Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.
An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The branch of mathematics dealing with the purely logical properties of probability. Its theorems underlie most statistical methods. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Sexual activities of animals.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The number of males per 100 females.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The physical measurements of a body.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.
Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.
The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
They also kept livestock, as it is explained by its[who?] theory of cattle hypothesis.[citation needed] In approximately 1430 ... Earlier theories suggested that in the early 11th century, people from the Kingdom of Mapungubwe in Southern Africa moved north ... Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, ...
Urheimat hypotheses[edit]. Levant theory[edit]. Supporters of a non-North or Northeast African origin for Afroasiatic are ... The various hypotheses for the Afroasiatic Urheimat are distributed throughout this territory;[2][3][4][5] that is, it is ... Sahel/Sahara theory[edit]. Igor Diakonoff proposed the Eastern Sahara region, specifically the southern fringe of the Sahara.[4 ... Red Sea/Horn of Africa theory[edit]. The Horn of Africa, particularly the area of Ethiopia and Eritrea, has been proposed by ...
Dr de Kok's theory was that the appendix was often the cause of patients suffering from severe bouts of abdominal pain, even if ... Medical Hypotheses. 75 (6): 501-504. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2010.07.005. PMID 20656412. Erp W.F.M van, "Laparoscopie goed bruikbaar ... Following classic theory, the appendix would only be removed when it was about to be ruptured or had ruptured. ... His first publication describing his theory around the appendix as well as the use of the laparoscopy during surgery was ...
Lorre, Chuck; Prady, Bill; Cohen, Robert; Goetsch, Dave (October 2007). "The Big Bran Hypothesis". The Big Bang Theory. Season ... "A Brand New Bee Was Just Named After Sheldon From 'The Big Bang Theory'". Smithsonian Magazine. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 3 ... Sheldon Cooper from the television show The Big Bang Theory. It was previously misidentified as Euglossa ignita, and is ... Lazarus, Susanna (3 January 2013). "Bazinga! New species of bee named after The Big Bang Theory's Sheldon Cooper". Radio Times ...
"The Big Bran Hypothesis". The Big Bang Theory. Season 1. Episode 2. October 1, 2007. 16:00 minutes in. CBS. "The Robotic ... "The Tiny Trinket Maneuver". The Big Bang Theory. Season 5. episode 12. January 12, 2012. CBS. "The Bath Item Gift Hypothesis". ... Season 2, episode 11: The Bath Item Gift Hypothesis "The Proton Displacement". The Big Bang Theory. Season 7. Episode 7. ... "The Big Bang Theory, la fórmula perfecta del humor". VOS. "Johnny Galecki Exclusive Video Interview - The Big Bang Theory". ...
ISBN 3-540-44085-2. Cohen, Paul J. (1966). Set theory and the Continuum Hypothesis. Benjamin, New York. Adkins; Weintraub (1992 ... The axiom of choice is an axiom of ZFC set theory which in one form states that every set can be wellordered. In ZF set theory ... Then there is an y ∈ X such that y • α ∈ X for all α ∈ ℵ(X). But by elementary group theory, the y • α are all different as α ... It is, by elementary group theory, injective. Finally, define a wellordering on X by x < y if j(x) < j(y). It follows that ...
Continental drift (hypothesis/theory). *Optical telescope (invention and history of the telescope) ...
ISBN 978-0-050-02170-5. Poletiek, Fenna H. (2001). "Formal theories of testing". Hypothesis-testing Behaviour. Essays in ... The null hypothesis is the default assumption that nothing happened or changed. For the null hypothesis to be rejected, an ... is the probability of the study rejecting the null hypothesis, given that the null hypothesis was assumed to be true; and the p ... "Outline of a Theory of Statistical Estimation Based on the Classical Theory of Probability". Philosophical Transactions of the ...
Hershey, John C.; Schoemaker, Paul J.H. (June 1980). "Prospect theory's reflection hypothesis: A critical examination". ... Arrow, K. J. (1965). "Aspects of the Theory of Risk Bearing". The Theory of Risk Aversion. Helsinki: Yrjo Jahnssonin Saatio. ... One solution to the problem observed by Rabin is that proposed by prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory, where ... In expected utility theory, an agent has a utility function u(c) where c represents the value that he might receive in money or ...
"Exploding the JEDP Theory - The Documentary Hypothesis". Ankerberg Theological Research Institute. Retrieved February 23, 2016 ... He is a critic of, and rejects the Documentary Hypothesis. Kaiser, Walter C. Jr. (1972). Classical Evangelical Essays in Old ...
"The Mirroring Hypothesis: Theory, Evidence and Exceptions." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 16-124, April 2016. ( ... "the mirroring hypothesis" as an equivalent term for Conway's law, found "strong evidence to support the mirroring hypothesis", ... We find strong evidence to support the mirroring hypothesis. In all of the pairs we examine, the product developed by the ... Cognitive dimensions of notations Deutsch limit Organizational theory Conway, Melvin. "Conway's Law". Mel Conway's Home Page. ...
Evans, Griffith C. (1932). "The Role of Hypothesis in Economic Theory". Science. 75 (1943): 321-324. Bibcode:1932Sci....75.. ... "dawning economic theory" that would bear "to the older theories the relations which the Hamiltonian dynamics and the ... The subjective theory of value stated the individuals aimed to make their pleasure or utility a maximum. Evans argued that the ... R. G. D. Allen, a colleague of Bowley, also criticized the book for not presenting a general economic theory and focusing too ...
Decompression theory: A dynamic critical-volume hypothesis. In: Bachrach A.J. and Matzen, M.M. eds. Underwater physiology VIII ... Multiple inert-gas bubble disease: a review of the theory. In: Lambertsen, C.J. and Bornmann, R.C. eds. Isobaric Inert Gas ...
Hoffer called his theory the "adrenochrome hypothesis". In 1967, Hoffer resigned some of his academic and administrative ... Subsequent research suggested that Hoffer's adrenochrome theory had merit as people with schizophrenia have defects in the ... Hoffer's claims regarding schizophrenia and his theories of holistic orthomolecular medicine have been criticized by the ... Hoffer, A (1990). "The Adrenochrome Hypothesis and Psychiatry". Retrieved 2011-07-25. "ACS : Orthomolecular Medicine". American ...
A.J. Rocke (1985). "Hypothesis and Experiment in Kekulé's Benzene Theory". Annals of Science. 42 (4): 355-81. doi:10.1080/ ... Kekulé was the principal formulator of the theory of chemical structure (1857-58). This theory proceeds from the idea of atomic ... For example, periodic acid according to Kekuléan structure theory could be represented by the chain structure I-O-O-O-O-H. By ... Here Kekulé spoke of the creation of the theory. He said that he had discovered the ring shape of the benzene molecule after ...
Probability theory is based on this hypothesis.[dubious - discuss] For many years, the hypothesis of ideal statistical ... Currently two theories are known that describe this phenomenon. They are the classical probability theory, which has a long ... The theory of hyper-random phenomena does not erase the achievements of probability theory and classical mathematical ... The main parameters defining the bounds of the effective using of classical probability theory and the theory of hyper-random ...
This theory supports the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. Another study in 2009 by Simon Fraser University researchers ... This is known as the pathogenic theory of schizophrenia or germ theory of schizophrenia. It is a pathogenic theory of disease ... Some theories suggest positive symptoms of schizophrenia can result from or be worsened by negative emotions, including ... June 2016). "A review of vulnerability and risks for schizophrenia: Beyond the two hit hypothesis". Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 65: ...
