Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein: A fetuin subtype that is synthesized by HEPATOCYTES and secreted into the circulation. It plays a major role in preventing CALCIUM precipitation in the BLOOD.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hyperphosphatemia: A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Xeromammography: Xeroradiography of the breast.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Monckeberg Medial Calcific Sclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of muscular ARTERIES due to calcification of the TUNICA MEDIA, the concentric layers of helically arranged SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Hydrops Fetalis: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Bone Diseases, Endocrine: Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Calciphylaxis: Condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden local calcification.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type III: A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.Dental Pulp CalcificationThiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.PolyaminesVitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic: Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.GlucuronidaseFibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.ElastinAnthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Tropoelastin: A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Calcimimetic Agents: Small organic molecules that act as allosteric activators of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the PARATHYROID GLANDS and other tissues. They lower the threshold for CaSR activation by extracellular calcium ions and diminish PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) release from parathyroid cells.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Mice, Inbred C57BLBone Diseases, MetabolicBone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: A group of interstitial lung diseases with no known etiology. There are several entities with varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. They are classified by their distinct clinical-radiological-pathological features and prognosis. They include IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS; CRYPTOGENIC ORGANIZING PNEUMONIA; and others.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Receptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Scleral Diseases: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hyperostosis, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal: A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive: Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Progeria: An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.TetramisoleElasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Haptophyta: A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.

*Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification

... ventricular hypertrophy and multiple intracardiac as well as vascular calcifications Idiopathic arterial calcification of ... also known as Arterial Calcification of Infancy, Generalised Infantile Arterial Calcification (GACI), Idiopathic Arterial ... Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy should always be considered in infants and children presenting with hypertension, ... Inwald, D P; Yen Ho, S; Shepherd, M N; Daubeney, P E F (2006). "Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification presenting as fatal ...

*Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis

This is probably due to vascular calcification causing increased arterial stiffness, increased pulse pressure and resulting in ... However, it can occur in pseudoxanthoma elasticum and idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy as a pathological condition ... and the prevalence of vascular calcification is increased by some diseases (see Epidemiology section). Vascular calcification ... The mechanism of vascular calcification is not fully understood, but probably involves a phenotypic change in the vascular ...

*Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1

Mutations in this gene have been associated with Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification, ossification of the posterior ... "The good and the bad in the link between insulin resistance and vascular calcification". Atherosclerosis. 193 (2): 241-4. doi: ... "PC-1 nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase deficiency in idiopathic infantile arterial calcification". Am. J. Pathol. ...

*List of cutaneous conditions

Iatrogenic calcinosis cutis Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis (idiopathic calcified nodules of the scrotum) Lafora disease Lesch- ... The dermis contains two vascular networks that run parallel to the skin surface-one superficial and one deep plexus-which are ... Arterial insufficiency ulcer (ischemic ulcer) Arteriosclerosis obliterans Bier spots Blueberry muffin baby Bonnet-Dechaume- ... solitary congenital nodular calcification, Winer's nodular calcinosis) Transient erythroporphyria of infancy (purpuric ...

*Outline of cardiology

Treatment of viral & idiopathic pericarditis is NSAIDs or aspirin. Constrictive pericarditis - Pericarditis that constricts the ... The classic finding is pulsus paradoxus as well as Beck's triad (low arterial blood pressure, distended neck veins, & soft ... Stenosis commonly occurs from calcification of the valve, which happens prematurely in those with a bicuspid aortic valve. ... For example, medical treatment of atherosclerosis tends to be managed by cardiologists while vascular surgery repairs aneurysms ...

