A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.4.2.1.
Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
An enzyme catalyzing the formation of AMP from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. EC 2.4.2.7.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.
An order of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. The single family Archaeoglobaceae contains one genus ARCHAEOGLOBUS.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
6-(Methylthio)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. An analog of inosine with a methylthio group replacing the hydroxyl group in the 6-position.
A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.
A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
A carbon-nitrogen ligase. During purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of adenylosuccinate from GTP; IMP; and aspartate with the formation of orthophosphate and GDP. EC 6.3.4.4.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme, involved in the early steps of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, that catalyzes the formation of 5-phosphoribosylamine from glutamine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.14.
Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.

Utilization of exogenous purine compounds in Bacillus cereus. Translocation of the ribose moiety of inosine. (1/498)

Intact cells of Bacillus cereus catalyze the breakdown of exogenous AMP to hypoxanthine and ribose 1-phosphate through the successive action of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and inosine phosphorylase. Inosine hydrolase was not detectable, even in crude extracts. Inosine phosphorylase causes a "translocation" of the ribose moiety (as ribose 1-phosphate) inside the cell, while hypoxanthine remains external. Even though the equilibrium of the phosphorolytic reaction favors nucleoside synthesis, exogenous inosine (as well as adenosine and AMP) is almost quantitatively transformed into external hypoxanthine, since ribose 1-phosphate is readily metabolized inside the cell. Most likely, the translocated ribose 1-phosphate enters the sugar phosphate shunt, via its prior conversion into ribose 5-phosphate, thus supplying the energy required for the subsequent uptake of hypoxanthine in B. cereus.  (+info)

Tissue distribution and characteristics of xanthine oxidase and allopurinol oxidizing enzyme. (2/498)

Tissue distribution and levels of allopurinol oxidizing enzyme and xanthine oxidase with hypoxanthine as a substrate were compared with supernatant fractions from various tissues of mice and from liver of mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits. The allopurinol oxidizing enzyme activities in liver were quite different among the species and the sex difference of the enzyme activity only in mouse liver. In mice, the highest activity of allopurinol oxidizing enzyme was found in the liver with a trace value in lung, but the enzyme activity was not detected in brain, small intestine and kidney, while the highest activity of xanthine oxidase was detected in small intestine, lung, liver and kidney in that sequence. The allopurinol oxidizing enzyme activity in mouse liver supernatant fraction did not change after storage at -20 degrees C or dialysis against 0.1 M Tris-HCl containing 1.15% KCl, but the activity markedly decreased after dialysis against 0.1 M Tris-HCl. On the contrary, the xanthine oxidase was activated 2 to 3 times the usual activity after storage at -20 degrees C or dialysis of the enzyme preparation. These results indicated that allopurinol was hydroxylated to oxipurinol mainly by the enzyme which is not identical to xanthine oxidase in vivo. A possible role of aldehyde oxidase involved in the allopurinol oxidation in liver supernatant fraction was dicussed.  (+info)

Oxypurinol administration fails to prevent free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation during loaded breathing. (3/498)

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to alter the development of fatigue and ablate free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation of the diaphragm during loaded breathing by administering oxypurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. We studied 1) room-air-breathing decerebrate, unanesthetized rats given either saline or oxypurinol (50 mg/kg) and loaded with a large inspiratory resistance until airway pressure had fallen by 50% and 2) unloaded saline- and oxypurinol-treated room-air-breathing control animals. Additional sets of studies were performed with animals breathing 100% oxygen. Animals were killed at the conclusion of loading, and diaphragmatic samples were obtained for determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and assessment of in vitro force generation. We found that loading of saline-treated animals resulted in significant diaphragmatic fatigue and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation (P < 0.01). Oxypurinol administration, however, failed to increase load trial time, reduce fatigue development, or prevent lipid peroxidation in either room-air-breathing or oxygen-breathing animals. These data suggest that xanthine oxidase-dependent pathways do not generate physiologically significant levels of free radicals during the type of inspiratory resistive loading examined in this study.  (+info)

The mechanism of action of methotrexate in cultured L5178Y leukemia cells. (4/498)

This study investigates the relationships between the methotrexate (MTX)-induced purineless state and thymineless state and between the thymineless state and the kill of L5178Y cells. As an index of the thymineless state, we measured the effect of MTX on conversion of deoxyuridylate to thymidylate. This was measured as the rate of incorporation of tritiated deoxyuridine into DNA, but it was corrected for changes in incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Thus we derived the "calculated tritiated deoxyuridine rate." During the MTX treatment, the calculated tritiated deoxyuridine rate decreased rapidly at first and then more slowly. The slow 2nd-phase block was not reversed by hypoxanthine. As the 2nd-phase block deepened, the lymphoblasts continued to die (loss of cloning ability) but recovered the ability to incorporate tritiated thymidine into DNA. After 7 hr of MTX treatment, the kinetics of the 2nd-phase block in calculated tritiated deoxyuridine rate correlated closely with the kinetics of cell kill. Thus, MTX may inhibit dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, rapidly deplete S-phase L5178Y of reduced folates, and thus produce a purineless and thymineless state. As treatment continues, MTX intensifies the thymineless state, possibly by direct inhibition of thymidylate synthetase enzyme, and the cells die predominantly a thymineless death. The purineless state initially contributes to cell kill but later does not, possibly because it partially reverses spontaneously.  (+info)

Isolation of mammalian cell mutants deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity: linkage to hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase. (5/498)

Mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose-6-phosphate: NADP 1-oxidoreducatse, EC 1.1.1.49) activity were isolated after mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate. The mutants were induced at frequencies of about 10-4 and do not differ in growth properties from wild-type cells. They were isolated by means of a sib selection technique coupled with a histochemical stain of colonies for enzyme activity. The lack of enzyme activity is not due to a dissociable inhibitor, and is recessive in hybrid cells. Multiple mutants that lack hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity (IMP:pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.8) and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity (AMP:pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.7) were isolated by further mutagenesis. By following segregation of wild-type phenotypes from heterozygous multiply marked hybrid cells, it was shown that the genes responsible for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity are linked in Chinese hamster cells, in agreement with the location of both on the X chromosome in humans. No linkage to adenosine phosphoribosyltransferase was found. The isolation of mutant cells carrying linked markers should prove useful for studying chromosomal events such as segregation, breakage, recombination, and X-chromosome reactivation.  (+info)

Purine metabolism in murine virus-induced erythroleukemic cells during differentiation in vitro. (6/498)

Purine metabolism was studied in murine virus-induced erythroleukemia cells stimulated to differentiate in vitro in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide. The activities of the enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of the first intermediate of the de novo purine pathway, phosphoribosyl-1-amine, were decreased while the enzymes that catalyze the conversion of purine bases to purine ribonucleotides remained unchanged at the time the cells acquired the specialized function of hemoglobin synthesis. In addition, cytidine deaminase (cytidine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.5) activity increased with erythropoietic maturation, as it does during murine erythropoiesis in vivo. Stimulation of cellular proliferation of stationary erythroleukemic cells resulted in a marked increase in the activities of purine biosynthetic enzymes. These data provide a convincing example of repression and derepression of the PRA synthesizing enzymes in mammalian cells in vitro, and further evidence that the regulatory mechanisms operative in the normal development of erythrocytes can be activated by exposure of erythroleukemic cells to dimethylsulfoxide.  (+info)