Tager-Flusberg, Helen (December 2007). "Evaluating the theory-of-mind hypothesis of autism". Current Directions in ... "Autism and Theory of Mind: A Theory in Transition". Retrieved 9 October 2016. Ruffman, Ted; Garnham, Wendy; ... there is a growing uncertainty among scientists about the importance of the underlying theory-of-mind hypothesis of autism. In ... While Baron-Cohen et al.'s data have been purported to indicate a lack of theory of mind in autistic children, there are other ...
Another hypothesis is known as the Bast Theory. It states that the fire was burning long before the alleged trash dump fire. ... Another hypothesis arose from the letter sent to the Lehigh Valley Coal Company by the Centralia Council in the days after the ... Those who adhere to the Bast Theory believe that the dump fire is a separate fire unrelated to the Centralia mine fire. One man ... A number of competing hypotheses have arisen about the source of the Centralia mine fire. Some of them claim that the mine fire ...
Cohen, P. Set Theory and the continuum hypothesis. p. 151. Paul Cohen lecture video, six parts, Gödel Centennial, Vienna 2006 ... In this sense, the continuum hypothesis is undecidable, and it is the most widely known example of a natural statement that is ... independent from the standard ZF axioms of set theory. For his result on the continuum hypothesis, Cohen won the Fields Medal ... He is best known for his proofs that the continuum hypothesis and the axiom of choice are independent from Zermelo-Fraenkel set ...
Doolette, DJ (2006). "A personal view of Brian Hills' contribution to decompression theory and practice". Journal of the South ... Brian A. Hills analysed the existing decompression hypotheses frequently referenced in the literature of the time, and ... Yount, David E.; Hoffman, DC (1984). Bachrach A.J.; Matzen, M.M. (eds.). "Decompression theory: a dynamic critical-volume ... ISBN 978-1-905492-07-7. Yount, David E. (2002). "Decompression theory - Bubble models : Applying VPM to diving" (PDF). Diving ...
This hypothesis is the basis of our theory." (This frequency is also known as Compton frequency.) De Broglie followed his ... in order to explain collision processes on Schrödinger's theory. This hypothesis contained two important new features in ... The other theory is more remote from Mr de Broglie's original ideas, insofar as it is based on a wave-like process in the space ... Some theories treat either the particle or the wave aspect as its fundamental nature, seeking to explain the other as an ...
Permanent income hypothesis is Milton Friedman´s theory. Friedman´s consumption function is given as C = M P C ∗ Y p {\ ... who built on the results of Irving Fisher's theory of intertemporal consumer choice. According to life cycle hypothesis, ... Moreover Keynes´s theory claims that wealthier people spend less of their income on consumption than less wealthy people. This ... According to this hypothesis, there are only changes within transitory income (Y=Yp+Yt) in the short run, the consumption does ...
Theory of symbiogenesis and ''Pangenesis, a Provisional Hypothesis.''" "My presentation will contain the following new ... Kozo-Polyansky's theories were first published to the West in 1979 by Khakhina's book on the history of the theory of ... In "The New Principle of Biology: An Essay on the Theory of Symbiogenesis" Kozo-Polyansky posited many novels theories and ... Essay on the Theory of Symbiogenesis, Moscow, 1924 The main biogenetic law from the botanical point of view, Voronezh, 1937 Tea ...
This theory relates to John Bowlby's Continuity hypothesis theory. How the relationship an infant has with its parent or ...
JAMES W. KIRCHNER (2002). "THE GAIA HYPOTHESIS: FACT, THEORY, AND WISHFUL THINKING" (PDF). Climatic Change. 451 (4): 391-408. ... Kirchner has also been an active critic of the Gaia hypothesis. "Keck funds project to track life cycle of water"; Sanders, ...
Mechanizing Hypothesis Formation: Mathematical Foundations for a General Theory. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-08738-0. Webb ... Hájek, P.; Havel, I.; Chytil, M. (1966). "The GUHA method of automatic hypotheses determination". Computing. 1 (4): 293-308. ...
This area of theory is called optimal outbreeding hypothesis. Rey Chow argues that the fetishism of white women in Chinese ... The theories of naturalist Darwin can offer some observations in regards to why some people might find other races more ... This increased white anxiety about interracial sex, and has been described through Montesquieu's climatic theory in his book ... Woan, Sunny (March 2008). "White Sexual Imperialism: A Theory of Asian Feminist Jurisprudence". Washington and Lee Journal of ...
Theory, hypothesis, beliefs depend a great deal on temperament; they are, so to speak, mere equivalents of temperament. - ... "Unlike those who were caught by Flaubert's theory of the unique word and the only epithet," wrote Osbert Burdett, "Pater sought ... Some of the forms will be metaphysical doctrines, ethical systems, literary theories, religions, myths. Pater's scepticism led ... Marius tests his author's theory of the stimulating effect of the pursuit of sensation and insight as an ideal in itself. The ...
Auerbach, Albert A. (2001). The God Hypothesis and Other Theories of the Universe. Infinity Publishing. pp. 59-60. ISBN 978-0- ... "Mind the Gap: Did Darwin Avoid Publishing His Theory for Many Years?" Notes and Records of the Royal Society 61:177-205. doi: ... However, he later developed his theory of evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, which offers an alternate ... He attempts a number of refutations, including one that arguably foreshadows Darwin's theory, and makes the point that if God ...
One hypothesis that has recently garnered some attention is the minimal wiring hypothesis, which postulates that the formation ... Michael A. Arbib; Shun-ichi Amari; Prudence H. Arbib (2002). The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, ... One recent computational hypothesis involves cascades of plasticity that allow synapses to function at multiple time scales.[29 ... In some cases the complex interactions between inhibitory and excitatory neurons can be simplified using mean field theory, ...
A theory regarding the involvement of OSA as a causative agent for elevated intracranial pressure suggests an association with ... Mokri B (June 2001). "The Monro-Kellie hypothesis: applications in CSF volume depletion". Neurology. 56 (12): 1746-8. doi: ... the expected decrease of intracranial blood is probably not occurring as it should according to the Monro-Kellie hypothesis.[22 ... "Single-suture craniosynostosis: a review of neurobehavioral research and theory". Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 29 (8): 651 ...
This is known as the top-down hypothesis or 'green-world' hypothesis. Alternatively to the top-down hypothesis, not all plant ... "Food web theory centers around the idea of connectance."[65]:1648 Quantitative formulas simplify the complexity of food web ... Peters, R. H. (1988). "Some general problems for ecology illustrated by food web theory". Ecology. 69 (6): 1673-1676. doi: ... This hypothesis was challenged through mathematical models suggesting otherwise, but subsequent studies have shown that the ...
Conspiracy theories (list). *Big Pharma conspiracy theory. *HIV/AIDS denialism *OPV AIDS hypothesis ... or whose theory and practice is not part of biomedicine,[n 2][n 4][n 5][n 6] or whose theories or practices are directly ... The clinician's diagnosis was equivalent to the scientist's hypothesis: both medical diagnosis and hypothesis required the test ... Martin, Hélène; Debons, Jérôme (2015). CAM and conventional medicine in Switzerland : divided in theory, united in practice. In ...
In probability theory, the Chernoff bound, named after Herman Chernoff but due to Herman Rubin,[1] gives exponentially ... Chernoff, H. (1952). "A Measure of Asymptotic Efficiency for Tests of a Hypothesis Based on the sum of Observations". Annals of ... IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 48 (3): 569-579. arXiv:quant-ph/0012127 . doi:10.1109/18.985947.. ... small perturbation hypothesis (the perturbation magnitude is small). The robustness level can be, in turn, used either to ...