*Long-term effects of alcohol consumption

2008). "Vascular risk factors, alcohol intake, and cognitive decline". J Nutr Health Aging. 12 (6): 376-81. doi:10.1007/ ... 4 February 1997). "Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease in US male ... November 2004). "Alcohol consumption and coronary calcification in a general population". Arch. Intern. Med. 164 (21): 2355-60 ... Alcoholic cardiomyopathy presents in a manner clinically identical to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, involving hypertrophy ...
Dystrophic calcification (DC) is the calcification occurring in degenerated or necrotic tissue, as in hyalinized scars, degenerated foci in leiomyomas, and caseous nodules. This occurs as a reaction to tissue damage, including as a consequence of medical device implantation. Dystrophic calcification can occur even if the amount of calcium in the blood is not elevated. (A systemic mineral imbalance would elevate calcium levels in the blood and all tissues and cause metastatic calcification.) Basophilic calcium salt deposits aggregate, first in the mitochondria, and progressively throughout the cell. These calcifications are an indication of previous microscopic cell injury. It occurs in areas of cell necrosis in which activated phosphatases bind calcium ions to phospholipids in the membrane. Calcification can ...
Looking for coronary artery calcification? Find out information about coronary artery calcification. Any process of soil formation in which the soil colloids are saturated to a high degree with exchangeable calcium, thus rendering them relatively immobile... Explanation of coronary artery calcification
MalaCards based summary : Hyperphosphatemic Familial Tumoral Calcinosis, Fgf23-Related An important gene associated with Hyperphosphatemic Familial Tumoral Calcinosis, Fgf23-Related is FGF23 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 ...
Aortic valve calcification (AVC) without outflow obstruction (stenosis) is common in the elderly and increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although high blood pressure (BP) measured at the doctors office is known to be associated with AVC, little is known about the association between 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP) and AVC. Our objective was to clarify the association between ABP variables and AVC. The study population consisted of 737 patients (mean age, 71±9 years) participating in the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study who underwent 24-hour ABP monitoring. Each aortic valve leaflet was graded on a scale of 0 (normal) to 3 (severe calcification). A total valve score (values 0-9) was calculated as the sum of all leaflet scores. Advanced AVC (score ≥4) was present in 77 subjects (10.4%). All of the systolic ABP variables (except systolic BP nocturnal decline) and mean ...
In addition to fibrosis, calcification is a defining feature of aortic valve lesions. Calcification may contribute to lesion rigidity, thereby worsening obstruction to left ventricular outflow. Moreover, the extent of lesion calcification correlates both with more rapid disease progression and worse clinical outcomes.61,62. Aortic valve calcification now has been shown unequivocally to be an active, rather than a passive, process. Valvular calcium deposits contain both calcium and phosphate11,57,63,63 as hydroxyapatite,57,63 the form of calcium-phosphate mineral present in both calcified arterial tissue64 and bone. Proteins involved in regulation of tissue calcification have been detected in calcified valvular tissue, including osteopontin,13,14 bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) 2 and 4,15 and receptor activator of nuclear ...
INTRODUCTION. Soft tissue radiopacities include calcification, ossification or foreign objects. The latter are excluded from this manuscript. Calcification is the deposition of calcium salts in tissue. The pathogenesis is based on either dystrophic or metastatic mechanisms. Dystrophic calcification, which comprises the majority of soft tissue calcifications in the head and neck region, is the result of soft tissue damage with tissue degeneration and necrosis which attracts the precipitation of calcium salts. The blood calcium concentration in these patients is normal. Appropriate examples are calcification of a focus of necrosis of tuberculosis, necrotic tumour tissue or of atheromatous plaque.. Metastatic calcification on the other hand results from the deposition of calcium salts in normal tissue in the ...
Looking for online definition of apocrine cystic calcinosis in the Medical Dictionary? apocrine cystic calcinosis explanation free. What is apocrine cystic calcinosis? Meaning of apocrine cystic calcinosis medical term. What does apocrine cystic calcinosis mean?
Full Text - Vascular calcification is commonly seen in elderly people, though it can also appear in middle-aged subjects affected by premature vascular aging. The aim of this work is to test the involvement of microvesicles (MVs) produced by senescent endothelial cells (EC) and from plasma of elderly people in vascular calcification. The present work shows that MVs produced by senescent cultured ECs, plus those found in the plasma of elderly subjects, promote calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells. Only MVs from senescent ECs, and from elderly subjects plasma, induced calcification. This ability correlated with these types of MVs carriage of: a) increased quantities of annexins (which might act as nucleation sites for calcification), b) increased quantities of ...
Background and Aim: Arterial calcification is often detected on ultrasound examination but its diagnostic accuracy is not well validated. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of carotid ultrasound B mode findings in detecting atherosclerotic calcification quantified by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: We analyzed 94 carotid arteries, from 88 patients (mean age 70 ± 7 years, 33% females), who underwent pre-endarterectomy ultrasound examination. Plaques with high echogenic nodules and posterior shadowing were considered calcified. After surgery, the excised plaques were examined using CBCT, from which the calcification volume (mm3) was calculated. In cases with multiple calcifications the largest calcification nodule volume was used to represent the plaque. Carotid artery ...
Basal Ganglia Calcification - BASAL GANGLIA CALCIFICATION Differential Diagnosis Birth anoxia Idiopathic (most common) bilateral and symmetrical Toxoplasmosis / CMV - usually not limited to basal ganglia Hypoparathyroidism / pseudohypoparathyroidism Fahr syndrome Cockayne syndrome - 1218430580 - Sumer Sethi - Basal ganglion part - Fahrs syndrome
OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation of plasma fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and serum fetuin A levels with the coronary artery calcification score (CACS) in patients with normal kidney function. BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification is an active process that may be aggravated by hyperphosphataemia and hypercalcaemia. FGF-23 and human fetuin-A have been associated with calcifying arteriosclerosis in renal failure. Plasma FGF-23 was identified as an independent factor negatively associated with peripheral vascular calcification. Fetuin-A acts as a systemic inhibitor of ectopic calcification in dialysis patients and can be correlated to the survival of these patients. Very few data exists on the role of FGF-23 and fetuin-A in coronary calcification of patients without impaired kidney function. MATERIALS AND ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation between calcific aortic stenosis diagnosed by two‐dimensional echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. AU - Nair, C. K.. AU - Aronow, W. S.. AU - Sketch, M. H.. AU - Mohiuddin, S. M.. AU - Stokke, K.. AU - Ryschon, K.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - This retrospective study correlates the severity of calcific aortic stenosis determined by two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography with the aortic valve area determined by catheterization in 57 patients. Aortic valve leaflet calcification was diagnosed by cineangiography in 50 (88%) of 57 patients and by 2-D echo in 57 (100%) of 57 patients (p. AB - This retrospective study correlates the severity of calcific aortic stenosis determined by two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography with the aortic valve area determined by catheterization in 57 patients. Aortic valve leaflet calcification was diagnosed by cineangiography in 50 (88%) of 57 patients and by 2-D echo in ...
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC)/hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder of ectopic calcification due to deficiency of or resistance to intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23). Inactivating mutations in FGF23, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3), or KLOTHO (KL) have been reported as causing HFTC/HHS. We present what we believe is the first identified case of autoimmune hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis in an 8-year-old boy. In addition to the classical clinical and biochemical features of hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis, the patient exhibited markedly elevated intact and C-terminal FGF23 levels, suggestive of FGF23 resistance. However, no mutations in FGF23, KL, or FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) were identified. He subsequently developed type 1 diabetes mellitus, which raised the possibility of an autoimmune cause for hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems revealed ...
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC)/hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder of ectopic calcification due to deficiency of or resistance to intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23). Inactivating mutations in FGF23, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3), or KLOTHO (KL) have been reported as causing HFTC/HHS. We present what we believe is the first identified case of autoimmune hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis in an 8-year-old boy. In addition to the classical clinical and biochemical features of hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis, the patient exhibited markedly elevated intact and C-terminal FGF23 levels, suggestive of FGF23 resistance. However, no mutations in FGF23, KL, or FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) were identified. He subsequently developed type 1 diabetes mellitus, which raised the possibility of an autoimmune cause for hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems revealed ...
A method and system for detecting and displaying clustered microcalcifications in a digital mammogram, wherein a single digital mammogram is first automatically cropped to a breast area sub-image which is then processed by means of an optimized Difference of Gaussians filter to enhance the appearance of potential microcalcifications in the sub-image. The potential microcalcifications are thresholded clusters are detected, features are computed for the detected clusters, and the clusters are classified as either suspicious or not suspicious by means of a neural network. Thresholding is preferably by sloping local thresholding but may also be performed by global and dual-local thresholding. The locations in the original digital mammogram of the suspicious detected clustered microcalcifications are indicated. Parameters for use in the detection and thresholding portions of the ...
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a chronic pathological process involving inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Pharmacological intervention for prevention of CAVD progression remains unavailable. Calcified aortic valves display higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and oxLDL has the potential to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Interleukin (IL)-37 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and has been shown to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses. We tested the hypotheses that oxLDL induces the osteogenic responses in human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) via TLRs and that IL-37 suppresses the responses and may have therapeutic potential for suppression of CAVD progression.. Methods and Results: Human AVICs from normal valves were treated with oxLDL (20-80 μg/ml) for 72 hours in vitro. OxLDL up-regulated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in a dose-dependent fashion. Further, ...
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease and vascular calcifications contribute significantly to the outcome of dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of severity of abdominal aortic calcifications and peripheral arterial disease on outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using methods easily available in everyday clinical practice.. METHODS: We enrolled 249 PD patients (mean age 61 years, 67% male) in this prospective, observational, multicenter study from 2009 to 2013. The abdominal aortic calcification score (AACS) was assessed using lateral lumbar X ray, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) using a Doppler device.. RESULTS: The median AACS was 11 (range 0 - 24). In 58% of the patients, all 4 segments of the abdominal aorta showed deposits, while 19% of patients had no visible deposits (AACS 0). Ankle-brachial index ...
Vascular calcification is prevalent in diabetes mellitus and is correlated with adverse cardiovascular outcome32,33; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying increased vascular calcification in diabetes mellitus are largely unknown. Elevation of O-GlcNAcylation is found in human diabetic carotid plaques20 and diabetic mouse vasculature.34 Coincidently, increased vascular calcification has been identified in patients with both type I and type II diabetes mellitus35 and diabetic mouse models.6 Nevertheless, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in vascular calcification has not been previously determined. The present study has demonstrated a causative effect of O-GlcNAcylation on diabetic vascular calcification. Our studies revealed that the ...
Vascular calcification, which involves the osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with atherosclerosis, diabetes and end-stage kidney disease. We have shown that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates attenuate vascular calcification by inhibiting farnesylpyrophosphate synthase, thereby depleting cells of farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate which are essential for the prenylation and activation of small GTPases. This study aims to determine whether vascular calcification is regulated by protein prenylation. We demonstrate that a farnesyl transferase inhibitor, FTI-277, significantly inhibits β-glycerophosphate-induced calcification of VSMC in a dose-dependent manner (p,0.001). Pre-incubation of VSMCs with ...
Background: Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Fibrous cap microcalcifications can promote atherosclerotic plaque failure, and large calcifications can stabilize the plaque. Therefore, calcification morphology can determine cardiovascular morbidity, but temporal patterns of calcific mineral deposition and growth remain unknown.. Results: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice on an atherogenic diet develop plaque calcification. Longitudinal studies were performed using two different fluorescent calcium tracers injected intravenously into Apoe-/- mice: calcein injection following 18 weeks of atherogenic diet (n=7) and alizarin red S injection into the same mice 1 (n=4) or 3 (n=3) weeks later. Imaging green (calcein) and red (alizarin red S) fluorescence ...
Two brothers aged 10 years and 18 years presented with multiple soft tissue calcareous swellings around the elbows, arms, knees, and forearms, which had been present for the last three years. Both were in good general health and there was no history of trauma. On examination, the younger boy had a calcified soft tissue swelling around the left knee joint with a sinus around the medial side of the knee. There was occasional discharge of white chalky material from the sinus. Movements at the knee were full and there was no neurovascular problem. The other brother had calcareous, firm, soft tissue swellings over the right lower thigh, left and right arms, and around both the elbow joints. Movements at the elbow and knee joints were normal and he had no discharging sinus. Their serum calcium, serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium were within normal limits. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the leukocyte count were normal. A test for lupus erythematosus was negative and ...
