A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)
Defective development of the THYROID GLAND. This concept includes thyroid agenesis (aplasia), hypoplasia, or an ectopic gland. Clinical signs usually are those of CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.
Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.
Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.
Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.
A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.
Thyroglobulin is a glycoprotein synthesized and secreted by thyroid follicular cells, serving as a precursor for the production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4, and its measurement in blood serves as a tumor marker for thyroid cancer surveillance.
A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A thiourea antithyroid agent that inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormone. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
A metabolite of THYROXINE, formed by the peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus.
Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.
A dehydrated extract of thyroid glands from domesticated animals. After the removal of fat and connective tissue, the extract is dried or lyophilized to yield a yellowish to buff-colored amorphous powder containing 0.17-0.23% of iodine.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.
Excessive or inappropriate LACTATION in females or males, and not necessarily related to PREGNANCY. Galactorrhea can occur either unilaterally or bilaterally, and be profuse or sparse. Its most common cause is HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.
Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.
Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis is associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial ATP-dependent Lon protease. (1/2275)

Rats bearing the Zajdela hepatoma tumor and T3-treated hypothyroid rats were used to study the role of protein degradation in the process of mitochondrial biogenesis. It was shown that the activity, protein and mRNA levels of the ATP-dependent Lon protease increased in rapidly growing Zajdela hepatoma cells. The increase in the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis by thyroid hormone was similarly accompanied by enhanced expression of the Lon protease. The results imply that mitochondrial biogenesis in mammalian cells is, at least partially, regulated by the matrix Lon protease.  (+info)

Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle. (2/2275)

We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism.  (+info)

Stimulation of Na,K-ATPase by hypothyroidism in the thyroid gland. (3/2275)

Although studies have documented the regulatory effects of thyroid hormones on the Na,K-ATPase in peripheral tissues, there is little information on the regulation of this transporter in the thyroid gland itself. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of thyroid status on Na,K-ATPase specific activity and the abundance of its constituent subunits in rat thyroid. Exogenous tri-iodothyronine (T3) was administered daily to produce hyperthyroidism. 6n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, was used to induce hypothyroidism. There was a four-fold increase in Na,K-ATPase specific activity in the follicular membranes from PTU-treated animals after 7 days. Enzymatic activities were not changed in the T3-treated glands. Immunoblotting of membranes from T3-treated rats revealed a 75% reduction in alpha1 subunit abundance and a slight, but nonsignificant reduction in beta1 abundance. On the other hand, the membranes from PTU-treated rats displayed 136 and 567% increases in the abundance of the alpha1 and beta1 subunits respectively. These data demonstrate that thyroid hormone status regulates Na,K-ATPase in the gland, but the effects are in direct contrast to those seen in the periphery.  (+info)

Electrophysiologic effects of chronic amiodarone therapy and hypothyroidism, alone and in combination, on guinea pig ventricular myocytes. (4/2275)

Amiodarone is a widely used antiarrhythmic drug, the mechanisms of action of which remain incompletely understood. Indirect evidence suggests that the class III properties of amiodarone may be mediated by cardiac antithyroid effects. We sought to determine whether the effects of chronic amiodarone on repolarization in guinea pig hearts can be attributed to an antithyroid action by studying the changes in dofetilide-sensitive rapid (IKr) and dofetilide-resistant slow (IKs) delayed rectifier currents, inward rectifier K+ current (IK1), and action potentials of ventricular myocytes from five groups of guinea pigs: control, hypothyroid, amiodarone-treated for 7 days, hypothyroid plus amiodarone, and vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) treated. IKs was reduced by amiodarone (to 61% of control, P <.05, at 50 mV) but was more strongly reduced by hypothyroidism (to 35% of control, P <.01, 50 mV). Amiodarone significantly reduced IKr and IK1 (by 55 and 64% at 10 mV and -50 mV, respectively), which were unaffected by hypothyroidism. Amiodarone alone and hypothyroidism alone had similar action potential-prolonging actions. Hypothyroid animals treated with amiodarone showed a combination of ionic effects (strong IKs reduction, similar to hypothyroidism alone; reduced IKr and IK1, similar to amiodarone alone), along with action potential prolongation significantly greater than that caused by either intervention alone. We conclude that chronic amiodarone and hypothyroidism have different effects on ionic currents and that their combination prolongs action potential duration to a greater extent than either alone in guinea pig hearts, suggesting that the class III actions of amiodarone are not mediated by a cardiac hypothyroid state.  (+info)

Monophasic action potentials of right atrium and electrophysiological properties of AV conducting system in patients with hypothyroidism. (5/2275)

In 12 patients with manifest hypothyroidism right atrial monophasic action potentials showed a significant prolongation in comparison with data from normal or euthyroid patients. Atrial effective refractory periods were also significantly prolonged. After thyroid treatment the monophasic action potential duration and the effective refractory period of the right atrium were within normal ranges. In 6 hypothyroid patients studies of AV conduction with the aid of His bundle electrography and atrial pacing showed a supraHisian conduction delay which was manifest in one case and latent in another two. InfraHisian conduction delay was encountered in 2 cases.  (+info)

Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine. (6/2275)

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified.  (+info)

Na,K-ATPase mRNA beta 1 expression in rat myocardium--effect of thyroid status. (7/2275)

The abundance of Na,K-ATPase and its alpha and beta subunit mRNAs is upregulated in cardiac and other target tissue by thyroid hormone (T3). Multiple Na,K-ATPase mRNA beta 1 species encoding an identical beta 1 polypeptide are expressed in the heart. The different mRNA beta 1 species result from utilization of two transcription start-sites in the first exon and multiple (five) poly(A) signals in the terminal exon of the beta 1 gene. In the present study we identify the mRNA beta 1 species that are expressed in rat ventricular myocardium under basal conditions, and determine whether they are differentially regulated by T3. mRNA beta 1 species were identified by 3'-RACE followed by DNA sequencing, and by Northern blotting using probes derived from different regions of rat cDNA beta 1. Five mRNA beta 1 species are expressed in rat heart: mRNA beta 1 species that are initiated at the first transcription start-site and end at the first, second and fifth poly(A) sites (resulting in mRNAs of 1630, 1810, and 2780 nucleotides), and mRNA beta 1 species initiated at the second transcription start-site and ending at the second and fifth poly(A) sites (resulting in mRNAs of 1500 and 2490 nucleotides); in order of increasing length, the five mRNAs constitute 0.04, 0.15, 0.38, 0.11 and 0.32 of total mRNA beta 1 content. In hypothyroid rats (induced by addition of propyl-thiouracil to the drinking water for 3 weeks), total mRNA beta 1 content decreased to 0.18 euthyroid levels, which was associated with a disproportionate 7.5-fold decrease in the abundance of the longest transcript (P < 0.05); transcripts initiating at the first transcription start-site and ending at the second poly(A) signal in hypothyroid hearts were 0.26 euthyroid levels (P < 0.05). Hyperthyroidism induced by injection of normal rats with three doses of 100 micrograms T3/100 g body weight every 48 h resulted in an overall approximately 2-fold increase in mRNA beta 1 content with no change in the fractional contribution of any of the mRNA beta 1 species. The results indicate a complex heterogeneity in the expression of mRNA beta 1 in myocardium.  (+info)

Assessment of thyroid hormone assays. (8/2275)

Four techniques for estimating serum T4 and three for estimating serum T3 have been investigated and found to be satisfactory in routine use. Normal ranges for each techniques have been established. Estimation of serum T3 by the commerical kits tested appears to have a high discriminant value in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, although the diagnostic definition used inevitably enhances the apparent sensitivity of these techniques. Estimation of serum T4 will identify the majority of patients with symptomatic hypothyroidism. The low sensitivity of T3 in the diagnosis of thyroid failure is confirmed.  (+info)

Hypothyroidism is a medical condition where the thyroid gland, which is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of your neck, does not produce enough thyroid hormones. This results in a slowing down of the body's metabolic processes, leading to various symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, constipation, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, muscle weakness, and depression.

The two main thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, and energy levels. In hypothyroidism, the production of these hormones is insufficient, leading to a range of symptoms that can affect multiple organ systems.

Hypothyroidism can be caused by several factors, including autoimmune disorders (such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis), surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radiation therapy for neck cancer, certain medications, and congenital defects. Hypothyroidism is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure levels of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), T3, and T4. Treatment usually involves taking synthetic thyroid hormones to replace the missing hormones and alleviate symptoms.

Congenital hypothyroidism is a medical condition characterized by the partial or complete absence of thyroid hormone production in the baby's body at birth. The thyroid gland, which is located in the front of the neck, produces hormones that are essential for normal growth and development of the brain and body.

Congenital hypothyroidism can occur due to various reasons such as the absence or abnormal development of the thyroid gland, or a defect in the production or regulation of thyroid hormones. In some cases, it may be caused by genetic mutations that affect the development or function of the thyroid gland.

If left untreated, congenital hypothyroidism can lead to mental and physical retardation, growth problems, and other health issues. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat this condition as early as possible, usually within the first few weeks of life. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing thyroid hormones with synthetic medications, which are safe and effective when administered under a doctor's supervision.

Thyroxine (T4) is a type of hormone produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of your neck. It is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, with the other being triiodothyronine (T3).

Thyroxine plays a crucial role in regulating various metabolic processes in the body, including growth, development, and energy expenditure. Specifically, T4 helps to control the rate at which your body burns calories for energy, regulates protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and influences the body's sensitivity to other hormones.

T4 is produced by combining iodine and tyrosine, an amino acid found in many foods. Once produced, T4 circulates in the bloodstream and gets converted into its active form, T3, in various tissues throughout the body. Thyroxine has a longer half-life than T3, which means it remains active in the body for a more extended period.

Abnormal levels of thyroxine can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). These conditions can cause a range of symptoms, including weight gain or loss, fatigue, mood changes, and changes in heart rate and blood pressure.

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its primary function is to regulate the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones from the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin binds to receptors on the surface of thyroid follicular cells, stimulating the uptake of iodide and the synthesis and release of T4 and T3. The secretion of thyrotropin is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates the release of thyrotropin, while T3 and T4 inhibit its release through a negative feedback mechanism.

Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are a group of blood tests that assess the functioning of the thyroid gland, which is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the body.

TFTs typically include the following tests:

1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test: This test measures the level of TSH, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that regulates the production of thyroid hormones. High levels of TSH may indicate an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), while low levels may indicate an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).
2. Thyroxine (T4) test: This test measures the level of T4, a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. High levels of T4 may indicate hyperthyroidism, while low levels may indicate hypothyroidism.
3. Triiodothyronine (T3) test: This test measures the level of T3, another hormone produced by the thyroid gland. High levels of T3 may indicate hyperthyroidism, while low levels may indicate hypothyroidism.
4. Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) test: This test measures the level of TPOAb, an antibody that attacks the thyroid gland and can cause hypothyroidism.
5. Thyroglobulin (Tg) test: This test measures the level of Tg, a protein produced by the thyroid gland. It is used to monitor the treatment of thyroid cancer.

These tests help diagnose and manage various thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, and thyroid cancer.