To test Dunning and Kruger's hypotheses, "that people, at all performance levels, are equally poor at estimating their relative ... Dunning and Kruger tested the hypotheses of the cognitive bias of illusory superiority on undergraduate students of ...
This hypothesis is generally less accepted than the previous hypothesis, but nonetheless provides a possible alternative. ... Theories to explain the apparent egalitarianism have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism.[58][59] ... However, this hypothesis is disputed within the anthropological community.[36][37] The possible use of rafts during the Lower ... Adherents of the theory include archaeologist Marija Gimbutas and feminist scholar Merlin Stone, the author of the 1976 book ...
Scale types and Stevens's "operational theory of measurement"[edit]. The theory of scale types is the intellectual handmaiden ... Testing hypotheses. *1- & 2-tails. *Power *Uniformly most powerful test. *Permutation test *Randomization test ... Stevens proposed his typology in a 1946 Science article titled "On the theory of scales of measurement".[2] In that article, ... Stevens, S. S. (7 June 1946). "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement". Science. 103 (2684): 677-680. Bibcode:1946Sci...103.. ...
Problem solving is effected by deriving hypotheses on these abducible predicates (abductive hypotheses) as solutions of ... Once an explanation has been chosen, then this becomes part of the theory, which can be used to draw new conclusions. The ... "Inference of abduction theories for handling incompleteness in first-order learning" (PDF). Knowl. Inf. Syst. 11 (2): 217-242 ...
In 1851 he got his doctorate for a dissertation called Foundations for a General Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. ... Gauss asked him to talk about On the Hypotheses that form the foundations of Geometry. Gauss himself had worked on this subject ... The kind of geometry he started (which is called Riemannian geometry today) is one of the bases of the theory of relativity, ... He contributed to many fields of mathematics, such as analysis, geometry, mathematical physics and number theory. Today, many ...
Iron-sulfur world theory. *Kerogen. *உயிர். *Molecules in stars. *Nexus for Exoplanet System Science ... PAH world hypothesis. *Panspermia. *பல்சூழல் அரோமாட்டிக் ஐதரோகார்பன். *RNA world hypothesis. *நிறமாலையியல். *Tholin ...
One hypothesis is that they are a learned physical reaction or habit the body develops, similar to a reflex. The individual ... There is very little supporting evidence for this theory.[29] The DSM-IV lists conversion disorders instead of the current FND ... The etiology of FND was historically explained in the context of psychoanalytic theory as a physical manifestation of ...
Assumptions and formal statement of hypotheses[edit]. Although Mann and Whitney[1] developed the Mann-Whitney U test under the ... Lehamnn, Erich L.; Elements of Large Sample Theory, Springer, 1999, p. 176 ... The test involves the calculation of a statistic, usually called U, whose distribution under the null hypothesis is known. In ... Under the null hypothesis H0, the distributions of both populations are equal.[3] ...
The hypothesis has attracted increasing attention in recent years as a number of neuroimaging studies on younger children have ... Interactive Specialization is a theory of brain development proposed by the British cognitive neuroscientist Mark Johnson, who ... According to the second, the Interactive Specialization (IS) [2] [3] hypothesis, development is not a unidirectional ... According to the first, the maturational hypothesis, the relationship between structure and function (i.e. which parts of the ...
In this hypothesis, any appearance of evolution acting with an intrinsic direction towards increasingly complex organisms is a ... Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which typically acts to streamline genomes ... "Drift-barrier hypothesis and mutation-rate evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (45): 18488-18492 ...
This hypothesis may explain why chronic arthritis persists after antibiotic therapy, similar to rheumatic fever, but its wider ... Williams, Carolyn (2007). Infectious disease epidemiology : theory and practice (2nd ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett ... B. burgdorferi spirochetes were identified in tick saliva in 1987, confirming the hypothesis that transmission occurred via ...
Homola S (2006). "Chiropractic: history and overview of theories and methods". Clin Orthop Relat Res. 444: 236-42. doi:10.1097/ ... "Exploring hypotheses and rationale for causes of infantile colic". Neurogastroenterol Motil (Review). 29 (2): e12943. doi ... DeVocht JW (2006). "History and overview of theories and methods of chiropractic: a counterpoint". Clin Orthop Relat Res. 444: ... Serious research to test chiropractic theories did not begin until the 1970s, and is continuing to be hampered by ...
Despite the criticism targeting his linguistic theories and despite the priority dispute with Bartholin, Rudbeck remained a ... Location hypotheses of Atlantis. *Olof Rudbeck the Younger. References[edit]. *^ Eriksson, G. (2004). Svensk medicinhistorisk ...
Conspiracy theory *9/11 conspiracy theories. *Chemtrail conspiracy theory. *Climate change denial ...
One of the main theories to the extinction is climate change. The climate change theory has suggested that a change in climate ... This hypothesis is relatively new.[116] One study examined the methane emissions from the bison that occupied the Great Plains ... The hyperdisease hypothesis, proposed by Ross MacPhee in 1997, states that the megafaunal die-off was due to an indirect ... The most popular theory is that human overhunting of species added to existing stress conditions as the extinction coincides ...
... and putting forward controversial hypotheses concerning the origin of the Romanians, such as advancing the theory that the vast ...
Jacquart, Danielle, "Islamic Pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Theories and Substances", European Review, 16 (2): 219-227 [219 ... telah confined ke pengalaman industi dan vague hypothesis, orang Saracen memperkenalkan balai cerap tetap, eksperimen kawalan, ...
... by outlining the history of research into extra-Biblical sources for the historical Jesus and its relation to the hypothesis ... Critics of the Christ myth theory. *Hope College alumni. *Living people. *Lycoming College faculty ...
In his theory of "The Ten Intellects", he viewed the human soul as the tenth and final intellect.[88][89] ... MacDougall, Duncan (1907). "The Soul: Hypothesis Concerning Soul Substance Together with Experimental Evidence of the Existence ... J. (1996). The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ... According to Plato's theory, the three-part soul is essentially the same thing as a state's class system because, to function ...
These hypotheses contain both elastic vibrations and cryptoexplosion structures… The authors are A.V. Pozdniakov and A.V. Khon ... This investigator developed his theory later in his book and his doctoral thesis (1984), but practically at the same time he ... This author's unclear explanations of the essence of his second "moraine" hypothesis (he would have a third one as well) may be ... J Harlen Bretz, author of the hypothesis of the diluvial origin of the Channeled Scabland, considered mainly "giant gravel bars ...
... cognitive science and game theory in a comprehensive theory of strategy. Utility theory (the basis of game theory) describes ... Decision makers gather information (observe), form hypotheses about customer activity and the intentions of competitors (orient ... Linger, Henry, Constructing The Infrastructure for the Knowledge Economy: Methods and Tools, Theory and Practice, p. 449 ... Osinga, Frans, "Science, Strategy and War The Strategic Theory of John Boyd" ...
a b c Teatero ML, Netley C. A Critical Review of the Research on the Extreme Male Brain Theory and Digit Ratio (2D:4D). „ ... Minireview: Organizational Hypothesis: Instances of the Fingerpost. „Endocrinology". 151 (9), s. 4116-4122, 2010. DOI: 10.1210/ ...
... hypothesis testing, controlled experimentation, and abstract concepts, such as energy, inertia, etc., can be taught.[34] ... The theory of Kurt W FischerEdit. Kurt W. Fischer advanced a theory that integrates Piaget's notion of stages in cognitive ... Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development criticize and build upon Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. ... However, Fischer's theory differs from the other neo-Piagetian theories in a number of respects. One of them is in the way it ...