Consequences of methotrexate inhibition of purine biosynthesis in L5178Y cells. (7/498)

Addition of 1 muM methotrexate to cultures of L5178Y cells results in an initial inhibition of thymidine, uridine, and leucine incorporation into acid-insoluble material followed, after about 10 hr, by a partial recovery in the extent of incorporation of these precursors. Acid-soluble adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate concentrations are greatly reduced initially, but guanosine triphosphate concentrations appear to recover partially by 10 hr. Acid-soluble uridine triphosphate and cytidine triphosphate concentrations initially increase after methotrexate treatment but then, with time, they too decline. Hypoxanthine and guanine are more effective than is adenine in overcoming the methotrexate-induced inhibition of thymidine incorporation. These results suggest that, in the presence of methotrexate, guanine nucleotides become limiting for nucleic acid synthesis before adenine nucleotides do. The block of purine de novo synthesis in L5178Y cells by methotrexate is almost complete and is not reversed with time. This suggests that the additional purine nucleotides that are available for nucleic acid synthesis 8 to 10 hr after addition of methotrexate are being derived from nucleic acid breakdown. Consistent with this is the observed reduction in the number of polyribosomes and hence, presumably in messenger RNA levels.  (+info)

Growth of human diploid fibroblasts in the absence of glucose utilization. (8/498)

Normal human diploid fibroblasts were able to undergo one to two cell divisions without glucose utilization in Eagle's minimum essential medium plus 10% dialyzed fetal calf serum if the medium was supplemented with hypoxanthine, thymidine, and uridine (supplemented medium termed HTU-MEM). Under these conditions, the added purine and pyrimidines were required for nucleic acid synthesis, as shown by the inability of Lesch-Nyhan fibroblasts to grow in HTU-MEM. Normal human diploid fibroblasts continued to produce lactate in HTU-MEM, but at a greatly reduced rate. Since cells grew in HTU-MEM without glucose utilization, the probable energy and carbon source was glutamine, which is present in relatively high concentration. Furthermore, the rate of glutamine utilization per cell division was 2-fold greater in HTU-MEM than in medium with 5.5 mM glucose. These results suggest that glutamine can be a major energy source for cells grown in vitro.  (+info)