Thyroid hormones are hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small endocrine gland located in the neck that helps regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. The two main thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which contain iodine atoms. These hormones play a crucial role in various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, digestion, and brain development. They help regulate the rate at which your body uses energy, affects how sensitive your body is to other hormones, and plays a vital role in the development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. Thyroid hormone levels are regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through a feedback mechanism that helps maintain proper balance.

Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition characterized by an excessive production and release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland, leading to an increased metabolic rate in various body systems. The thyroid gland, located in the front of the neck, produces two main thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating many bodily functions, including heart rate, digestion, energy levels, and mood.

In hyperthyroidism, the elevated levels of T3 and T4 can cause a wide range of symptoms, such as rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, increased appetite, tremors, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Some common causes of hyperthyroidism include Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, Plummer's disease (toxic multinodular goiter), and thyroiditis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to manage the symptoms and prevent potential complications associated with this condition.

The thyroid gland is a major endocrine gland located in the neck, anterior to the trachea and extends from the lower third of the Adams apple to the suprasternal notch. It has two lateral lobes, connected by an isthmus, and sometimes a pyramidal lobe. This gland plays a crucial role in the metabolism, growth, and development of the human body through the production of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine/T3 and thyroxine/T4) and calcitonin. The thyroid hormones regulate body temperature, heart rate, and the production of protein, while calcitonin helps in controlling calcium levels in the blood. The function of the thyroid gland is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone, specifically the active form of thyroid hormone, that plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. It is produced by the thyroid gland through the iodination and coupling of the amino acid tyrosine with three atoms of iodine. T3 is more potent than its precursor, thyroxine (T4), which has four iodine atoms, as T3 binds more strongly to thyroid hormone receptors and accelerates metabolic processes at the cellular level.

In circulation, about 80% of T3 is bound to plasma proteins, while the remaining 20% is unbound or free, allowing it to enter cells and exert its biological effects. The primary functions of T3 include increasing the rate of metabolic reactions, promoting protein synthesis, enhancing sensitivity to catecholamines (e.g., adrenaline), and supporting normal brain development during fetal growth and early infancy. Imbalances in T3 levels can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, which may require clinical intervention and management.

Propylthiouracil is a medication that is primarily used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition characterized by an overactive thyroid gland that produces too much thyroid hormone. The medication works by inhibiting the production of thyroid hormones in the body. It belongs to a class of drugs called antithyroid agents or thionamides.

In medical terms, propylthiouracil is defined as an antithyroid medication used to manage hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease or toxic adenoma. It acts by inhibiting the synthesis of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), in the thyroid gland. Propylthiouracil also reduces the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. The medication is available as a tablet for oral administration and is typically prescribed at a starting dose of 100-150 mg three times daily, with adjustments made based on the patient's response and thyroid function tests.

It's important to note that propylthiouracil should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks associated with its use. Regular monitoring of thyroid function tests is necessary during treatment, and patients should promptly report any signs or symptoms of adverse reactions to their healthcare provider.

Thyroid dysgenesis is a developmental disorder that affects the thyroid gland, which is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. The thyroid gland is responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.

In thyroid dysgenesis, the thyroid gland fails to develop properly during fetal development or early childhood. This can result in a range of abnormalities, including:

* Athyreosis: Complete absence of the thyroid gland.
* Hypoplasia: Underdevelopment of the thyroid gland, resulting in a smaller than normal gland.
* Ectopy: Displacement of the thyroid gland from its normal location in the neck to elsewhere in the body, such as the chest or tongue.
* Heterotopy: Presence of thyroid tissue in abnormal locations, such as within the thymus gland or along the course of the thyroglossal duct.

Thyroid dysgenesis can lead to hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by low levels of thyroid hormones in the body. Symptoms of hypothyroidism may include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, dry skin, and depression. Treatment typically involves replacement therapy with synthetic thyroid hormones.

Thyroid diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function and structure of the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the base of the neck. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate many vital functions in the body, including metabolism, growth, and development.

Thyroid diseases can be classified into two main categories: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, and depression. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much hormone, resulting in symptoms such as weight loss, heat intolerance, rapid heart rate, tremors, and anxiety.

Other common thyroid diseases include:

1. Goiter: an enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be caused by iodine deficiency or autoimmune disorders.
2. Thyroid nodules: abnormal growths on the thyroid gland that can be benign or malignant.
3. Thyroid cancer: a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland that requires medical treatment.
4. Hashimoto's disease: an autoimmune disorder that causes chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
5. Graves' disease: an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism and can also lead to eye problems and skin changes.

Thyroid diseases are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment options depend on the specific type and severity of the disease and may include medication, surgery, or radioactive iodine therapy.

Goiter is a medical term that refers to an enlarged thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of your neck below the larynx or voice box. It produces hormones that regulate your body's metabolism, growth, and development.

Goiter can vary in size and may be visible as a swelling at the base of the neck. It can be caused by several factors, including iodine deficiency, autoimmune disorders, thyroid cancer, pregnancy, or the use of certain medications. Depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the goiter, treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radioactive iodine therapy.

Autoimmune thyroiditis, also known as Hashimoto's disease, is a chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland caused by an autoimmune response. In this condition, the immune system produces antibodies that attack and damage the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). The thyroid gland may become enlarged (goiter), and symptoms can include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, dry skin, and depression. Autoimmune thyroiditis is more common in women than men and tends to run in families. It is often associated with other autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Addison's disease, and type 1 diabetes. The diagnosis is typically made through blood tests that measure levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies. Treatment usually involves thyroid hormone replacement therapy to manage the symptoms of hypothyroidism.

Myxedema is not a term used in modern medicine to describe a specific medical condition. However, historically, it was used to refer to the severe form of hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland that doesn't produce enough thyroid hormones. In hypothyroidism, various body functions slow down, which can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, and dry skin.

Myxedema specifically refers to the physical signs of severe hypothyroidism, including swelling (edema) and thickening of the skin, particularly around the face, hands, and feet, as well as a puffy appearance of the face. The term myxedema coma was used to describe a rare but life-threatening complication of long-standing, untreated hypothyroidism, characterized by altered mental status, hypothermia, and other systemic manifestations.

Nowadays, healthcare professionals use more precise medical terminology to describe these conditions, such as hypothyroidism or myxedematous edema, rather than the outdated term myxedema.

Antithyroid agents are a class of medications that are used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. These medications work by inhibiting the production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland. There are several types of antithyroid agents available, including:

1. Propylthiouracil (PTU): This medication works by blocking the enzyme that is needed to produce thyroid hormones. It also reduces the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3), another thyroid hormone, in peripheral tissues.
2. Methimazole: This medication works similarly to propylthiouracil by blocking the enzyme that is needed to produce thyroid hormones. However, it does not affect the conversion of T4 to T3 in peripheral tissues.
3. Carbimazole: This medication is converted to methimazole in the body and works similarly to block the production of thyroid hormones.

Antithyroid agents are usually taken orally, and their effects on thyroid hormone production begin within a few hours after ingestion. However, it may take several weeks for patients to notice an improvement in their symptoms. These medications can have side effects, including rash, hives, and joint pain. In rare cases, they can cause liver damage or agranulocytosis, a condition in which the body does not produce enough white blood cells.

It is important to note that antithyroid agents do not cure hyperthyroidism; they only treat the symptoms by reducing thyroid hormone production. Therefore, patients may need to take these medications for several months or even years, depending on their individual circumstances. In some cases, surgery or radioactive iodine therapy may be recommended as alternative treatments for hyperthyroidism.

Iodine is an essential trace element that is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones in the body. These hormones play crucial roles in various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, and brain development during pregnancy and infancy. Iodine can be found in various foods such as seaweed, dairy products, and iodized salt. In a medical context, iodine is also used as an antiseptic to disinfect surfaces, wounds, and skin infections due to its ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

Iodide peroxidase, also known as iodide:hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase, is an enzyme that belongs to the family of oxidoreductases. Specifically, it is a peroxidase that uses iodide as its physiological reducing substrate. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of iodide by hydrogen peroxide to produce iodine, which plays a crucial role in thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this enzyme is iodide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase (iodinating). It is most commonly found in the thyroid gland, where it helps to produce and regulate thyroid hormones by facilitating the iodination of tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin, a protein produced by the thyroid gland.

Iodide peroxidase requires a heme cofactor for its enzymatic activity, which is responsible for the oxidation-reduction reactions it catalyzes. The enzyme's ability to iodinate tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin is essential for the production of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), two critical hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development in mammals.

Thyroiditis is a general term that refers to inflammation of the thyroid gland. It can be caused by various factors such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or medications. Depending on the cause and severity, thyroiditis may lead to overproduction (hyperthyroidism) or underproduction (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormones, or it can result in a temporary or permanent loss of thyroid function.

There are several types of thyroiditis, including:

1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis - an autoimmune disorder where the body attacks and damages the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
2. Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (De Quervain's thyroiditis) - often follows a viral infection and results in painful inflammation of the thyroid gland, causing hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism.
3. Silent thyroiditis - an autoimmune disorder similar to Hashimoto's thyroiditis but without symptoms like pain or tenderness; it can cause temporary hyperthyroidism and later hypothyroidism.
4. Postpartum thyroiditis - occurs in women after childbirth, causing inflammation of the thyroid gland leading to hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism.
5. Acute suppurative thyroiditis - a rare bacterial infection that causes painful swelling and redness of the thyroid gland, usually requiring antibiotics for treatment.

Symptoms of thyroiditis depend on whether it leads to hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism symptoms include rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, anxiety, and tremors. Hypothyroidism symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, dry skin, and depression. Treatment varies depending on the type of thyroiditis and its severity.

Methimazole is an anti-thyroid medication that is primarily used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. It works by inhibiting the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. By blocking this enzyme, methimazole reduces the amount of thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland, helping to restore normal thyroid function.

Methimazole is available in oral tablet form and is typically taken two to three times a day. Common side effects of methimazole include nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, and joint pain. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as liver damage or agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cell count).

It is important to note that methimazole should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as regular monitoring of thyroid function and potential side effects is necessary. Additionally, it may take several weeks or months of treatment with methimazole before thyroid function returns to normal.

Neonatal screening is a medical procedure in which specific tests are performed on newborn babies within the first few days of life to detect certain congenital or inherited disorders that are not otherwise clinically apparent at birth. These conditions, if left untreated, can lead to serious health problems, developmental delays, or even death.

The primary goal of neonatal screening is to identify affected infants early so that appropriate treatment and management can be initiated as soon as possible, thereby improving their overall prognosis and quality of life. Commonly screened conditions include phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup urine disease, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, and hearing loss, among others.

Neonatal screening typically involves collecting a small blood sample from the infant's heel (heel stick) or through a dried blood spot card, which is then analyzed using various biochemical, enzymatic, or genetic tests. In some cases, additional tests such as hearing screenings and pulse oximetry for critical congenital heart disease may also be performed.

It's important to note that neonatal screening is not a diagnostic tool but rather an initial step in identifying infants who may be at risk of certain conditions. Positive screening results should always be confirmed with additional diagnostic tests before any treatment decisions are made.

