Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Inosine NucleotidesAzaguanine: One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome: An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.4.2.1.Nucleobase Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.GuanineAdenine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme catalyzing the formation of AMP from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. EC 2.4.2.7.Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsAllopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Thioguanine: An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Thioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Adenine NucleotidesXanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Allantoin: A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.UracilAzaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Archaeoglobales: An order of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. The single family Archaeoglobaceae contains one genus ARCHAEOGLOBUS.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Methylthioinosine: 6-(Methylthio)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. An analog of inosine with a methylthio group replacing the hydroxyl group in the 6-position.Aminopterin: A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.Oxypurinol: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.PentosephosphatesGuanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.ThymidineGuanine NucleotidesErythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.Adenylosuccinate Synthase: A carbon-nitrogen ligase. During purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of adenylosuccinate from GTP; IMP; and aspartate with the formation of orthophosphate and GDP. EC 6.3.4.4.AminohydrolasesRibosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Dilazep: Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Amidophosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme, involved in the early steps of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, that catalyzes the formation of 5-phosphoribosylamine from glutamine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.14.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.

Utilization of exogenous purine compounds in Bacillus cereus. Translocation of the ribose moiety of inosine. (1/498)

Intact cells of Bacillus cereus catalyze the breakdown of exogenous AMP to hypoxanthine and ribose 1-phosphate through the successive action of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and inosine phosphorylase. Inosine hydrolase was not detectable, even in crude extracts. Inosine phosphorylase causes a "translocation" of the ribose moiety (as ribose 1-phosphate) inside the cell, while hypoxanthine remains external. Even though the equilibrium of the phosphorolytic reaction favors nucleoside synthesis, exogenous inosine (as well as adenosine and AMP) is almost quantitatively transformed into external hypoxanthine, since ribose 1-phosphate is readily metabolized inside the cell. Most likely, the translocated ribose 1-phosphate enters the sugar phosphate shunt, via its prior conversion into ribose 5-phosphate, thus supplying the energy required for the subsequent uptake of hypoxanthine in B. cereus.  (+info)

Tissue distribution and characteristics of xanthine oxidase and allopurinol oxidizing enzyme. (2/498)

Tissue distribution and levels of allopurinol oxidizing enzyme and xanthine oxidase with hypoxanthine as a substrate were compared with supernatant fractions from various tissues of mice and from liver of mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits. The allopurinol oxidizing enzyme activities in liver were quite different among the species and the sex difference of the enzyme activity only in mouse liver. In mice, the highest activity of allopurinol oxidizing enzyme was found in the liver with a trace value in lung, but the enzyme activity was not detected in brain, small intestine and kidney, while the highest activity of xanthine oxidase was detected in small intestine, lung, liver and kidney in that sequence. The allopurinol oxidizing enzyme activity in mouse liver supernatant fraction did not change after storage at -20 degrees C or dialysis against 0.1 M Tris-HCl containing 1.15% KCl, but the activity markedly decreased after dialysis against 0.1 M Tris-HCl. On the contrary, the xanthine oxidase was activated 2 to 3 times the usual activity after storage at -20 degrees C or dialysis of the enzyme preparation. These results indicated that allopurinol was hydroxylated to oxipurinol mainly by the enzyme which is not identical to xanthine oxidase in vivo. A possible role of aldehyde oxidase involved in the allopurinol oxidation in liver supernatant fraction was dicussed.  (+info)

Oxypurinol administration fails to prevent free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation during loaded breathing. (3/498)

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to alter the development of fatigue and ablate free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation of the diaphragm during loaded breathing by administering oxypurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. We studied 1) room-air-breathing decerebrate, unanesthetized rats given either saline or oxypurinol (50 mg/kg) and loaded with a large inspiratory resistance until airway pressure had fallen by 50% and 2) unloaded saline- and oxypurinol-treated room-air-breathing control animals. Additional sets of studies were performed with animals breathing 100% oxygen. Animals were killed at the conclusion of loading, and diaphragmatic samples were obtained for determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and assessment of in vitro force generation. We found that loading of saline-treated animals resulted in significant diaphragmatic fatigue and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation (P < 0.01). Oxypurinol administration, however, failed to increase load trial time, reduce fatigue development, or prevent lipid peroxidation in either room-air-breathing or oxygen-breathing animals. These data suggest that xanthine oxidase-dependent pathways do not generate physiologically significant levels of free radicals during the type of inspiratory resistive loading examined in this study.  (+info)