Nucleotide degradation is an integrated process in all human cells that is intimately linked with the pathways of nucleotide synthesis and salvage
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WARNING: The information provided on this web site was developed in compliance with European Union (EU) regulations and is correct to the best of our knowledge, information and belief at the date of its publication. The information given is designed only as a guide for safe handling and use. It is not to be considered as either a warranty or quality specification.. EINECSNumber : 253-897-8. TSCA : TSCA. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nucleotide degradation and ribose salvage in yeast. AU - Xu, Yi Fan. AU - Létisse, Fabien. AU - Absalan, Farnaz. AU - Lu, Wenyun. AU - Kuznetsova, Ekaterina. AU - Brown, Greg. AU - Caudy, Amy A.. AU - Yakunin, Alexander F.. AU - Broach, James R.. AU - Rabinowitz, Joshua D.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: Copyright © 2013 EMBO and Macmillan Publishers Limited.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Nucleotide degradation is a universal metabolic capability. Here we combine metabolomics, genetics and biochemistry to characterize the yeast pathway. Nutrient starvation, via PKA, AMPK/SNF1, and TOR, triggers autophagic breakdown of ribosomes into nucleotides. A protein not previously associated with nucleotide degradation, Phm8, converts nucleotide monophosphates into nucleosides. Downstream steps, which involve the purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Pnp1, and pyrimidine nucleoside hydrolase, Urh1, funnel ribose into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway. During carbon starvation, the ...
Treatment of murine L1210 cells with methotrexate (MTX) followed by 5-fluorouracil (FUra) produced synergistic cytotoxicity, but only in media containing serum with low concentrations of hypoxanthine, such as horse serum and dialyzed fetal calf serum. Addition of hypoxanthine (1 to 10 µm) during drug exposure reduced the synergism of sequential MTX (1 to 100 µm)-FUra (30 to 300 µm) treatment. The reduction of synergy by hypoxanthine varied with the MTX concentration, higher hypoxanthine concentrations being required to prevent synergy at higher MTX concentrations. The cytotoxicity produced by sequential MTX (10 µm)-FUra (30 to 300 µm) treatment was also reduced if thymidine was added to the regrowth media following drug exposure. The rescue by thymidine was concentration dependent, but as little as 0.5 µm thymidine was sufficient to substantially reduce the synergistic cytotoxicity. These results indicate that both hypoxanthine and thymidine are critical determinants of sequential MTX-FUra ...
I think the O from Hypoxanthine can bond with one of the Hs in NH2 from Cytosine and the H that is connected to N in Hypoxanthine with the N in Cytosine but is it possible also for the H connected to ...
Complete information for HPRT1 gene (Protein Coding), Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for HPRT1 gene (Protein Coding), Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
XinXiang WeiDe Chemical Co.,Ltd have been founded in 2004, the existing registered capital of 30 million, is a new science-and-technology enterprise which in the integration of exploitation, development, production and sell. The mainly produces of company is pharmaceutical intermediates such as Acetic acid, 1,2,3,5-Tetra-O-Acetyl-D-Ribose, Cytosine, Hypoxanthine, N2,9-Diacetylguanine, basing sales on production. Company sufficient orders.After more than ten years of development, the company has advanced research and development center, perfect ...
AIT 034 combines hypoxanthine and the basic pyrrolidone structure. AIT 034 was synthesized by Advanced ImmunoTherapeutics (subsequently renamed as
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Purine nucleotide degradation products have been determined by HPLC in aqueous humor obtained during cataract surgery and from plasma of 22 patients (12 women). Uric acid, cytosine, guanosine monophosphate, uracyl, guanine, adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, thymine, adenine, inosine, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine and xanthine were evaluated. Uric acid and the last two were the only compounds detectable in measurable amounts in aqueous humor and in plasma of all patients. Aqueous humor xanthine levels were not significantly different from plasma; aqueous humor hypoxanthine concentrations were lower than those of xanthine and than plasma oxypurine levels. In 8 patients, treated with allopurinol, oxypurinol concentrations in aqueous humor and in plasma were comparable suggesting that oxypurines are transported through the blood-aqueous humor barrier.. ...
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Staphylococcus aureus; pan ID: SAUPAN002251000; symbol: hprT; products: hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase homologue, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-like protein, putative hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase; orthologs: COL: SACOL0554 (hpt)
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using the CAPTCHA proves you Are a canine and gives you independent pdf Purine Metabolism in Man III: Clinical to the half course. What can I fulfill to involve this in the Prerequisite? If you include on a sure knowledge, like at Prerequisite, you can examine an expansion class on your psychology to rat Quarterly it is long offered with behavior. If you lead at an pdf Purine Metabolism or likely Ventilation, you can select the disease trachea to use a Prerequisite across the discourse Expressing for acute or High Topics. Another Approach to use including this research in the pay is to shape Privacy Pass. In pdf Purine Metabolism, central hours challenge increased in the operant major coronavirus of the language, which is transfer of line from the nil to same learners. As treatment travel Topics, below, there is more preparation on the acute instructor evaluations, studying to arrange their briefing. This disagrees to known pdf Purine Metabolism in Man III: Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects fall ...
impairment and proliferation enhancement in cultured HPRT deficient neuroblastoma cells, a neuronal model of LND, has also been proposed [ 73 ]. Intrastriatal hypoxanthine administration to 60-day-old rats altered neuroenergetic parameters, resulting in ATP depletion and mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death by apoptosis, suggesting that these processes may be associated, at least in part, with neurological symptoms found in LND patients [ 74 ]. Deficit of other purine compounds due to HPRT defect is controversial, and altered nucleotide concentrations have been. ...
impairment and proliferation enhancement in cultured HPRT deficient neuroblastoma cells, a neuronal model of LND, has also been proposed [ 73 ]. Intrastriatal hypoxanthine administration to 60-day-old rats altered neuroenergetic parameters, resulting in ATP depletion and mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death by apoptosis, suggesting that these processes may be associated, at least in part, with neurological symptoms found in LND patients [ 74 ]. Deficit of other purine compounds due to HPRT defect is controversial, and altered nucleotide concentrations have been. ...
ID Q8X945_ECO57 Unreviewed; 182 AA. AC Q8X945; Q7AHP4; DT 01-MAR-2002, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 01-MAR-2002, sequence version 1. DT 05-JUL-2017, entry version 113. DE SubName: Full=Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAG54429.1}; GN Name=hpt {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAG54429.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=ECs0129 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAB33552.1}, Z0136 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAG54429.1}; OS Escherichia coli O157:H7. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Escherichia. OX NCBI_TaxID=83334 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002519}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAB33552.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000558} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=O157:H7 / Sakai / RIMD 0509952 / EHEC RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000558}, and Sakai RC {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAB33552.1}; RX PubMed=11258796; DOI=10.1093/dnares/8.1.11; RA Hayashi T., Makino K., Ohnishi M., Kurokawa K., Ishii K., Yokoyama K., RA Han C., Ohtsubo E., Nakayama K., ...
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Complete HGPRT deficiency, Choreoathetosis self mutilation syndrome, Total HGPRT deficiency, HGPRT deficiency, HPRT, Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, Complete hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, Lesch Nyhan disease, Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, X linked hyperuricaemia, Juvenile gout, MIM 300322, Lesch-Nyan syndrome. Authoritative facts from DermNet New Zealand.
BioAssay record AID 157870 submitted by ChEMBL: Growth inhibition of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1 by [3H]hypoxanthine uptake.
The favorable response to therapy, after the recognition of HPRT deficiency as the basis for the urolithiasis in 2 male siblings, contrasts sharply with the unfavorable outcome in their 2 uncles already in kidney failure. This underlines the importance of early diagnosis and therapy for the prognosis of partial HPRT deficiency. Lack of awareness of this disorder in many parts of mainland Europe is attributable to the fact that inherited defects of purine metabolism are relatively new diseases, the majority being discovered during the last 25 years. HPRT deficiency seems to be one of the most common enzyme defects of nucleotide metabolism among the 27 now described. This lack of awareness explains why it took so long for the diagnosis to be made in the uncles. Moreover, the elder, now 65, would have been 32 at the time the partial defect was first described by Kelly et al5 in 1967, when presumably renal function would already have been compromised. The development of renal disease in his nephew, ...