Hashimoto's disease, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages the thyroid gland. The resulting inflammation often leads to an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). It primarily affects middle-aged women but can also occur in men and women of any age and in children.

The exact cause of Hashimoto's disease is unclear, but it appears to involve interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The disorder tends to run in families, and having a family member with Hashimoto's disease or another autoimmune disorder increases the risk.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, constipation, cold intolerance, joint and muscle pain, dry skin, thinning hair, irregular menstrual periods, and depression. However, some people with Hashimoto's disease may have no symptoms for many years.

Diagnosis is typically based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory test results. Treatment usually involves thyroid hormone replacement therapy, which can help manage symptoms and prevent complications of hypothyroidism. Regular monitoring of thyroid function is necessary to adjust the dosage of medication as needed.

Thyroglobulin is a protein produced and used by the thyroid gland in the production of thyroid hormones, primarily thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). It is composed of two subunits, an alpha and a beta or gamma unit, which bind iodine atoms necessary for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones. Thyroglobulin is exclusively produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland.

In clinical practice, measuring thyroglobulin levels in the blood can be useful as a tumor marker for monitoring treatment and detecting recurrence of thyroid cancer, particularly in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary or follicular) who have had their thyroid gland removed. However, it is important to note that thyroglobulin is not specific to thyroid tissue and can be produced by some non-thyroidal cells under certain conditions, which may lead to false positive results in some cases.

Graves' disease is defined as an autoimmune disorder that leads to overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). It results when the immune system produces antibodies that stimulate the thyroid gland, causing it to produce too much thyroid hormone. This can result in a variety of symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, and bulging eyes (Graves' ophthalmopathy). The exact cause of Graves' disease is unknown, but it is more common in women and people with a family history of the disorder. Treatment may include medications to control hyperthyroidism, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy thyroid tissue, or surgery to remove the thyroid gland.

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the thyroid gland is removed. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck, responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.

There are different types of thyroidectomy procedures, including:

1. Total thyroidectomy: Removal of the entire thyroid gland.
2. Partial (or subtotal) thyroidectomy: Removal of a portion of the thyroid gland.
3. Hemithyroidectomy: Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, often performed to treat benign solitary nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer.

Thyroidectomy may be recommended for various reasons, such as treating thyroid nodules, goiter, hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), or thyroid cancer. Potential risks and complications of the procedure include bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures like the parathyroid glands and recurrent laryngeal nerve, and hypoparathyroidism or hypothyroidism due to removal of or damage to the parathyroid glands or thyroid gland, respectively. Close postoperative monitoring and management are essential to minimize these risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating (TSI), are autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) on the surface of thyroid cells. These antibodies mimic the action of TSH and stimulate the growth and function of the thyroid gland, leading to excessive production of thyroid hormones. This results in a condition known as Graves' disease, which is characterized by hyperthyroidism, goiter, and sometimes ophthalmopathy (eye problems). The presence and titer of TSIs are used in the diagnosis of Graves' disease.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Thyrotropin receptors (TSHRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of cells in the thyroid gland. They bind to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is produced and released by the pituitary gland. When TSH binds to the TSHR, it activates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that stimulate the production and release of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones are important for regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body. Mutations in the TSHR gene can lead to various thyroid disorders, such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

Thyrotoxicosis is a medical condition that results from an excess of thyroid hormones in the body, leading to an overactive metabolic state. It can be caused by various factors such as Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, Plummer's disease, or excessive intake of thyroid hormone medication. Symptoms may include rapid heart rate, weight loss, heat intolerance, tremors, and increased sweating, among others. Thyrotoxicosis is not a diagnosis itself but a manifestation of various underlying thyroid disorders. Proper diagnosis and management are crucial to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus in the brain. Its main function is to regulate the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. TRH acts on the pituitary gland to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of TSH, which then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)) into the bloodstream.

TRH is a tripeptide amino acid sequence with the structure of pGlu-His-Pro-NH2, and it is synthesized as a larger precursor molecule called preprothyrotropin-releasing hormone (preproTRH) in the hypothalamus. PreproTRH undergoes post-translational processing to produce TRH, which is then stored in secretory vesicles and released into the hypophyseal portal system, where it travels to the anterior pituitary gland and binds to TRH receptors on thyrotroph cells.

In addition to its role in regulating TSH release, TRH has been shown to have other physiological functions, including modulation of feeding behavior, body temperature, and neurotransmitter release. Dysregulation of the TRH-TSH axis can lead to various thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain responsible for regulating many vital functions in the body. The hypothalamus helps control:

1. Body temperature
2. Hunger and thirst
3. Sleep cycles
4. Emotions and behavior
5. Release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by genetic factors, infections, tumors, trauma, or other conditions that damage the hypothalamus. Some examples of hypothalamic diseases include:

1. Hypothalamic dysfunction syndrome: A condition characterized by various symptoms such as obesity, sleep disturbances, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic damage.
2. Kallmann syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hypothalamus and results in a lack of sexual maturation and a decreased sense of smell.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes obesity, developmental delays, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic dysfunction.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, often causing visual impairment, hormonal imbalances, and growth problems.
5. Infiltrative diseases: Conditions such as sarcoidosis or histiocytosis can infiltrate the hypothalamus, leading to various symptoms related to hormonal imbalances and neurological dysfunction.
6. Traumatic brain injury: Damage to the hypothalamus due to head trauma can result in various hormonal and neurological issues.
7. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the hypothalamus, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause damage and lead to hypothalamic dysfunction.

Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or other interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Methimazole (brand name Tapazole) is often used instead of methylthiouracil in current clinical practice due to its more favorable side effect profile. However, I will provide the medical definition for methylthiouracil as you requested:

Methylthiouracil is an anti-thyroid medication primarily used to manage hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland). It works by inhibiting the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which is essential for the production of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). By blocking this enzyme, methylthiouracil helps reduce the levels of these hormones in the body.

Methylthiouracil has additional immunomodulatory effects that can help suppress the autoimmune response responsible for some forms of hyperthyroidism, such as Graves' disease. It may be used to prepare patients for thyroid surgery or radioactive iodine therapy, or it can be employed as a long-term treatment option in certain cases.

Common side effects of methylthiouracil include nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, and joint pain. Rare but serious side effects may include agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), hepatotoxicity (liver damage), and vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels). Due to these potential adverse reactions, methylthiouracil is generally used less frequently than methimazole in current clinical practice.

Reverse Triiodothyronine (rT3) is a thyroid hormone that is chemically identical to triiodothyronine (T3), but has a reverse configuration at one end of the molecule. It is produced in smaller quantities compared to T3 and its function is not well understood. In some cases, increased levels of rT3 have been associated with decreased thyroid hormone action, such as in non-thyroidal illnesses or during calorie restriction. However, the clinical significance of rT3 levels remains a topic of ongoing research and debate.

Thyroxine-binding proteins (TBPs) are specialized transport proteins in the blood that bind and carry thyroid hormones, primarily Thyroxine (T4), but also Triiodothyronine (T3) to a lesser extent. The majority of T4 and T3 in the blood are bound to these proteins, while only a small fraction (0.03% of T4 and 0.3% of T3) remains unbound or free, which is the biologically active form that can enter cells and tissues to exert its physiological effects.

There are three main types of thyroxine-binding proteins:

1. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG): This is the major thyroid hormone transport protein, synthesized in the liver and accounting for approximately 70-80% of T4 and T3 binding. TBG has a high affinity but low capacity for thyroid hormones.
2. Transthyretin (TTR), also known as prealbumin: This protein accounts for around 10-20% of T4 and T3 binding. It has a lower affinity but higher capacity for thyroid hormones compared to TBG.
3. Albumin: This is the most abundant protein in the blood and binds approximately 15-20% of T4 and a smaller fraction of T3. Although albumin has a low affinity for thyroid hormones, its high concentration allows it to contribute significantly to their transport.

The binding of thyroid hormones to these proteins helps maintain stable levels in the blood and ensures a steady supply to tissues. Additionally, TBPs protect thyroid hormones from degradation and rapid clearance by the kidneys, thereby extending their half-life in the circulation.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions in the body, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Endocrine system diseases or disorders occur when there is a problem with the production or regulation of hormones. This can result from:

1. Overproduction or underproduction of hormones by the endocrine glands.
2. Impaired response of target cells to hormones.
3. Disruption in the feedback mechanisms that regulate hormone production.

Examples of endocrine system diseases include:

1. Diabetes Mellitus - a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin deficiency or resistance.
2. Hypothyroidism - underactive thyroid gland leading to slow metabolism, weight gain, fatigue, and depression.
3. Hyperthyroidism - overactive thyroid gland causing rapid heartbeat, anxiety, weight loss, and heat intolerance.
4. Cushing's Syndrome - excess cortisol production resulting in obesity, high blood pressure, and weak muscles.
5. Addison's Disease - insufficient adrenal hormone production leading to weakness, fatigue, and low blood pressure.
6. Acromegaly - overproduction of growth hormone after puberty causing enlargement of bones, organs, and soft tissues.
7. Gigantism - similar to acromegaly but occurs before puberty resulting in excessive height and body size.
8. Hypopituitarism - underactive pituitary gland leading to deficiencies in various hormones.
9. Hyperparathyroidism - overactivity of the parathyroid glands causing calcium imbalances and kidney stones.
10. Precocious Puberty - early onset of puberty due to premature activation of the pituitary gland.

Treatment for endocrine system diseases varies depending on the specific disorder and may involve medication, surgery, lifestyle changes, or a combination of these approaches.

Hypopituitarism is a medical condition characterized by deficient secretion of one or more hormones produced by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland controls several other endocrine glands in the body, including the thyroid, adrenals, and sex glands (ovaries and testes).

Hypopituitarism can result from damage to the pituitary gland due to various causes such as tumors, surgery, radiation therapy, trauma, or inflammation. In some cases, hypopituitarism may also be caused by a dysfunction of the hypothalamus, a region in the brain that regulates the pituitary gland's function.

The symptoms and signs of hypopituitarism depend on which hormones are deficient and can include fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, decreased sex drive, infertility, irregular menstrual periods, intolerance to cold, constipation, thinning hair, dry skin, and depression.

Treatment of hypopituitarism typically involves hormone replacement therapy to restore the deficient hormones' normal levels. The type and dosage of hormones used will depend on which hormones are deficient and may require regular monitoring and adjustments over time.

Perchlorates are chemical compounds containing the perchlorate ion (ClO4-). Perchloric acid is the parent compound and has the formula HClO4. Perchlorates contain chlorine in its highest oxidation state (+7) and are strong oxidizing agents. They have been used in various industrial and military applications, such as in explosives, rocket propellants, and matches.

In a medical context, perchlorates can be relevant due to their potential health effects. Exposure to high levels of perchlorates can affect the thyroid gland's function because they can compete with iodide ions for uptake by the thyroid gland. Iodide is an essential component of thyroid hormones, and disruption of iodide uptake may lead to hypothyroidism, particularly in individuals who are iodine-deficient. However, it's important to note that the evidence for adverse health effects in humans from environmental exposures to perchlorates is still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

Iodides are chemical compounds that contain iodine in the form of an iodide ion (I-). Iodide ions are negatively charged ions that consist of one iodine atom and an extra electron. Iodides are commonly found in dietary supplements and medications, and they are often used to treat or prevent iodine deficiency. They can also be used as expectorants to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract. Examples of iodides include potassium iodide (KI) and sodium iodide (NaI).