Objectives: The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a well known participant in inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix remodeling. Given the role of HA in the delivery of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2, HA may link remodeling, inflammation, and ossification in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). Excess BMP-2 is also linked with production of brown fat cells that stimulate hypoxic conditions in heterotopic ossification. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which these inflammatory, HA-driven, and hypoxic mechanisms were present in CAVD.. Methods: Calcified human aortic valves (n=14, mean age 65±15) were immunohistochemically stained for proteins involved in matrix remodeling, hypoxia, and cell differentiation. Staining intensity was evaluated within and surrounding mature calcified nodules, immature pre-nodules, and non-calcified regions of the leaflet. Inflammatory cell infiltration was assessed by the percentage of CD32, CD44, and CD45RO positive ...
We report a 14-year-old girl with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) complicated by severe inflammatory calcinosis successfully treated with thalidomide. She was diagnosed as JDM when she was 4 years old after a few months of increasing lethargy, muscle pain, muscle weakness, and rash. During three months, clinical manifestations and abnormal laboratory findings were effectively treated with oral prednisolone. However, calcinosis was recognized 18 months after disease onset. Generalized calcinosis rapidly progressed with high fever, multiple skin/subcutaneous inflammatory lesions, and increased level of CRP. Fifty mg/day (1.3 mg/kg day) of oral thalidomide was given for the first four weeks, and then the dose was increased to 75 mg/day. Clinical manifestations subsided, and inflammatory markers had clearly improved. Frequent high fever and local severe pain with calcinosis were suppressed. The levels of FDP-E, IgG, and tryglyceride, which were all elevated before the thalidomide treatment, were gradually
Calcinosis, a serious complication of dermatomyositis, involves deposition of calcium (carbonate apatite) in soft tissue, and can result in negative impacts on quality of life and physical function. To date, there are no known effective therapies that are approved for the treatment of dermatomyositis-associated calcinosis, and there is no consensus within the medical community on the optimum treatment strategy for this often-debilitating condition.. A few reports in the literature describe treatment successes with a variety of therapeutics; however, these data are from anecdotal reports or case series and thus provide limited scientific evidence of effectiveness. Recently published reports as well as personal observations within our group have suggested that intravenous sodium thiosulfate treatment may benefit calcinosis patients. In order to gather more robust data on the utility of this medication in the treatment of calcinosis associated with adult and juvenile dermatomyositis, we propose to ...
Association of epicardial fat, hypertension, subclinical coronary artery disease, and metabolic syndrome with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction
What follows is a listing of factors that are active at different points of the proposed mechanisms of calcification. At present it is impossible to outline the most important ones.. Periostin is found in VICs from healthy bovine aortic valves, but expression increases following exposure to LPS. Periostin is chiefly expressed in VICs of the lamina ventricularis, less in the fibrosa, and is coexpressed with elastin.57 Periostin is secreted by macrophages and myofibroblasts, and it stimulates expression of MMP‐2 and ‐9 in human VICs. Wild‐type mice fed with the Western diet develop aortic stenosis, but periostin‐knockout mice do not. In addition, they express lower levels of αSMA, collagen 1, and MMP‐2 and ‐13.57 Periostin may thus play a stimulatory role in the development of valve calcification.. Jian and colleagues showed that whereas healthy aortic valves did not express MMP‐2 or ALP, diseased valves expressed both, as well as tenascin‐C, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol associates with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes beyond circulating levels of triglycerides. AU - Prenner, Stuart B.. AU - Mulvey, Claire K.. AU - Ferguson, Jane F.. AU - Rickels, Michael R.. AU - Bhatt, Anish B.. AU - Reilly, Muredach P.. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Objective: While recent genomic studies have focused attention on triglyceride (TG) rich lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) relationship with atherosclerosis and CVD. We examined, in a high-risk type-2 diabetic population, the association of plasma VLDL-C with coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods: The Penn Diabetes Heart Study (PDHS) is a cross-sectional study of CVD risk factors in type-2 diabetics (n = 2118, mean age 59.1 years, 36.5% female, 34.1% Black). Plasma lipids including VLDL-C were ...
Intracranial calcification may occur physiologically or pathologically and may be observed in asymptomatic individuals. Clinical assessment and laboratory investigations are required to determine whether these changes are physiological, idiopathic, neoplastic, inflammatory, traumatic, caused by metabolic disease, or manifestations of a generalised disease, such as hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D toxicity, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications, COL4A1-related disease, Degos disease, Krabbe disease, Alexander disease, mitochondrial disease, tetrasomy 15, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome or chronic renal failure [1-3].. Certain intracranial tumours, especially oligodendrogliomas and craniopharyngiomas, tend to undergo calcification. Tumour calcifications were observed in approximately 83% of craniopharyngiomas [4] and ...
Mönckebergs arteriosclerosis, or Mönckebergs sclerosis, also called medial calcific sclerosis or Mönckeberg medial sclerosis, is a form of arteriosclerosis or vessel hardening, where calcium deposits are found in the muscular middle layer of the walls of arteries (the tunica media). It is an example of dystrophic calcification. This condition occurs as an age-related degenerative process. However, it can occur in pseudoxanthoma elasticum and idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy as a pathological condition, as well. Its clinical significance and cause are not well understood and its relationship to atherosclerosis and other forms of vascular calcification are the subject of disagreement. Mönckebergs arteriosclerosis is named after Johann Georg Mönckeberg, who first described it in 1903. Typically, Mönckebergs arteriosclerosis is not associated with ...
Vascular calcification is the accumulation of calcium phosphate salts in the medial and intimal layers of the vessel wall and is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis.1 The earliest phase of mineralization is thought to occur via a process similar to that observed during bone formation, where chondrocytes and osteoblasts, in response to physiological signals, secrete small, specialized membrane-bound bodies termed matrix vesicles (MVs) which act to nucleate calcium phosphate (Ca/P) crystals in the form of hydroxyapatite.2-4. Editorial, see p 1281. In the vessel wall, in response to pathological signals such as inflammatory cytokines or a mineral imbalance, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo osteo/chondrogenic conversion. This is characterized by expression of bone-related proteins and the release of MVs; however, the origin and mechanisms leading to release of these ...
Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP) is an uncommon disease in which soft tissue calcifications may be seen. We report a case with IHP with asymptomatic hypocalcemia and features of ankylosing spondylitis (AS).. Case: A 58-year-old male patient was referred to our department due to incidentally discovered hypocalcemia when admitted with blurred speech, gait and posture abnormalities. He had had a generalized convulsion 19 years ago. On physical examination, patient s posture was typical for AS. Cervical and lumbal vertebral motion and chest expansion were limited. Trousseau s and Chvostek s signs were both negative. Laboratory findings were as follows: calcium: 5.4 mg/dl (8.4 10.2), inorganic phosphorus: 6 mg/dl (2.3 4.7), albumin: 4.2 g/dl (3.5 5), PTH: ,3 pg/ml (15 65). Lumbosacral radiographs revealed bamboo spine appearance of thoracal and lumbal vertebrae with calcification of anterior posterior longitudinal and ...
Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon clinicopathological condition which is characterized by the formation of calcium salt deposition in intra-articular or peri-articular soft tissues. It usually presents as a focal growth of hard tissue, either solitary or multiple, beneath the skin and connective tissue. Diagnostic techniques mainly include clinical and radiographic evaluation. The most commonly involved locations include the hip, elbow, shoulder and knee. Involvement of the head and neck regions are far less common. There have been 5 case reports of temporomandibular joint involvement in the literature so far. We present a case report which describes the diagnosis and management of a 59 year old female patient with chronic right temporomandibular joint pain and localized bony hard swelling over the right pre-auricular region. Patient retained normal range of motion and mouth opening. Computed tomography taken showed a radio-opaque juxta-articular ovoid mass over the right pre-auricular region in close
TY - JOUR. T1 - Significance of a positive family history for coronary heart disease in patients with a zero coronary artery calcium score (from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis). AU - Cohen, Randy. AU - Budoff, Matthew. AU - McClelland, Robyn L.. AU - Sillau, Stefan. AU - Burke, Gregory. AU - Blaha, Michael. AU - Szklo, Moyses. AU - Uretsky, Seth. AU - Rozanski, Alan. AU - Shea, Steven. PY - 2014/10/15. Y1 - 2014/10/15. N2 - Although a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score of 0 is associated with a very low 10-year risk for cardiac events, this risk is nonzero. Subjects with a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with more subclinical atherosclerosis than subjects without a family history of CHD. The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of a family history for CHD in subjects with a CAC score of 0. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort includes 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. ...
Synonyms: FIBGC (formerly), Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 1, Fahrs Syndrome (formerly), Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis, BSPDC, Cerebral calcification nonarteriosclerotic idiopathic adult-onset, Striopallidodentate calcinosis autosomal dominant adult-onset, Ferrocalcinosis, cerebrovascular, Fahr disease, familial (formerly), Primary familial brain calcification, Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (formerly ...
In our population of patients with recent neurologic symptoms and in which carotid endarterectomy was considered, we found no correlation between carotid calcium volume and the degree of stenosis at the ICA for the symptomatic side and only a weak relationship for the asymptomatic side. Also the diagnostic accuracy of calcium volume−based evaluation of significant stenosis was significantly lower than that reported previously. We were, therefore, not able to reproduce previously reported correlations.8 We conclude that the calcium volume measurement cannot be used to estimate the degree of stenosis in patients with recent neurologic symptoms and in whom carotid endarterectomy is considered. The calcium volume measurement seemed an attractive alternative to stenosis measurements because its visualization can be established with CT scanning without contrast material administration. Moreover, CT scanning for calcium measurements can be performed with less radiation burden than high-resolution ...
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation, occurring in 0.5-1.2% of the US population. In young adults, it is generally a benign abnormality; but in older adults it is associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection in 20-30% of those with BAV. BAV is strongly associated with early development of aortic valve calcification or incompetence in ,50% of BAV patients, and accounts for ~40% of the ,30,000 aortic valve replacements (AVR) performed in the US each year. Yet, we know little of the etiology, cellular events and modifiers of progression of BAV to calcific aortic valve disease and we still do not understand the genetic cause(s) of BAV despite evidence for its high heritability.. The Specific Aims of this study are:. ...
Epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown both parallel and reciprocal changes in arterial versus skeletal mineralization. Whereas inflammatory lipids and cytokines appear to promote vascular calcification but inhibit bone mineralization,57,123 some osteoanabolic agents, such as PTH and BMP-7, promote mineralization in the skeleton but suppress it in arteries.63,103,124. The clinical association of aortic calcification with osteoporosis, often age independent, suggests a link between vascular and bone metabolism.125-127 Three causality vectors may apply: (1) vascular calcification promoting bone loss, (2) bone loss promoting vascular calcification, or (3) a common etiology. The first possibility is largely unexplored, although bone loss may be promoted by stenoses of bone supply ...
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the third most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease in the western world, after hypertension and coronary artery disease. It mainly affects people over the age of 60 years. AS is caused by calcification and hardening of the aortic valve which impedes blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body leading to chest pain, loss of consciousness and shortness of breath. In severe cases, patients need aortic valve replacement surgery. Currently, there are no medical treatments to prevent this disease or reduce the need for valve replacement.. According to the studys lead investigators - from the RI-MUHC, Johns Hopkins University, Harvard University, Washington University, the University of Iceland and the US National Institutes of Health - the findings not only explain why heart valve calcification may run in families, but could also lead to the development of targeted medications that might slow the ...
Looking for online definition of arterial calcification, generalised, of infancy type 2 in the Medical Dictionary? arterial calcification, generalised, of infancy type 2 explanation free. What is arterial calcification, generalised, of infancy type 2? Meaning of arterial calcification, generalised, of infancy type 2 medical term. What does arterial calcification, generalised, of infancy type 2 mean?
Background. Hyperphosphataemia is a risk factor for arterial calcification contributing to the high cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Calcium-based phosphate binders can induce hypercalcaemia and are associated with progression of vascular calcification. Therefore, the effect of lanthanum carbonate, a non-calcium phosphate binder, on the development of vascular calcification was investigated in uraemic rats. Methods. Chronic renal failure (CRF) was induced by feeding rats an adenine-enriched diet for 4 weeks. After 2 weeks, 1% or 2% lanthanum carbonate was added to the diet for 6 weeks. Calcification in the aorta, carotid and femoral arteries was evaluated histomorphometrically, biochemically and by ex vivo micro-CT. Chondro-/osteogenic conversion of vascular ...
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) affects a large number of elder people (65 or older) and is one of the leading cardiovascular diseases in older adults in industrial countries.1, 2 This disease is an active pathobiological process involving fibrosis and calcification of aortic valve leaflets.3 Severe CAVD causes morbidity and results in the second most common cardiovascular surgery performed.4 The growing prevalence of this disease, associated with prolongation of the human life span, and the unavailability of pharmacological intervention for limitation of disease progression emphasize the importance of investigations of pathobiological mechanisms. In particular, it is critical to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which aortic valve leaflets become fibrotic and calcified.. Aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) play an important role in maintaining valvular structure and function. In normal human aortic valves, AVICs ...
