Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
A method of lowering core BODY TEMPERATURE by filling the STOMACH with chilled fluids.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.
Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.

L-[1-11C]-tyrosine PET to evaluate response to hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer. (1/1261)

PET with L-[1-11C]-tyrosine (TYR) was investigated in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) and melphalan for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer of the lower limb. METHODS: Seventeen patients (5 women, 12 men; age range 24-75 y; mean age 52 y) were studied. TYR PET studies were performed before HILP and 2 and 8 wk afterwards. The protein synthesis rates (PSRs) in nanomoles per milliliter per minute were calculated. After final PET studies, tumors were resected and pathologically examined. Patients with pathologically complete responses (pCR) showed no viable tumors after treatment. Those with pathologically partial responses (pPR) showed various amounts of viable tumors in the resected tumor specimens. RESULTS: Six patients (35%) showed a pCR and 11 patients (65%) showed a pPR. All tumors were depicted as hot spots on PET studies before HILP. The PSR in the pCR group at 2 and 8 wk after perfusion had decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison to the PSR before HILP. A significant difference was found in PSR between the pCR and pPR groups at 2 and at 8 wk (P < 0.05). Median PSR in nonviable tumor tissue was 0.62 and ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. With a threshold PSR of 0.91, sensitivity and specificity of TYR PET were 82% and 100%, respectively. The predictive value of a PSR > 0.91 for having viable tumor after HILP was 100%, whereas the predictive value of a PSR < or = 0.91 for having nonviable tumor tissue after HILP was 75%. The 2 patients in the pPR groups with a PSR < 0.91 showed microscopic islets of tumor cells surrounded by extensive necrosis on pathological examination. CONCLUSION: Based on the calculated PSR after HILP, TYR PET gave a good indication of the pathological outcome. Inflammatory tissue after treatment did not interfere with viable tumor on the images, suggesting that it may be worthwhile to pursue TYR PET in other therapy evaluation settings.  (+info)

Hypothermic neuroprotection of peripheral nerve of rats from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. (2/1261)

Although there is much information on experimental ischaemic neuropathy, there are only scant data on neuroprotection. We evaluated the effectiveness of hypothermia in protecting peripheral nerve from ischaemia-reperfusion injury using the model of experimental nerve ischaemia. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. We used a ligation-reperfusion model of nerve ischaemia where each of the supplying arteries to the sciatic-tibial nerves of the right hind limb was ligated and the ligatures were released after a predetermined period of ischaemia. The right hind limbs of one group (24 rats) were made ischaemic for 5 h and those of the other group (24 rats) for 3 h. Each group was further divided into three and the limbs were maintained at 37 degrees C (36 degrees C for 5 h of ischaemia) in one, 32 degrees C in the second and 28 degrees C in the third of these groups for the final 2 h of the ischaemic period and an additional 2 h of the reperfusion period. A behavioural score was recorded and nerve electrophysiology of motor and sensory nerves was undertaken 1 week after surgical procedures. At that time, entire sciatic-tibial nerves were harvested and fixed in situ. Four portions of each nerve were examined: proximal sciatic nerve, distal sciatic nerve, mid-tibial nerve and distal tibial nerve. To determine the degree of fibre degeneration, each section was studied by light microscopy, and we estimated an oedema index and a fibre degeneration index. The groups treated at 36-37 degrees C underwent marked fibre degeneration, associated with a reduction in action potential and impairment in behavioural score. The groups treated at 28 degrees C (for both 3 and 5 h) showed significantly less (P < 0.01; ANOVA, Bonferoni post hoc test) reperfusion injury for all indices (behavioural score, electrophysiology and neuropathology), and the groups treated at 32 degrees C had scores intermediate between the groups treated at 36-37 degrees C and 28 degrees C. Our results showed that cooling the limbs dramatically protects the peripheral nerve from ischaemia-reperfusion injury.  (+info)

Myocardial temperature reduction attenuates necrosis after prolonged ischemia in rabbits. (3/1261)

OBJECTIVE: Previously we observed that a large reduction in infarct size was attained by cooling the risk region of the heart, either before or early after the onset of a 30-min coronary artery occlusion. While this is a standard duration of ischemia used in the rabbit model of infarction, it may not reflect the situation of patients who are reperfused late. The effects of regional hypothermia with a longer duration of ischemia, and when the intervention is applied later, are unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that a local reduction in cardiac temperature protects myocardium during prolonged ischemia (2 h) even if begun well after coronary artery occlusion. METHODS: Anesthetized rabbits received 2 h of coronary artery occlusion and 3 h of reperfusion. Rabbits were randomly assigned to a treated group: topical myocardial cooling starting 30 min after coronary occlusion (n = 14), or control group, no intervention (n = 12). Myocardial temperature in the risk zone, hemodynamics and regional myocardial blood flow were measured. RESULTS: Ischemic zone temperature was similar in both groups at 30 min post occlusion, but the cooling maneuver produced a reduction in temperature in the risk region of the treated group such that myocardial temperature was reduced an average of 10 degrees C between 30 and 60 min of coronary artery occlusion. Myocardial temperature in the control group remained within 0.3 degree C of baseline during coronary artery occlusion and into reperfusion. Core temperatures were similar in both groups. Hemodynamic parameters and collateral blood flow during occlusion were also equivalent in both groups. After 120 min of coronary occlusion, necrosis in the control group comprised 72 +/- 3% of the ischemic risk region. However, in cooled hearts, infarct size, expressed as a fraction of the risk region was significantly lower. Infarct size in this group averaged 59 +/- 3% of the risk region (p < 0.004 vs. controls), and thus cooling resulted in a salvage of approximately 18% of the risk region. CONCLUSION: These results show that reducing myocardial temperature protects ischemic myocardium during a long duration of ischemia even if initiated after coronary artery occlusion.  (+info)