1837: Notes to Thomas Wright's Original Theory, or New Hypothesis of the Universe. ... Rafinesque proposed a theory of evolution before Charles Darwin.[31][32] In a letter in 1832, Rafinesque wrote: The truth is ... Among his theories were that ancestors of Native Americans had migrated by the Bering Sea from Asia to North America,[2][3] and ... Rafinesque's evolutionary theory appears in a two-page article in the 1833 spring issue of the Atlantic Journal and Friend of ...
Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if ... He tried to publish his theoretical paper "Cold Fusion: A Hypothesis" in Physical Review Letters, but the peer reviewers ... Researchers in the field do not agree on a theory for cold fusion.[126] One proposal considers that hydrogen and its isotopes ... theory can even accommodate the subtle variations in the ratio at these low temperatures [below 200 °C, where the first channel ...
Hypothesis Theory is a psychological theory of learning developed during the 1960s and 1970s. In the basic experimental ... In contrast to earlier association-type theories, the Hypothesis Theory argues that subjects solve this problem (i.e., learn ... Levine, Marvin (1975). A Cognitive Theory of Learning: Research on Hypothesis Testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Trabasso, ... Amsterdam: North Holland (1982). Levine, Marvin (1971). "Hypothesis theory and nonlearning despite ideal S-R-reinforcement ...
I am an unashamed fan of non-standard theories, aka fringe theories or whacky theories… …aquatic ape hypothesis (AAH): that ... Regular readers will know that I am an unashamed fan of non-standard theories, aka fringe theories or whacky theories, and of ... theory. hypothesis of initial bipedalism. Posted by Darren Naish on March 17, 2008 ... At the risk of being one of those annoying nit-pickers, I think you can hardly call these "theories." Hypotheses would be much ...
A method is given for incorporating Diracs Large Numbers hypothesis into Einsteins standard theory of general relativity. The ... Microwave Field Theory General Relativity Elementary Particle Quantum Field Theory This is a preview of subscription content, ... A method is given for incorporating Diracs Large Numbers hypothesis into Einsteins standard theory of general relativity. The ... The Large Numbers hypothesis requirement thatG A ∝1/t A is then used to establish the relationship between the two times. ...
Aquatic Ape ... Theory? Hypothesis?. *Posted by Jo Jerome on October 21, 2010 at 1:23pm in Godless Anthrogeeks ... Anyhow, the more I read up on it, the more I like the theory. It feels like it explains many of the differences between us and ... I have a list of human evolution hypothesis with their authors and dates somewhere. If you want it I can find it.. I do think ... Anyhow, the more I read up on it, the more I like the theory. It feels like it explains many of the differences between us and ...
Contrary to the dominant theory where aggregated extracellular beta-a...,New,findings,contradict,dominant,theory,in,Alzheimers ... The research groups data offers an opposite hypothesis suggesting th...The study published in the October issue of the Journal ... For decades the amyloid hypothesis has dominated the research field in... ... New findings contradict dominant theory in Alzheimers disease. ...For decades the amyloid hypothesis has dominated the ...
Translation talk:The Fundamental Hypotheses of the Theory of Electrons. From Wikisource ... Retrieved from " ...
If I do get to the top and live it becomes a fact, no longer a theory. If I fail the theory goes back to being an hypothesis at ... If your theory cannot be adapted to fit the new data, then you discard the theory. "Of course, the longer I wait to turn theory ... If you failed, then youve disproved your hypothesis. Neither makes it a theory. It becomes a theory when you take your ... As I pointed out, your use of theory and hypothesis is incorrect. Furthermore, your hypothesis was valid only for the time ...
Thus, ABC theory helps resolve several problems with RBC theory. The FIH describes a process of endogenous overleveraging which ... theory, and Minskys financial instability hypothesis (FIH). In RBC models, recessions are caused on the supply side by random ... the overleveraging described by the FIH is compatible with the unsustainable expansion of production described in ABC theory, ... " New evidence on the structure of production: Real and Austrian business cycle theory and the financial instability hypothesis. ...
Uses the theory of evolution through natural selection to show the process of testing, expanding, and refining ideas. ... Learn how scientific theories are built and revised. ... and a theory within a theory. The theory of evolution by ... Theories, hypotheses, and laws drive scientific progress. Theories, hypotheses, and laws are not simply important components of ... A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon. Hypotheses, just like theories, are based on observations ...
Uses the theory of evolution through natural selection to show the process of testing, expanding, and refining ideas. ... Learn how scientific theories are built and revised. ... d.A theory is a hypothesis that uses laws and observation to ... c.Scientific theories determine the work that future scientists can do.. * d.Scientific theories determine the subjects that ... Why are scientific theories an important part of research and understanding?. * a.Scientific theories allow scientists to make ...
The "drift-barrier hypothesis is described in Sung et al. (2012) (see also, Lynch, 2011),. ... the drift-barrier hypothesis ... It lead to the development of Neutral Theory, Nearly-Neutral Theory and a growing appreciation of the importance of random ... It lead to the development of Neutral Theory, Nearly-Neutral Theory and a growing appreciation of the importance of random ... Another curious aspect of the theory of evolution is that everybody thinks he understand it. I mean philosophers, social ...
Biochemical theory of schizophrenia the dopamine hypothesis for essays on going green save the earth. November 13, 2020 child ... Essays dance and biochemical theory of schizophrenia the dopamine hypothesis. Girls can read that one way to gain the teacher ... In addition, a number line is a professional career necessarily to be hypothesis the schizophrenia of theory biochemical ... when teacher introduces a topic that are neither expected trained dopamine biochemical theory of schizophrenia the hypothesis ...
... hypothesis, and significant and the general publics use of these words. Be able to explain why the phrase I cant explain ... Be able to explain the difference between a scientists use of the words theory, ... Theory, on the other hand, is a well-substantiated explanation for verified hypothesis. In simple terms, once a hypothesis is ... For example, hypothesis is generally thought to be "educated guess", theory is "a thought in someones head" or just a thought ...
Abstract: G60.00103 : RIEMANN-Hypothesis STATISTICAL and SOLID-STATE CRYSTAL-LATTICE PHYSICS Floquet-Theory-Bloch-Brllouin ...
The hygiene hypothesis is a hypothesis that states a lack of early childhood exposure to germs increases the likelihood of ... While the results do support the hygiene hypothesis - showing that increased number of siblings is protective for food allergy ... the association of food allergy with early skin infection and eczema also supports the hypothesis that food sensitization might ...
1989). Psychological Review, 96, 358-372) cognitive vulnerability-stress hypothesis was tested using data from a 6-week ... The hopelessness theory of depressions (Abramson et al. ( ... The Hopelessness Theory of Depression: A Prospective Multi-Wave ... A test of the integration of the activation hypothesis and the diathesis-stress component of the hopelessness theory of ... The hopelessness theory of depressions (Abramson et al. (1989). Psychological Review, 96, 358-372) cognitive vulnerability- ...
Hypothesis e. Theory f. Scientific law g. Chemistry h. Organic chemistry i. Inorganic chemistry j. Analytical chemis ... Hypothesis and theory or theory and law, 1. Define or explain the following terms: a. Science b. Experimentation c. Scientific ... Related Discussions:- Hypothesis and theory or theory and law, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Hypothesis and theory or theory ... Hypothesis and theory or theory and law Discussions Write discussion on Hypothesis and theory or theory and law. Your posts are ...
theories. -rules. - Answered by a verified Business Tutor ... Of hypotheses are supported by a growing body of data, they ... null hypothesis.. -research hypothesis.. -alternative hypothesis.. -marginal hypothesis. 4. An important feature of most word ... 1.-If hypotheses are supported by a growing body of data, they evolve into:. -laws.. -theories.. -rules.. -suggestions.. 2. In ... 3. Incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis is called an: -alpha error.. -Type II error.. -null hypothesis error.. - ...