Coronary Artery Calcium Imaging and Scoring (CAC Score). Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring is an easy, convenient, painless, non-invasive imaging technique to detect and evaluate the amount of calcium deposition in the coronary arteries (i.e. blood vessels supplying the heart muscle). It gives an idea of whether early cholesterol plaque have begun to infiltrate the coronary arteries despite the lack of any symptoms and will likely to progress in the years to come.. The degree of calcium deposition corresponds to the severity of the atheromatous plaque and the likelihood of a heart attack (see table 1). The higher the calcium score, the greater the risk and is used by cardiologists as one of the tools to assess and correlate with the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Although not directly correlated - the higher the calcium score (termed the calcium burden), the greater the chance of more severe narrowing of the coronary arteries. Conversely a low calcium score although suggests a ...
Hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal recessive, 1 (ARHR1; MIM 241520) is caused by mutations in the dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 gene (DMP1) and hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal recessive, 2 (ARHR2; MIM 613312) is caused by mutations in the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase / phosphodiesterase 1 gene (ENPP1). DMP1 is a highly acidic, serine rich protein critical for osteocyte maturation. Several loss of function mutations have been described in DMP1. ENPP1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein regulating soft tissue calcification and bone and joint cartilage mineralization via generation of pyrophosphate (PPi). PPi is a physiological inhibitor of hydroxyapatite crystal formation and a suppressor of chondrogenesis. Loss of function mutations have also been described in ENPP1. Mutations in ENPP1 also cause generalized arterial calcification of infancy 1 (GACI1; MIM 208000). In at least one instance, the identical homozygous ...
Our data demonstrate that in PD patients, a lower serum Mg is independently associated with an increased AAC score. We found that a 0.1 mmol/L increase in serum Mg is associated with a 1.1-point decrease in AAC score. This suggests that Mg may act as a possible inhibitor of vascular calcification.. Our study results are consistent with previously published observational and pilot studies in the dialysis and chronic kidney disease populations [9, 13-19]. A recent cohort study with a maximum follow up of 10.8 years found that a lower serum Mg was associated with increased mortality in PD patients [23]. Several other studies have demonstrated an association between lower serum Mg and mortality among dialysis patients [21, 22, 24-27] This association could potentially be attributable to low serum Mg causing accelerated vascular calcification. Increasing data from in-vitro and animal studies support the assertion ...
2017, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature. Purpose: Vascular calcification is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and predicts poor patient outcomes. While computed tomography is the gold standard for evaluation of vascular calcification, plain radiograph offers a simpler and less costly alternative. The calcification of abdominal aorta, iliac and femoral arteries has been evaluated by plain radiograph, but the data on their outcome predictabilities are still limited. The present study investigated the role of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and pelvic arterial calcification (PAC) in predicting overall morality in non-dialysis CKD stages 2-5 (CKD 2-5), maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and long-term kidney transplant (KT) patients. Methods: Four hundred and ...
0089]1. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. February;39(2 Suppl 1):S1-266. [0090]2. www.usrds.org [0091]3. Goodman W G, Goldin J, Kuizon B D et al. Coronary artery calcification in young adults with end stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis. N Eng J Med 2000; 342: 1478-1483. [0092]4. Raggi P, Boulgy A, Chason-Tober S, Amin N, Dillon M, Burke S K, Chertow G M. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2002; 39:695-701 [0093]5. Vliegenthart R, Hollander M, Breteler M M B, van der Kuip D A M, Hofman A, Oudkerk M, Witteman J C M. Stroke is associated with Coronary Artery Calcification detected by Electron beam CT. The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study. Stroke. 2002;33:462. [0094]6. Vlierenthart R, Oudkerk M, Song B, van der Kuip D A M, Hofman A, Witteman J C M. Coronary Calcification detected by ...
Generally, gastric mucosal calcinosis (GMC) is only rarely encountered in routine biopsies. They have been associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. The underlying mechanism by which a given cell or group of cells accumulate calcium is unclear. It has been suggested that calcium enters the cell by passive diffusion attributable to the concentration gradient across the gastric cell membrane, and that accumulation occurs when the ability to extrude these salts is exceeded. Gastric mucosal calcinosis (GMC) may be secondary to hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, atrophic gastritis, hypervitaminosis A, chronic kidney disease, tumor lysis syndrome, organ transplantation, gastric neoplasia, or may be associated with use of citrate-containing blood products, aluminum-containing antacids, sucralfate or bismuth [1-6]. GMC may rarely cause symptoms such as epigastric pain or dyspepsia [7,8]. The clinical relevance of GMC remains to be seen. In theory, however, accelerated bone demineralization ...
Calcification of glutaraldehyde-preserved bioprosthetic cardiac valves represents a serious clinical problem. Previous work from this laboratory has established the presence in clinical bioprosthetic valve calcifications of vitamin K-dependent calciu
INTRODUCTION. Over the past few years, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been demonstrated as a feasible alternative to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), allowing noninvasive evaluation of the coronary arteries.1-4 However, contradictory results have been reported regarding the effect of coronary artery calcium score (CS) on the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT.5,6 With the first generations of MDCT scanners, severe coronary calcifications were recognized as an important factor hampering precise evaluation of coronary artery stenosis, thereby limiting diagnostic accuracy. Calcified plaques produce artifacts (blooming) which may affect the evaluation of luminal obstruction.7 At the same time, more extensive coronary calcification increases the likelihood that the patient has obstructive coronary artery disease,8,9 and ICA is usually required for definitive diagnosis and treatment. Advances in temporal and spatial resolution, ...
Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification (IIAC) also known as Arterial Calcification of Infancy, Generalised Infantile Arterial Calcification (GACI), Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy (IACI), Occlusive Infantile Arterial Calcification, Occlusive Infantile Arteriopathy is an extremely rare, usually fatal genetic disorder, caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene in 75% of the subjects. The condition affects infants during the first 6 months of life. This condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive pattern. It is characterized by generalised calcification of the arterial internal elastic lamina, leading to rupture of the lamina and occlusive changes in the ...
In a study to ascertain whether breast arterial calcification (BAC) detected with digital mammography correlates to chest CT findings of coronary artery calcification (CAC), researchers have discovered a striking relationship between the two factors. In 76 percent of the study cohort, women who had a BAC score of 0 also had a CAC score of 0. As the BAC score increases, there is a concomitant increase in the CAC score.
Korean researchers have recently shown that drinking coffee is linked to lower arterial calcification (calcium deposits in vascular walls). Arterial calcification predicts increased cardiovascular risk, independent of the usual cardiovascular risk factors, and so its very important to prevent it.. The link between coffee consumption and prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) was examined in 25 138 men and women (mean age 41.3 years). The subjects had no clinically evident cardiovascular disease, and CAC scores were determined by computed tomography. CT scans showed that 13.4% of subjects had detectable coronary artery calcium. The mean coffee consumption was 1.8 cups per day.. The study showed that coffee drinkers had lower coronary artery calcium scores, as compared to noncoffee drinkers. Those that drank 3 or 4 cups per day had the ...
Nighttime blood pressure (BP) dipping can be quantified as the ratio of mean nighttime (sleep) BP to mean daytime (awake) BP. People whose dipping ratio is ≥0.90 have been referred to as nondippers, and nondipping is associated with cardiovascular disease events. We examined the relationship between systolic nighttime BP dipping in young adults and the presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) 10 to 15 years later using data from the ambulatory BP monitoring substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Among 239 participants with adequate measures of both nighttime and daytime readings and coronary artery calcium, the systolic BP dipping ratio ranged from 0.72 to 1.24 (mean, 0.88; SD, 0.06), and CAC was present 10 to 15 years later in 54 participants (22.6%). Compared with those whose systolic BP dipping ratio ranged from 0.88 to 0.92 (quartile 3), the 57 participants (23.9%) with less pronounced or absent dipping (ratio, 0.92-1.24; quartile 4) had an unadjusted ...
We studied a 70-year-old woman with a unique combination of hyperkinesia and mutism. These findings differed from akinetic mutism because there was continuous bilateral ballism and dystonia--hence the term hyperkinetic mutism. CT demonstrated bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia, and MRI indicated bilateral watershed infarcts. Different dopaminergic mechanisms may underlie the hyperkinesia and mutism.
Atherosclerosis and vascular calcification are usually regarded as circulatory phenotypes associated with advanced modern lifestyles. However, although rare, such conditions have been identified in human remains from some early societies. Examples occur in an elite Chinese burial (c. 700 BCE), and among Canadian Eskimos (c. 400 CE to c. 1520 CE) whose diet was almost entirely meat. They have also been reported since the early 20th century in the mummified remains of the rulers and elite of ancient Egypt. Marc Ruffer described arterial lesions in hundreds of Egyptian mummies in 1911 and Graham Shattock noted atheromatous deposits in the aorta of King Menephtah in 1909; these findings were later confirmed by John Harris and Edward Wentes radiological survey in 1980, which additionally reported vascular calcification in the mummies of Ramesses II, Ramesses III, Sethos I, Ramesses V, and ...
Results Six samples were collected (1 normal and 5 calcified). On HE staining, three different histological patterns were observed. Little calcifications disseminated between tendinous fibers (N=2), voluminous ones encapsulated by a fibrous tissue (N=2) and in one sample an intra-tendinous osseous metaplasia. In the fibrous peripheral area of larger calcifications, we observed cells with round nuclei, different from tenocytes. These cells expressed Runx2 and Sox9 suggesting a chondrocyte phenotype. On SO/FG staining, this peripheral area presented a red coloration (proteoglycan specific) as the fibrocartilage at the tendon attachment. However, collagen II clearly present in the fibrocartilage was not present in these areas. As pathological calcification in cartilage can be associated with chondrocytes apoptosis, we sought for anti-Caspase III expression in the cells of the peripheral area. None of the ...
Objectives. This study was undertaken to elucidate the prevalence of aortic valve abnormalities in the elderly.. Background. The age of persons treated actively for valve disorders is increasing. More information is needed about the prevalence of aortic valve disease in old age.. Methods. Randomly selected men and women in the age groups 75 to 76, 80 to 81 and 85 to 86 years (n = 501) participating in the Helsinki Ageing Study were studied with imaging and Doppler echocardiography. Additionally, 76 persons 55 to 71 year of age were included. The systolic aortic valve area was calculated by the continuity equation. The velocity ratio (peak velocity in the left ventricular outflow tract/peak velocity across the aortic valve) was a supplementary criterion for aortic stenosis. Valve regurgitation and cusp calcification were assessed visually.. Results. Evaluation of the aortic valve was possible in 552 persons (96%). Mild calcification was found ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Balloon valvuloplasty.. AU - Bourdillon, P.. AU - Dillon, J.. AU - Brown, S.. AU - Feigenbaum, H.. PY - 1990/10/1. Y1 - 1990/10/1. N2 - Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty has been used for several years for the treatment of stenosis of all four cardiac valves. It has been particularly effective in pulmonary stenosis in children and in rheumatic mitral stenosis, especially in the younger age groups without severe calcification. After initial enthusiasm, results have not been as good in severe calcific aortic stenosis, although there is a place for aortic valvuloplasty in patients who are truly inoperable for reasons of age or coexisting disease. The procedure also may be applicable to occasional cases of tricuspid stenosis. The techniques used and results obtained with these procedures at Indiana University are described.. AB - Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty has been used for several years for the treatment of stenosis of all four cardiac valves. It has ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Severe aortic stenosis in patients 60 years of age or older. T2 - left ventricular function and 10-year survival after valve replacement.. AU - Murphy, Edward. AU - Lawson, R. M.. AU - Starr, Albert. AU - Rahimtoola, S. H.. PY - 1981/8. Y1 - 1981/8. N2 - From 1962-1977, 99 patients, mean age 65 +/- 0.5 years (range 60-81 years) underwent valve replacement for severe calcific aortic valve stenosis. Ninety-three percent of the patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. The aortic valve gradient was 76 +/- 3 mm Hg and the aortic valve area index was 0.34 +/- 0.01 cm2/m2. Left ventricular systolic pressure was 207 +/- 4 mm Hg, cardiac index was 2.5 +/- 0.1 l/min/m2, left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.57 +/- 0.02 and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index was 108 +/- 60 ml/m2; left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume were normal in 63% of the patients. The operative mortality was 16%. Mean follow-up is 55 +/- 4 months. Using ...
In general, plaque composition consists of ≈10% CAC, 10% lipids, 70% fibrotic tissue, and 10% other substances.39 Therefore, progression in CAC may not accurately reflect progression in total plaque volume. Higher rates of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication were found in subjects with enhanced CAC progression.40,41 Therefore, we adjusted for these parameters to exclude any bias. In addition, the 5-year changes of the risk factor profile were not associated with coronary or cardiovascular events rates, contrary to CAC progression.. It cannot be excluded that a more detailed analysis of the calcification process would yield different results, as assumed previously.10,42 We used the well-established Agatston score, taking into account the area and density of the CAC plaques. Because a slice thickness of 3 mm was selected, the Agatston scoring scale was used, knowing that the calcium volume score is less dependent on changes in slice thickness of ...