Pituitary diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproduction.

Pituitary diseases can be classified into two main categories:

1. Pituitary tumors: These are abnormal growths in or around the pituitary gland that can affect its function. Pituitary tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can vary in size. Some pituitary tumors produce excess hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms, while others may not produce any hormones but can still cause problems by compressing nearby structures in the brain.
2. Pituitary gland dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the normal function of the pituitary gland without the presence of a tumor. Examples include hypopituitarism, which is a condition characterized by decreased production of one or more pituitary hormones, and Sheehan's syndrome, which occurs when the pituitary gland is damaged due to severe blood loss during childbirth.

Symptoms of pituitary diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the hormones that are affected. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

A goiter is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland, which is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of the neck. Goiters can be either diffuse (uniformly enlarged) or nodular (lumpy with distinct nodules). Nodular goiter refers to a thyroid gland that has developed one or more discrete lumps or nodules while the remaining tissue is normal or may also be diffusely enlarged.

Nodular goiters can be classified into two types: multinodular goiter and solitary thyroid nodule. Multinodular goiter consists of multiple nodules in the thyroid gland, while a solitary thyroid nodule is an isolated nodule within an otherwise normal or diffusely enlarged thyroid gland.

The majority of nodular goiters are benign and do not cause symptoms. However, some patients may experience signs and symptoms related to compression of nearby structures (such as difficulty swallowing or breathing), hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). The evaluation of a nodular goiter typically includes a physical examination, imaging studies like ultrasound, and sometimes fine-needle aspiration biopsy to determine the nature of the nodules and assess the risk of malignancy. Treatment options depend on various factors, including the size and number of nodules, the presence of compressive symptoms, and the patient's thyroid function.

Galactorrhea is an uncommon condition where someone (typically a woman, but it can also occur in men and children) experiences abnormal or spontaneous production and secretion of milk from their breasts, not associated with childbirth or nursing. This condition can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, medications, tumors affecting the pituitary gland, or other underlying medical conditions. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you experience galactorrhea to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

Euthyroid sick syndrome, also known as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), is a condition characterized by abnormal thyroid function tests that occur in individuals with underlying non-thyroidal systemic illness. Despite the presence of abnormal test results, these individuals do not have evidence of clinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

In euthyroid sick syndrome, the levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) hormones may be decreased, while thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels remain normal or low. This is thought to occur due to alterations in the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones, rather than changes in the function of the thyroid gland itself.

The condition is often seen in individuals with severe illness, such as sepsis, cancer, malnutrition, or following major surgery. It is thought to represent an adaptive response to stress and illness, although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. In most cases, euthyroid sick syndrome resolves on its own once the underlying illness has been treated.

Rhabdomyolysis is a medical condition characterized by the breakdown and degeneration of skeletal muscle fibers, leading to the release of their intracellular contents into the bloodstream. This can result in various complications, including electrolyte imbalances, kidney injury or failure, and potentially life-threatening conditions if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The process of rhabdomyolysis typically involves three key components:

1. Muscle injury: Direct trauma, excessive exertion, prolonged immobilization, infections, metabolic disorders, toxins, or medications can cause muscle damage, leading to the release of intracellular components into the bloodstream.
2. Release of muscle contents: When muscle fibers break down, they release various substances, such as myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aldolase, and potassium ions. Myoglobin is a protein that can cause kidney damage when present in high concentrations in the bloodstream, particularly when it is filtered through the kidneys and deposits in the renal tubules.
3. Systemic effects: The release of muscle contents into the bloodstream can lead to various systemic complications, such as electrolyte imbalances (particularly hyperkalemia), acidosis, hypocalcemia, and kidney injury or failure due to myoglobin-induced tubular damage.

Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis can vary widely depending on the severity and extent of muscle damage but may include muscle pain, weakness, swelling, stiffness, dark urine, and tea-colored or cola-colored urine due to myoglobinuria. In severe cases, patients may experience symptoms related to kidney failure, such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and decreased urine output.

Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis typically involves measuring blood levels of muscle enzymes (such as CK and LDH) and evaluating renal function through blood tests and urinalysis. Treatment generally focuses on addressing the underlying cause of muscle damage, maintaining fluid balance, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and preventing or managing kidney injury.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

Carbimazole is an antithyroid medication that is primarily used to manage hyperthyroidism, a condition characterized by an overactive thyroid gland that produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. The drug works by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for producing these hormones, thereby reducing their levels in the body and alleviating symptoms associated with the disorder.

Hyperthyroidism can manifest as various signs and symptoms, including rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, tremors, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Common causes of hyperthyroidism include Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, and thyroiditis.

Carbimazole is a prodrug that gets converted to its active metabolite, methimazole, in the liver. Methimazole inhibits the activity of thyroperoxidase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). By blocking this enzyme, carbimazole reduces the production of T3 and T4, ultimately helping to control hyperthyroidism.

The medication is typically administered orally in tablet form, with dosages varying depending on individual patient needs and response to treatment. Common side effects of carbimazole include gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Rare but severe adverse reactions may include agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), aplastic anemia (a condition where the bone marrow fails to produce sufficient numbers of blood cells), and hepatotoxicity (liver damage).

Patients taking carbimazole should be closely monitored for signs of adverse reactions, and regular blood tests are necessary to assess thyroid hormone levels and potential side effects. Pregnant women should avoid using carbimazole due to the risk of birth defects in the developing fetus. In such cases, alternative antithyroid medications like propylthiouracil may be prescribed instead.

In summary, carbimazole is an antithyroid medication used primarily for managing hyperthyroidism by inhibiting thyroperoxidase and reducing the production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4. While effective, it carries potential risks and side effects that necessitate close monitoring during treatment.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