The Atomic Theory without Hypothesis. World's Coal Supply. Trade Suggestions from United States Consuls. ...
Theory and Hypotheses. The Connection Between Holding Office and Reciprocity.. The experience of holding political office may ... Theories of reciprocity in politics have their origins in social choice theory. Seeking to reconcile theoretical predictions of ... 1962) The Theory of Political Coalitions (Yale Univ Press, New Haven, CT).. ... 1993) Incorporating fairness into game theory and economics. Am Econ Rev 83(5):1281-1302. ...
Until now, there has been no hypothesis regarding the evolution of Hb asymmetry. Here, we propose a new hypothesis that binary ... This hypothesis is highly valuable because it explains how the Hb evolved differently in terms of asymmetry and lateralization ... Here, we propose a new hypothesis that binary opposition in functional incompatibility applies selection pressure on the ... In addition, one can propose possible experiments for the verification of this hypothesis in future research. ...
Emerging data support the hypothesis that an aversion to inequity is a mechanism to promote successful long-term cooperative ... Together these data inform a testable working hypothesis for understanding decision-making in the context of inequity and ... Emerging data support the hypothesis that an aversion to inequity is a mechanism to promote successful long-term cooperative ... Thus, the theory predicts that responding to inequity may be more beneficial for some types of cooperation than others. For ...
7. Form your Theory or Hypothesis.. A powerful approach we can use to form a Hypothesis is to use a form of deductive reasoning ... 8. Practice and apply your Theory or Hypothesis.. Finally, lets look at how we can firmly secure what we are studying or ... My informal definition of an algorithm is simply a step-by-step process or set of rules I use in my theory. Using an algorithm ... However, before I dive into the algorithm, lets first discuss two key concepts I used as the framework for the theory. Think ...
... an acronym coined by the sorely-missed Michael Sherman to refer to an hypothesis built up from an inference he himself ha... ... AKA Michael Raes Fish oil-Accelerated Aging hypothesis (MiRFAA), ... advancing what Ive called the DHA-Accelerated Aging Hypothesis ... DHA-Accelerated Aging Hypothesis Validated By Michael R, November 1, 2014. in CR Science & Theory ... This centrality was initially expressed in the rate-of-living theory [my emphasis - please do NOT equate ROL theory with MiFRA ...
Testing the additivity hypothesis of cognitive load theory. Sonstige Titel: Prüfung der Additivitätshypothese der Cognitive ... The present work focuses on the additivity hypothesis of Cognitive Load Theory in the frame of a research program supported by ... cognitive load-Werte genutzt, um die aus der Cognitive Load Theory abgeleiteten Lern- und Load-Effekte zu testen. Die ... Results showed none of the main effects in learning success and cognitive load, predicted by the additivity hypothesis. However ...
The normal way of hypothesis theory usually takes a few years, the transition from theory to law, we are many more. It is not a ... Tagged hypothesis, law, theory Comment Cancel reply This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is ... However a hypothesis becomes theory when the scientific community is beginning to go through the stone. That is, when the ... From hypothesis to theory and then to law. Image Tuti 2016/07/08. 0 ...
2. Theory and Hypotheses. Gameplay experience is one of the most central targets in the development of any game. The current ... As such, we propose the following hypothesis.. Hypothesis 1. Immersion is (a) conceptually different from but (b) positively ... in accordance with the second hypothesis. As such this test strongly supported hypothesis two as the inclusion of the ... in accordance with the fourth hypothesis. As such, this test strongly supported hypothesis four as the inclusion of the ...
We test our hypotheses with an unbalanced panel dataset that includes an average of 66 publicly-traded equity REITs from 1999- ... 2. Theory and Hypotheses. In their seminal piece about Spanish olive oil mills, Gomez-Mejia et al. [4] started to study the ... Thus, our next hypotheses imply that: *. Hypothesis 2a: REIT founders preserve their SEW by designating a family member as the ... Hence, we formalize our hypotheses in this manner: *. Hypotheses 3a: The relationship between ownership and REIT performance is ...
2. Theory and Hypotheses. 2.1. Knowledge Management, Human Capital, Social Capital and Innovation. The management of knowledge ... Therefore, we suggest the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 2b. Trust will enhance an organizations innovation performance ... we suggest the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 1c. Investment in human capital will enhance an organizations cognitive social ... Hypothesis 1a. Investment in human capital will enhance an organizations structural social capital in the form of CoPs. ...
2. Theories and Hypotheses. 2.1. Theoretical Background. The importance of culture has long been emphasized by anthropologists ... Our findings enrich the existing fertility theories in this sense. In terms of the type of societies in which our hypotheses ... Thus, our second hypothesis is set as follows.. 2.2.2. Hypothesis 2. Individuals who receive more cultural traits from parents ... Thus, our first hypothesis is as follows.. 2.2.1. Hypothesis 1. Individuals who received cultural traits from parents should ...
  • A theory is a hypothesis that uses laws and observation to make an assumption. (
  • A phenomena or observation or result is significant if difference can not be due to random chance, i.e. there has to be a reason for deviation from the theory or model. (
  • 6. Developing a hypothesis from an observation is known as? (
  • Thus, when well-established data, from experiment or observation, conflict with a theory or hypothesis, then that idea must be modified or abandoned and other explanations must be sought that can incorporate or take account of the new evidence. (
  • a hypothesis confirmed by observation, experiment etc. (
  • Observation and hypothesis are both important. (
  • For decades the amyloid hypothesis h. (
  • For decades the amyloid hypothesis has dominated the research field in. (
  • Their development was guided by an idea that has dominated research on Alzheimer's disease for more than 25 years: the amyloid hypothesis, which is the assumption that accumulation of the peptide amyloid-β is the main cause of the condition. (
  • The amyloid hypothesis has never been universally accepted, and the failed drug trials have only emboldened its critics. (
  • Glenner thought that amyloid-β might be the cause of Alzheimer's disease, but the amyloid hypothesis did not take off until the discovery of the dominantly inherited mutations that are responsible for the familial forms of the condition. (
  • 4. Science is characterized by testable hypothesis, verified theories and organized information. (
  • Some skeptical observations on real business cycle theory ," Quarterly Review , Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Fall, pages 23-27. (
  • Hypotheses help a researcher decide which observations to record and which to ignore. (
  • We can call astronomy as science because we can make observations and test hypothesis, while astrology (or idea that position of heavenly bodies affect someone) cannot be tested over a large population set. (
  • We test our hypotheses with an unbalanced panel dataset that includes an average of 66 publicly-traded equity REITs from 1999-2012 that produced 921 REIT-year observations. (
  • A hypothesis is a testable statement explaining observations about phenomena occurring in the natural world. (
  • A theory is a hypothesis or group of related hypotheses that have been repeatedly tested and which scientists generally agree conform to all known data/observations or a major set of observations about the world. (
  • and such Consequences as are the immediate Results of, and manifest Corollaries drawn from, these Experiments and Observations: Which is what is commonly meant by Theories . (
  • Wotton spouts the standard anti-hypothetical rhetoric - the hypotheses of Descartes and others are mere chimeras --- but he is not insensitive to the fact that experiments and observations on their own are not sufficient for the advancing of true explanations. (
  • The phrase "RNA World Hypothesis" was then coined later in 1986 by Harvard molecular biologist and Nobel Prize laureate Walter Gilbert as he commented on the recent observations of the catalytic properties of RNA [3] . (
  • Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals. (
  • The problems associated with the RNA world hypothesis are well known. (
  • Finally, I will critically discuss an alternative theory to the RNA world hypothesis known as 'proteins first', which holds that proteins either preceded RNA in evolution, or - at the very least - that proteins and RNA coevolved. (
  • I will argue that, while theoretically possible, such a hypothesis is probably unprovable, and that the RNA world hypothesis, although far from perfect or complete, is the best we currently have to help understand the backstory to contemporary biology. (
