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These experiments collectively indicate that IL-15Rα can act in cis in addition to acting in trans to present IL-15 to responding cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1 ⇓ - 3 IL-2 was discovered as a T-cell growth factor but in addition has other important roles, for example related to the development of regulatory T cells, 4 in activation-induced cell death (AICD), 5 and in the boosting of natural killer (NK)-cell cytolytic activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Once phosphorylated, these tyrosine residues serve as temporary docking sites for the latent transcription factor, Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ( STAT3 ). (bio-rad.com)
  • The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that, when dysregulated, becomes a powerful oncogene found in many human cancers, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (g3journal.org)
  • 7516473 . RA Jiang C.-K., Flanagan S., Ohtsuki M., Shuai K., Freedberg I. M., Blumenberg M. RT Disease-activated transcription factor: Allergic reactions in human skin cause nuclear translocation of STAT-91 and induce synthesis of keratin K17 RL Mol. (genexplain.com)
  • Both STAT5a and STAT5b regulate interleukin-7 induced B-cell precursor expansion. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Compared with the germinal center B-cell−like form, activated B-cell−like lymphomas respond much more poorly to current therapies and often exhibit overexpression or overactivation of STAT3. (g3journal.org)
  • High levels of STAT3 generally are found only in the activated B-cell−like subtype. (g3journal.org)
  • Western blots were performed on whole-cell lysate, with equal protein loading in each lane, with the use of anti-STAT3 rabbit polyclonal antibody sc-482X (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. (g3journal.org)
  • IL-21 was approved for Phase 1 clinical trials in metastatic melanoma (MM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. (wikidoc.org)
  • In HIV infected subjects, IL-21 has been reported to critically improve the HIV-specific cytotoxic T cell responses and NK cell functions. (wikidoc.org)
  • Double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by radiotherapy are highly cytotoxic lesions, leading to chromosomal aberrations and cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • DSBs are the main contributors to RT-induced cell killing through the formation of chromosomal aberrations that lead to cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • More importantly, the present invention provides an utility application of the Δ9 and Δ8,9 protein in inhibit IL-23R-mediated cell signaling. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. The recombinant IL-23Rα protein of claim 5, wherein said IL-23R-mediated cell signaling is the STAT3 formation. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and c) having the ability to inhibit IL-23R-mediated cell signaling. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • It is reported to stimulate the release of TNF-α and IL-1β from a monocytic cell line. (biolegend.com)
  • Similar to IL-17B, it can stimulate TNF-α and IL-1β from a monocytic cell line. (biolegend.com)
  • Conversely, a high number of receptors is required for antiproliferative activity, which allows for fine-tuning on a single-cell level. (asm.org)
  • Binding to the receptor causes phagocytosis and destruction of the foreign cell. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • Constitutive activation of STAT3 has been reported in many human cancer cell lines and primary tumors, and this activation is associated with poor outcomes of a number of cancers. (mdpi.com)
  • In DBA/2 retina, elevated intraocular pressure increased microglial IL-6 in the ganglion cell layer. (arvojournals.org)
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Mincle Cooperatively Sense Corynebacterial Cell Wall Glycolipids. (uk-erlangen.de)
  • The biochemical analysis of signaling employs various tissue culture cell lines in which the specific functions of the receptor subunits for the cytokines are reconstituted. (roswellpark.org)
  • Protective effects of SOCS3 overexpression in high glucose‑induced lung epithelial cell injury through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Prior intervention studies in animal models indicate that augmenting IL-2 signaling can prevent and reverse disease, with protection conferred primarily by restoration of regulatory T-cell (Treg) function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The IL-2 receptor is often modeled as a stand-alone structure consisting of the individual α/β/γc subunits complexed with IL-2 ( Fig. 2 A ). This schematic conveys the notion that IL-2 receptors are diffusely distributed across the cell surface. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vivo treatment led to increased thymic cellularity and polyclonality of the T-cell receptor repertoire by reducing thymic graft- versus -host disease. (haematologica.org)
  • IL-15 is critical for natural killer (NK)-cell development and function and for memory CD8 + T-cell homeostasis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 The major actions of IL-15 are related to NK-cell and NKT-cell development and function 8 ⇓ - 10 and to memory CD8 + T-cell homeostasis. (bloodjournal.org)