"hypothyroidism". Dictionary.com Unabridged (Online). n.d. "hypothyroidism - definition of hypothyroidism in English from the ... In the United States, hypothyroidism occurs in 0.3-0.4% of people. Subclinical hypothyroidism, a milder form of hypothyroidism ... Primary hypothyroidism is about a thousandfold more common than central hypothyroidism. Central hypothyroidism is the name used ... In overt primary hypothyroidism, TSH levels are high and T4 and T3 levels are low. Overt hypothyroidism may also be diagnosed ...
... , copper engraving, 1815 Around the world, the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism is ... Genetic types of nongoitrous congenital hypothyroidism include: Nongoitrous congenital hypothyroidism has been described as the ... levels to detect congenital hypothyroidism. Most children with congenital hypothyroidism correctly treated with thyroxine grow ... In some instances, hypothyroidism detected by screening may be transient. One common cause of this is the presence of maternal ...
... is hypothyroidism in pregnant mothers. Even with appropriate treatment, it may pose risks not only to ... In a study of induced hypothyroidism in pregnant rats they were able to find lower levels of growth hormone in both the blood ... "Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy". American Thyroid Association. Retrieved 2020-10-29. Blazer S.; Moreh-Waterman Y.; Miller-Lotan R ... This study also looked at neural development in rats and found that maternal hypothyroidism in rat mothers is related to ...
... is typically used to treat hypothyroidism, and is the treatment of choice for people with hypothyroidism who ... Levothyroxine is safe and effective for children with hypothyroidism; the goal of treatment for children with hypothyroidism is ... Hypothyroidism is common among pregnant women. A nationwide cohort study showed that 1.39% of all pregnant women in 2010 in ... Oral dosing for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism is 1 μg/kg/day. It is also used to treat myxedema coma, which is a ...
"Hypothyroidism". umm.edu. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 3 December 2014. Warren F. Gorman; Emanuel Messinger ...
Also, radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease often eventually leads to hypothyroidism. Such hypothyroidism may be diagnosed ... The opposite is hypothyroidism, when the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. Graves' disease is the cause of ... The resulting hypothyroidism is treated with synthetic thyroid hormone. Medications such as beta blockers may control the ... "Hypothyroidism - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 6 May 2021. Carlé A, Pedersen IB, ...
Hypothyroidism, including Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Myxedema describes a specific form of cutaneous and dermal edema secondary ... "Hypothyroidism". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 27 July 2021. "Fibroblast". Genetics Home Reference. U.S. ... However, the term is also used to describe a dermatological change that can occur in hypothyroidism and (rare) paradoxical ... Myxedema is known to occur in various forms of hypothyroidism, including Graves disease. One of the hallmarks of Grave's ...
Typically there is a transient hyperthyroid phase that is followed by a phase of hypothyroidism. Permanent hypothyroidism ... Hypothyroidism is diagnosed by noting a high TSH associated with a subnormal T4 concentration. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH ... for subclinical and overt hypothyroidism respectively. Endemic iodine deficiency accounts for most hypothyroidism in pregnant ... The presentation of hypothyroidism in pregnancy is not always classical and may sometimes be difficult to distinguish from the ...
Hypothyroidism. Medications ("scalded mouth syndrome", unrelated to BMS) - protease inhibitors and angiotensin-converting- ... hypothyroidism and diabetes. Investigation of a dry mouth symptom may involve sialometry, which objectively determines if there ...
... canine hypothyroidism; elbow dysplasia; and allergies, which can include some sensitivity to certain food ingredients and also ... "Canine Hypothyroidism", English Setter Association, archived from the original on 10 May 2013, retrieved 9 May 2013 "Skin ...
Weeks AD (March 2000). "Menorrhagia and hypothyroidism. Evidence supports association between hypothyroidism and menorrhagia". ... such as hypothyroidism) or cancer of the reproductive tract. Initial evaluation aims at determining pregnancy status, ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone dosage to rule out hypothyroidism Treatment depends on identified ...
The Wolff-Chaikoff effect also explains the hypothyroidism produced in some patients by several iodine-containing drugs, ... ISBN 978-0-07-026266-9. Markou, K (May 2001). "Iodine induced hypothyroidism". Thyroid. 11 (5): 501-10. doi:10.1089/ ...
She has hypothyroidism. "Odia girl features in Shahrukh Khan's 'Zero'". The Pioneer. 24 December 2018. Retrieved 16 November ...
Iatrogenic hypothyroidism Postoperative hypothyroidism Medication- or radiation-induced hypothyroidism Thyroid hormone ... New diagnosis of hypothyroidism in pregnancy is rare because hypothyroidism often makes it difficult to become pregnant in the ... When hypothyroidism is seen in pregnancy, it is often because an individual already has hypothyroidism and needs to increase ... "Hypothyroidism - American Thyroid Association". www.thyroid.org. Retrieved 2017-04-25. "Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) - ...
Markou, K.; Georgopoulos, N.; Kyriazopoulou, V.; Vagenakis, A.g. (May 2001). "Iodine-Induced Hypothyroidism". Thyroid®. 11 (5 ... there are risks of serious side effects such as lithium toxicity hypothyroidism, and diabetes insipidus. Excessive iodine ...
Green, S. T.; Ng, J. P. (1986). "Hypothyroidism and anaemia". Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 40 (9): 326-331. ISSN 0753-3322. ... Hypothyroidism - Myelodysplastic Syndromes Pregnant women need almost twice as much iron as women who are not pregnant do. Not ... Hypothyroidism - Liver disease or alcohol use - Drug-induced - Hemolysis - Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency MCV > 100 fL - ... Hypothyroidism and chronic kidney disease Parasitic infestations: some examples are hookworm or Plasmodium species Bacterial or ...
Hypothyroidism is prevalent; 30%-50% of women with Turner syndrome have Hashimoto's disease, where the thyroid gland is slowly ... By age 50, half of women with Turner syndrome have subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease ... The Turner's presentation of hyperthyroidism is as in the general population, while the presentation of hypothyroidism is often ...
TSHB Hypothyroidism, congenital nongoitrous, 5; 225250; NKX2E Hypothyroidism, congenital, due to thyroid dysgenesis or ... hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress; 610978; NKX2-1 Choriodal dystrophy, central areolar 2; 613105; PRPH2 Choroid ... with congenital hypothyroidism; 610199; GLIS3 Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent; 125853; ABCC8 Diabetes mellitus, ... hypoplasia; 218700; PAX8 Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous; 275200; TSHR Hypotrichosis and recurrent skin vesicles; ...
Geracioti TD (2006). "Identifying Hypothyroidism's Psychiatric Presentations". Current Psychiatry. 5 (11): 98-117. Huang JT, ...
"Woltman's sign of hypothyroidism". www.whonamedit.com. Dennis, Mark; Bowen, William Talbot; Cho, Lucy (2012). "Hyporeflexia/ ... Woltman's sign (also called Woltman's sign of hypothyroidism or, in older references, myxedema reflex) is a delayed relaxation ... Marinella MA (2004). Kamath B (ed.). "Review of Clinical Signs: Woltman's Sign of Hypothyroidism" (PDF). Hospital Physician. 40 ... The delayed ankle jerks are associated with: hypothyroidism; Huntington's disease; several neurological symptoms; anorexia ...
... particularly hypothyroidism. In the 1970s, Barnes published several books arguing that hypothyroidism was underdiagnosed in the ... were all caused or exacerbated by hypothyroidism. Barnes treated hypothyroidism by prescribing patients a daily dose of thyroid ... Barnes' views on the prevalence of hypothyroidism were never widely accepted by the medical community and run counter to its ... In his books, Barnes argued that hypothyroidism affected more than 40% of the American population, significantly higher than ...
Hypothyroidism is a disease diagnosed by decreased levels of serum thyroxine (T4). Presentation in adults leads to decreased ... During development, hypothyroidism is considered more severe and leads to neurotoxicity as cretinism or other human cognitive ... In hyperthyroidism D2 is down regulated and D3 is upregulated to clear extra T3, while in hypothyroidism D2 is upregulated and ... Medication and environmental exposures can result in hypothyroidism with changes in deiodinase enzyme activity. The drug ...
McDonnell ME, Braverman LE, Bernardo J (June 2005). "Hypothyroidism due to ethionamide". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... and has been linked to hypothyroidism in several TB patients. Periodic monitoring of thyroid function while on ethionamide is ...
Cretinism: Congenital hypothyroidism (underactivity of the thyroid gland at birth), which results in growth retardation, ... "Congenital hypothyroidism: MedlinePlus Genetics". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2022-10-20. Pass, K. A.; Neto, E. C. (2009). " ... Chorazy PA, Himelhoch S, Hopwood NJ, Greger NG, Postellon DC (July 1995). "Persistent hypothyroidism in an infant receiving a ... It is one cause of underactive thyroid function at birth, called congenital hypothyroidism, historically referred to as ...
Patients with hypothyroidism frequently present with changes in their menstrual cycle. It is hypothesized that this is due to ... Abnormal TSH levels prompt evaluation for hyper- and hypo-thyroidism with additional thyroid function tests. Elevated prolactin ... Examples of secondary amenorrhea include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, ... "Disturbances of menstruation in hypothyroidism". Clinical Endocrinology. 50 (5): 655-659. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.1999.00719.x ...
It is used to treat hypothyroidism. It is less preferred than levothyroxine. It is taken by mouth. Maximal effects may take up ... The decision to treat was usually based on the presence of signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism because there were no accurate ... Desiccated thyroid in the management of hypothyroidism: Part I. Baskin HJ, Cobin RH, Duick DS, Gharib H, Guttler RB, Kaplan MM ... In the majority of patients normalization of these levels eliminated all signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. It was ...
... of endocrine diseases like hypothyroidism. Processing is an important determinant of what nutrients a dog is actually able to ...
2.5 L. SPINA-GT is elevated in primary hyperthyroidism and reduced in both primary hypothyroidism and untreated autoimmune ... Tp-e/QT ratio and Tp-e/QTc ratio in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism". Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and ... for differential diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism and elevated TSH concentration due to type 2 allostatic load (as it is ... "Treatment options for subclinical hypothyroidism". European Journal of Endocrinology. 185 (3): L5-L6. doi:10.1530/EJE-20-1405. ...
Some forms of hypothyroidism can result in myxedema and severe cases can result in myxedema coma. Hypothyroidism is managed ... Some causes of hypothyroidism, such as Postpartum thyroiditis and Subacute thyroiditis may be transient and pass over time, and ... Hypothyroidism is characterized by a deficient secretion of thyroid hormones: the most common cause is iodine deficiency. In ... T3 is preferred, because in hypothyroidism T3 levels may be normal. The ratio of bound to unbound thyroid hormones is known as ...
It is also a comorbidity of late-onset Pompe disease (Glycogen storage disease type II). As both hyper- and hypothyroidism ... A common comorbidity of the metabolic myopathy McArdle disease (Glycogen storage disease type V) is hypothyroidism. ... Udayakumar, N; Rameshkumar, AC; Srinivasan, AV (October 2005). "Hoffmann syndrome: presentation in hypothyroidism". Journal of ... "Effects of hypothyroidism on the sensitivity of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis to insulin in the soleus muscle of the rat". ...
"hypothyroidism". Dictionary.com Unabridged (Online). n.d. "hypothyroidism - definition of hypothyroidism in English from the ... In the United States, hypothyroidism occurs in 0.3-0.4% of people. Subclinical hypothyroidism, a milder form of hypothyroidism ... Primary hypothyroidism is about a thousandfold more common than central hypothyroidism. Central hypothyroidism is the name used ... In overt primary hypothyroidism, TSH levels are high and T4 and T3 levels are low. Overt hypothyroidism may also be diagnosed ...
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. This condition is often called ... Myxedema; Adult hypothyroidism; Underactive thyroid; Goiter - hypothyroidism; Thyroiditis - hypothyroidism; Thyroid hormone - ... Hypothyroidism is more common in women and people over age 50.. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is thyroiditis. In ... Contact your provider if you have symptoms of hypothyroidism.. If you are being treated for hypothyroidism, call your provider ...
Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from deficiency of thyroid hormone. It usually is a primary process in ... encoded search term (Hypothyroidism) and Hypothyroidism What to Read Next on Medscape ... Hypothyroidism Medication. Updated: May 25, 2022 * Author: Philip R Orlander, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/expert-answers/hypothyroidism-diet/faq-20058554. June 1, 2021; Accessed: ...
... has identified specific levothyroxine doses to be given to pregnant women with newly discovered subclinical hypothyroidism. ... Adequate Levothyroxine Doses in Pregnant Women With Newly Diagnosed Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism Type Baseline TSH (mIU/L) LT4 ... Although subclinical hypothyroidism is less frequent than overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy, it occurs in about 3% of ... "When hypothyroidism is newly discovered during pregnancy, we suggest initiating the treatment with the following levothyroxine ...
Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from deficiency of thyroid hormone. It usually is a primary process in ... encoded search term (Hypothyroidism) and Hypothyroidism What to Read Next on Medscape ... Hypothyroidism Workup. Updated: May 25, 2022 * Author: Philip R Orlander, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... ... antibodies may be helpful in determining the etiology of hypothyroidism or in predicting future hypothyroidism. However, once a ...
Primary hypothyroidism cant be prevented, but routine screening of adults could detect the disease in its early stages and ... Primary hypothyroidism cant be prevented, but routine screening of adults could detect the disease in its early stages and ... http://www.webmd.com/women/hypothyroidism-underactive-thyroid-symptoms-causes-treatments. No comments , Permalink , Share , 22 ...
Hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid system, is one of the most underdiagnosed and important conditions in the United ... Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism. So, how is hypothyroidism diagnosed today by conventional medicine? Unfortunately, the diagnosis ... Treatment of Hypothyroidism. Once a pattern of hypothyroid symptoms is established and the basal body temperatures are found to ... Hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid system, is one of the most underdiagnosed and important conditions in the United ...
s why hypothyroidism may lead to mood disorders like depression.. While research shows a link between overt hypothyroidism and ... Common symptoms of hypothyroidism. Like depression, symptoms of hypothyroidism can vary between individuals. However, they may ... Hypothyroidism. Medication is the treatment of choice for hypothyroidism. Since your thyroid isn. t producing enough hormones ... You can consider subclinical hypothyroidism as a milder version of hypothyroidism. Those affected tend to not experience any ...
... causing hypothyroidism. Hashimotos thyroiditis, which causes most cases of hypothyroidism in kids and teens, is a condition in ... What Is Hypothyroidism?. Hypothyroidism (or underactive thyroid) is when the thyroid gland doesnt make enough of some ... What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Hypothyroidism?. A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine. In fact, it might cause ... How Are Hypothyroidism and Hashimotos Thyroiditis Diagnosed?. To diagnose hypothyroidism and Hashimotos thyroiditis, doctors ...
Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) through the ... and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in ... As hypothyroidism causes significant decrease in LH and FSH with a fall in serum testosterone [69, 70], this might lead to a ... Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty. Dipak K. Sahoo. 1,2and Anita Roy1 ...
Primary congenital hypothyroidism is a common preventable cause of mental retardation. Neonatal thyroid screening is highly ... Clinical presentation of primary congenital hypothyroidism: experience before mass screening Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2005 Nov;5(4 ... Primary congenital hypothyroidism is a common preventable cause of mental retardation. Neonatal thyroid screening is highly ... However, rarely cases could be missed, so doctors must be aware of the earl symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism. Therefore, ...
Symptoms of hypothyroidism in dogs. One symptom of hypothyroidism in dogs is chronic ear infections. ©. Jose Luis Pelaez Inc/ ... How to treat hypothyroidism in dogs. Dogs with hypothyroidism require oral supplementation of a synthetic thyroid hormone ... Hypothyroidism in dogs can also occur due to thyroid gland atrophy. During this process, the functional tissue of the thyroid ... If left untreated, hypothyroidism results in a poor quality of life, an increased risk of complications and a reduced lifespan ...
Hypothyroidism? - ABC Homeopathy Forum. Kali Carbonicum and Lycopodium Clavatum and Silicea are mentioned. 12 replies to 2009- ... hypothyroidism1Hypothyroidism25Hypothyroidism1Hypothyroidism31Hypothyroidism4Suffering from hypothyroidism23hypothyroidism3Help ... Hypothyroidism. Posts about Hypothyroidism. Neuropathy, gastritis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, seborrheic, ... hypothyroidism 2. What other physical sufferings do you have in your body? - Loosing hair - Missed abortion 2 weeks ago - dry, ...
British Thyroid Foundation BTF congenital hypothyroidism goitre Graves disease hyperthyroidism hypothyroidism levothyroxine ... What causes hypothyroidism?. Hypothyroidism can be caused by:. *Autoimmune thyroid disease - the most common cause. This is a ... What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism is the name given to the condition resulting from an underactive thyroid gland. This ... This is known as congenital hypothyroidism.. What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?. The symptoms begin so gradually that you ...
Identifying the cause of congenital hypothyroidism has important genetic implications. This study was done to determine whether ... Congenital hypothyroidism is a disorder in which babies are born with low thyroid hormone levels and is estimated to occur in 1 ... ultrasound of the thyroid could have a role in the early diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism and to determine whether ... Central hypothyroidism: a rare cause of hypothyroidism where the thyroid gland is normal and the problem is inadequate TSH ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
With the help of medication and practicing the different forms of yoga for the hashimotos thyroiditis, hypothyroidism can be ... However, if you start to feel the symptoms of hypothyroidism coming on which include fatigue, depression, hair loss, weakness ...
Hypothyroidism is an endocrine condition in dogs which occurs when there is a reduced production and release of the thyroid ... In young dogs hypothyroidism can cause dwarfism. Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism in Dogs. Diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs is ... Types of Hypothyroidism in Dogs. Depending on the origin of the hypothyroidism it can divided into different types:. *Primary ... What is Hypothyroidism?. Hypothyroidism is a condition which occurs when the body is unable to produce or release thyroid ...
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For patients who take medication to treat hypothyroidism, being treated with too much medication can lead to an increased risk ... For patients who take medication to treat hypothyroidism, being treated with too much medication can lead to an increased risk ... "We know patients with hypothyroidism have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, but we didnt consider increased risk within ... New Intermountain Study Shows Overtreating Patients for Hypothyroidism Could Raise Their Risk of Stroke ...
PubMed Search: hypothyroidism cretinism See also Aplasia / hypoplasia, Dyshormonogenetic goiter, Screening - Neonatal ... Congenital hypothyroidism. Authors: Julie Guilmette, M.D., Anthony Chi, M.D., Ph.D. ... Maternal hypothyroidism may cause severe mental retardation, because maternal T3 / T4 crosses the placenta and is critical to ... Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a clinical condition characterized by absence of thyroid hormone secondary to abnormal ...
... occurs when the underactive gland doesnt produce enough thyroid hormones. Find out more about its causes, ... Hypothyroidism - Treatments Hypothyroidism is treated with thyroxine replacement which is administered in a small pill. The ... Think you may have hypothyroidism? Find out how to get diagnosed for hypothyroidism. ... Hypothyroidism - What it is Located in the middle of the neck, the butterfly-shaped thyroid gland is responsible for producing ...
- Thyroid problems are quite common in this current generation and yoga shows considerable
Also read Hypothyroidism articles about how to live with Hypothyroidism, and more. ... Read about Hypothyroidism symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. ... "Hypothyroidism", Medline Plus: Health Topics; U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Hypothyroidism", Medline Plus: Health Topics ... Other causes of hypothyroidism include certain medicines, such as lithium and amiodarone, congenital hypothyroidism, radiation ...
Subclinical hypothyroidism is diagnosed when you have: No symptoms or mild symptoms of hypothyroidism... ... hypothyroidism through a medical history and physical exam. If your doctor suspects that you have subclinical hypothyroidism, ... Subclinical Hypothyroidism. Overview. A doctor diagnoses mild, or subclinical, hypothyroidism through a medical history and ... Subclinical hypothyroidism is diagnosed when you have: *No symptoms or mild symptoms of hypothyroidism. Examples are fatigue, ...
My Chloe has hypothyroidism. When I got her she was on the meds. She had ONLY had a T4 and it was .02 I did a VERy slow wean ... My Chloe has hypothyroidism. When I got her she was on the meds. She had ONLY had a T4 and it was .02 I did a VERy slow wean ... Is he otherwise symptomatic for hypothyroidism? If hes not, I dont know that Id treat. And did you have a full panel run? ...
Hypothyroidism. February 11, 2020. December 9, 2023. Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan DIET CHART FOR HYPOTHYROIDISM INTRODUCTION ... Ayurveda believes that hypothyroidism is due to angni mandya leading to kshaya of pitta, aggravation of vata and finally dushti ... Hypothyroidism is a condition which is increasing in society rapidly and its cause according to modern science is not clear. ...
Tagged hypothyroidism • prevention of hypothyroidism • treatment of hypothyroidism. Posted in Hypothyroidism. The Incorrect ... Tag Archives: hypothyroidism Posted in Hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism: The Best Prevention And Curing Protocol. 04/15/2013. ... For instance, you want to prevent hypothyroidism.. To give you an overview of the condition, hypothyroidism is basically a ... Hypothyroidism is a condition that is characterized by the poor production of thyroid hormones in your body. It is common to ...
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland fails to produce enough thyroid hormon ... Hypothyroidism 1 Information on Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism 2 What is hypothyroidism? ... Hypothyroidism 1 Information on Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism 2 What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism is a condition in which ... Hypothyroidism 3 People with hypothyroidism may not have any symptoms at all. In some people, hypothyroidism can lead to heart ...
  • The diagnosis of hypothyroidism, when suspected, can be confirmed with blood tests measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Untreated cases of hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to delays in growth and intellectual development in the baby or congenital iodine deficiency syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some children are born with it - this is called congenital hypothyroidism . (kidshealth.org)
  • Primary congenital hypothyroidism is a common preventable cause of mental retardation. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this study was to emphasize the presenting clinical features of primary congenital hypothyroidism at the age of diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • The study population included 17 children with primary congenital hypothyroidism who attended the Department of Pediatrics, University Clinical Center Tuzla between 1986 and 1999. (nih.gov)
  • Among the 17 patients with primary congenital hypothyroidism 5 of them (29.4 %) were diagnosed to have disgenetic thyroid tissue and 12 (70.6%) as having dyshormonogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Now it is expected that neonatal screening program in Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation will contribute to the detection of primary congenital hypothyroidism in early days of life. (nih.gov)
  • This is known as congenital hypothyroidism . (btf-thyroid.org)
  • Delaying ultrasonography in congenital hypothyroidism may give misleading results. (thyroid.org)
  • Congenital hypothyroidism is a disorder in which babies are born with low thyroid hormone levels, either because the thyroid did not develop properly (thyroid dysgenesis) or because the thyroid has problems in one of the needed steps to make thyroid hormones (thyroid dyshormonogenesis). (thyroid.org)
  • Congenital hypothyroidism is estimated to occur in 1:1700 newborns in the most recent literature and, if left untreated or if treatment is delayed, it irreversibly affects brain development. (thyroid.org)
  • Thyroid ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy have been used to determine the cause of congenital hypothyroidism, whether due to dyshormonogenesis or dysgenesis. (thyroid.org)
  • Since the outcomes of congenital hypothyroidism depend on starting treatment as soon as possible after diagnosis, diagnostic studies to determine the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism are usually delayed after the age of three years, or not done at all, which may cause uncertainty in the patient and lack of adequate genetic counseling. (thyroid.org)
  • This study was done to determine whether ultrasound of the thyroid could have a role in the early diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism and to determine whether delaying ultrasound could provide misleading information. (thyroid.org)
  • Timing of thyroid ultrasonography in the etiological investigation of congenital hypothyroidism. (thyroid.org)
  • A total of 44 patients with a diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were invited to have thyroid US at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro in Uberaba, Brazil. (thyroid.org)
  • All were receiving treatment and were considered to have congenital hypothyroidism, except for 1 patient, whose elevation in TSH was transient and had resolved. (thyroid.org)
  • Hypothyroidism in dogs can either be a congenital (an abnormality present from birth) condition or a metabolic condition which develops at some point in a dog's life, potentially caused by a number of different abnormalities. (dogzone.com)
  • The congenital form of the disease usually develops before six months of age and the acquired form of hypothyroidism usually occurs before or around middle age, which is two to three years old in predisposed, large and giant breeds, and six to ten years old in other breeds. (dogzone.com)
  • Chi A, Guilmette J. Congenital hypothyroidism. (pathologyoutlines.com)
  • Other causes of hypothyroidism include certain medicines, such as lithium and amiodarone, congenital hypothyroidism, radiation treatments to the neck or brain, radioactive iodine used to treat an overactive thyroid gland, or surgical removal of part or all of the thyroid gland among others. (rxwiki.com)
  • Central and congenital hypothyroidism remain rare. (vetclick.com)
  • This is called congenital hypothyroidism. (networkofcare.org)
  • About half of cases of congenital hypothyroidism occur because the thyroid gland is missing, underdeveloped, or developed in the wrong place. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an endocrine disease resulting from lack of thyroidal hormones in the organism. (bvsalud.org)
  • Subclinical hypothyroidism, a milder form of hypothyroidism characterized by normal thyroxine levels and an elevated TSH level, is thought to occur in 4.3-8.5% of people in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even mild or subclinical hypothyroidism leads to possible infertility and an increased risk of miscarriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes, low birth-weight, placental abruption, and the birth of the baby before 37 weeks of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the latest Endocrine Society guidelines "say that for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed during pregnancy, a dose of 50 µg or more could be enough," Dr. Abalovich explained to Medscape Medical News in an email. (medscape.com)
  • But when it comes to the subject of subclinical hypothyroidism, "the impact of treatment is debated. (medscape.com)