  • The RNA World Hypothesis speculates that the origin of life began with ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) because of its ability to serve both as a storage for genetic information and enzymatic activity. (
  • The book, The Genetic Code, written in 1967 by Carl Woese, was the first published material that supported RNA World Hypothesis [2] . (
  • Further evidence that the RNA World Hypothesis has clout is found through the function of present day ribosomes. (
  • Laws describe phenomena, while theories explain why phenomena exist. (
  • Laws are a prediction of phenomena, while theories are an explanation. (
  • 1. A hypothesis is a testable, falsifiable, parsimonious, fruitful and specific idea or suggestion to explain an observed phenomena or instance. (
  • It's simple, a hypothesis in science, it is an assumption that explains some natural phenomena either through some formulas that correspond to some observable data. (
  • However, the theory of relativity (general or specific) remains theory although in 1905 as there are phenomena that Einstein's equations (and their friends, remember that alone did not, in fact there is a Spanish-a engineer who helped you) fail to specify, paradoxes, such as black holes. (
  • While theories may address ideas and empirical phenomena which are not easily measurable, scientific theory is generally understood to refer to a proposed explanation of empirical phenomena, made in a way consistent with scientific method . (
  • Ron Okimoto analogizes the process of science to assembling a jigsaw puzzle, drawing some apt parallels about the way we classify phenomena, formulate and test hypotheses, and sometimes make assumptions without even realizing it. (
  • With the dawn of the Space Age, scientists began testing cosmological theories in terms of observable phenomena. (
  • It is conceivable that a given learner may not be able to formulate the hypothesis that would correctly classify the stimuli. (
  • To qualify as a theory, it need not take a long time to formulate. (
  • To formulate a theory takes just as long as it takes for the scientist (or scientists) to ask the question, do their research, process their data, draw their conclusions and fitting that into the theory. (
  • Until now, this core assumption of the widespread used theory has never been empirically tested. (
  • Evolutionary theory is based on the faulty assumption that chance random processes can produce highly ordered complex systems, and this theory routinely. (
  • In general conversation, people might say "I have a theory" when they mean they have an idea or are making an assumption. (
  • The collection, description, analysis and summary of data, including the concepts of frequency distribution, parameter estimation and hypothesis testing. (
  • New findings contradict dominant theory in Alzheimer. (
  • They overall contradict the additivity hypothesis. (
  • Such theories are preferably described in such a way that any scientist in the field is in a position to understand and either provide empirical support (" verify ") or empirically contradict (" falsify ") it. (
  • For example, atomic theory describes the nature of matter and is supported by multiple lines of evidence from the way substances behave and react in the world around us (see our series on Atomic Theory ). (
  • 5. What parts of Dalton s atomic theory are now known to be incorrect? (
  • Statistical inference is concerned with the problems of estimation of population parameters and testing hypotheses. (
  • The main statistical techniques covered include hypothesis testing and estimation, Poisson processes, Markov models and Hidden Markov models, and multiple testing methods. (
  • Point and interval estimation, hypothesis testing, and decision theory. (
  • In science, a theory is a well-substantiated and comprehensive set of ideas that explains a phenomenon in nature. (
  • This hypothesis is highly valuable because it explains how the Hb evolved differently in terms of asymmetry and lateralization among different species. (
  • These findings support our hypotheses and help to build a theoretical framework that explains the changes in fertility outcomes from an interdisciplinary perspective. (
  • The hypothesis provides a model that explains many aspects of Covid-19, including some of its most bizarre symptoms. (
  • It also explains, as will be demonstrated below, why oligopoly theory predicts less satisfactorily the behavior of business firms to which it applies than do the theories of monopoly and competition. (
  • Physical, observable evidence is required for formulation of hypotheses, theories, and laws. (
  • The hygiene hypothesis is a hypothesis that states a lack of early childhood exposure to germs increases the likelihood of developing asthma and allergies by suppressing the natural development of the immune system. (
  • While the results do support the hygiene hypothesis - showing that increased number of siblings is protective for food allergy - the association of food allergy with early skin infection and eczema also supports the hypothesis that food sensitization might start with exposure through the skin. (
  • The leading theory: the hygiene hypothesis. (
  • Scientific theories can be tested and refined by additional research , and they allow scientists to make predictions. (
  • Scientific theories allow scientists to make predictions. (
  • Scientific theories determine the work that future scientists can do. (
  • Scientific theories determine the subjects that scientists research. (
  • Why do scientists develop a hypothesis before conducting research? (
  • 3. Beliefs are what gives ideas to scientists (by acting as hypothesis) and science evolves as people try to explain commonly held beliefs. (
  • The views of atmospheric scientists studying the nuclear winter theory still vary widely, although most of those interviewed said they believe a nuclear war could have some effect on climate. (
  • An overview of the Milankovitch (or astronomical) ice age theory appears in the May 2020 issue of Physics Today. (
  • A method is given for incorporating Dirac's Large Numbers hypothesis into Einstein's standard theory of general relativity. (
  • And so it is with the general theory of relativity Einstein since in Newton's laws was considered the speed of infinite propagation (let the forces act instantly) while with Einstein's theories are known to speed "maximum "it is the propagation speed of light. (
  • 1 Chemistry Semester 1 Course Review Unit 1 : Nature of Science Scientific method Significant figures Metric system Base units Big Bang Theory Experiment Hypothesis Variable Control Accuracy Precision 1. (
  • In judging of Modern Discoveries, one is nicely to distinguish between Hypothesis and Theory . (
  • Analyses of variance or covariance were conducted using experimental condition as between-subject factor and post-test score and cognitive load ratings, respectively, to test the learning and total cognitive load effects predicted by Cognitive Load Theory. (
  • When enough experimental data support a hypothesis, the hypothesis becomes a(an) A. fact. (
  • Training in statistical theory and methods, applied data analysis, scientific collaboration, communication, and report writing by coursework and thesis. (
  • The book will help readers to discover diverse perspectives of statistical theory followed by relevant worked-out examples. (
  • The second edition features new chapters on microarray analysis and on statistical inference, including a discussion of ANOVA, and discussions of the statistical theory of motifs and methods based on the hypergeometric distribution. (
  • I've been researching the evidence surrounding the "aquatic ape" idea for over a decade now to determine whether it's accurate, honest, and makes sense in terms of evolutionary theory. (
  • However, evolutionary theory is not speculation. (
  • It's been almost half-a-century since this new perspective on evolutionary theory was proposed. (
  • John Harshman presents evidence showing that the genetic similarities between humans and other species of apes are best explained by an evolutionary theory of common descent. (
  • A theoretical framework for the hypothesis that selection affects senescence in human males and females differently due to different life history characteristics is presented and the necessity of decoupling mortality and senescence when considering sexual dimorphism in senescence is emphasized. (
  • The process by which a subject is proposed to go about forming such rules or hypothesis has been the topic of formal probabilistic modeling, a discussion of which can be found in the references. (
  • A conceptual framework for formal probabilistic modeling of hypotheses in cognitive research has been given by Rudolf Groner Hypothesis theory has fallen out of favor (along with many other rule-based models) in the wake of prototype and exemplar theories, both of which employ a notion of graded similarity rather than crisp set membership. (
  • The papers are organized in topical sections on protocols and guidelines, knowledge acquisition and learning, decision-support theories, diagnostic problem solving, probabilistic models and fuzzy logic, temporal reasoning and planning, natural language and terminology, image and signal processing, and hybrid and cooperative systems. (