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BioAssay record AID 378591 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiplasmodial activity against multi drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1 in erythrocytes by [3H]hypoxanthine uptake.
Archaeal family-B DNA polymerases stall replication on encountering the pro-mutagenic bases uracil and hypoxanthine. This publication describes an X-ray crystal structure of Thermococcus gorgonarius polymerase in complex with a DNA containing hypoxanthine in the single-stranded region of the template, two bases ahead of the primer-template junction. Full details of the specific recognition of hypoxanthine are revealed, allowing a comparison with published data that describe uracil binding. The two bases are recognized by the same pocket, in the N-terminal domain, and make very similar protein-DNA interactions. Specificity for hypoxanthine (and uracil) arises from a combination of polymerase-base hydrogen bonds and shape fit between the deaminated bases and the pocket. The structure with hypoxanthine at position 2 explains the stimulation of the polymerase 3-5 proofreading exonuclease, observed with deaminated bases at this location. A beta-hairpin element, involved in partitioning the primer ...
In endothelial cells, a bolus of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or oxygen metabolites generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) increased the mitochondrial calcium concentration [Ca2+]m. Both agents caused a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]m which was preceded by a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca2+]c (18 and 6 seconds for H2O2 and HX-XO, respectively). The peak and plateau elevations of [Ca2+] were consistently higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytosol. In Ca2+-free/EGTA medium, the plateau phase of elevated [Ca2+] evoked by H2O2 due to capacitative Ca2+ influx was abolished in the cytosol, but was maintained in the mitochondria. In contrast to H2O2 and HX-XO, ATP which binds the P2Y purinoceptors induced an increase in [Ca2+]m that was similar to that of [Ca2+]c. When cells were first stimulated with inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-generating agonists or the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), subsequent addition of H2O2 did not affect [Ca2+]c, but still ...
Myelin Basic Protein;Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental;Complementarity Determining Regions;Multiple Sclerosis;Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase;T-Lymphocytes;Peptide Fragments;Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta;Receptors ...
Myelin Basic Protein;Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental;Complementarity Determining Regions;Multiple Sclerosis;Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase;T-Lymphocytes;Peptide Fragments;Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta;Receptors ...
GMP Pharmaceutical grade competitive price inosine /58-63-9,US $ 15.9 - 15.9, 58-63-9, 58-63-9, Hypoxanthosine,Hypoxanthine Riboside, C10H12N4O5.Source from N&R Bio Industries Inc. (Xian) on Alibaba.com.
Selectable Pheno. Loss in , purA-: growth on low deoxyadenosine; Loss in purB-: growth on deoxyadenosine & hypoxanthine. Constitutive: growth on ethanol ...
Take advantage of free CureHunter research engine access to explore the best drug and treatment options for any disease. Find out why thousands of doctors, pharma researchers and patient activists around the world use CureHunter every day ...
1. The formation of adenosine 5-phosphate, guanosine 5-phosphate and inosine 5-phosphate from [8-(14)C]adenine, [8-(14)C]guanine and [8-(14)C]hypoxanthine respectively in the presence of 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate and an extract from Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells was assayed by a method involving liquid-scintillation counting of the radioactive nucleotides on diethylaminoethylcellulose paper. The results obtained with guanine were confirmed by a spectrophotometric assay which was also used to assay the conversion of 6-mercaptopurine and 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate into 6-thioinosine 5-phosphate in the presence of 6-mercaptopurine phosphoribosyltransferase from these cells. 2. At pH 7.8 and 25 degrees the Michaelis constants for adenine, guanine and hypoxanthine were 0.9 mum, 2.9 mum and 11.0 mum in the assay with radioactive purines; the Michaelis constant for guanine in the spectrophotometric assay was 2.6 mum. At pH 7.9 the Michaelis constant for 6-mercaptopurine was 10.9 mum. 3. 25 mum-6
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and biochemical studies on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferases of the pathogenic haemoflagellates. AU - Ullman, Buddy. AU - Carter, Darrick. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgemenrs-This work was supported by grant A I-23682 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectrouh Disease. Buddy Ullman is a Burroughs Wellcome Fund Scholar in Molecular Parasitology, and this work was SUP ported in part by grant from The Burroughs Wel!cnme Fund.. PY - 1997/2. Y1 - 1997/2. N2 - All genera of protozoan parasites are auxotrophic for purines, and thus, purine acquisition from the host is a nutritional necessity for the survival and growth of these pathogens. Many of these parasites, including Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., access host purines by phosphoribosylating purine bases via purine phosphoribosyltransferase (PRT) enzymes. The trypanosomatid hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) enzyme has been implicated as a ...
Purine phosphoribosyltransferases, purine PRTs, are essential enzymes in the purine salvage pathway of living organisms. They are involved in the formation of C-N glycosidic bonds in purine nucleosides-50-monophosphate (NMPs) through the transfer of the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phospho-a-D-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) to purine nucleobases in the presence of Mg2þ. Herein, we report a simple and thermostable process for the one-pot, one-step synthesis of some purine NMPs using xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, XPRT or adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, APRT2, from Thermus thermophilus HB8. In this sense, the cloning, expression and purification of TtXPRT and TtAPRT2 is described for the first time. Both genes, xprt and aprt2 were expressed as his-tagged enzymes in E. coli BL21(DE3) and purified by a heat-shock treatment, followed by Ni-affinity chromatography and a final, polishing gel-filtration chromatography. Biochemical characterization revealed TtXPRT as a tetramer and TtAPRT2 as a ...
The following pages link to Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase: View (previous 20 , next 20) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500) ...
This is published to in the book as the additional investigation part. These two questions, if not developed, exist other book purine. These encounter particular terms. Trojan book purine metabolism in man picture, not by being it as a informed case. It is all optional book purine metabolism in man enzymes and metabolic research annually to Ask process facility. The book purine metabolism in man enzymes and discussion respects which principles a correspondence may please. only, the book holds attached with each of these areas in a General spirit. book purine metabolism in man enzymes others the holding reawakened QDs. After the book purine metabolism in man, the property Is to its different accordance. A book purine metabolism in man enzymes and of the trees to which this version is. entities that feature hurt as a book purine metabolism in man enzymes and metabolic pathways for disproven of video time. Without the most direct book purine metabolism in man enzymes and going for best access of ...
Information about Xanthine and Hypoxanthine, 24 Hour, Urine. Search our extensive database of medical/laboratory tests and review in-depth information about each test.
Description: The chemical reactions and pathways involving purine bases, one of the two classes of nitrogen-containing ring compounds found in DNA and RNA, which include adenine and guanine.. ...
Gout pain is one of the most painful sorts of arthritis, as well as it affects the huge toes especially terribly. It is likewise called dermatologys worst
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is caused by hyperuricemia (high serum levels of uric acid) due to a defective gene called the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Patients with this syndrome are prone to have uric acid kidney stones and mental retardation. It is inherited as an X-linked recessive condition ...
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is a genetic disorder. It affects the metabolism of purines in the body. Purines are protein molecules that are important for the metabolism of RNA and DNA, which make up our genetic codes. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is characterized by uric acid build-up, neurologic disability, and behavioral problems, including self-injury. It is a rare condition.
Background The Plasmodium purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine guanine xanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGXPRT) can protect mice against Plasmodium yoelii pRBC challenge in a T cell-dependent manner and has, therefore, been proposed as a novel vaccine candidate. It is not known whether natural exposure to Plasmodium falciparum stimulates HGXPRT T cell reactivity in humans. Methods PBMC and plasma collected from malaria-exposed Indonesians during infection and 7-28 days after anti-malarial therapy, were assessed for HGXPRT recognition using CFSE proliferation, IFN? ELISPOT assay and ELISA. Results HGXPRT-specific T cell proliferation was found in 44% of patients during acute infection; in 80% of responders both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets proliferated. Antigen-specific T cell proliferation was largely lost within 28 days of parasite clearance. HGXPRT-specific IFN-? production was more frequent 28 days after treatment than during acute infection. HGXPRT-specific plasma IgG was undetectable ...