A bioprosthetic heart valve comprising leaflets with free edges which do not impinge on adjacent leaflets when the leaflets are closed before being implanted and subject to body fluids and cardiac pressure cycles. Commissures supporting the leaflets have semi-permeable membranes which reduce the pressure load on the leaflets during implantation. In response to immersion in body fluids, the membranes become substantially impermeable. The leaflets can stretch in response to loads and hydration, so that the free edges mate shortly after implantation. First and second mechanisms for supporting leaflets to provide multiple effective spring constants. An inner frame supporting commissures of the valve is elastic, permitting the commissures to bend in toward the center of the prosthetic heart valve at very low loads. A relatively rigid annular support ring supports the elastic frame and provides the second spring constant mechanism. The leaflets have an uncoupled mating edge where the leaflet approach each
Bells palsy is an acute, unilateral, infranuclear facial palsy with no specific sex predilection. The disease has been reported in middle aged individuals residing at plains rather than at high altitude location. The disease is of unclear etiology and reactivation of the herpes simplex virus has been implicated by many researchers [1]. There is inflammation of the nerve leading to edema and focal ischemia of the facial nerve. The risk factors include obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and hypertension. The risk factors in our patient could be hypoxia induced neural edema coupled with vitamin D deficiency. Intracranial calcification also could have contributed for the same, but the neuroimaging did not reveal any evidence of calcification near the intracranial facial nerve.. Intracranial calcifications are seen in hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism (especially due to renal failure), ...
Above Image Courtesy of CONFIRM registry. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2014.(3). Here is a quote from Dr. Stephan Achenbach in 2010 "Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis by computed tomography.(4). "So far, the available clinical data are not sufficient to draw specific conclusions as to the risk-benefit ratio of contrast-enhanced coronary CTA (computed tomography) for risk prediction, especially for asymptomatic individuals. Hence, CTA is currently not recommended for risk stratification purposes.(4). Rather than used as a stand alone tool, CAT scan detection of non-calcified plaque is useful as an add on to the calcium score to improve discriminatory value.(3). Results Are Discordant: CAT scan calcium score is the best predictor on non-calcified plaque in patients with low calcium score.(28) Calcium score and total plaque measurements should be trending in the same direction. Therefore, the results of the Budoff study are discordant and suspect.. Fourth Problem with Budoff Study:. Another red ...
Understanding how rising seawater pCO2 and temperatures impact coral aragonite accretion is essential for predicting the future of reef ecosystems. Here we report 2 long term (10-11 month) studies assessing the effects of temperature (25 and 28°C) and both high and low seawater pCO2 (180-750 μatm) on the calcification, photosynthesis and respiration of individual massive Porites spp. genotypes. Calcification rates were highly variable between genotypes but high seawater pCO2 reduced calcification significantly in 4 of 7 genotypes cultured at 25°C but in only 1 of 4 genotypes cultured at 28°C. Increasing seawater temperature enhanced calcification in almost all corals but the magnitude of this effect was seawater pCO2 dependent. The 3°C temperature increase enhanced calcification rate on average by 3% at 180 μatm, by 35% at 260 μatm and by ...
Vascular calcification is one of the most important factors for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD). The current study was aimed to investigate the function and mechanisms of miR-34b on the calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that the expression of miR-34b was significantly suppressed in VSMCs with high inorganic phosphate (Pi) treatment, as well as mouse arteries derived from 5/6 nephrectomy with a high-phosphate diet (0.9% Pi, 5/6 NTP) and human renal arteries from uraemia patients. Overexpression of miR-34b alleviated calcification of VSMCs, while VSMCs calcification was enhanced by inhibiting the expression of miR-34b. Bisulphite sequencing PCR (BSP) uncovered that CpG sites upstream of miR-34b DNA were ...
Lawson, J S and Syme, H M and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Elliott, J (2019) Characterisation of Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells as mesenchymal in phenotype. RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, 127. pp. 99-102. Patel, J J and Bourne, L E and Millán, J L and Arnett, T R and MacRae, V E and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Orriss, I R (2019) Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by ATP-analogues. Purinergic Signalling, 15 (3). pp. 315-326. Patel, J J and Bourne, L E and Davies, B K and Arnett, T R and MacRae, V E and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Orriss, I R (2019) Differing calcification processes in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and osteoblasts. Experimental Cell Research, 380 (1). pp. 100-113. Lawson, J S and Liu, H-H and Syme, H M and Purcell, R and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Elliott, J (2018) The cat as a naturally occurring model of renal interstitial fibrosis: Characterisation of primary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intra-operative radiotherapy management for breast cancer treatment in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. T2 - A case report. AU - Salerno, Carmela. AU - Vento, Anna Rita. AU - Giacchino, Maria. AU - Lissidini, Germana. AU - Galimberti, Viviana. AU - Corso, Giovanni. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Pseudoxanthoma elasticum is a systemic metabolic disease presenting calcifications and progressive fragmentation of elastic fibers. Actually, no targeted therapies are available for the treatment; only prevention of complications is possible. Classically, pseudoxanthoma elasticum is a "benign" disease, without cancer association. Herein, we reported a singular association of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with breast carcinoma, describing the clinical management, in particular intra-operative treatment, focusing on intra-operative radiotherapy since no specific guidelines are available in literature.. AB - Pseudoxanthoma elasticum is a systemic metabolic disease ...
Calcific tendinitis is a common disorder of the rotator cuff. Conservative treatment is frequently successful. For the patients remaining symptomatic after conservative treatment, excision of the calc
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dilated left atrium and pulmonary veins in patients with calcified coronary artery. T2 - A potential contributor to the genesis of atrial fibrillation. AU - Pan, Nan Hung. AU - Tsao, Hsuan Ming. AU - Chang, Nen Chung. AU - Lee, Chih Ming. AU - Chen, Yi Jen. AU - Chen, Shih Ann. PY - 2009/2. Y1 - 2009/2. N2 - Ischemic Remodeling of Left Atrium and Pulmonary Vein. Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important etiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). Coronary artery calcification is a marker of coronary atherosclerosis and coronary events. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether larger left atrium (LA) and pulmonary veins (PVs) were seen by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans in those patients with higher coronary calcium scores. Methods and Results: A total of 166 patients undergoing MDCT for general check-up (n = 128, 77%) or suspected CAD (n = 38, 23%) were enrolled and divided into a control (calcium score = 0, n = 60), ...
Calcium deposits were seen in the pericardium in 36 of the 135 patients. The patients with calcium deposits more often had an unknown cause of constrictive pericarditis than those without the deposits. Patients with calcium deposits were also more likely to have been sick a long time, to have other signs of pericarditis on physical examination, and to die during surgery performed to remove the diseased pericardium. However, in patients who survived surgery, those with calcium deposits lived as long as those without them over the long term ...
Several denialists have sort to deliberately confuse the readership over the important evidence gathered by Death et al. (2009) on slowing coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Given the recent resurgence in this misinformation, I thought it would be a good idea to post Dr Glenn Death, Dr Janice M. Lough and Dr Katharina E. Fabriciuss recent reply to Dr Peter Ridds confused and misleading claims. The maintenance of coral calcification rates is critical for the future of coral reefs and it is, therefore, important to identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in the rates of coral calcification. Our recent report showed that substantial declines in coral calcification have occurred on the Great Barrier Reef in the last 20 years (Death et al., 2009), and similar reports are now emerging from other parts of the world (Tanzil et al., 2009). Ridd et al. here suggest ...
Several denialists have sort to deliberately confuse the readership over the important evidence gathered by Death et al. (2009) on slowing coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Given the recent resurgence in this misinformation, I thought it would be a good idea to post Dr Glenn Death, Dr Janice M. Lough and Dr Katharina E. Fabriciuss recent reply to Dr Peter Ridds confused and misleading claims. The maintenance of coral calcification rates is critical for the future of coral reefs and it is, therefore, important to identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in the rates of coral calcification. Our recent report showed that substantial declines in coral calcification have occurred on the Great Barrier Reef in the last 20 years (Death et al., 2009), and similar reports are now emerging from other parts of the world (Tanzil et al., 2009). Ridd et al. here suggest ...
The incidence of coronary artery disease requiring coronary intervention in patients with Kawasaki disease is high. Because coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease commonly involve severe calcification and aneurysmal changes which can progress with time, in contrast with adult atherosclerotic coronary artery lesions, the indication or technique of catheter intervention for adult patients cannot be directly applied. However, the experience of coronary intervention in Kawasaki disease is extremely limited compared to that with intervention in adults, which provides satisfactory therapeutic results. There are several kinds of percutaneous coronary intervention techniques in Kawasaki disease including balloon angioplasty, stent implantation, rotational ablation, and directional coronary atherectomy. Satisfactory acute results for coronary balloon angioplasty can be obtained in patients in a relatively short interval from the onset of disease, especially within 6 years. ...
Here is a quote from Chapter 37 Postterm Pregnancy from Williams Obstetrics: PLACENTAL DYSFUNCTION Clifford (1954) proposed that the skin changes of postmaturity were due to loss of the protective effects of vernix caseosa. He also attributed the postmaturity syndrome to placental senescence, although he did not find placental degeneration histologically. Still, the concept that postmaturity is due to placental insufficiency has persisted despite an absence of morphological or signficant quantitative findings (Larson and co-workers, 1995; Rushton, 1991). In Chapter 27 of Williams Obstetrics (page 621) Degenerative Placental Lesions Extensive calcification is found in 10 to 15 percent of all placentas at term. This can be seen with sonography, and Spirt and colleagues (1982) reported that by 33 weeks more than half of placentas have some degree of calcification. It is difficult to correlate the degree of calcium deposition with pregnancy ...
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). There is increasing recognition that lesion composition rather than size determines the acute complications of atherosclerotic disease. Low serum adiponectin levels were reported to be associated with coronary artery disease and future incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The impact of adiponectin on lesion composition still remains to be determined. We measured serum adiponectin levels in 303 patients with stable typical or atypical chest pain, who underwent dual-source multi-slice CT-angiography to exclude coronary artery stenosis. Atherosclerotic plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or non-calcified. In bivariate analysis adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with total coronary plaque burden (r = -0.21, p = 0.0004), mixed (r = -0.20, p = 0.0007) and non-calcified plaques (r = -0.18, p = 0.003). No correlation was seen with calcified plaques (r = -0.05, p = 0.39). In a fully adjusted multivariate model ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), phosphate retention may contribute to progression of renal failure and is a major factor in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and vascular calcification. Progression of injury is causally associated with risk of mortality that is estimated 10 to 30 times higher for CKD patients undergoing dialysis than the general population. In fact, death is a more common outcome than dialysis or transplantation in patients with CKD. Phosphate binders are clinical mainstays in reducing dietary phosphate absorption and preventing hyperphosphatemia in the roughly 370,000 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in the United States. While medicines exist that bind phosphorus effectively, all current forms of phosphate binder therapy are associated with very poor patient compliance due to a host of problems, including side effects that run the gamut of poor taste, halitosis, ...
Imaging of vascular calcification is increasingly used for cardiovascular screening purposes in asymptomatic patients. Coronary and aortic calcium deposits in the vascular wall have been shown to be related to atherosclerotic plaque burden. New imaging techniques with electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT), to measure the ... read more calcium content in the coronary arteries, are promising methods for clinical risk assessment. However, the rising costs of these emerging cardiac imaging techniques and the radiation exposure involved demand a more critical evaluation of already existing and less expensive technology. In this thesis we have investigated whether arterial calcifications that are frequently seen on mammograms may serve as a screening tool for atherosclerotic risk assessment in women. The simultaneous use of mammograms ...
Approximately 40% of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) show discordant Doppler-echocardiographic parameters with aortic valve area (AVA) <1 cm2 and/or index iAVA <0.6 cm2/m2 (consistent with severe AS) and the mean gradient (MG) <40 mmHg, consistent with mild/moderate AS. Accurate diagnosis of true severe low flow low gradient AS versus pseudo-severe aortic stenosis is important for prognosis and optimal timing for intervention. Doppler echocardiography using intravenous low dose dobutamine challenge is widely used for differentiating pseudo-severe from true severe aortic stenosis. However, relying on echocardiography alone may have limitations in accurate diagnosis. Reliable diagnosis using echocardiography is dependent on multiple factors like the angle of interrogation of the aortic jet, the assumption that the LVOT area is circular in cross section, optimal echo windows, the presence of underlying subclinical coronary artery disease prior to dobutamine challenge etc. In this chapter, we
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: 1.The efficacy of the available aluminium salts, calcium salts, sevelamer hydrochloride, lanthanum carbonate, iron salts and magnesium-based phosphate binders in treatment of hyperphosphataemia. 2.To assess their impact on the development of SHPT or low bone turnover based on surrogate markers (PTH, bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin or other bone turnover markers) and the serum calcium, phosphate, the calcium by phosphate product, PTH levels. In addition, the influence of these drugs would be assessed in relation to lipid profile, tissue calcification and common symptoms such as pruritis and bone or muscle pain. 3.To study the impact of these agents on BMD assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or quantitative computerised tomography (QCT) and on bone turnover and mineralization based on histomorphometry and fracture rates. 4.To assess other patient-based ...