The mechanism of action of methotrexate in cultured L5178Y leukemia cells. (4/498)

This study investigates the relationships between the methotrexate (MTX)-induced purineless state and thymineless state and between the thymineless state and the kill of L5178Y cells. As an index of the thymineless state, we measured the effect of MTX on conversion of deoxyuridylate to thymidylate. This was measured as the rate of incorporation of tritiated deoxyuridine into DNA, but it was corrected for changes in incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Thus we derived the "calculated tritiated deoxyuridine rate." During the MTX treatment, the calculated tritiated deoxyuridine rate decreased rapidly at first and then more slowly. The slow 2nd-phase block was not reversed by hypoxanthine. As the 2nd-phase block deepened, the lymphoblasts continued to die (loss of cloning ability) but recovered the ability to incorporate tritiated thymidine into DNA. After 7 hr of MTX treatment, the kinetics of the 2nd-phase block in calculated tritiated deoxyuridine rate correlated closely with the kinetics of cell kill. Thus, MTX may inhibit dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, rapidly deplete S-phase L5178Y of reduced folates, and thus produce a purineless and thymineless state. As treatment continues, MTX intensifies the thymineless state, possibly by direct inhibition of thymidylate synthetase enzyme, and the cells die predominantly a thymineless death. The purineless state initially contributes to cell kill but later does not, possibly because it partially reverses spontaneously.  (+info)

Isolation of mammalian cell mutants deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity: linkage to hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase. (5/498)

Mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose-6-phosphate: NADP 1-oxidoreducatse, EC 1.1.1.49) activity were isolated after mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate. The mutants were induced at frequencies of about 10-4 and do not differ in growth properties from wild-type cells. They were isolated by means of a sib selection technique coupled with a histochemical stain of colonies for enzyme activity. The lack of enzyme activity is not due to a dissociable inhibitor, and is recessive in hybrid cells. Multiple mutants that lack hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity (IMP:pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.8) and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity (AMP:pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.7) were isolated by further mutagenesis. By following segregation of wild-type phenotypes from heterozygous multiply marked hybrid cells, it was shown that the genes responsible for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity are linked in Chinese hamster cells, in agreement with the location of both on the X chromosome in humans. No linkage to adenosine phosphoribosyltransferase was found. The isolation of mutant cells carrying linked markers should prove useful for studying chromosomal events such as segregation, breakage, recombination, and X-chromosome reactivation.  (+info)

Purine metabolism in murine virus-induced erythroleukemic cells during differentiation in vitro. (6/498)

Purine metabolism was studied in murine virus-induced erythroleukemia cells stimulated to differentiate in vitro in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide. The activities of the enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of the first intermediate of the de novo purine pathway, phosphoribosyl-1-amine, were decreased while the enzymes that catalyze the conversion of purine bases to purine ribonucleotides remained unchanged at the time the cells acquired the specialized function of hemoglobin synthesis. In addition, cytidine deaminase (cytidine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.5) activity increased with erythropoietic maturation, as it does during murine erythropoiesis in vivo. Stimulation of cellular proliferation of stationary erythroleukemic cells resulted in a marked increase in the activities of purine biosynthetic enzymes. These data provide a convincing example of repression and derepression of the PRA synthesizing enzymes in mammalian cells in vitro, and further evidence that the regulatory mechanisms operative in the normal development of erythrocytes can be activated by exposure of erythroleukemic cells to dimethylsulfoxide.  (+info)

Consequences of methotrexate inhibition of purine biosynthesis in L5178Y cells. (7/498)

Addition of 1 muM methotrexate to cultures of L5178Y cells results in an initial inhibition of thymidine, uridine, and leucine incorporation into acid-insoluble material followed, after about 10 hr, by a partial recovery in the extent of incorporation of these precursors. Acid-soluble adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate concentrations are greatly reduced initially, but guanosine triphosphate concentrations appear to recover partially by 10 hr. Acid-soluble uridine triphosphate and cytidine triphosphate concentrations initially increase after methotrexate treatment but then, with time, they too decline. Hypoxanthine and guanine are more effective than is adenine in overcoming the methotrexate-induced inhibition of thymidine incorporation. These results suggest that, in the presence of methotrexate, guanine nucleotides become limiting for nucleic acid synthesis before adenine nucleotides do. The block of purine de novo synthesis in L5178Y cells by methotrexate is almost complete and is not reversed with time. This suggests that the additional purine nucleotides that are available for nucleic acid synthesis 8 to 10 hr after addition of methotrexate are being derived from nucleic acid breakdown. Consistent with this is the observed reduction in the number of polyribosomes and hence, presumably in messenger RNA levels.  (+info)