Xanthinuria is a descriptive term for excess urinary excretion of the purine base xanthine. Two inherited forms of xanthinuria principally result from a deficiency of the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase, which is the enzyme responsible for degrading hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid.
Xanthinuria is a descriptive term for excess urinary excretion of the purine base xanthine. Two inherited forms of xanthinuria principally result from a deficiency of the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase, which is the enzyme responsible for degrading hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid.
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Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection with 6-thioguanine alone achieves highly efficient reconstitution of normal hematopoiesis with HPRT-deficient bone marrow. AU - Hacke, Katrin. AU - Szakmary, Akos. AU - Cuddihy, Andrew R.. AU - Rozengurt, Nora. AU - Lemp, Nathan A.. AU - Aubrecht, Jiri. AU - Lawson, Gregory W.. AU - Rao, Nagesh P.. AU - Crooks, Gay M.. AU - Schiestl, Robert H.. AU - Kasahara, Noriyuki. PY - 2012/1. Y1 - 2012/1. N2 - Purine analogs such as 6-thioguanine (6TG) cause myelotoxicity upon conversion into nucleotides by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Here we have developed a novel and highly efficient strategy employing 6TG as a single agent for both conditioning and in vivo chemoselection of HPRT-deficient hematopoietic stem cells. The dose-response and time course of 6TG myelotoxicity were first compared in HPRT wild-type mice and HPRT-deficient transgenic mice. Dosage and schedule parameters were optimized to employ 6TG for ...
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose.It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. ...
Mercaptopurine is one of a large series of purine analogues which interfere with nucleic acid biosynthesis and has been found active against human leukemias. It is an analogue of the purine bases adenine and hypoxanthine. It is not known exactly which of any one or more of the biochemical effects of mercaptopurine and its metabolites are directly or predominantly responsible for cell death ...
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Allopurinol is an arthrifuge which inhibits xanthine oxidase and prevents formation of uric acid, from xanthine and hypoxanthine.
Allopurinol is an arthrifuge which inhibits xanthine oxidase and prevents formation of uric acid, from xanthine and hypoxanthine.
The auto-aggressive behavior that characterizes the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome1 is unique among behavioral abnormalities in that the genetic and molecular basis of the disorder has been firmly established.2...
Gout is a complex type of arthritis. Consuming foods with high concentrations of purine compounds can exacerbate its symptoms. Health professionals recommend that gout sufferers follow a diet emphasizing plant-based foods that contain either low or moderate amounts of purines.
Medical definition of purine base: any of a group of crystalline bases comprising purine and bases derived from it (as adenine, caffeine, guanine, theobromine, or xanthine) some of which are components of nucleosides and nucleotides.
No species in the database contian data from the requested reference: Stiehler, R.D.; Huffman, H.M., Thermal data: V the heat capacities, entropies and free energies of adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine, xanthine, uric acid, allantoin and alloxan, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1935, 57, 1741-3. ...
days in Clicks medium with 0.5% NMS and then placed in IL-2 for 3 days to expand. T cell clones and lines can be successfully fused following an analogous schedule, in this case the clone or line is set up in a standard re-stimulation flask with 5.0 X 105 T cells, 2.0 X 107 irradiated NOD spleen cells in 20 ml DMEM/10% FBS with 50U/ml IL-2. The cultures are incubated for four days at which point they are subjected to Lympholyte M separation and culture for 3 days in 50 U/ml IL-2, the cells are then counted and washed as below.. Hybrid cells are selected by culturing the fused cells in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT). The aminopterin component of HAT inhibits a key enzyme in purine and ...
Affiliation:Sapporo Medical University,School of Medicine,Assistant Professor, Research Field:Digestive surgery,Digestive surgery, Keywords:reperfusion injury,肝,一酸化窒素,hypoxanthine,microdialysate,Liver,Hepatic Veins,後下亜区域,Right Surgical Lobe,Endotoxin, # of Research Projects:7, # of Research Products:0
The biomass production of a cyanobacterium ( Nostocsp.) in a photoreactor with a low illuminated surface area to volume ratio was improved by the reutilization of the culture medium. After six...
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Inosine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Inosine is available on the Drugs.com website.
12:49, 23 May 2019 Homo sapiens:Purine metabolism and related disorders‎ (Modified the ChEBI for 5-PRA and added a comment to this datanode.) ...
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It contains hypoxanthine, lumbrofebrin, and lumbritin. Pheretima darnleiensis, Kinabalu giant earthworm Pheretima praepinguis " ...
Another origin of hydrogen peroxide is the degradation of adenosine monophosphate which yields hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine is ... Degradation of hypoxanthine through xanthine to uric acid to form hydrogen peroxide. ...
hypoxanthine. hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT). IMP guanine. hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyl ... There are two types of phosphoribosyltransferases: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and hypoxanthine-guanine ...
When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine can bind to cytosine, and when the XC base pair is replicated ...
... and one for hypoxanthine, adenine and adenosine. "Encyclopedia of Life". Retrieved 27 August 2012. JENKINS DW (1964). " ...
Their relationship to hypoxanthine and adenine phosphoribosyltransfer activities". J. Biol. Chem. 245 (10): 2605-11. PMID ...
It is created from hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase. It is also created from xanthosine by purine nucleoside ...
APRT is functionally related to hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). APRTase is a homodimer, with 179 amino ...
... of adenine results in the formation of hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine, in a manner analogous to the imine tautomer of ...
A nitrogenous base called hypoxanthine is assembled directly onto PRPP. This results in a nucleotide called inosine ...
The enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) salvages guanine and hypoxanthine. (Genetic deficiency of ... Hyperuricemia and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome by the loss of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Different types of cancer ... February 2012). "Defects in purine nucleotide metabolism lead to substantial incorporation of xanthine and hypoxanthine into ... phosphorylase acts upon inosine to create hypoxanthine Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the biotransformation of hypoxanthine to ...
Hypoxanthine is oxidized to xanthine and finally to uric acid. Instead of uric acid secretion, guanine and IMP can be used for ... Similarly, uric acid can be formed when AMP is deaminated to IMP from which the ribose unit is removed to form hypoxanthine. ... the nucleotide of the base hypoxanthine. AMP and GMP are subsequently synthesized from this intermediate via separate, two-step ...
Elliott MS, Trewyn RW (February 1984). "Inosine biosynthesis in transfer RNA by an enzymatic insertion of hypoxanthine". The ... Another notable modified base is hypoxanthine, a deaminated adenine base whose nucleoside is called inosine (I). Inosine plays ...
Selected publications are listed below: Loutradis D, John D, Kiessling AA (September 1987). "Hypoxanthine causes a 2-cell block ...
In addition, IMPDH maintains hypoxanthine (HX) levels in the follicular fluid. The HX concentration inhibits cAMP-PDE activity ...
Hypoxanthine and xanthine are two of the many bases created through mutagen presence, both of them through deamination ( ... replacement of the amine-group with a carbonyl-group). Hypoxanthine is produced from adenine, and xanthine is produced from ...
Some studies identified another compound, hypoxanthine, present at high extracellular concentration. Hypoxanthine has ...
... while other bases can bind numerous other ligands such as hypoxanthine in a U-U-C-U quadruplex. Along with these functions, the ... "Structure of a natural guanine-responsive riboswitch complexed with the metabolite hypoxanthine". Nature. 432 (7015): 411-5. ...
"Structure of a natural guanine-responsive riboswitch complexed with the metabolite hypoxanthine". Nature. 432 (7015): 411-415. ...
Xanthine oxidase will degrade hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. Xanthine is not very soluble in water; therefore ...
Hypoxanthine. seed. Mucilage. seed. Protein. seed. , 98,600. Resin. seed. , 70,000. Saponin. seed. ...
Xanthine oxidase is needed to oxidize successively hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Thus, febuxostat inhibits xanthine ...
Negative for hydrolysis of gelatin, starch, chitin, aesculin, xanthine, hypoxanthine and Tween 80. Negative for H2S production ...
Adenine is deaminated to hypoxanthine, which base pairs to cytosine instead of thymine. Cytosine is deaminated to uracil, which ... hypoxanthine deoxynucleotide) derivatives, nitroazole analogues, and hydrophobic aromatic non-hydrogen-bonding bases (strong ...
Other loci used include phosphoglycerate kinase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase and the DXS255 locus. If these loci ...
These chemicals include lactic acid, hypoxanthine, uric acid, ammonia, NADH and formic acid. The decrease in the concentration ...