RVLM and raphe differentially regulate sympathetic outflows to splanchnic and brown adipose tissue. (4/1261)

To determine whether neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (RPa) specifically control the sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue (BAT SNA), thereby regulating adipocyte metabolism and BAT thermogenesis, the responses in BAT SNA to disinhibition of RPa neurons and to disinhibition of neurons in the vasomotor region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were compared with those in splanchnic (Spl) SNA, which primarily regulates visceral vasoconstriction. In urethan-chloralose-anesthetized ventilated rats, both acute hypothermia and microinjection of bicuculline into RPa produced significantly larger increases in BAT SNA (542 and 1,949% of control) than in Spl SNA (19 and 24% of control). The enhanced burst discharge in BAT SNA was not coherent with that in Spl SNA or with the arterial pressure (AP) at any frequency except the central respiratory frequency. Microinjections of bicuculline into RVLM evoked increases in Spl SNA (86% of control) and AP (32 mmHg), but reduced BAT SNA to low, normothermic levels. Microinjections of muscimol into RVLM reduced Spl SNA (-82% of control) and AP (-59 mmHg), but did not prevent the increase in BAT SNA after disinhibition of RPa neurons. These results indicate that the neural networks generating BAT SNA in response to disinhibition of RPa neurons are independent of those generating basal Spl SNA and support a model in which sympathetic outflow to tissues involved in thermoregulation and metabolism is regulated by central pathways, including neurons in RPa, that are distinct from those involved in the sympathetic control of the cardiovascular system.  (+info)

A comparative study between hypothermic and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in open heart surgery in dogs--effects on systemic hemodynamics. (5/1261)

Open heart surgery was performed on two groups of dogs under extracorporeal circulation with or without hypothermia to investigate hemodynamic changes during extracorporeal circulation. During hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), arterial O2 tension and postoperative blood pressure were favorably maintained, indicating that hypothermic extracorporeal circulation can be performed for a long period of time. On the other hand, during normothermic CPB, the average surgical duration was significantly shorter, and marked shifts in the concentrations of various enzymes were suppressed. However, due to reductions in arterial O2 tension, the length of cardiac arrest time was restricted, demonstrating that this method is suitable for performing extracorporeal circulation for CPB of relatively short duration. If circulation circuitry can be improved, such as through the development of a surpassing oxygenator, normothermic CPB would incur less stress on the body, thus making it preferential to hypothermic CPB in most cases.  (+info)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mediates the adaptive response to fasting. (6/1261)

Prolonged deprivation of food induces dramatic changes in mammalian metabolism, including the release of large amounts of fatty acids from the adipose tissue, followed by their oxidation in the liver. The nuclear receptor known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) was found to play a role in regulating mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, suggesting that PPARalpha may be involved in the transcriptional response to fasting. To investigate this possibility, PPARalpha-null mice were subjected to a high fat diet or to fasting, and their responses were compared with those of wild-type mice. PPARalpha-null mice chronically fed a high fat diet showed a massive accumulation of lipid in their livers. A similar phenotype was noted in PPARalpha-null mice fasted for 24 hours, who also displayed severe hypoglycemia, hypoketonemia, hypothermia, and elevated plasma free fatty acid levels, indicating a dramatic inhibition of fatty acid uptake and oxidation. It is shown that to accommodate the increased requirement for hepatic fatty acid oxidation, PPARalpha mRNA is induced during fasting in wild-type mice. The data indicate that PPARalpha plays a pivotal role in the management of energy stores during fasting. By modulating gene expression, PPARalpha stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation to supply substrates that can be metabolized by other tissues.  (+info)

Ischemic preconditioning and myocardial hypothermia in rabbits with prolonged coronary artery occlusion. (7/1261)

This study tests whether combining regional hypothermia and ischemic preconditioning (IP) provides greater myocardial protection during prolonged coronary artery occlusion (CAO) than either intervention alone, and whether increasing the duration of IP from 5 to 7 min extends the window of protection to include a 2-h CAO. Anesthetized rabbits were randomized to four groups (n = 8 rabbits/group): control (C), hypothermia alone (H), IP alone for two 7-min episodes (IP7), and IP plus hypothermia (H + IP7). To compare differences in IP for 5 versus 7 min, additional rabbits (n = 6) received one 5-min episode of ischemia (IP5). All rabbits got 2 h of CAO and 3 h of reperfusion. In comparison with the infarct size in the control group (72 +/- 4% of the risk zone), infarct size was significantly reduced in H (50 +/- 7%), IP7 (49 +/- 5%), and H + IP7 (42 +/- 6%) (all P < 0.05 vs. control group). IP5 failed to confer protection (67 +/- 5% of the risk zone). Therefore, IP can protect against a 2-h CAO if the IP regimen is increased from 5 to 7 min. The combination therapy significantly improved regional myocardial blood flow in the previously ischemic region to a greater extent than either treatment alone.  (+info)