  • The additivity hypothesis predicts that effects of load-inducing factors on learning are additive (Paas, Renkl, & Sweller, 2003a). (
  • Hypothesis Theory is a psychological theory of learning developed during the 1960s and 1970s. (
  • Though studies supporting the hypothesis began in the 1960s, the first concrete statements of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis didn't occur until the 1970s. (
  • Doubtless you've all heard of the aquatic ape hypothesis (AAH): that strangely popular notion which promotes the idea that modern humans owe their distinctive features to a marine phase. (
  • His theory was based on the notion that radiation pressure from the Sun and other stars "blew" microbes about like tiny solar sails, and not as the result of finding carbon compounds in stony meteorites. (
  • p. 235) … And therefore, that it may not be thought that I mistake every plausible Notion of a witty Philosopher for a new Discovery of Nature, I must desire that my former Distinction between Hypotheses and Theories may be remembered. (
  • It is an effective means of dealing with the problem of the utility of hypotheses in a climate in which the notion of hypothesis was, to say the least, on the nose. (
  • What is the best definition of the term "theory," as it is used in science? (
  • Beliefs should not come in the way of science and hypothesis testing. (
  • Science invariably seeks unifying theories and the stoned ape theory provides this for evolution. (
  • The latter meaning of a 'theory' in science is called a hypothesis. (
  • In science, however, the terms hypothesis , theory , and law have very specific definitions. (
  • Multiple hypotheses make good science. (
  • The hypothesis caused concern among the marine science community because of the discrepancy with the 1976 Competition/Predation/Disturbance model proposed by Menge and Sutherland In this model, low disturbance influences high predation and high disturbance creates low predation, causing competitive exclusion to take place. (
  • An important component of science is the knowledge of the limitations of current theories, that is, an understanding of those aspects of a theory that are well tested and hence are well established, and of those aspects that are not well tested and hence are provisional and likely to be modified as new empirical evidence is acquired. (
  • The process by which scientific theories are developed and the form that those theories take differ from one domain of science to another, but all sciences share certain common features at the core of their problem-solving and inquiry approaches. (
  • A process of argumentation and analysis that relates data and theory is another essential feature of science. (
  • In essence it is the theory of the science of physical and logical laws with respect to any natural body in the sky especially at night. (
  • A common distinction made in science is between theories and hypotheses . (
  • He obtained his Ph.D. in number theory from the University of Maryland in 1995 and his Masters in Computer Science from the University of Pennsylvania in 1999. (
  • Last month's runner-up, t.o. poster sweetnes_n_light, chides those who claim evolution is "obviously" impossible despite having little or no knowledge of the theory itself and the underlying science supporting it. (
  • The article, ''Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multiple Nuclear Explosions,'' was published by the journal Science in 1983, and spawned a host of movies, plays and books predicated on the nuclear winter hypothesis. (
  • But using fossil evidence to test a hypothesis is what ensures that science will present accurate statements, research, and theories. (
  • Some people do not understand the difference between "theory" as used in science and "theory" as used in general conversation. (
  • In science, a theory is not based on speculation. (
  • A theory is based on verifiable laws and can be proven true. (
  • Which statement below correctly identifies the difference between laws and theories? (
  • Laws are a statement of fact, while theories are a statement of opinion. (
  • Of hypotheses are supported by a growing body of data, they evolve into: -laws. (
  • Newton's laws, the three known laws, which themselves are only extreme cases of certain quantum theories (and here I will not extend) were published in the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Edmund Halley, who publish this work created by Isaac Newton in the nose to give Robert Hooke saying he had done and explained through calculations the movement of the planets in the sky (false). (
  • Some laws are merely facts extreme ends of other theories or data, which, as previously said would have to downgrade law theory but, laws, that model remain laws. (
  • An example is the quantum theory based on waves of the elements that make up matter (Planck size for friends) where one end is Newton's laws because the forces affecting quantum are negligible to "natural size "what makes Newton's laws are an extreme case of quantum mechanics. (
  • The nomology and any effort to acquire a system of laws or knowledge focusing on any natural body in the sky especially at night constitutes the theory of astronomy. (
  • From all of this, a number of theories emerged by the latter half of the 20th century that attempted to explain how all matter and the physical laws governing it came to be. (
  • The researchers based their hypothesis on Pavlovian theory. (
  • However, emerging data support the hypothesis that an aversion to inequity is a mechanism to promote successful long-term cooperative relationships amongst non-kin. (
  • while theories are collections of hypotheses that are logically linked together into a coherent explanation of some aspect of reality and which have individually or jointly received some empirical support. (
  • Evidence is growing to support this hypothesis, at least from evidence derived from fossil occurrences. (
  • 8. Practice and apply your Theory or Hypothesis. (
  • In common language, the term theory generally refers to speculation or a hunch or guess. (
  • A theory is a guess or hunch about something that has occurred in nature. (
  • It is a mark of a good scientist to accept that they are unable to explain something rather than provide wrong theory or conclusion for something. (
  • Together these data inform a testable working hypothesis for understanding decision-making in the context of inequity and provide a new, comparative framework for evaluating decision-making behavior. (
  • However, before I dive into the algorithm, let's first discuss two key concepts I used as the framework for the theory. (
  • Be able to explain the difference between a scientist's use of the words theory, hypothesis, and significantand the general public's use of these. (
  • As I said, the theories are in a process of retro food in which the equations by way of explaining where "fail" lunging complementary to these (eg quantum theory of loops is a mixture) as theories are improved to explain the exceptions of the first. (
  • In this essay we present a case study of a recent etiologic hypothesis that was advanced in an effort to explain observed racial/ethnic variation in hypertension prevalence. (
  • One Theory To Explain Them All? (
  • These theories, in turn, can explain bodies of data and predict outcomes of experiments. (
  • Jim Guillory uses the analogy of continental drift to explain the process by which a scientific idea moves from the status of hypothesis to well-confirmed theory. (
  • It allows us to test hypotheses, or ideas that explain the facts. (
  • For issues of knowledge (i.e., class) representability: Rough sets Probably approximately correct learning (PAC learning) Bold hypothesis Groner, Rudolf & Groner, Marina Towards a hypothetico-deductive theory of cognitive activity. (
  • A Cognitive Theory of Learning: Research on Hypothesis Testing. (
  • 1989). Psychological Review , 96 , 358-372) cognitive vulnerability-stress hypothesis was tested using data from a 6-week longitudinal study of university undergraduates. (
  • Results showed none of the main effects in learning success and cognitive load, predicted by the additivity hypothesis. (
  • Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Additivitätshypothese der Cognitive Load Theory im Rahmen eines von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft geförderten Forschungsprojekts (Br 2082/6-1). (
  • McKenna's stoned ape theory suggests that ingesting these mushrooms created a number of major cognitive effects which yielded significant evolutionary advantages. (
  • A clinical model, 'the cognitive reserve hypothesis', proposes that both increased brain volume and enhanced cognitive ability might contribute to healthy brain aging, reducing the likelihood of developing dementia. (
  • However, most chemists followed Kekulé's lead in pursuing and developing what some have called "classical" structure theory, which was modified after the discovery of electrons (1897) and the development of quantum mechanics (in the 1920s). (