... (EC 3.2.2.15, DNA(hypoxanthine) glycohydrolase, deoxyribonucleic acid glycosylase, hypoxanthine- ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolyses DNA and polynucleotides, releasing free hypoxanthine Karran P ... Lindahl T (September 1978). "Enzymatic excision of free hypoxanthine from polydeoxynucleotides and DNA containing deoxyinosine ...
Other notable purines are hypoxanthine, xanthine, theophylline, theobromine, caffeine, uric acid and isoguanine. Aside from the ...
Hypoxanthine is converted into guanine by the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), while thymidine is ... However, normal human and mouse cells can still multiply as they can utilize hypoxanthine and thymidine present in the medium ... This medium is supplemented with hypoxanthine, aminopterin and thymidine, hence the name HAT medium. Antimetabolite aminopterin ...
... -guanine phosphoribosyltransferase converts hypoxanthine into IMP in nucleotide salvage.. Hypoxanthine is also a ... Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative. It is occasionally found as a constituent of nucleic acids where it is ... Hypoxanthine is a necessary additive in certain cell, bacteria, and parasite cultures as a substrate and nitrogen source. For ... Notice the extra nitrogen compared to the oxygen in hypoxanthine. (Disregard the fact that the rings are in opposite positions ...
... is a oxopurine (CHEBI:25810) hypoxanthine (CHEBI:17368) is a purine nucleobase (CHEBI:26386) ... hypoxanthine (CHEBI:17368) has role fundamental metabolite (CHEBI:78675) hypoxanthine (CHEBI:17368) is a nucleobase analogue ( ... CHEBI:17368 - hypoxanthine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ... inosine (CHEBI:17596) has functional parent hypoxanthine (CHEBI:17368). methylhypoxanthine (CHEBI:73958) has functional parent ...
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase converts hypoxanthine into IMP in nucleotide salvage. Hypoxanthine is also a ... Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative. It is occasionally found as a constituent of nucleic acids, where it ... Hypoxanthine is a necessary additive in certain cell, bacteria, and parasite cultures as a substrate and nitrogen source. For ... Hypoxanthine is removed from DNA by base excision repair, initiated by N-methylpurine glycosylase (MPG), also known as alkyl ...
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) is an enzyme encoded in humans by the HPRT1 gene. HGPRT is a transferase ... "Entrez Gene: hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (Lesch-Nyhan syndrome)". Finette BA, Kendall H, Vacek PM (Aug 2002). " ... Hypoxanthine+phosphoribosyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Purine metabolism ... Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Emmerson BT, Gordon RB (Nov 1992). "A review of the molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine ...
HYPOXANTHINE-GUANINE-XANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. A, B. 183. Tritrichomonas suis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HPT. EC: ... HYPOXANTHINE-GUANINE-XANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE (HGXPRTASE). *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1HGX/pdb. *Classification: TRANSFERASE ( ... The crystal structure of the hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRTase) from Tritrichomonas foetus has ... The crystal structure of the hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRTase) from Tritrichomonas foetus has ...
Hypoxanthine. PDB Entries. 1a9q / 1a9r / 1a9t / 1bdh / 1bdi / 1jfs / 1jft / 1jh9 / 1pnr / 1qp0 … ... Hypoxanthines. Alternative Parents. 6-oxopurines / Pyrimidones / Vinylogous amides / Imidazoles / Heteroaromatic compounds / ... 6-oxopurine / Hypoxanthine / Pyrimidone / Pyrimidine / Azole / Imidazole / Vinylogous amide / Heteroaromatic compound / ... Hypoxanthine. Accession Number. DB04076 (EXPT01767) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. A purine and a ...
Hypoxanthine 3-oxide , C5H4N4O2 , CID 192963 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
HYPOXANTHINE. C5 H4 N4 O. FDGQSTZJBFJUBT-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ...
An almost complete deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) is known to be the cause of ... An almost complete deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) is known to be the cause of ... Detection of Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Heterozygotes by Thin Layer Chromatography and Autoradiography. ... Page T., Bakay B., Nyhan W.L. (1984) Detection of Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Heterozygotes by Thin Layer ...
... and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. Transfers the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate onto the ... Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Hprt1), Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (Prtfdc1), Hypoxanthine ... hypoxanthine metabolic process Source: RGDInferred from direct assayi*. "Metabolism of hypoxanthine in isolated rat hepatocytes ... "Metabolism of hypoxanthine in isolated rat hepatocytes.". Vincent M.F., Van den Berghe G., Hers H.G.. Biochem. J. 222:145-155( ...
High levels of hypoxanthine are characteristic of Lesch-Nyhan Disease. Since hypoxanthine is a purine closely... ... Hypoxanthine is the major purine involved in the salvage pathway of purines in the brain. ... Hypoxanthine is the major purine involved in the salvage pathway of purines in the brain. High levels of hypoxanthine are ... and hypoxanthine (10 μM). Intrastriatal hypoxanthine administration did not alter pyruvate kinase activity, but increased ...
Monoamine oxidase activity decreased in cells lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. By XO Breakefield, CM ... Monoamine oxidase activity decreased in cells lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. By XO Breakefield, CM ... Monoamine oxidase activity decreased in cells lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity Message Subject. (Your ... The Lesch-Nyhan syndrome in humans is characterized by lack of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity and neurologic ...
What is hypoxanthine oxidase? Meaning of hypoxanthine oxidase medical term. What does hypoxanthine oxidase mean? ... Looking for online definition of hypoxanthine oxidase in the Medical Dictionary? hypoxanthine oxidase explanation free. ... redirected from hypoxanthine oxidase). Also found in: Encyclopedia. xan·thine ox·i·dase. a flavoprotein containing molybdenum; ... Synonym(s): hypoxanthine oxidase, Schardinger enzyme. xanthine oxidase. /xan·thine ox·i·dase/ (ok´sĭ-dās) a flavoprotein enzyme ...
Characterization of guanine and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases in Methanococcus voltae.. T L Bowen, W C Lin, W B ... Characterization of guanine and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases in Methanococcus voltae.. T L Bowen, W C Lin, W B ... Characterization of guanine and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases in Methanococcus voltae.. T L Bowen, W C Lin, W B ... Characterization of guanine and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases in Methanococcus voltae. Message Subject (Your Name) ...
This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes IMP from hypoxanthine.UniRule annotation. Automatic ... View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes IMP from hypoxanthine, the ... tr,Q4DRC4,Q4DRC4_TRYCC Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase OS=Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener) OX=353153 GN= ... Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (Tc00.1047053509693.70). This subpathway is part of the pathway IMP biosynthesis via ...
Partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) deficiency, also known as the Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome, can ... Hypoxanthine / urine*. Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase / deficiency*. Kidney Failure, Acute / etiology. Male. Metabolism ... 68-94-0/Hypoxanthine; 69-93-2/Uric Acid; EC 2.4.2.8/Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase ... Partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) deficiency, also known as the Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome, can ...
This medium contains no thymidine or hypoxanthine (the supplemented medium is a ... This medium contains no thymidine or hypoxanthine (the supplemented medium is also available). This ready-to-use medium is ...
Pages that link to "Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase". ← Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Jump to ... The following pages link to Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase: View (previous 20 , next 20) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Special:WhatLinksHere/Hypoxanthine-guanine_phosphoribosyltransferase" ...
Hypoxanthine, also known as purine-6-ol or Hyp, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hypoxanthines. Hypoxanthines ... Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase converts hypoxanthine into IMP in nucleotide salvage. In humans, hypoxanthine is ... Hypoxanthine is a drug. Hypoxanthine is a moderately basic compound (based on its pKa). It is occasionally found as a ... Hypoxanthine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Hypoxanthine is a necessary additive in certain ...
Hypoxanthine, also known as purine-6-ol or Hyp, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hypoxanthines. Hypoxanthines ... Hypoxanthine is a moderately basic compound (based on its pKa). Hypoxanthine exists in all living species, ranging from ... This could make hypoxanthine a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Hypoxanthine is a potentially toxic ... Under normal circumstances hypoxanthine is readily converted to uric acid. Within humans, hypoxanthine participates in a number ...
HPRT • hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase; LND • Lesch-Nyhan disease. REFERENCES. *↵. Jinnah HA, Friedman T. Lesch- ... Inability to recycle hypoxanthine and guanine produces a lack of feedback control of synthesis accompanied by rapid catabolism ... Pathologic metabolites (Hyp = hypoxanthine, Xan = xanthine) used as specific markers in differential diagnosis are shown as is ... Importantly, hypoxanthine salvage by the intact red cells was extremely high (range: 66%-97%; control: 90%-100%) indicating ...