  • Although subclinical hypothyroidism is less frequent than overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy, it occurs in about 3% of pregnancies. (medscape.com)
  • Most studies have found that untreated subclinical hypothyroidism causes obstetrical complications for the mother and fetus," he explained, including some that indicate a possible negative effect on the neurointellectual coefficient of the child, although this is somewhat disputed. (medscape.com)
  • Existing practice guidelines recommend TSH target levels of 2.5 mIU/L or less for the first trimester of pregnancy and 3 mIU/L or less for the subsequent trimesters for subclinical hypothyroidism, because of potential benefits, especially in patients with positive thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of the current study was to try to pinpoint the appropriate levothyroxine doses to normalize TSH levels in patients with newly discovered subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and to correlate them with basal TSH levels. (medscape.com)
  • The initial levothyroxine dose was the appropriate one in 89% of the women with subclinical hypothyroidism and 77% of the women with overt hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • Once the appropriate dose was prescribed, euthyroidism was confirmed in around the same number of weeks in both patients with overt hypothyroidism (mean, 5.3 weeks) as well as in those with subclinical hypothyroidism (mean, 6 weeks). (medscape.com)
  • Gestational hypertension was the most common complication in subclinical hypothyroidism, found in 7.8% of these women. (medscape.com)
  • When hypothyroidism is newly discovered during pregnancy, we suggest initiating the treatment with the following levothyroxine doses: 1.20 µg/kg/day for subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH less than 4.2 mIU/L, 1.42 µg/kg/day with TSH greater than 4.2 to 10, and 2.33 µg/kg/day for overt hypothyroidism," Dr. Abalovich and colleagues write. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with elevated TSH levels (usually 4.5-10.0 mIU/L) but normal free hormone levels or estimates are considered to have mild or subclinical hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • You can consider subclinical hypothyroidism as a milder version of hypothyroidism . (psychcentral.com)
  • What is mild thyroid failure or subclinical hypothyroidism? (btf-thyroid.org)
  • A blood test result showing a slightly raised TSH level with a normal FT4 level indicates that you may have mild thyroid failure, also known as subclinical hypothyroidism and that you may have an increased risk of eventually developing hypothyroidism. (btf-thyroid.org)
  • The Pearson product-moment correlation results indicated positive association between TSH level and duration of lithium use and age of the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. (who.int)
  • Duration of lithium use and age could be a reasonable indicator for screening asymptomatic patients for subclinical hypothyroidism after starting lithium treatment. (who.int)
  • The portant risk factor for the development of risk of lithium-induced antibodies increases subclinical hypothyroidism, 95% confi- with the duration of therapy and is more dence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. (who.int)
  • A doctor diagnoses mild, or subclinical, hypothyroidism through a medical history and physical exam. (peacehealth.org)
  • If your doctor suspects that you have subclinical hypothyroidism, you will have lab tests to confirm the diagnosis. (peacehealth.org)
  • Some people with subclinical hypothyroidism may test positive for antithyroid antibodies . (peacehealth.org)
  • Research does not provide clear evidence to support treatment of every person who has subclinical hypothyroidism. (peacehealth.org)
  • When making the decision to treat subclinical hypothyroidism, you and your doctor will talk about the benefits of treatment compared to the cost of medicine and monitoring symptoms. (peacehealth.org)
  • Some studies have shown that treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism may lower cholesterol levels. (peacehealth.org)
  • Many more people have mildly underactive thyroid glands (subclinical hypothyroidism). (adam.com)
  • ORLANDO, Florida - Levothyroxine treatment doesn't benefit most older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism , results from a large randomized clinical trial suggest. (medscape.com)
  • Data from the Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypothyroidism (TRUST) study were presented April 3 here at ENDO 2017: The Endocrine Society Annual Meeting by David J Stott, MD, professor of geriatric medicine at University of Glasgow, Scotland, and were simultaneously published in the New England Journal of Medicine . (medscape.com)
  • The study, of more than 700 adults aged 65 years and older with subclinical hypothyroidism - an elevated serum thyrotropin level but with serum free thyroxine level within the reference range - found that levothyroxine provided no apparent benefit in terms of symptoms, tiredness, and thyroid-related quality of life, or in any secondary outcomes, including cardiovascular events. (medscape.com)
  • Dr Stott also cautioned that the study findings apply only to patients with subclinical hypothyroidism who have relatively few or no symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • If you've got someone with a biochemistry consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism and their symptoms are much more dramatic, I think you still need to be thinking you might want a trial of treatment with levothyroxine in such a patient. (medscape.com)
  • No harms were seen with levothyroxine, but Dr Stott pointed out the financial cost of unnecessarily treating subclinical hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of thyroid hormone replacement treatment on cardiac diastolic function in adult patients with subclinical hypothyroidism: a meta-analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is related to abnormalities in left ventricular diastolic function, the use of levothyroxine as a regular treatment remains debatable. (bvsalud.org)
  • People with hypothyroidism often have no or only mild symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous symptoms and signs are associated with hypothyroidism and can be related to the underlying cause, or a direct effect of having not enough thyroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothyroidism in early pregnancy, even with limited or no symptoms, may increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, offspring with lower intelligence, and the risk of infant death around the time of birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a person is deprived of iodine in his diet, he develops an enlarged thyroid gland, called a goiter and symptoms of an underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism. (healthy.net)
  • If a patient has a normal TSH and a normal free T4, he is told by the conventional physician that he does not have hypothyroidism, no matter how many symptoms or signs of hypothyroidism he has. (healthy.net)
  • If you live with both hypothyroidism and depression, your thyroid condition may be contributing to your symptoms of depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • If you also live with a mental health condition like depression, it can be difficult to determine which of your symptoms come from hypothyroidism and which come from depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • Symptoms of hypothyroidism and depression interact in unexpected and sometimes unpleasant ways. (psychcentral.com)
  • Learning the difference between symptoms of depression and hypothyroidism can help you better understand your experience. (psychcentral.com)
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Hypothyroidism? (kidshealth.org)
  • To diagnose hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, doctors ask about a person's symptoms, do an exam, and order blood tests. (kidshealth.org)
  • However, rarely cases could be missed, so doctors must be aware of the earl symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism. (nih.gov)
  • Sometimes the level of hypothyroidism is so slight that there are no obvious symptoms and it can only be detected by blood tests. (btf-thyroid.org)
  • However, if you start to feel the symptoms of hypothyroidism coming on which include fatigue, depression, hair loss, weakness and muscle cramps you must meet with a doctor immediately. (yogawiz.com)
  • Occasionally, some patients with hypothyroidism have no symptoms, or symptoms that are subtle enough to go unnoticed. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • No symptoms or mild symptoms of hypothyroidism. (peacehealth.org)
  • Ayurveda believes that hypothyroidism is due to angni mandya leading to kshaya of pitta, aggravation of vata and finally dushti of kapha giving rise to metabolic symptoms like weight gain, irregular menstrual cycle in females, puffiness of face and many others. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Symptoms of hypothyroidism can range from mild to severe. (ukessays.com)
  • People with hypothyroidism may not have any symptoms at all. (ukessays.com)
  • The classic signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism may be mistakenly attributed to depression, stress and anxiety, age, another condition or simply be seen as psychosomatic. (google.com.au)
  • The latest treatment for the nagging symptoms of hypothyroidism cures a slow metabolism and helps you lose weight safely and free of any side effects. (maximsnews.com)
  • With Total Thyroid, you can put a stop to hypothyroidism symptoms and escape the adverse side effects that follow them. (maximsnews.com)
  • Doctors usually have a rough time determining if you are suffering from hypothyroidism or not because of the large number of symptoms, which generally mimic other medical conditions. (maximsnews.com)
  • Hypothyroidism is often overlooked and misdiagnosed due to complexities in thyroid testing and symptoms which may overlap or contradict the symptoms of food allergies. (ibstreatmentcenter.com)
  • Symptoms of hypothyroidism during and after pregnancy include fatigue, weight loss, dizziness, depression, and memory and concentration problems. (networkofcare.org)
  • Many of the symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) coincide with other conditions, allowing hypothyroidism to go undetected for quite some time. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • The more severe side effects can be worse than actual hypothyroidism symptoms! (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Further, many patients treated with levothyroxine continue to experience hypothyroidism symptoms that can take a toll on daily life and even become debilitating. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • A s hypothyroidism can cause a wide variety of neurological symptoms, any unclear neurological findings should prompt thyroid function testing. (penelopethemovie.com)
  • Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism can show up in the hands and nails. (penelopethemovie.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism can be complicated by bleeding symptoms such as easy bruising, menorrhagia and sometimes even a severe bleeding tendency with fatal outcome. (lu.se)
  • This is the fatal error because these tests only pick up the most severe cases of hypothyroidism and miss virtually all of the milder cases that would respond favorably to thyroid hormone treatment. (healthy.net)
  • It causes most cases of hypothyroidism in kids and teens. (kidshealth.org)
  • It represents a small percentage - 5 to 10% of the overall number of cases of hypothyroidism. (dogzone.com)
  • I've seen several cases of hypothyroidism with low thyroid hormone production and a normal TSH level. (ibstreatmentcenter.com)
  • Dr. Abalovich and colleagues explain that while it's well-established that overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy should be treated, the recommended levothyroxine doses for this indication "are variable and are based on expert opinion. (medscape.com)
  • The remaining 13 women had overt hypothyroidism (group 2). (medscape.com)
  • Only an estimated 2% to 6% end up developing overt hypothyroidism. (psychcentral.com)
  • For example, this 2018 review of several studies mentions a link between overt hypothyroidism and depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • While research shows a link between overt hypothyroidism and depression, definitive evidence of depression causing thyroid issues does not exist. (psychcentral.com)
  • Out of the 46 patients, 8 (17%) displayed overt hypothyroidism. (who.int)
  • Only a small percentage of people have full-blown (overt) hypothyroidism. (adam.com)
  • The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism in the general population varies between 0.3% and 3.7% in the United States. (adam.com)
  • Dogs are also known to develop hypothyroidism, as are cats and horses, albeit more rarely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dogs with underactive thyroid glands develop hypothyroidism. (dogster.com)
  • Older adults are more likely to develop hypothyroidism than younger people. (networkofcare.org)
  • Anyone can develop hypothyroidism, but people ages 50 years and above are at greater risk, and women are at higher risk than men. (adam.com)
  • Thyroid hormone replacement with levothyroxine treats hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levothyroxine is usually a pill, but some people with very severe hypothyroidism first need to be treated in the hospital with intravenous levothyroxine (given through a vein). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Levothyroxine (LT4) is generally considered to be the treatment of choice for patients with hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • A new study has determined the correct initial doses of levothyroxine (LT 4 ) to give pregnant women with newly discovered hypothyroidism, leading to prompt attainment of normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels. (medscape.com)
  • All patients were treated with levothyroxine as soon as hypothyroidism was diagnosed and were monitored every 4 to 6 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • Dogs with hypothyroidism require oral supplementation of a synthetic thyroid hormone called levothyroxine. (dogster.com)
  • Multiple cranial neuropathy is a rare manifestation of hypothyroidism and was fully reversible in our patient with levothyroxine substitution. (penelopethemovie.com)
  • An Italian study published in the journal Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, titled " Levothyroxine and lung cancer in females: the importance of oxidative stress ," has raised a concerning possibility: levothyroxine (T4), one of the world's most commonly prescribed forms of hormone replacement, may be raising the risk of lung cancer in millions of men and women being treated for low thyroid function (hypothyroidism). (wakeup-world.com)
  • The standard drug treatment for hypothyroidism is a daily dose of a synthetic thyroid hormone called levothyroxine. (adam.com)
  • New ATA guidelines stick with levothyroxine for hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • On the other hand, hyperthyroidism is the opposite of hypothyroidism. (psychcentral.com)
  • Either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism must be worked up. (checkbiotech.org)