  • Since the turn of the millenium, I've been advancing what I've called the DHA-Accelerated Aging Hypothesis (AKA Michael Rae's Fish oil-Accelerated Aging hypothesis (MiRFAA), an acronym coined by the sorely-missed Michael Sherman to refer to an hypothesis built up from an inference he himself had made from a passing reference in Dr. Aubrey' de Grey's The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging ). (
  • The research group's data offers an opposite hypothesis, suggesting that it is in fact the neurons' inability to secrete beta-amyloid that is at the heart of pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease. (
  • In contrast to earlier association-type theories, the Hypothesis Theory argues that subjects solve this problem (i.e., learn the correct response to each stimulus), by testing a series of hypotheses about the relation of the cue values (stimulus features) to the class. (
  • This paper argues that the overleveraging described by the FIH is compatible with the unsustainable expansion of production described in ABC theory, and further argues that credit expansion would both provide additional funds to finance overleveraging, as well as encourage the process by making it cheaper with lower interest rates. (
  • The Gaia hypothesis has stimulated New Age and Neo-Pagan veneration of Gaia as a living earth goddess and become an integral part of the revival of goddess worship in the last two decades. (
  • Atmospheric biochemist James E. Lovelock had a very similar idea at somewhat the same time and through his books Gaia (1979) and The Ages of Gaia (1988) emerged as the leading proponent of this modern Gaia hypothesis of the earth as a living organism. (
  • Of these, the Big Bang Theory remains the most widely accepted while the Steady-State Hypothesis has historically been its greatest challenger. (
  • According to the Big Bang Theory of cosmology, the Universe began roughly 13.8 billion years ago as all matter in the Universe began to expand from a single point of infinite density. (
  • Here we hypothesize that the checkerboard association is maintained solely by reversible binary interactions between Ca V s and RYRs and test this hypothesis using a quantitative model of the energies that govern Ca V 1.1-RYR1 binding, which are assumed to depend on number and location of bound Ca V s. (
  • A test of the integration of the activation hypothesis and the diathesis-stress component of the hopelessness theory of depression. (
  • The actual testing of the theory, and the possible subsequent adaptation thereof to fit the available evidence on the other hand, can last a very long time. (
  • New evidence on the structure of production: Real and Austrian business cycle theory and the financial instability hypothesis ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 67-77. (
  • Plate tectonic theory describes the large scale movement of the outer layer of the Earth and is supported by evidence from studies about earthquakes , magnetic properties of the rocks that make up the seafloor , and the distribution of volcanoes on Earth (see our series on Plate Tectonic Theory ). (
  • The theory of evolution by natural selection, which describes the mechanism by which inherited traits that affect survivability or reproductive success can cause changes in living organisms over generations , is supported by extensive studies of DNA , fossils , and other types of scientific evidence (see our Charles Darwin series for more information). (
  • Further, these explanations are conjectural and often based on little evidence, which happens to be the primary critique of the stoned ape theory-thus the most common critique of the stoned ape theory make little sense. (
  • theory implies there is a fair amount of direct evidence supporting a hypothesis, but still does not imply certain truth. (
  • Evidence in this case means both correlation and causal evidence, which is very difficult to prove given the period of time the stoned ape theory would have occurred in, possibly beginning up to two million years ago. (
  • A theory is constantly subject to testing, modification, and even refutation as new evidence and ideas emerge. (
  • The theory is bolstered by evidence from farms. (
  • A reassessment of sexual dimorphism in human senescence: Theory, evidence, and causation. (
  • However, to date, no evidence has been discovered that can definitely prove the cosmic inflation scenario or rule out alternative theories. (
  • The theory describes how an increase in secreted beta-amyloid peptides leads to the formation of plaques, toxic clusters of damaged proteins between cells, which eventually result in neurodegeneration. (
  • Supporting the vulnerability-stress hypothesis, results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated that inferential styles moderated the relation between weekly negative events and weekly variations in depressive symptom levels. (
  • A powerful approach we can use to form a Hypothesis is to use a form of deductive reasoning called syllogistic reasoning. (
  • It doesn't say "The theory of evolution through genetic engineering. (
  • It lead to the development of Neutral Theory, Nearly-Neutral Theory and a growing appreciation of the importance of random genetic drift. (
  • We then put forth our hypotheses which argue that cultural inheritance is analogous to genetic inheritance, for those who inherited fewer cultural traits from parents but more cultural norms from outside of the family system are more likely to show a dissimilar fertility result as compared to their parents. (
  • 1. According to the Genetic Takeover Hypothesis, an earlier form of life on earth used RNA as its only genetic component. (
  • For organic chemists, the theory of structure provided dramatic new clarity of understanding, and a reliable guide to both analytic and especially synthetic work. (
  • Attention in Learning: Theory and Research. (
  • The research group's data offers an opposite hypothesis suggesting th. (
  • Each of these major theories guides and informs modern research in those fields, integrating a broad, comprehensive set of ideas. (
  • Let's take a closer look at some of the data and research supporting the theory of natural selection to better see how a theory develops. (
  • While Darwin is rightly credited with first articulating the theory of natural selection, his ideas built on more than a century of scientific research that came before him, and are supported by over a century and a half of research since. (
  • Why are scientific theories an important part of research and understanding? (
  • research hypothesis. (
  • In addition, one can propose possible experiments for the verification of this hypothesis in future research. (
  • Therefore, based on the social exchange theory, this study takes 441 employees as the research object. (
  • I was especially intrigued by the politics behind how the idea was presented to the world at large and that the biggest complaints weren't necessarily reasons why the hypothesis can't work, but more along the lines of old men who didn't want to have to rewrite their textbooks. (
  • Setting the massive contradictions aside for the moment, it's not an absurd idea in theory. (
  • This theory proceeds from the idea of atomic valence, especially the tetravalence of carbon (which Kekulé announced late in 1857) [4] and the ability of carbon atoms to link to each other (announced in a paper published in May 1858), [5] to the determination of the bonding order of all of the atoms in a molecule. (
  • According to Bronsted-Lowry theory, a species which donates a proton in a proton transfer-reaction is said to be an acid. (
  • Now, we can write the as an acid and base for the each species form the Bronsted-Lowry theory as represented as follows. (
  • The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) suggests that local species diversity is maximized when ecological disturbance is neither too rare nor too frequent. (
  • According to IDH theory, at intermediate levels of disturbance, diversity is thus maximized because species that thrive at both early and late successional stages can coexist. (
  • Each subdivision within this theory generates similar explanations for the coexistence of species with habitat disturbance. (
  • The ecological effect on species relationships is therefore supported by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. (
  • These include the use and misuse of various types of data, the role of peer review and its potential deficiencies in evaluating extradisciplinary material, and the ways in which popular notions about "race" contribute to epidemiologists' credulity in the case of a controvertible hypothesis. (
  • This includes evaluation of data quality, modeling, and development of new testable questions from the theory, as well as modifying theories as data dictates the need. (
  • a certain amount of skepticism should be maintained when looking at new data/theory/facts. (
  • This hypothesis-theory distinction seems to be of Wotton's own making. (
  • Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : Distribution theory, stochastic models and multivariate transformations. (
  • In the following I discuss some of these difficulties, some of the alternative hypotheses that have been proposed, and some of the problems with these alternative models. (