Effect of mild hypothermia on the changes of cerebral blood flow, brain blood barrier and neuronal injuries following reperfusion of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. (8/1261)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of mild hypothermia induced in different time courses on rats subjected to 3 hours (h) of ischemia followed by 3 h or 72 h of reperfusion. METHODS: Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three mild hypothermic (MHT, 32 +/- 0.2 degrees C) groups, including intra-ischemia (MHTi), intra-reperfusion (MHTr), and intra-ischemia/reperfusion (MHTi + r) group, and one normothermic group (NT, 37 +/- 0.2 degrees C) as the control. Reversible focal ischemia was carried out in rats with suture model. The cortical blood flow was measured during 3 h of ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. The permeability of brain blood barrier (BBB) was estimated after 3 h of reperfusion. The infarct volume was measured at 72 h after reperfusion to determine the effects of MHT. RESULTS: The acute post-ischemic hyperperfusion and delayed hypoperfusion in ischemic perifocal region and sustained hypoperfusion in ischemic core were inhibited in MHTi + r and MHTi rats (P < 0.05). MHTi + r protection on post-ischemic progressive hypoperfusion in the perifocal region was more effective than that of MHTi (P < 0.05). The BBB disruption and the infarct volume were significantly reduced in both MHTi and MHTi + r groups (P < 0.05), especially in the MHTi + r rats. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that MHTi + r has more substantial protective effects on reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury than MHTi. It may inhibit post-ischemic hyperperfusion and delayed or sustained hypoperfusion in ischemic perifocal regions, and reduce brain blood barrier disruption in the cortex region.  (+info)

Induced hypothermia is a medically controlled lowering of the core body temperature to around 89.6-93.2°F (32-34°C) for therapeutic purposes. It is intentionally induced to reduce the metabolic rate and oxygen demand of organs, thereby offering protection during periods of low blood flow or inadequate oxygenation, such as during cardiac bypass surgery, severe trauma, or after a cardiac arrest. The deliberate induction and maintenance of hypothermia can help minimize tissue damage and improve outcomes in specific clinical scenarios. Once the risk has passed, the body temperature is gradually rewarmed to normal levels under controlled conditions.

Hypothermia is a medically defined condition where the core body temperature drops below 35°C (95°F). It is often associated with exposure to cold environments, but can also occur in cases of severe illness, injury, or immersion in cold water. Symptoms may include shivering, confusion, slowed heart rate and breathing, and if not treated promptly, can lead to unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, and even death.

Rewarming, in a medical context, refers to the process of gradually increasing the body temperature of a person who is experiencing hypothermia. Hypothermia is a condition in which the core body temperature drops below 95°F (35°C), which can be caused by exposure to cold environments or certain medical conditions.

Rewarming can be accomplished through various methods, including:

1. Passive rewarming: This involves removing wet clothing and covering the person with warm blankets to allow their body to naturally increase its temperature.
2. Active external rewarming: This involves using warming devices such as heating pads or warm water bottles to apply heat to the skin surface.
3. Active core rewarming: This involves using more invasive methods, such as warmed intravenous fluids, warm air insufflation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with a heat exchanger, to directly warm the internal organs and blood.

The choice of rewarming method depends on the severity of hypothermia, the presence of other medical conditions, and the resources available. It is important to monitor the person's vital signs and core temperature during rewarming to avoid complications such as rewarming shock or arrhythmias.

Body temperature is the measure of heat produced by the body. In humans, the normal body temperature range is typically between 97.8°F (36.5°C) and 99°F (37.2°C), with an average oral temperature of 98.6°F (37°C). Body temperature can be measured in various ways, including orally, rectally, axillary (under the arm), and temporally (on the forehead).

Maintaining a stable body temperature is crucial for proper bodily functions, as enzymes and other biological processes depend on specific temperature ranges. The hypothalamus region of the brain regulates body temperature through feedback mechanisms that involve shivering to produce heat and sweating to release heat. Fever is a common medical sign characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range, often as a response to infection or inflammation.

Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain refers to a condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen (hypoxia) and blood flow (ischemia) to the brain. This can lead to serious damage or death of brain cells, depending on the severity and duration of the hypoxic-ischemic event.

Hypoxia occurs when there is insufficient oxygen available to meet the metabolic needs of the brain tissue. Ischemia results from a decrease in blood flow, which can be caused by various factors such as cardiac arrest, stroke, or severe respiratory distress. When both hypoxia and ischemia occur together, they can have a synergistic effect, leading to more severe brain damage.

Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia can result in neurological deficits, cognitive impairment, and physical disabilities, depending on the area of the brain affected. Treatment typically focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the hypoxia-ischemia and providing supportive care to minimize secondary damage. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia may be used to reduce metabolic demands and protect vulnerable brain tissue.

Cardiac arrest, also known as heart arrest, is a medical condition where the heart suddenly stops beating or functioning properly. This results in the cessation of blood flow to the rest of the body, including the brain, leading to loss of consciousness and pulse. Cardiac arrest is often caused by electrical disturbances in the heart that disrupt its normal rhythm, known as arrhythmias. If not treated immediately with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation, it can lead to death or permanent brain damage due to lack of oxygen supply. It's important to note that a heart attack is different from cardiac arrest; a heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked, often by a clot, causing damage to the heart muscle, but the heart continues to beat. However, a heart attack can sometimes trigger a cardiac arrest.

Body temperature regulation, also known as thermoregulation, is the process by which the body maintains its core internal temperature within a narrow range, despite varying external temperatures. This is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which acts as a thermostat and receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body. When the body's temperature rises above or falls below the set point, the hypothalamus initiates responses to bring the temperature back into balance. These responses can include shivering to generate heat, sweating to cool down, vasodilation or vasoconstriction of blood vessels to regulate heat loss, and changes in metabolic rate. Effective body temperature regulation is crucial for maintaining optimal physiological function and overall health.

Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a medical procedure in which the body temperature is lowered to around 15-20°C (59-68°F), and the circulation of blood is temporarily stopped. This technique is often used during complex cardiac surgeries, such as aortic arch reconstruction or repair of congenital heart defects, to reduce the body's metabolic demand for oxygen and allow surgeons to operate in a still and bloodless field.

During DHCA, the patient is connected to a heart-lung machine that takes over the function of pumping blood and oxygenating it. The blood is then cooled down using a cooling device before being returned to the body. Once the body temperature reaches the desired level, the circulation is stopped for a short period, usually no more than 30 minutes, during which time the surgeon can work on the heart or great vessels.