Growth of human diploid fibroblasts in the absence of glucose utilization. (8/498)

Normal human diploid fibroblasts were able to undergo one to two cell divisions without glucose utilization in Eagle's minimum essential medium plus 10% dialyzed fetal calf serum if the medium was supplemented with hypoxanthine, thymidine, and uridine (supplemented medium termed HTU-MEM). Under these conditions, the added purine and pyrimidines were required for nucleic acid synthesis, as shown by the inability of Lesch-Nyhan fibroblasts to grow in HTU-MEM. Normal human diploid fibroblasts continued to produce lactate in HTU-MEM, but at a greatly reduced rate. Since cells grew in HTU-MEM without glucose utilization, the probable energy and carbon source was glutamine, which is present in relatively high concentration. Furthermore, the rate of glutamine utilization per cell division was 2-fold greater in HTU-MEM than in medium with 5.5 mM glucose. These results suggest that glutamine can be a major energy source for cells grown in vitro.  (+info)

  • 2001). Most in vitro studies monitoring resistance and susceptibility to antimalarial compounds have been performed by microscopy and by uptake of a radiolabelled nucleic acid precursor 3[H]-hypoxanthine (Desjardins et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • FCA results were comparable to optical microscopy observation and to [3H]-hypoxanthine uptake assay. (fiocruz.br)
  • abstract = "The magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of adenine, hypoxanthine, and guanosine 5′‐diphosphate reveals that, for each species, the uv‐absorption band near 200 nm is composed of at least two electronic transitions. (elsevier.com)
  • Treatment of murine L1210 cells with methotrexate (MTX) followed by 5-fluorouracil (FUra) produced synergistic cytotoxicity, but only in media containing serum with low concentrations of hypoxanthine, such as horse serum and dialyzed fetal calf serum. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One day after HIIT, no overall change in resting urinary metabolome, except a significant difference with decreasing means in urinary hypoxanthine concentration, was documented in the experimental group. (kit.edu)
  • Normal human diploid fibroblasts were able to undergo one to two cell divisions without glucose utilization in Eagle's minimum essential medium plus 10% dialyzed fetal calf serum if the medium was supplemented with hypoxanthine, thymidine, and uridine (supplemented medium termed HTU-MEM). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Harmsen E, Jong JW, Serruys PW (1981) Hypoxanthine production by ischemic heart demonstrated by high pressure liquid chromatography of blood purine nucleosides and oxypurines. (springer.com)
  • Further purification by gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, ultraviolet spectroscopy and high pressure liquid chromatography demonstrate that these compounds are inosine and hypoxanthine. (wustl.edu)
  • Hypoxanthine injection decreased the percentage of cells with mitochondrial membrane label and increased mitochondrial membrane potential labeling. (springer.com)
  • There was a decrease in the number of live cells and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells by caused hypoxanthine. (springer.com)
  • Transfecting COS-1 cells with opossum kidney cDNA fractions resulted in similar to 70% inhibition of hypoxanthine influx suggesting the possible presence of genes within the library that act as apparent inhibitors of hypoxanthine transport. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Oocytes and hypoxanthine orchestrate the G2-M switch mechanism in ovarian granulosa cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Since hypoxanthine is a purine closely related to ATP formation, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intrastriatal hypoxanthine administration on neuroenergetic parameters (pyruvate kinase, succinate dehydrogenase, complex II, cytochrome c oxidase, and ATP levels) and mitochondrial function (mitochondrial mass and membrane potential) in striatum of rats. (springer.com)
  • Surprisingly, the K. pneumoniae mol mutants and the mol+ parent grew equally well with hypoxanthine as the sole nitrogen source, suggesting that K. pneumoniae has a molybdenum cofactor-independent pathway for hypoxanthine utilization. (upo.es)
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