A 66 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital, because she had an episode of cardiovascular collapse requiring cardiopulmonary resucitation four days after cardiac operation in other hospital. The patient had previously undergone one closed and three open heart procedures. The first operation was a closed mitral surgery by a left thoracotomy. After nine years she needed new surgery because she had mitral stenosis and a mitral comisurotomy was done throught a sternotomy and under cardiopulmonary bypass. Ten years after the second operation, because she had mitral stenosis with extensive calcification of the anterior leaflet and aortic and tricuspid regurgitation, a double mitro-aortic valve replacement was done with two Bjork- Shiley (Shiley Inc - Irvine. CA, USA) prostheses. Also a De Vega tricuspid annuloplasty was performed. In 2002 symptoms of congestive heart failure, dyspnea and severe tricuspid insufficiency necessitated replacement of the tricuspid ...
Cardiovascular diseases represent the most common cause of global mortality (31%), affecting both developed and developing countries, claiming the lives of an estimated 17.5 million people in 2012 (1-3). Among the predictors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor. Many pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease, are often associated with cardiovascular calcification (4, 5), which can occur in blood vessels, the myocardium, and cardiac valves. In blood vessels, calcification typically occurs in intimal atherosclerotic plaques and in the tunica media (4, 6-8).. In the past two decades, research has highlighted the active inflammatory and/or osteogenic signaling processes that contribute to pathological cardiovascular ...
A 37-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital with severe dyspnoea and cough. Baseline investigations revealed haemoglobin of 16.2 g/dl, haematocrit of 48.8% and a total leucocyte count of 8800/mm3. Comprehensive metabolic profile and serum and urine protein electrophoresis findings were normal. Arterial blood gas analysis showed type 1 respiratory failure. Spirometry showed restrictive ventilatory disturbances (vital capacity 53%, forced expiratory volume in 1 s 91%). A posterior-anterior chest radiograph showed bilateral diffuse, nodular (sandstorm-like) calcifications in both lungs (figure 1A). A high-resolution CT scan demonstrated multiple bilateral micronodulation of calcific densities throughout both lungs (figure 1B). On transbronchial biopsy, the diagnosis of massive parenchymal and alveolar calcification was confirmed. Echocardiography showed valve calcification with moderate ...
The management of aortic valve disease has been improved by accurate diagnosis and assessment of severity by echocardiography and advanced imaging techniques, efforts to elicit symptoms or objective markers of disease severity and progression, and consideration of optimum timing of aortic valve replacement, even in elderly patients. Prevalence of calcific aortic stenosis is growing in ageing populations. Conventional surgery remains the most appropriate option for most patients who require aortic valve replacement, but the transcatheter approach is established for high-risk patients or poor candidates for surgery.. ...
Heart transplantation offers a means to improve longevity and quality of life in patients with end stage heart failure. Although survival following cardiac transplantation improved significantly following the advent of calcineurin inhibitors, the development of vascular disease within the arterial system of the grafted heart, known as cardiac allograft vasculopathy, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality (1,2). Graft vasculopathy, defined by an angiographically determined stenosis ,50% in an epicardial coronary artery, is present in 40% to 50% of patients by 5 years post-transplant and is the leading cause of death in recipients who survive past the first year (3,4). Unfortunately, ischemic symptoms in cardiac transplant patients are often nonspecific, and a common presentation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy is that of sudden cardiac death. Indeed, far too often, transplant cardiologists receive the most dreaded of phone calls from a bereaved spouse, child, or parent ...
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum is a hereditary connective tissue disease related to a mutation in the ABCC6 gene located on chromosome 16p13.1, that encodes the multidrug resistance protein 6 (MRP6), which is one of the family of adenosine triphosphate-dependent membrane transport proteins, which are mostly expressed in the liver and kidneys. Two types of inheritance have been described: autosomal recessive in 90% of the cases and autosomal dominant, much rarer. Mutation in the ABCC6 gene provokes an absence of MRP6, which leads to an accumulation of substances with a high affinity for elastic tissues, resulting in the distortion of calcium deposits and fragmentation of elastic fibers.. Cutaneous manifestations include asymptomatic yellowish papules distributed symmetrically from the start of the neck that can extend to the flexure area. Although not pathognomonic, a characteristic ocular finding is the presence of angioid streaks that represent calcium deposits on the Bruch membrane. They can cause ...
November 27, 2007 - St. Jude Medical Inc. announced FDA approval of its Epic Stented Tissue Valve with Linx AC Technology. The Epic Valve, which is identical in design to the companys Biocor Valve, also incorporates patented anti-calcification technology designed to protect against tissue mineralization, or hardening.. An estimated 100,000 Americans undergo heart valve replacement annually and the majority of them receive tissue valves. Valve durability is affected by both mechanical stress and tissue calcification. The Epic Valve is designed to address both issues to deliver long-term performance.. "The Epic Valve sets a new standard for addressing tissue mineralization and potentially extending long-term valve durability," said Vibhu Kshettry, M.D., director of Cardiac Surgery at the Minneapolis Heart Institute at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, and a principal investigator in the Epic clinical study. "Enhanced durability, ...
aortic sclerosis - MedHelps aortic sclerosis Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for aortic sclerosis. Find aortic sclerosis information, treatments for aortic sclerosis and aortic sclerosis symptoms.
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Rapid access chest pain clinics have facilitated the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease and angina. Despite this important service provision, coronary heart disease continues to be under-diagnosed and many patients are left untreated and at risk. Recent advances in imaging technology have now led to the widespread use of noninvasive computed tomography, which can be used to measure coronary artery calcium scores and perform coronary angiography in one examination. However, this technology has not been robustly evaluated in its application to the clinic. The SCOT-HEART study is an open parallel group prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial of 4,138 patients attending the rapid access chest pain clinic for evaluation of suspected cardiac chest pain. Following clinical consultation, participants will be approached and randomized 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus ≥64-multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography and coronary calcium
The one-year mortality rate is consistently higher among PD patients than HD patients in Singapore; this may be due to the higher prevalence of significant comorbidities (e.g. ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease) among incident PD patients.(7) Studies have found that abnormal CKD-MBD parameters can affect all-cause mortality among patients on dialysis.(3-5,14,15) CKD-MBD is characterised by either one or a combination of the following items: (a) abnormalities in serum calcium, phosphorus or i-PTH levels, or vitamin D metabolism; (b) abnormalities in bone turnover, mineralisation, volume, linear growth or strength; and (c) the presence of vascular or other soft-tissue calcifications.(12) The complex relationship between abnormal CKD-MBD parameters and adverse clinical outcomes among incident PD patients has not been explored. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine ...
Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: A Review of Neurological Complications A l e e m Iqbal, MD, Milton Alter, M D , P h D , a n d S e u n g h o H. Lee, MD ~ ~ A case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum w i t h multisystem involvement is described. Neurological complications, as reported i n t h e literature, are reviewed. T h e s e include cerebrovascular insufficiency, multiple lacunar infarcts, aneurysms, subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages, progressive intellectual deterioration, and psychic and mental disturbance which may be due to cortical atrophy. Seizures occur m o r e frequently than in the general population. Hypertension and alteration of cerebral vessels are the two basic pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for t h e neurological complications of this disease. Iqbal A, Alter M, Lee SH: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: a review of neurological complications. Ann Neurol 4: 18-20, I978 P s e u d o x a n t h o m a elasticum (PXE) is a rare hereditary disorder with peculiar loosening of the skin. ...
We report a case of 62-year-old Tunisian woman with a 10-year history of a CREST syndrome (systemic sclerosis meeting the criteria of the CREST syndrome of the 1980 American College of Rheumatology classification for raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia). Her daughter is treated in neurology for myasthenia gravis. Our patient presents a 5-month history of increasing inflammatory right thumb pain concomitant with the discovery of a subcutaneous hard mass (A). Radiographs of her thumb showed a sub-cutaneous calcification (as another part of the CREST syndrome criteria) (B). X-rays of hands found an acro-osteolysis (C). In the CREST syndrome, the calcific deposits can be subclinical. But, when symptomatic, it becomes painful, tender and an inflammatory reaction can occur facing the calcinosis.
A mans secret to maintaining a healthy sex life well into old age could be as simple as shedding a few kilograms, says an Australian obesity expert.. Professor Gary Wittert, endocrinologist and Professor of Medicine at the University of Adelaide says erectile dysfunction is often a warning sign of underlying lifestyle-related diseases. These include heart disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome - a condition that includes risks factors such as high blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol.. "For men, the penis is the window to the heart," says Wittert, speaking at the Australian Health and Medical Research Congress in Brisbane. "The blood vessels in the penis are exactly the same as the blood vessels in the heart.". "If they have some erectile dysfunction then theyve probably got subclinical coronary artery disease." In 2005, a study of more than 19,000 men by Dr Ian Thompson of the Texas Health Science Center and colleagues, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, ...
Paraprosthetic AR following TAVI is of potential importance for two reasons. First, patients with longstanding isolated severe AS without AR before the procedure sometimes have poor hemodynamic tolerance of acute AR caused by the procedure, owing to what is typically a small, hypertrophied (noncompliant) left ventricle. Second, data suggest that patients with significant AR following TAVI have worse survival statistics compared to others who do not. The latter begs the question of whether it is the AR that increases mortality risk, or whether the presence of AR is a marker of other disease--most likely diffuse arterial calcification. This study confirms that dense and asymmetrical valve calcification, along with mismatch between the cross-sectional areas of the aortic valve annulus and of the device being deployed, portent a higher risk of postprocedural AR with this balloon-expandable device. It remains to be determined ...
Fibroblast growth factor represses Smad-mediated myofibroblast activation in aortic valvular interstitial cells Journal Article ...
Radiographic techniques are important and useful tools in different aspects of dentistry. One of the most important uses of radiography is the analysis of dental pulps, for which radiography is the only diagnostic tool. Pulp calcifications have histologic and biologic views similar to dentin, with more calcium content than dentin. Different factors like size and degree of calcification affect the visualization of such structures [7]. Ranjitkar [12] evaluated the presence of pulp calcifications by using bitewing radiographs and reported that the majority of these structures were not visible because of superimposition of dentin on conventional radiographs [16]. In this study, we benefited from digital radiography by increasing the image quality through the use of software options. Comparison of digital radiographic images with the gold standard showed that enhanced digital images have higher accuracy in the ...
I am a 67 year old female in generally good health. I have been active most of my life,(competative gymnast and retired physical education teacher). Currently being treated for high blood pressure following arthroscopic surgery to correct a torn meniscus (from a fitness class). They had difficulty stabilizing my blood pressure after surgery. Prior to then I was told I had "White Coat Syndrome". Have a history of calcium oxalate kidney stones ( at least 4-5 episodes starting when I was 21), recently diagnosed with osteoporosis (told probably hereditary…parents died when I was 9 so no known history to confirm), calcium deposits on my lower left rib cage that I have been aware of for at least the last 15 years but now find the area below the deposit very tender and uncomfortable at times. I am using weight bearing exercise and dietary and supplemental support to address the osteoporosis. Is there anything I can do to reduce the calcium deposits on the ribs?. ...
Introduction: Trauma to the chest wall can cause bleeding into the pericardium with subsequent inflammation and calcification resulting in constrictive pericarditis. Case Report: Herein we are reporting an unusual case of a man who had chest wall trauma in childhood and presented to our hospital at age of 35 years with ascites, easy fatigability and lightheadedness. On examination, he had signs of right heart failure. His chest X-ray revealed massive pericardial calcification and echocardiogram showed extensive pericardial calcification, also embedding into the myocardium, along with constrictive physiology. After diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis, a pericardiectomy was performed showing large organized calcified hematoma. Discussion: Blunt trauma to the chest wall may results in bleeding into the pericardium. Development of organized, calcified hematoma post trauma is rare complication, but a few case ...
Ultrasound images demonstrate a well demarcated, hypoechoic mass or a solid mass with multiple anechoic internal areas. On CT, Warthin tumors are homogeneous, enhancing soft tissue densities that contain no calcification. If calcifications are present in a benign appearing parotid mass, the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma should be favored. Warthin tumors are traditionally located in the posterior aspect of the tail of the parotid gland but the tumors have been known to arise from periparotid lymph nodes. Cyst formation is common and the larger the tumor the greater the chance for cystic change. On MR imaging, the tumors have low T1 and high T2 signal (similar to pleomorphic adenomas). Warthin tumors are rich in mitochondrium and therefore will accumulate Tc-99m pertechnetate on salivary scintigraphy. Unfortunately, oncocytomas and the extremely rare oncocytic carcinoma both accumulate pertechnetate as well. Imaging findings that suggest a ...