After the surgical procedure is complete, the patient is gradually rewarmed, and the circulation is restarted. DHCA carries some risks, including neurological complications such as stroke, cognitive impairment, or delirium, but it remains an important tool in complex cardiac surgery.

Asphyxia neonatorum is a medical condition that refers to a newborn baby's lack of oxygen or difficulty breathing, which can lead to suffocation and serious complications. It is often caused by problems during the birthing process, such as umbilical cord compression or prolapse, placental abruption, or prolonged labor.

Symptoms of asphyxia neonatorum may include bluish skin color (cyanosis), weak or absent breathing, poor muscle tone, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and a slow heart rate. In severe cases, it can lead to organ damage, developmental delays, or even death.

Prompt medical attention is necessary to diagnose and treat asphyxia neonatorum. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to support the baby's heart function and blood pressure. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia (cooling the body) may be used to reduce the risk of brain damage. Preventive measures such as proper prenatal care, timely delivery, and careful monitoring during labor and delivery can also help reduce the risk of asphyxia neonatorum.

Shivering is a physical response to cold temperature or emotional stress, characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations. It's a part of the body's thermoregulation process, which helps to generate heat and maintain a normal body temperature. During shivering, the muscles rapidly contract and relax, producing kinetic energy that is released as heat. This can be observed as visible shaking or trembling, often most noticeable in the arms, legs, and jaw. In some cases, prolonged or intense shivering may also be associated with fever or other medical conditions.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving procedure that is performed when someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped. It involves a series of steps that are designed to manually pump blood through the body and maintain the flow of oxygen to the brain until advanced medical treatment can be provided.

CPR typically involves a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths, which are delivered in a specific rhythm and frequency. The goal is to maintain circulation and oxygenation of vital organs, particularly the brain, until advanced life support measures such as defibrillation or medication can be administered.

Chest compressions are used to manually pump blood through the heart and into the rest of the body. This is typically done by placing both hands on the lower half of the chest and pressing down with enough force to compress the chest by about 2 inches. The compressions should be delivered at a rate of at least 100-120 compressions per minute.

Rescue breaths are used to provide oxygen to the lungs and maintain oxygenation of the body's tissues. This is typically done by pinching the nose shut, creating a seal around the person's mouth with your own, and blowing in enough air to make the chest rise. The breath should be delivered over about one second, and this process should be repeated until the person begins to breathe on their own or advanced medical help arrives.

CPR can be performed by trained laypeople as well as healthcare professionals. It is an important skill that can help save lives in emergency situations where a person's breathing or heartbeat has stopped.

A coma is a deep state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be awakened, cannot respond to stimuli, and does not exhibit any sleep-wake cycles. It is typically caused by severe brain injury, illness, or toxic exposure that impairs the function of the brainstem and cerebral cortex.

In a coma, the person may appear to be asleep, but they are not aware of their surroundings or able to communicate or respond to stimuli. Comas can last for varying lengths of time, from days to weeks or even months, and some people may emerge from a coma with varying degrees of brain function and disability.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tools and assessments to evaluate the level of consciousness and brain function in individuals who are in a coma, including the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which measures eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. Treatment for coma typically involves supportive care to maintain vital functions, manage any underlying medical conditions, and prevent further complications.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

Induced heart arrest, also known as controlled cardiac arrest or planned cardiac arrest, is a deliberate medical intervention where cardiac activity is temporarily stopped through the use of medications or electrical disruption. This procedure is typically carried out during a surgical procedure, such as open-heart surgery, where the heart needs to be stilled to allow surgeons to work on it safely.

The most common method used to induce heart arrest is by administering a medication called potassium chloride, which stops the heart's electrical activity. Alternatively, an electrical shock may be delivered to the heart to achieve the same effect. Once the procedure is complete, the heart can be restarted using various resuscitation techniques, such as defibrillation or medication administration.

It's important to note that induced heart arrest is a carefully monitored and controlled medical procedure carried out by trained healthcare professionals in a hospital setting. It should not be confused with sudden cardiac arrest, which is an unexpected and often unpredictable event that occurs outside of a medical setting.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a medical condition where the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops functioning outside of a hospital setting, leading to the cessation of blood circulation and breathing. This results in immediate unconsciousness and can be caused by various factors such as electrical disturbances in the heart, severe trauma, or suffocation. It is a serious emergency that requires immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and advanced life support measures to restore spontaneous circulation and improve survival outcomes.

In the context of medical terminology, "heating" generally refers to the application of heat to an area of the body for therapeutic purposes. This can be done using various methods such as hot packs, heating pads, warm compresses, or even heated wax. The goal of applying heat is to increase blood flow, reduce pain and muscle spasms, and promote healing in the affected area. It's important to note that excessive heating or application of heat to sensitive areas should be avoided, as it can lead to burns or other injuries.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is a term used in medicine to describe the process of temporarily taking over the functions of the heart and lungs by using a machine. This allows the surgeon to perform certain types of surgery, such as open-heart surgery, on a still and bloodless operating field.

During ECC, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body through a pump and oxygenator. The pump helps to maintain blood flow and pressure, while the oxygenator adds oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide. This allows the surgeon to stop the heart and arrest its motion, making it easier to perform delicate procedures on the heart and surrounding structures.

Extracorporeal circulation is a complex and high-risk procedure that requires careful monitoring and management by a team of healthcare professionals. It carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and injury to blood vessels or organs. However, when performed correctly, it can be a life-saving measure for patients undergoing certain types of surgery.

Resuscitation is a medical term that refers to the process of reversing cardiopulmonary arrest or preventing further deterioration of someone in cardiac or respiratory arrest. It involves a series of interventions aimed at restoring spontaneous blood circulation and breathing, thereby preventing or minimizing tissue damage due to lack of oxygen.