  • Functional disorders are usually related to the gland producing too little thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) or too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism). (cdc.gov)
  • Hypothyroidism vs. hyperthyroidism: What's the difference? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hypothyroidism (or underactive thyroid ) is when the thyroid gland doesn't make enough of some important hormones. (kidshealth.org)
  • When a dog's thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones, a condition called hypothyroidism occurs. (dogster.com)
  • Hypothyroidism is an endocrine condition in dogs which occurs when there is a reduced production and release of the thyroid hormones. (dogzone.com)
  • Hypothyroidism is a condition which occurs when the body is unable to produce or release thyroid hormones or cannot respond adequately to their presence. (dogzone.com)
  • We know patients with hypothyroidism have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, but we didn't consider increased risk within what's considered the normal range of thyroid hormones," said lead researcher Jeffrey L. Anderson, MD, Distinguished Clinical and Research Physician at the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • Hypothyroidism is a condition that is characterized by the poor production of thyroid hormones in your body. (amcharities.org)
  • There are different consequences that can be brought by hypothyroidism since thyroid hormones are associated with the development, growth, and various processes occurring in your cells. (amcharities.org)
  • To give you an overview of the condition, hypothyroidism is basically a condition of the thyroid that will likely be characterized by the poor production of hormones in your system. (amcharities.org)
  • If the actual thyroid hormones themselves (called T4 and T3) are not checked, hypothyroidism can be missed. (ibstreatmentcenter.com)
  • As the thyroid hormones work in unison with other hormones in the body, such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, an imbalance in these hormones puts the body at risk for developing hypothyroidism. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • An underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism, happens when your thyroid produces too little of its hormones. (penelopethemovie.com)
  • Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid, is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones. (adam.com)
  • Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is underactivity of the thyroid gland that leads to inadequate production of thyroid hormones and a slowing of vital body functions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bexarotene-induced hypothyroidism: bexarotene stimulates the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. (medscape.com)
  • can cause hypothyroidism because radioactive iodine or medications used in treatment interfere with the body's ability to make thyroid hormones. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in countries with sufficient dietary iodine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common cause of hypothyroidism is thyroiditis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How Are Hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Diagnosed? (kidshealth.org)
  • Lymphocytic thyroiditis, an immune-mediated condition, is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in dogs. (dogster.com)
  • With the help of medication and practicing the different forms of yoga for the hashimoto's thyroiditis , hypothyroidism can be prevented. (yogawiz.com)
  • Lymphocytic thyroiditis - This is the most frequent cause of primary hypothyroidism in dogs and is thought to be an autoimmune condition that gradually destroys certain parts of the thyroid gland. (dogzone.com)
  • The most common cause of hypothyroidism is thyroiditis, which is swelling and inflammation of the thyroid gland. (rxwiki.com)
  • Canine hypothyroidism is an endocrinopathy seen in dogs and presenting most commonly due to lymphocytic thyroiditis or idiopathic thyroid atrophy. (vetclick.com)
  • Hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis sometimes goes away on its own. (networkofcare.org)
  • Hypothyroidism can be caused by the autoimmune disorder Hashimoto thyroiditis, irradiation or surgical removal of the thyroid gland, and medications that reduce thyroid hormone levels. (adam.com)
  • Autoimmune thyroiditis is a disorder that may cause hypothyroidism. (cdc.gov)
  • This type of hypothyroidism occurs when the body fails to convert the less active T4 thyroid hormone into the more active T3 form or for some reason tissues become resistant to their presence. (dogzone.com)
  • This type of hypothyroidism occurs in about 1 in 1,700 to 3,500 live births. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hypothyroidism, thyroxine treatment, and the heart. (bmj.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Nous avons examiné la fonction thyroïdienne chez 46 patients (20 femmes et 26 hommes) des consultations psychiatriques externes traités au lithium en évaluant le taux de triiodothyronine, de thyroxine et de thyréostimuline hypophysaire (TSH). (who.int)
  • Hypothyroidism is treated with thyroxine replacement which is administered in a small pill. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: The effects of desmopressin, given intravenously over 10 minutes at a dosage of 0.3 micrograms/kg, and thyroxine treatment on haemostatic function were studied prospectively in 10 patients with hypothyroidism. (lu.se)
  • If you have severe hypothyroidism or are at risk of heart problems you can expect your doctor to start cautiously and increase the dose gradually. (btf-thyroid.org)
  • Peripheral neuropathy may be caused by severe, long-term, untreated hypothyroidism. (penelopethemovie.com)
  • Nerve Damage Severe, untreated hypothyroidism can cause fluid buildup that puts pressure on the nerves in your arms and legs. (penelopethemovie.com)
  • This usually happens if your hypothyroidism is severe and you haven't treated it. (penelopethemovie.com)
  • Consistent reversible elevations of serum creatinine levels in severe hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • Myxedema is the name given to very severe hypothyroidism. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Worldwide, too little iodine in the diet is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chronic lack of iodine in the diet is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in many developing countries. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although an adequate amount of dietary iodine is important, too much may worsen specific forms of hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although extremely rare, iodine deficiency can also cause hypothyroidism. (dogzone.com)
  • Worldwide, iodine deficiency is the number one cause of hypothyroidism. (networkofcare.org)
  • Treating Hypothyroidism After Radioactive Iodine Treatment Helps You. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • The Healthy Skeptic · Iodine for hypothyroidism: like gasoline on a fire? (thehealthyskeptic.org)
  • I don't recall these docs citing any cases where autoimmune hypothyroidism got worse with iodine. (thehealthyskeptic.org)
  • Interpretation In many areas of the world, hypothyroidism is a major health concern and in addition to other factors-such as iodine deficiency-fluoride exposure should be considered as a contributing factor. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Thyroid disease, an enlarged thyroid (goiter), and surgery or radiation therapy to treat thyroid problems increase the likelihood of having hypothyroidism in the future. (networkofcare.org)
  • Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland is underactive and does not make enough thyroid hormone. (rxwiki.com)
  • There are different types of hypothyroidism depending on where the problem is occurring in the function of the thyroid. (dogzone.com)
  • If you notice any signs of hypothyroidism in your dog, bring him to the veterinarian for evaluation. (dogster.com)
  • From blood exames there are some signs of hypothyroidism and I would like to ask if it's possible to regulate with some homeopathic remedies? (abchomeopathy.com)
  • The new study provides "the endocrinologist [with] precise orientation on how to approach the treatment of pregnant women with hypothyroidism diagnosed during pregnancy," he observed. (medscape.com)
  • What is the treatment for hypothyroidism? (btf-thyroid.org)
  • Once hypothyroidism is diagnosed in a dog it can usually be treated and the prognosis is good, although affected dogs will need to receive treatment throughout their whole lives. (dogzone.com)
  • However, the good news is, researches regarding the condition resulted in different solutions for the prevention and treatment of hypothyroidism. (amcharities.org)
  • Am I on right treatment for hypothyroidism? (ndtv.com)
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » Am I on right treatment for hypothyroidism? (ndtv.com)
  • Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the american thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement. (medscape.com)
  • For patients who take medication to treat hypothyroidism, being treated with too much medication can lead to an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, a common heart rhythm disorder associated with stroke, a new study of more than 174,000 patients has found. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • Total Thyroid is an organically sourced supplement pill that treats hypothyroidism and the conditions associated with this illness. (maximsnews.com)
  • This scenario can be confused with secondary hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • This is especially true for people with food allergies, since there is a higher association of autoimmune hypothyroidism in these people. (ibstreatmentcenter.com)
  • Hypothyroidism (also called underactive thyroid, low thyroid or hypothyreosis) is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But over time, the thyroid stops making enough thyroid hormone, causing hypothyroidism. (kidshealth.org)
  • Hypothyroidism means that the thyroid gland doesn't make enough thyroid hormone . (networkofcare.org)
  • Hypothyroidism (or underactive thyroid) When your thyroid gland doesn't make enough thyroid hormone May cause weight gain, constipation, slowed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hypothyroidism is the most common disorder of the thyroid gland, and can occur at any age. (google.com.au)
  • Primary hypothyroidism results from a disorder of the thyroid gland itself. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine. (kidshealth.org)
  • Dogs with hypothyroidism may have high cholesterol, high fat content and mild anemia on bloodwork. (dogster.com)
  • Hypothyroidism can be a complicated disease on its own and require daily medication in most cases and surgery in more. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Newborn children with hypothyroidism may have normal birth weight and height (although the head may be larger than expected and the posterior fontanelle may be open). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothyroidism in the Newborn Hypothyroidism is decreased production of thyroid hormone. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hypothyroidism in the newborn may occur if there is a structural problem with the thyroid gland. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Myxedema coma is a rare but life-threatening state of extreme hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myxedema coma can be the first presentation of hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with primary hypothyroidism have elevated TSH levels and decreased free hormone levels. (medscape.com)
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established to detect autoantibodies in canine patients with hypothyroidism. (avmi.net)
  • Utilizing this test system, sera of 39 patients with hypothyroidism were screened for the presence of thyroglobulin specific autoantibodies. (avmi.net)
  • A steady decline of autoantibody titers was observed in three patients with hypothyroidism, whereas titers of one healthy dog remained high over this period. (avmi.net)
  • Assays for anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies may be helpful in determining the etiology of hypothyroidism or in predicting future hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • Whenever there is a diagnosis of hypothyroidism, or when the TSH level fluctuates, it is also important that autoimmune thyroid antibodies be measured. (ibstreatmentcenter.com)
  • The antibodies produced in Hashimoto's disease make the thyroid produce less thyroid hormone, so it's called hypothyroidism. (checkbiotech.org)
  • Both types of peripheral hypothyroidism are rare. (dogzone.com)
  • Although the association between hypothyroidism and peripheral neuropathy isn't fully understood, it's known that hypothyroidism can cause fluid retention resulting in swollen tissues that exert pressure on peripheral nerves. (penelopethemovie.com)
  • The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. (hindawi.com)
  • In our earlier studies, it was reported that transient hypothyroidism (from day 1 of neonatal age till day 30) modulated testicular antioxidant defence status as well as functions in adult stage [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypothyroidism is a common condition, especially in adult women. (kidshealth.org)
  • Hypothyroidism is not a curable condition. (dogster.com)
  • Hypothyroidism is the name given to the condition resulting from an underactive thyroid gland. (btf-thyroid.org)
  • This webinar will recap the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis alongside the development of the clinical condition of hypothyroidism. (vetclick.com)
  • Hypothyroidism is a serious condition found in people with and without food allergies. (ibstreatmentcenter.com)
  • In discussing their findings, the authors noted that they could not exclude the possibility that the condition of hypothyroidism could favor the development of lung cancer. (wakeup-world.com)
  • Hypothyroidism in dogs can also occur due to thyroid gland atrophy. (dogster.com)
  • In this type of hypothyroidism, the pituitary gland is affected. (dogzone.com)
  • Hypothyroidism refers to underactivity of the thyroid gland. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • While rare, hypothyroidism can also be caused by problems in the pituitary gland, the "master hormone gland" that controls the thyroid gland. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • Hypothyroidism in children usually occurs when there is a structural problem with the thyroid gland or the thyroid gland is inflamed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The hypothyroidism is usually temporary because the thyroid gland is not destroyed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If left untreated, hypothyroidism results in a poor quality of life, an increased risk of complications and a reduced lifespan. (dogster.com)
  • A study has uncovered a link between the synthetic thyroid hormone (trade name Synthroid) used to treat millions diagnosed with hypothyroidism and lung cancer, bringing to the forefront the harmful role that overdiagnosis and overtreatment plays in nutritional deficiency and chemical exposure related 'diseases. (wakeup-world.com)