Viruses in pharmaceutical research: pulmonary vascular disease.Viruses in pharmaceutical research: pulmonary vascular disease.

The management and understanding of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has undergone something of a revolution in the last ... 20500438 - Two cases of idiopathic infantile arterial calcification.. 18552138 - Spatial relationship between coronary ... In this article the role of viruses as tools for gene delivery for pulmonary vascular disease is discussed. Gene delivery of ... The management and understanding of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has undergone something of a revolution in the last ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Viruses-in-Pharmaceutical-Research-Pulmonary/21138278.html

Neonatal Hypertension: Background, Etiology and Risk Factors, EpidemiologyNeonatal Hypertension: Background, Etiology and Risk Factors, Epidemiology

Other vascular abnormalities may also lead to hypertension in the newborn, including idiopathic arterial calcification and ... Approximately 9% of the infants in their series who had indwelling umbilical arterial catheters developed hypertension. [1] ... In 1972, Neal et al were the first investigators to demonstrate an association between the use of umbilical arterial catheters ... Persistent or recurrent hypertension may also be observed in children who have undergone repair of renal arterial stenosis or ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/979588-overview

Vascular Calcification | CirculationVascular Calcification | Circulation

... defect in the human gene encoding NPP1 is responsible for the often-fatal disorder idiopathic infantile arterial calcification, ... Major Categories of Arterial Calcification. Arterial calcification has been usefully categorized by histoanatomic and ... 91 The most extensive vascular calcification is found in patients with arterial medial calcification, a highly characteristic ... vascular calcification promoting bone loss, (2) bone loss promoting vascular calcification, or (3) a common etiology. The first ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/117/22/2938.full

Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification - WikipediaIdiopathic infantile arterial calcification - Wikipedia

... ventricular hypertrophy and multiple intracardiac as well as vascular calcifications Idiopathic arterial calcification of ... also known as Arterial Calcification of Infancy, Generalised Infantile Arterial Calcification (GACI), Idiopathic Arterial ... Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy should always be considered in infants and children presenting with hypertension, ... Inwald, D P; Yen Ho, S; Shepherd, M N; Daubeney, P E F (2006). "Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification presenting as fatal ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idiopathic_infantile_arterial_calcification

Osteogenic regulation of vascular calcification: an early perspective | Endocrinology and MetabolismOsteogenic regulation of vascular calcification: an early perspective | Endocrinology and Metabolism

PC-1 nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase deficiency in idiopathic infantile arterial calcification. Am J Pathol 158: ... HISTOPATHOLOGY OF VASCULAR CALCIFICATION. *DYSMETABOLIC STIMULI AND VASCULAR CALCIFICATION: HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA, HYPERGLYCEMIA ... Although vascular calcification may appear to be a uniform response to vascular insult, it is a heterogenous disorder, with ... Although vascular calcification may appear to be a uniform response to vascular insult, it is a heterogenous disorder, with ...
more infohttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/286/5/E686

Vascular Calcification and not Arrhythmia in Idiopathic Atrial Fibrillation Associates with Sex Differences in Diabetic...Vascular Calcification and not Arrhythmia in Idiopathic Atrial Fibrillation Associates with Sex Differences in Diabetic...

An Expanding Role of Biomarkers in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology ... Title:Vascular Calcification and not Arrhythmia in Idiopathic Atrial Fibrillation Associates with Sex Differences in Diabetic ... Vascular Calcification and not Arrhythmia in Idiopathic Atrial Fibrillation Associates with Sex Differences in Diabetic ... "Vascular Calcification and not Arrhythmia in Idiopathic Atrial Fibrillation Associates with Sex Differences in Diabetic ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/167683/article

Bowel ischemia in a baby with unspecified renovascular hypertension: a case report | Journal of Medical Case Reports | Full TextBowel ischemia in a baby with unspecified renovascular hypertension: a case report | Journal of Medical Case Reports | Full Text

... idiopathic arterial calcification, and a so-called unspecified group of vascular occlusive diseases [1, 5]. The management of ... Open vascular surgery was unfeasible because of lack of experience. The only choice was to wait and see. Although a ... Sethna and colleagues [7] reported only one case of bowel ischemia out of 102 cases of idiopathic mid-aortic syndrome. Our ... Medical control of the BP with a PTA, or vascular reconstructive surgery at a later date, seemed to be an appropriate treatment ...
more infohttps://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-5-569

Monckebergs arteriosclerosis - WikipediaMonckeberg's arteriosclerosis - Wikipedia

This is probably due to vascular calcification causing increased arterial stiffness, increased pulse pressure and resulting in ... However, it can occur in pseudoxanthoma elasticum and idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy as a pathological condition ... and the prevalence of vascular calcification is increased by some diseases (see Epidemiology section). Vascular calcification ... The mechanism of vascular calcification is not fully understood, but probably involves a phenotypic change in the vascular ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monckeberg's_arteriosclerosis

Antenatal diagnosis of idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC): a single centre experience and review of the...Antenatal diagnosis of idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC): a single centre experience and review of the...

... is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by extensive calcification and proliferation of the intimal layer of the ... Hepatic vascular calcification;an early second trimester sonographic feature of idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis. Am J ... generalized infantile arterial calcification (GACI), idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy (IACI), occlusive infantile ... Antenatal diagnosis of idiopathic arterial calcification: a systematic review with a report of two cases. Arch Gynecol Obstet. ...
more infohttps://jcongenitalcardiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40949-018-0022-1

Pitting Phosphate Transport Inhibitors Against Vascular Calcification | Circulation ResearchPitting Phosphate Transport Inhibitors Against Vascular Calcification | Circulation Research

... idiopathic infantile arterial calcification.11 Other networking has been observed between factors regulating vascular ... Although it remains controversial whether vascular calcification promotes plaque destabilization, it is clear that arterial ... Vascular calcification is widespread in patients with coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetes, but ... PC-1 nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase deficiency in idiopathic infantile arterial calcification. Am J Pathol. 2001 ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/98/7/857

Loss of Function of Slc20a2 Associated with Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification in Humans Causes Brain...Loss of Function of Slc20a2 Associated with Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification in Humans Causes Brain...