The most common form of resuscitation is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which combines chest compressions to manually pump blood through the body with rescue breaths to provide oxygen to the lungs. In a hospital setting, more advanced techniques such as defibrillation, medication administration, and intubation may also be used as part of the resuscitation process.

The goal of resuscitation is to stabilize the patient's condition and prevent further harm while treating the underlying cause of the arrest. Successful resuscitation can lead to a full recovery or, in some cases, result in varying degrees of neurological impairment depending on the severity and duration of the cardiac or respiratory arrest.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Asphyxia is a medical condition that occurs when there is insufficient oxygen supply or excessive carbon dioxide buildup in the body, leading to impaired respiration and oxygenation of organs. This can result in unconsciousness, damage to internal organs, and potentially death if not treated promptly.

Asphyxia can be caused by various factors such as strangulation, choking, smoke inhalation, chemical exposure, or drowning. Symptoms of asphyxia may include shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes), rapid heartbeat, confusion, and eventually loss of consciousness.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals experiencing symptoms of asphyxia. Treatment may involve providing supplemental oxygen, removing the source of obstruction or exposure to harmful substances, and supporting respiratory function with mechanical ventilation if necessary. Prevention measures include avoiding hazardous environments, using proper safety equipment, and seeking prompt medical attention in case of suspected asphyxiation.

Skin temperature is the measure of heat emitted by the skin, which can be an indicator of the body's core temperature. It is typically lower than the body's internal temperature and varies depending on factors such as environmental temperature, blood flow, and physical activity. Skin temperature is often used as a vital sign in medical settings and can be measured using various methods, including thermal scanners, digital thermometers, or mercury thermometers. Changes in skin temperature may also be associated with certain medical conditions, such as inflammation, infection, or nerve damage.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and is typically measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). It's the measurement of the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and brain tissue within the confined space of the skull.

Normal ICP ranges from 5 to 15 mmHg in adults when lying down. Intracranial pressure may increase due to various reasons such as bleeding in the brain, swelling of the brain, increased production or decreased absorption of CSF, and brain tumors. Elevated ICP is a serious medical emergency that can lead to brain damage or even death if not promptly treated. Symptoms of high ICP may include severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, and visual changes.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Buspirone is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called azapirones, which are used to treat anxiety disorders. It works by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain, specifically serotonin and dopamine, to produce a calming effect. Buspirone is often used as an alternative to benzodiazepines because it is not habit-forming and has less severe side effects.

The medical definition of buspirone is:

A piperidine derivative and azapirone analogue, with anxiolytic properties. It is believed to work by selectively binding to 5-HT1A receptors and modulating serotonin activity in the brain. Buspirone is used for the management of anxiety disorders and has a lower potential for abuse and dependence than benzodiazepines.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Hyperthermia, induced, is a medically controlled increase in core body temperature beyond the normal range (36.5-37.5°C or 97.7-99.5°F) to a target temperature typically between 38-42°C (100.4-107.6°F). This therapeutic intervention is used in various medical fields, including oncology and critical care medicine. Induced hyperthermia can be achieved through different methods such as whole-body heating or localized heat application, often combined with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to enhance treatment efficacy.

In the context of oncology, hyperthermia is used as a sensitizer for cancer treatments by increasing blood flow to tumors, enhancing drug delivery, and directly damaging cancer cells through protein denaturation and apoptosis at higher temperatures. In critical care settings, induced hyperthermia may be applied in therapeutic hypothermia protocols to protect the brain after cardiac arrest or other neurological injuries by decreasing metabolic demand and reducing oxidative stress.

It is essential to closely monitor patients undergoing induced hyperthermia for potential adverse effects, including cardiovascular instability, electrolyte imbalances, and infections, and manage these complications promptly to ensure patient safety during the procedure.

I am not a doctor, but I can try to help you find information on this topic. However, I was unable to find a specific medical condition called "gastric hypothermia." It is possible that you may be referring to "gastric hypothermic therapy" or "stomach hypothermia," which are procedures used in some alternative medicine practices.

In gastric hypothermic therapy, a cold solution (usually around 4-10°C) is introduced into the stomach through a tube for a certain period of time. The idea behind this therapy is that it can help reduce body temperature and inflammation, improve blood circulation, and promote healing in various conditions such as gastritis, ulcers, and even cancer.

However, it's important to note that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of gastric hypothermic therapy, and it may not be a widely accepted or recommended practice in conventional medicine. Always consult with a healthcare professional before trying any alternative therapies.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Neuroprotective agents are substances that protect neurons or nerve cells from damage, degeneration, or death caused by various factors such as trauma, inflammation, oxidative stress, or excitotoxicity. These agents work through different mechanisms, including reducing the production of free radicals, inhibiting the release of glutamate (a neurotransmitter that can cause cell damage in high concentrations), promoting the growth and survival of neurons, and preventing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Neuroprotective agents have been studied for their potential to treat various neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and to develop effective therapies.

Pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for its sedative and hypnotic effects in the treatment of insomnia, seizure disorders, and occasionally to treat severe agitation or delirium. It works by decreasing the activity of nerves in the brain, which produces a calming effect.

In addition to its medical uses, pentobarbital has been used for non-therapeutic purposes such as euthanasia and capital punishment due to its ability to cause respiratory depression and death when given in high doses. It is important to note that the use of pentobarbital for these purposes is highly regulated and restricted to licensed medical professionals in specific circumstances.

Like all barbiturates, pentobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare provider. It can also cause serious side effects such as respiratory depression, decreased heart rate, and low blood pressure, especially when used in large doses or combined with other central nervous system depressants.

Pargyline is an antihypertensive drug and a irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type B. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, which can help improve mood and behavior in people with depression.

Pargyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects, including interactions with certain foods and medications that can lead to dangerously high blood pressure. It is also associated with a risk of serotonin syndrome when taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain.

Pargyline is available only through a prescription and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals. It is also known by its brand name Demerol and is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine has a rapid onset of action and its effects typically last for 2-4 hours.

Meperidine can cause various side effects such as dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and respiratory depression (slowed breathing). It also has a risk of abuse and physical dependence, so it is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Meperidine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects and addiction. It may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or those who are taking other medications that can interact with meperidine.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a type of cardiac arrhythmia, which is an abnormal heart rhythm. In VF, the ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart, beat in a rapid and unorganized manner. This results in the heart being unable to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body, leading to immediate circulatory collapse and cardiac arrest if not treated promptly. It is often caused by underlying heart conditions such as coronary artery disease, structural heart problems, or electrolyte imbalances. VF is a medical emergency that requires immediate defibrillation to restore a normal heart rhythm.

"Near drowning" is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is a term used to describe a situation where a person has nearly died from suffocation or cardiac arrest due to submersion in water, followed by survival for at least 24 hours after the incident. It can result in various short-term and long-term health consequences, such as respiratory complications, neurological damage, and even death.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines near drowning as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid." The term "drowning" is used when the process results in death, while "near drowning" refers to survival after the incident. However, it's important to note that even if a person survives a near-drowning incident, they may still experience significant health issues and long-term disabilities.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Myxedema is not a term used in modern medicine to describe a specific medical condition. However, historically, it was used to refer to the severe form of hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland that doesn't produce enough thyroid hormones. In hypothyroidism, various body functions slow down, which can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, and dry skin.

Myxedema specifically refers to the physical signs of severe hypothyroidism, including swelling (edema) and thickening of the skin, particularly around the face, hands, and feet, as well as a puffy appearance of the face. The term myxedema coma was used to describe a rare but life-threatening complication of long-standing, untreated hypothyroidism, characterized by altered mental status, hypothermia, and other systemic manifestations.

Nowadays, healthcare professionals use more precise medical terminology to describe these conditions, such as hypothyroidism or myxedematous edema, rather than the outdated term myxedema.

Yawning is a reflex characterized by the involuntary opening of the mouth and deep inhalation of air, often followed by a long exhalation. While the exact purpose and mechanism of yawning are not fully understood, it's believed to be associated with regulating brain temperature, promoting arousal, or stretching the muscles of the jaw and face. Yawning is contagious in humans and can also be observed in various animal species. It usually occurs when an individual is tired, bored, or during transitions between sleep stages, but its underlying causes remain a subject of ongoing scientific research.