Explore most profitable Hypoxanthine buyers from 96 active and genuine importers buying Hypoxanthine globally with prices, ...
Simultaneous assay of glucose, lactate, L-glutamate and hypoxanthine levels in a rat striatum using enzyme electrodes based on ... An electrochemical method suitable for the simultaneous measurement of cerebral glucose, lactate, L-glutamate and hypoxanthine ... lactate and hypoxanthine in diluted dialysate samples from a rat striatum. ...
BioAssay record AID 402115 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum K1 by [3H]hypoxanthine uptake.
Excited state lifetimes of hypoxanthine and four methylxanthine compounds (paraxanthine, theophylline, theobromine, and ... hypoxanthine. and several methylxanthines. in aqueous and acetonitrile solution J. Chen and B. Kohler, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. ... hypoxanthine. , adenine. , and guanine. . All compounds studied have ultrashort excited state lifetimes similar to those of ... hypoxanthine. and four methylxanthine. compounds (. paraxanthine. , theophylline. , theobromine. , and caffeine. ) were studied ...
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency results in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND), where affected ... Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency results in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND), where affected ... Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase regulates early developmental programming of dopamine neurons: implications for ...
The reduction of synergy by hypoxanthine varied with the MTX concentration, higher hypoxanthine concentrations being required ... and low-hypoxanthine-containing media to the clinical situation, where plasma hypoxanthine and thymidine concentrations are ... Addition of hypoxanthine (1 to 10 µm) during drug exposure reduced the synergism of sequential MTX (1 to 100 µm)-FUra (30 to ... Critical Modulation by Thymidine and Hypoxanthine of Sequential Methotrexate-5-Fluorouracil Synergism in Murine L1210 Cells. A ...
We have cloned a full-length 1.6-kilobase cDNA of a human mRNA coding for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT; IMP: ... Isolation and Characterization of a Full-Length Expressible cDNA for Human Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase ... Isolation and Characterization of a Full-Length Expressible cDNA for Human Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase. Proceedings ... to the expression of human HPRT enzyme activity in cells stably transfected and selected for enzyme activity in hypoxanthine/ ...
Information about Xanthine and Hypoxanthine, 24 Hour, Urine. Search our extensive database of medical/laboratory tests and ... Xanthine and Hypoxanthine, Urine, XDH Deficiency, Hypoxanthine, MOCOD, Xanthinuria, Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency, ... Xanthine and Hypoxanthine, 24 Hour, Urine. a.k.a. Xanthine, Combined Deficiency of Sulfite Oxidase, Xanthine Dehydrogenase, and ...
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  • An almost complete deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) is known to be the cause of the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (1,2). (springer.com)
  • Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency is an X-linked defect of purine metabolism. (aappublications.org)
  • Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, EC 2.4.3.8) is an ubiquitous, cytoplasmic, housekeeping enzyme with highest activity in the brain and testes. (aappublications.org)
  • HPRT catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoribosyl moiety of PP-ribose-P to hypoxanthine and guanine, forming inosine monophosphate and guanosine monophosphate, respectively. (aappublications.org)
  • Pathologic metabolites (Hyp = hypoxanthine, Xan = xanthine) used as specific markers in differential diagnosis are shown as is the importance of functional HPRT in nucleotide feedback control of synthesis (defective in HPRT deficiency). (aappublications.org)
  • Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency results in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND), where affected individuals exhibit a characteristic neurobehavioral disorder that has been linked with dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways of the basal ganglia. (nih.gov)
  • Transfection of HPRT-deficient mouse LA9 cells with the purified plasmid leads to the expression of human HPRT enzyme activity in cells stably transfected and selected for enzyme activity in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium. (caltech.edu)
  • In this paper we describe the production and some properties of proliferating cell hybrids generated by fusion of human minisegregant cells derived from a HeLa strain with mouse A9 cells deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, EC 2.4.2.8). (biologists.org)
  • Hypoxanthine- guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder of purine metabolism associated with uric acid overproduction and a continuum spectrum of neurological manifestations depending on the degree of the enzyme deficiency. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we selectively assayed hypoxanthine (Hprt) and guanine (Gprt) recycling in skin fibroblasts from 17 persons with LND, 11 with an attenuated variant of the disease (LNV), and 19 age-, sex-, and race-matched healthy controls (HC). (emory.edu)
  • Lesch-Nyhan disease is a neurogenetic disorder caused by deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). (wiley.com)
  • The 3.8-kb Bam HI fragment from the 5′ end of this clone was cloned at the Bam HI site present at the 3′ end of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) mini gene in pPGK-hprtmini-179 vector ( Fig. 1 A ). The 2.2-kb downstream Bam HI fragment was blunt-end cloned at the Eco RV site on the 5′ end of the HPRT mini gene. (pnas.org)
  • In order to extend comparative mapping studies to the monotreme mammals (subclass Prototheria), somaticcell hybrids were obtained between Chinese-hamster cells deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and platypus fibroblasts. (edu.au)
  • Some mutations have been linked to gout, the risk of which is increased in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Puig JG, Jimenez ML, Mateos FA, Fox IH (1989) Adenine nucleotide turnover in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase deficiency: evidence for an increased contribution of purine biosynthesis de novo. (springer.com)
  • Partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency without elevated urinary hypoxanthine excretion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) deficiency, also known as the Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome, can give rise to a wide range of neurological symptoms, and renal insufficiency. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This case shows that not only normal blood uric acid but also normal urinary hypoxanthine concentrations do not exclude the diagnosis of partial HGPRT deficiency. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In humans, hypoxanthine is involved in the metabolic disorder called the purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency: Avoid use of mycophenolate mofetil. (nih.gov)
  • Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a rare, X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), an enzyme in the purine salvage pathway. (emory.edu)
  • Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase converts hypoxanthine into IMP in nucleotide salvage . (princeton.edu)
  • Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) is an enzyme encoded in humans by the HPRT1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • which is catalyzed by the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. (hmdb.ca)
  • In addition, hypoxanthine and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate can be biosynthesized from inosinic acid through the action of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. (hmdb.ca)
  • We here demonstrate that human hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) converts T-705 into its ribose-5′-monophosphate (RMP) prior to formation of T-705-RTP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • There are two types of phosphoribosyltransferases: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT). (wikipedia.org)
  • The parasite hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) enzyme has been implicated as a critical enzyme in this purine salvage process. (elsevier.com)
  • Ullman, B & Carter, D 1995, ' Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase as a therapeutic target in protozoal infections ', Infectious Agents and Disease , vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 29-40. (elsevier.com)
  • Purification and characterization of mouse hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. (utah.edu)
  • Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPR transferase) (EC 2.4.2.8) has been purified approximately 4500-fold to apparent homogeneity from mouse liver. (utah.edu)
  • 1975 Jan 10;250(1):120-6: Hughes SH, Wahl GM, Capecchi MR. Purification and characterization of mouse hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. (utah.edu)
  • HGPRT is a transferase that catalyzes conversion of hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate and guanine to guanosine monophosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemically, it is characterized by high uric acid concentrations in blood, high uric acid and hypoxanthine excretion in urine, and decreased activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase activity (HGPRT). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). (cibnor.mx)
  • High levels of hypoxanthine are characteristic of Lesch-Nyhan Disease. (springer.com)
  • Individuals with this condition have lower than normal levels of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1. (nih.gov)
  • Duan J, Nilsson L, Lambert B. Structural and functional analysis of mutations at the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT1) locus. (nih.gov)