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with neuropsychiatric and motor ... 2011). Medial vascular calcification is strongly linked to increased levels of Pi in the blood (Covic et al. 2009). In FIBGC, ... Koleganova N, Piecha G, Ritz E, Schirmacher P, Muller A, Meyer HP et al (2009) Arterial calcification in patients with chronic ... Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC), which formerly was called "Fahrs disease" and now also is called ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12031-013-0085-6

Abstract from 42601 to 42700Abstract from 42601 to 42700

Hepatic vascular calcification: an early second trimester sonographic feature of idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis ...
more infohttp://www.faqs.org/abstracts/all/p-427-Abstracts.html

ENPP1 enzyme replacement therapy improves blood pressure and cardiovascular function in a mouse model of generalized arterial...ENPP1 enzyme replacement therapy improves blood pressure and cardiovascular function in a mouse model of generalized arterial...

2015). ENPP1-Fc prevents mortality and vascular calcifications in rodent model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy ... 1970). Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification-a misnomer? Am. J. Cardiol. 26, 305-309. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(70)90798-8. ... 1978). Idiopathic arterial calcification in infancy. Histopathology 2, 423-432. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.1978.tb01736.x. ... 2008). Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification: the spectrum of clinical presentations. Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 11, 405-415. ...
more infohttps://dmm.biologists.org/content/11/10/dmm035691

Right Aortic Arch with an Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery (Vascular Ring) | Pediatric EchocardiographyRight Aortic Arch with an Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery (Vascular Ring) | Pediatric Echocardiography

Vascular Ring) congenital heart defects detection using echocardiography ... Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification. *Restrictive Cardiomyopathy. *Coronary Artery Fistula. *Marfan Syndrome. * ... Lesion: Right Aortic Arch with an Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery (Vascular Ring)  *Complete Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal) ... Lesion: Right Aortic Arch with an Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery (Vascular Ring) ...
more infohttps://pedecho.org/library/chd/raa-alsca

Recent approaches to therapy is there real progress - IFCCRecent approaches to therapy is there real progress - IFCC

Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification�) (6). Although case reports on beneficial effects of pamidronate in calciphylaxis ... In rats, warfarin-induced vascular calcification can be partially reversed by feeding supraphysiological doses of vitamin K1 or ... MGP acts purely as local inhibitor, systemic overexpression is not capable of counteracting arterial calcification induced by ... Knockout of the MGP gene in mice (MGP-/-) causes severe media calcification of large arteries with subsequent rupture of the ...
more infohttp://www.ifcc.org/ifcc-communications-publications-division-cpd/ifcc-publications/ejifcc-journal/e-journal-volumes/ejifcc-2009-vol-20/vol-20-n-1/recent-approaches-to-therapy-is-there-real-progress/

Atherosclerosis: Viewing the Problem from a Different Perspective Including Possible Treatment Options - PDFAtherosclerosis: Viewing the Problem from a Different Perspective Including Possible Treatment Options - PDF

22 In idiopathic infantile arterial calcification the calcium deposits have been shown to be Ca-AP. 23 In addition to the ... Vascular calcification mechanisms. J Am Soc Nephrol. Dec 2004;15(12): Trion A, van der Laarse A. Vascular smooth muscle cells ... Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification in siblings: radiologic diagnosis and successful treatment. J Pediatr. Mar 1978;92( ... Dec 2005;26(5): Guimaraes S, Lopes JM, liveira JB, Santos A. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification: a rare cause of ...
more infohttp://healthdocbox.com/Cholesterol/66549613-Atherosclerosis-viewing-the-problem-from-a-different-perspective-including-possible-treatment-options.html

Upregulation of IGF2 expression during vascular calcificationUpregulation of IGF2 expression during vascular calcification

1998). These Enpp1−/− mice share phenotypic features with a human disease, idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (Rutsch ... Mutations in Enpp1 are associated with idiopathic infantile arterial calcification. Nature Genetics. 2003;34:379-381. doi: ... PC-1 nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase deficiency in idio- pathic infantile arterial calcification. American Journal ... The vascular biology of calcification. Seminars in Dialysis. 2007;20:103-109. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-139X.2007.00255.x. [PubMed] [ ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5610348/

Dr. Joshua Leonard, MD - Washington, IN - Cardiology & Interventional Cardiology | Healthgrades.comDr. Joshua Leonard, MD - Washington, IN - Cardiology & Interventional Cardiology | Healthgrades.com

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. - Primary Pulmonary Hypertension, Familial. - Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension. - Pulmonary ... Coronary Artery Calcification. - Coronary Artery Disease, Autosomal Dominant 1. - Coronary Artery Disease, Autosomal Dominant 2 ... Vascular Duplex Ultrasonography and Plethysmography. Background Check. Malpractice Claims not available. What is medical ...
more infohttps://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-joshua-leonard-3d36d?leave-review

ICD-10-CM Code I77.89 - Other specified disorders of arteries and arteriolesICD-10-CM Code I77.89 - Other specified disorders of arteries and arterioles

Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy (disorder) ICD-10-CM Alphabetical Index References for I77.89 - Other specified ... DRG Group #299-301 - Peripheral vascular disorders with MCC. * DRG Group #299-301 - Peripheral vascular disorders with CC. * ... DRG Group #299-301 - Peripheral vascular disorders without CC or MCC. Related Concepts SNOMET-CT * Popliteal entrapment ...
more infohttps://icd.codes/icd10cm/I7789

Inflammation and the Osteogenic Regulation of Vascular Calcification | HypertensionInflammation and the Osteogenic Regulation of Vascular Calcification | Hypertension

The noncanonical WNT pathway is operative in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009; 40: ... Vascular Bmp Msx2 Wnt signaling and oxidative stress in arterial calcification. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007; 1117: 40-50. ... Some degree of vascular inflammation is a frequent concomitant of most forms of arterial calcification.13,14 Sites of ... atherosclerotic calcification, diabetic medial artery calcification, vascular calcification of end-stage renal disease, and ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/55/3/579.full

Equine | veterinary pathologyEquine | veterinary pathology

Idiopathic arterial medial calcification of the thoracic arteries in an adult horse. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:692-697 (2008). ... The vascular lesions are comparative to what has been described as medial arterial calcification, seen in humans suffering from ... Arterial Calcification in Race Horses. Vet Pathol 45:617-625 (2008). On microscopic examination, elastic fibers within the ... J Vet Diagn Invest 20:108-110 (2008). Histologically, the mass consisted of dilated, thin-walled vascular clefts and channels, ...
more infohttps://vetpath.wordpress.com/special-pathology/equine/

Calcifications | definition of calcifications by Medical dictionaryCalcifications | definition of calcifications by Medical dictionary

... calcifications explanation free. What is calcifications? Meaning of calcifications medical term. What does calcifications mean? ... Looking for online definition of calcifications in the Medical Dictionary? ... Vascular pathology of medial arterial calcifications in NT5E deficiency: Implications for the role of adenosine in ... A case of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification and brief review of the literature ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/calcifications

The mystery of persistent pulmonary hypertension: an idiopathic infantile arterial calcification | BMC Pediatrics | Full TextThe mystery of persistent pulmonary hypertension: an idiopathic infantile arterial calcification | BMC Pediatrics | Full Text

Further studies to determine the long term effects of Editronate on vascular calcifications, disease outcome, and other ... A diagnosis of Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification was made and a trial of Editronate therapy was given without success ... characterized by wide spread calcifications in arterial walls, leading to vaso-occlusive ischaemia of multiple organs. ... Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, ...
more infohttps://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-13-107

ResearchResearch

Arterial calcification may be worsened by calcium- and vitamin D-based treatments aimed at controlling over-activity of the ... has also been implicated in vascular calcification.. Transplantation. Dr Mark Harber, Dr Gareth Jones, Mr Ben Lindsey, Dr Henry ... clarification of the genetic components contributing to idiopathic membranous nephropathy, another common form of ... and London Arterial Calcification, Kidney and Bone Outcomes (LACKABO) cohort studies. The Study of Heart and Renal Protection ( ...
more infohttp://www.ucl.ac.uk/medicine/nephrology/research/

Arterial calcification of infancy             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramArterial calcification of infancy | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

... resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Arterial calcification of infancy ... Arterial calcification of infancy Title Other Names:. Occlusive infantile arteriopathy; Idiopathic infantile arterial ... A rare genetic vascular disease characterized by early onset (between in utero to infancy) of extensive calcification and ... Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification; IIAC; Generalized arterial calcification in infancy See More ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/8380/arterial-calcification-of-infancy
  • Along with the evaluation of dental and maxillofacial hard tissues, panoramic radiograph can be used to spot soft tissue calcifications including calcified carotid artery atheroma (13). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DIS) is associated with bridging bone formations fusing vertebral bodies called syndesmophytes (located by arrows) that provide structure for severe degenerative intervertebral discs (Fig. 1). (healthdocbox.com)
  • When alternative treatments for congenital multiple visceral arterial stenoses are not feasible, careful medical therapy and a waiting approach for collaterals to develop may be appropriate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present the case of a baby with congenital multiple visceral arterial stenoses in which medical therapy contributed to the development of bowel ischemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the exact mechanisms by which vascular dysfunction develops in CKD are incompletely understood, increased oxidative stress and a subsequent reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability are important contributors. (jove.com)
  • Hydroxyapatite is secreted in vesicles that bleb out from vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes in the arterial wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of ENPP1 is to hydrolyze extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate (PP i ), a potent physiological inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation and vascular calcification. (biologists.org)
  • A diagnosis of Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification was made and a trial of Editronate therapy was given without success. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CT is the pillar of noninvasive diagnosis of RPF, as it allows evaluation of RPF location, extent and effect on adjacent organs and vascular structures. (eurorad.org)
  • Although CT demonstrates high sensitivity, it lacks specificity to confidently differentiate between idiopathic RPF and the differential diagnosis, namely secondary RPF (mainly caused by malignancy, drugs or infection), lymphoma and retroperitoneal sarcomas. (eurorad.org)
  • Numerous regulators of calcification such as osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, matrix gla protein and fetuin-A, receptor activator of NF-kappa-B, receptor activator of NF-kappa-B ligand and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-induceing ligand protein have been implicated in this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first robust evidence for the primary contributions of inflammatory cytokine signaling to pathogenesis of vascular calcification arose from the generation and evaluation of the osteoprotegerin (OPG) −/− mouse. (ahajournals.org)