Bessell, J; Ludbrook G; Millard S; Baxter P; Ubhi S; Maddern G (1999). "Humidified gas prevents hypothermia induced by ... Bessel, J; Karatassas A; Patterson J; Jamieson G; Maddern G (1995). "Hypothermia induced by laparoscopic insufflation. A ... Surgical hypothermia, defined as a core temperature below 36.0 °C, is associated with increased risk of infectious and non- ... Barring preventive interventions, hypothermia occurs in more than half of all surgical patients undergoing anesthesia. The risk ...
Inducing hypothermia or heat injury; Conducting mock executions; Depriving the detainee of necessary food, water, sleep, or ... The manuals describe coercive techniques to be used "to induce psychological regression in the subject by bringing a superior ... Lawg.org Archived 2006-04-19 at the Wayback Machine JPRA Operational Concerns Over Application of Various Means of Induced ...
... inducing frostbite and even hypothermia. "Flame breath" allows him to exhale a superheated napalm-like substance which causes ...
Non-invasively induced therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to reduce mortality of successfully resuscitated cardiac arrest ... McKean, Staci (2009). "Induced Moderate Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest". AACN Advanced Critical Care. 20 (4): 342-53. doi: ... It is a non-invasive temperature management system that is used to induce hypothermia in comatose patients that have suffered ... Therapeutic hypothermia, which lowers the patient's body temperature to levels between 32-34 °C (90-93 °F), is used to help ...
Induced pediatric hypothermia was approved in the U.S. by the FDA in March 2007. The most prominent such hypothermia cap which ... Therapeutic hypothermia Hershman, DL (14 February 2017). "Scalp Cooling to Prevent Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia: The Time Has ... No side effects related to the hypothermia cap were observed. The study concluded that "prehospital use of hypothermia caps is ... A hypothermia cap (also referred to as cold cap or cooling cap) is a therapeutic device used to cool the human scalp. Its most ...
Cappuccino's use of induced hypothermia garnered national headlines for the technique. Cappuccino received a dual BES degree ... Fornell, Dave (2008-02-20). "Induced Hypothermia Shows Promise in Treating Cardiac, Neurotrauma Patients". DAIC : Diagnostic ...
"Induced Hypothermia During Emergency Department Thoracotomy: an Animal Model. Journal of Trauma Injury and Critical Care. 48: ... "Induced Hypothermia During Emergency Department Thoracotomy: an Animal Model". Journal of Trauma Injury and Critical Care. 48: ...
It induces a variety of effects, including analgesia, hypothermia and increased locomotor activity. It is also involved in ... Neurotensin is an endogenous neuropeptide involved in thermoregulation that can induce hypothermia and neuroprotection in ... "Neurotensin-induced hypothermia improves neurologic outcome after hypoxic-ischemia". Crit. Care Med. 32 (3): 806-10. doi: ...
In mice, I-RTX induces dose-dependent hypothermia in vivo. A statistically significant difference was reported at doses > 0.1 ... "5-Iodoresiniferatoxin evokes hypothermia in mice and is a partial transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 agonist in vitro". ...
As trauma-induced hypothermia is a leading cause of battlefield deaths, a provider may also perform hypothermia prevention can ... Bennett BL, Holcomb JB (June 2017). "Battlefield Trauma-Induced Hypothermia: Transitioning the Preferred Method of Casualty ... Since hypothermia can occur regardless of ambient temperature due to blood loss, the Hypothermia Prevention and Management Kit ... Head injury/hypothermia. Secondary brain injury is worsened by hypotension (systolic blood pressure under 90 mmHg), hypoxia ( ...
Hypothermia induces a "cold diuresis" which can lead to electrolyte abnormalities - specifically hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, ... It appears that regardless of the technique used to induce hypothermia, people begin to shiver when temperature drops below ... There are a number of methods through which hypothermia is induced. These include: cooling catheters, cooling blankets, and ... Polderman, Kees H (2008). "Induced hypothermia and fever control for prevention and treatment of neurological injuries". The ...
Hypothermia Thermoregulation Axon reflex Raynaud's syndrome Daanen, H.A.M. (2003). "Finger cold-induced vasodilation: a review ... This cold-induced vasodilation increases blood flow and subsequently the temperature of the fingers. A new phase of ...
Bushak, Lecia (December 20, 2014). "Induced Hypothermia: How Freezing People After Heart Attacks Could Save Lives". Newsweek. ... "profound hypothermia" is then medically induced, at temperatures as low as 50 F (10 C). According to Becker, "draining the ... Cell death can be delayed or stopped through the application of therapeutic hypothermia. In the case of Swedish skier Anna ...
Mild total body hypothermia, induced by cooling a baby to 33-34°C for three days after birth, is nowadays a standardized ... Many of the effects induced by mild hypothermia may help to reduce the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. Experimental and ... Busto R, Globus MY, Dietrich WD, Martinez E, Valdés I, Ginsberg MD (July 1989). "Effect of mild hypothermia on ischemia-induced ... Hypothermia appears to have multiple effects at a cellular level following cerebral injury. Hypothermia reduces vasogenic ...
Many animals other than humans often induce hypothermia during hibernation or torpor.[citation needed] Water bears (Tardigrade ... Hypoglycemia is also found in many people with hypothermia, as hypothermia may be a result of hypoglycemia. As hypothermia ... People with hypothermia may appear pale and feel cold to touch. Infants with hypothermia may feel cold when touched, with ... Hypothermia occurs frequently in major trauma, and is also observed in severe cases of anorexia nervosa. Hypothermia is also ...
It is important to note that induced mild hypothermia, between temperatures of 33 °C and 36 °C is effective whilst safer than ... Council, National Research (1955). Physiology of Induced Hypothermia: Proceedings of a Symposium, 28-29 October 1955. p. 89. ... Hypothermia also has a significant therapeutic role, the technique of therapeutic hypothermia involves deliberate reduction of ... Hypothermia is defined as having a core body temperature below 35 °C (or 95 °F). Under 35 °C, the body loses more heat than it ...
A person dies of heart attack induced by hypothermia in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. December 30 - An ice storm in Mississippi ...
This induced hypothermia technique is beginning to be used in emergency medicine. The combination of mildly reducing body ... 1990). "Moderate hypothermia after cardiac arrest of 17 minutes in dogs. Effect on cerebral and cardiac outcome". Stroke. ... 1990). "Mild cerebral hypothermia during and after cardiac arrest improves neurologic outcome in dogs". Journal of Cerebral ... 1990). "Accidental deep hypothermia with cardiopulmonary arrest: extracorporeal blood rewarming in 11 patients". European ...
hypothermia A lowering of core body temperature, usually due to heat loss. hypoxia Abnormally low tissue oxygen concentration. ... hyperventilation-induced blackout See: underwater blackout syndrome hypocapnia Abnormally low tissue and blood carbon dioxide ... Duong, H.; Patel, G. (24 January 2022). "Hypothermia". StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID ...
... in that hypothermia is induced. However, the purposes and procedures of EPR differ from DHCA. DHCA induces hypothermia to aid ... The trial procedure involves rapidly inducing profound hypothermia (10 °C) with an aortic flush in trauma victims that have ... EPR uses hypothermia, drugs, and fluids to "buy time" for resuscitative surgery. If successful, EPR may someday be deployed in ... Twilley, Nicola (21 November 2016). "Can Hypothermia Save Gunshot Victims?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 23 January 2018. Kaplan ...