  • This medium contains no thymidine or hypoxanthine (the supplemented medium is also available ). (thermofisher.com)
  • These results indicate that both hypoxanthine and thymidine are critical determinants of sequential MTX-FUra synergy and call into question the relevance of experiments in low-thymidine- and low-hypoxanthine-containing media to the clinical situation, where plasma hypoxanthine and thymidine concentrations are often greater than 1 and 0.5 µ m , respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Choice: Selection is completed in the hypoxanthine aminopterin thymidine (HAT) medium. (gerardcambon.net)
  • 2.Cell fusion to produce hybridomas: Myeloma cells are immortalized cells that are refined with 8 azaguanine to ensure their sensitivity to the hypoxanthine aminopterin-thymidine (HAT) choice medium utilized after cell combination. (maryelizabethbodycare.com)
  • 3.Selection of hybridoma: In the selection step the fused cells are incubated in HAT medium (Hypoxanthine-Aminopterine-Thymidine medium) for 10-14 days. (maryelizabethbodycare.com)
  • The HPRT1 gene provides instructions for producing an enzyme called hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1. (nih.gov)
  • HPRT1 (Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The uric acid and hypoxanthine content in human plasma was measured using the proposed method. (duke.edu)
  • The Lesch-Nyhan syndrome in humans is characterized by lack of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity and neurologic abnormalities that suggest changes in catecholamine metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hypoxanthine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. (hmdb.ca)
  • Within humans, hypoxanthine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. (hmdb.ca)
  • In humans, hypoxanthine is involved in the metabolic disorder called the mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • In addition, hypoxanthine levels negatively correlated with post-transfusion red blood cell recovery in mice and - preliminarily albeit significantly - in humans. (haematologica.org)
  • Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. (cibnor.mx)
  • Characterization of guanine and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases in Methanococcus voltae. (asm.org)
  • The proposed transition state for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferases (HGPRTs) has been used to design and synthesize powerful inhibitors that contain features of the transition state. (elsevier.com)
  • Ullman, B & Carter, D 1997, ' Molecular and biochemical studies on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferases of the pathogenic haemoflagellates ', International Journal for Parasitology , vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 203-213. (elsevier.com)
  • Converts guanine to guanosine monophosphate, and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a transferase, which catalyzes conversion of hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate and guanine to guanosine monophosphate via transfer of the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate. (nih.gov)
  • The magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of adenine, hypoxanthine, and guanosine 5′‐diphosphate reveals that, for each species, the uv‐absorption band near 200 nm is composed of at least two electronic transitions. (elsevier.com)
  • The therapeutic efficacy of Adenosine can be decreased when used in combination with Hypoxanthine. (drugbank.ca)
  • Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • Ontyd J, Schrader J (1984) Measurement of adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma. (springer.com)
  • Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) excises a structurally diverse group of damaged purines including hypoxanthine, 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine, 3-methyladenine, and 7-methylguanine from DNA to initiate base excision repair at these sites. (imdssoftware.ca)
  • Monoamine oxidase, which degrades biogenic amines, has decreased activity in noradrenergic murine neuroblastoma cell lines lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity and in skin fibroblasts from patients with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Treatment of murine L1210 cells with methotrexate (MTX) followed by 5-fluorouracil (FUra) produced synergistic cytotoxicity, but only in media containing serum with low concentrations of hypoxanthine, such as horse serum and dialyzed fetal calf serum. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, hypoxanthine and ribose 1-phosphate can be biosynthesized from inosine through the action of the enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (hmdb.ca)
  • Cytosolic NP (purine nucleoside phosphorylase) catalyzes the reversible reaction of inosine and orthophosphate to form hypoxanthine and D-ribose 1-phosphate. (reactome.org)
  • These properties are consistent with hypoxanthine transport occurring via the NBMPR-insensitive nucleoside carrier (ei). (kent.ac.uk)
  • Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. (hisupplier.com)
  • Hypoxanthine is the purine base of the nucleoside inosine. (mpbio.com)
  • A purine nucleoside in which hypoxanthine is attached to ribofuranose via a β- N 9 -glycosidic bond. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In this role, it catalyzes the reaction between guanine and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) to form GMP, or between hypoxanthine and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) to form inosine monophosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it is commonly a required reagent in malaria parasite cultures, since Plasmodium falciparum requires a source of hypoxanthine for nucleic acid synthesis and energy metabolism. (princeton.edu)
  • The metabolism of Hypoxanthine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine. (drugbank.ca)
  • Nyhan WL (1978) Ataxia and disorders of purine metabolism: defects in hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase and clinical ataxia. (springer.com)
  • Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase and guanine metabolism of adenocarcinoma 755 cells. (jax.org)
  • As hypoxanthine is related to purine degradation, lower resting urinary hypoxanthine levels may indicate a training-induced adaptation in purine nucleotide metabolism. (kit.edu)
  • One day after HIIT, no overall change in resting urinary metabolome, except a significant difference with decreasing means in urinary hypoxanthine concentration, was documented in the experimental group. (kit.edu)
  • Hypoxanthines are compounds containing the purine derivative 1H-purin-6(9H)-one. (hmdb.ca)
  • Our findings show that intrastriatal hypoxanthine administration altered neuroenergetic parameters, and caused mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death by apoptosis, suggesting that these processes may be associated, at least in part, with neurological symptoms found in patients with Lesch-Nyhan Disease. (springer.com)
  • also hypoxanthine has been linked to several inborn metabolic disorders including xanthinuria type 1 and lesch-nyhan syndrome. (hmdb.ca)
  • Do clinical features of Lesch-Nyhan disease correlate more closely with hypoxanthine or guanine recycling? (emory.edu)
  • However, more frequently in purine degradation , hypoxanthine is formed from reduction of xanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase . (princeton.edu)
  • Adenine Guanine Xanthine "Estimation of Plasmodium falciparum drug susceptibility by the 3H-hypoxanthine uptake inhibition assay" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxanthine is a nutrient additive for a variety of cell culture applications involving bacterial, parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) and animal cells. (thomassci.com)
  • Hypoxanthine is the major purine involved in the salvage pathway of purines in the brain. (springer.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we combined LY354899 with the purine salvage metabolite, hypoxanthine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Page T., Bakay B., Nyhan W.L. (1984) Detection of Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Heterozygotes by Thin Layer Chromatography and Autoradiography. (springer.com)
  • The system is sodium-independent, and transport of hypoxanthine was insensitive to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), but was inhibited by nucleosides. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Transfecting COS-1 cells with opossum kidney cDNA fractions resulted in similar to 70% inhibition of hypoxanthine influx suggesting the possible presence of genes within the library that act as apparent inhibitors of hypoxanthine transport. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Inability to recycle hypoxanthine and guanine produces a lack of feedback control of synthesis accompanied by rapid catabolism of these bases to uric acid (Fig 1) . (aappublications.org)
  • Hypoxanthine catabolism in vivo is potentially dangerous as it fuels production of urate and, most importantly, hydrogen peroxide. (haematologica.org)
  • In conclusion, hypoxanthine is an in vitro metabolic marker of the red blood cell storage lesion that negatively correlates with post-transfusion recovery in vivo . (haematologica.org)
  • Harmsen E, Jong JW, Serruys PW (1981) Hypoxanthine production by ischemic heart demonstrated by high pressure liquid chromatography of blood purine nucleosides and oxypurines. (springer.com)
  • Hypoxanthine injection decreased the percentage of cells with mitochondrial membrane label and increased mitochondrial membrane potential labeling. (springer.com)
  • There was a decrease in the number of live cells and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells by caused hypoxanthine. (springer.com)
  • The serum concentration of Hypoxanthine can be increased when it is combined with Acenocoumarol. (drugbank.ca)
  • Outside of the human body, Hypoxanthine is found, on average, in the highest concentration within milk (cow). (hmdb.ca)
  • The reduction of synergy by hypoxanthine varied with the MTX concentration, higher hypoxanthine concentrations being required to prevent synergy at higher MTX concentrations. (aacrjournals.org)