May have a direct or indirect effect on body temperature and alleviating hypothermia. Can normalize blood pressure and ... "The effects of Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide on incidence and severity in metaphit-induced epilepsy in rats". Pharmacological ... Delta-sleep-inducing peptide was first discovered in 1974 by the Swiss Schoenenberger-Monnier group who isolated it from the ... Delta+sleep-inducing+peptide at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Deltaran" (CS1 Russian- ...
Trauma-induced coagulopathy is acutely worsened by the presence of acidosis and hypothermia. The activity of coagulation ... Hypothermia (less than 34 C) compounds coagulopathy by impairing coagulation and is an independent risk factor for death in ... However, this traditional model of trauma-induced coagulopathy may be too limited. Further studies have shown that a degree of ... This has led to the recognition of trauma-induced coagulopathy as the sum of two distinct processes: acute coagulopathy of ...
... have effects in all components of the tetrad and induce hypomotility, catalepsy, hypothermia, and analgesia in rodents. ... Hypothermia (reduced body temperature) is determined by using a rectal probe to measure the rectal temperature. Analgesia is ... Data have shown, that also CB2 receptors are involved in the tetrad effects induced by cannabinoids, and other, associated with ... It is widely used for screening drugs that induce cannabinoid receptor-mediated effects in rodents. The four behavioral ...
"Evaluation of hypothermia-induced analgesia and influence of opioid antagonists in Leopard frogs (Rana pipiens)". Pharmacology ... "The role of pH and osmolarity in evoking the acetic acid-induced wiping response in a model of nociception in frogs". Brain ... "Hypothermia is also unacceptable as a sedation technique for painful procedures". Veterinary articles have been published ...
... s are induced ovulators and can breed throughout the year. Females can have their first litter at two to three years of ... Deaths result from several reasons-stillbirths, birth defects, cannibalism, hypothermia, maternal neglect, and infectious ... Compared to other felids, cheetahs need specialised care because of their higher vulnerability to stress-induced diseases; this ...
Stress induces a release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin from the hypothalamus, which activates the ... Increased levels of LH also result in hypothermia but through a decreased metabolism action. ACTH increase metabolism and ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) also may cause hypothermia if increased beyond homeostatic levels through an increased ... Increased plasma levels of TSH induce hyperthermia through a mechanism involving increased metabolism and cutaneous ...
Collaborated with medical manufacturer Benechill on its new Rhinochill system, which induces therapeutic hypothermia during ...
If the solutions administered are colder than the temperature of the body, induced hypothermia can occur. If the temperature ... "Warming of intravenous and irrigation fluids for preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia". Cochrane Database of ...
... on apomorphine-induced hypothermia in mice". Psychopharmacology. 88 (2): 240-6. doi:10.1007/BF00652248. PMID 3006113. S2CID ...
"Hypothermia: Symptoms". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016. Ellen Goldbaum ... A common, but false, statement states that cold weather itself can induce the identically named common cold. No scientific ... Extreme cold temperatures may lead to frostbite, sepsis, and hypothermia, which in turn may result in death. ... This explanation on the cold inducing aspects of nitre (now known as potassium nitrate) and salt was tried then by many ...
Paracetamol-Induced Hypothermia Is Independent of Cannabinoids and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 and Is Not Mediated ... Paracetamol-Induced Hypothermia Is Independent of Cannabinoids and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 and Is Not Mediated ... Paracetamol-Induced Hypothermia Is Independent of Cannabinoids and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 and Is Not Mediated ... Paracetamol-Induced Hypothermia Is Independent of Cannabinoids and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 and Is Not Mediated ...
Hypothermia is classified as accidental or intentional, primary or secondary, and by the degree of hypothermia. ... Hypothermia describes a state in which the bodys mechanism for temperature regulation is overwhelmed in the face of a cold ... Intentional hypothermia is an induced state generally directed at neuroprotection after an at-risk situation (usually after ... See Treating Hypothermia: What You Need to Know, a Critical Images slideshow, to help recognize the signs of hypothermia as ...
Induced hypothermia was applied to all patients to protect against brain injury. Induced hypothermia was carried out by surface ... The induced hypothermia maintenance time in our series also ranged from 32 to 67 hours, which was longer than that of induced ... Most of patients underwent induced hypothermia had a good recovery from severe acute CO poisoning. Therefore, induced ... Most patients who underwent induced hypothermia showed good recovery from severe acute CO poisoning. Therefore, induced ...
How quickly you start cooling a patient impacts survival and neurological function, especially after a hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) diagnosis or cardiac arrest. Thats why clinicians call on CritiCool, a simple and effective thermal regulating system.. Giving the clinician control over patient thermal regulation, CritiCool functions as both a control unit and cooling pump that constantly provides feedback of the patients core and surface temperature via connected sensors. Using core and surface temperature measurements, CritiCools proprietary algorithm maintains the desired temperature throughout treatment by bringing the water to the target temperature and circulating it in a closed-loop system. The control unit pairs with the CureWrap® single-use garment to envelop the patient for advanced patient temperature management.. ...
These results indicate that systemic hypothermia has a neuroprotective effect following SCI by attenuating post-traumatic TPC. ... Rats that received hypothermia (32 degrees C/4 h) were killed at the same time points as those that received normothermia (37 ... Hypothermia, Induced / methods* * In Situ Nick-End Labeling / methods* * Male * Rats * Rats, Sprague-Dawley ... Post-traumatic moderate systemic hypothermia reduces TUNEL positive cells following spinal cord injury in rat Spinal Cord. 2004 ...
Bessell, J; Ludbrook G; Millard S; Baxter P; Ubhi S; Maddern G (1999). "Humidified gas prevents hypothermia induced by ... Bessel, J; Karatassas A; Patterson J; Jamieson G; Maddern G (1995). "Hypothermia induced by laparoscopic insufflation. A ... Surgical hypothermia, defined as a core temperature below 36.0 °C, is associated with increased risk of infectious and non- ... Barring preventive interventions, hypothermia occurs in more than half of all surgical patients undergoing anesthesia. The risk ...
Polderman KH: Induced hypothermia and fever control for prevention and treatment of neurological injuries. Lancet 2008, 371: ... Patt A, McCroskey B, Moore E: Hypothermia-induced coagulopathies in trauma [review]. Surg Clin North Am 1988, 68: 775-785. ... and careful consideration should be given to the depth of hypothermia induced in that patient. Because very mild hypothermia ( ... Tuma MA, Stansbury LG, Stein DM, McQuillan KA, Scalea TM: Induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest in trauma patients: a case ...
Neuroleptic drugs also predispose a person to hypothermia by inducing vasodilation and suppressing the shivering response. The ... Annual death rate associated with hypothermia, by age group .... Article. Hypothermia is a lowering of the core body ... Hypothermia-related deaths -- North Carolina, November 1993-March 1994. MMWR 1994;43:849,855-6. * CDC. Hypothermia-related ... age-adjusted death rate for hypothermia of 0.3 per 100,000 (3). Elderly persons particularly are at risk for hypothermia ...
The use of cold water has the potential to induce hypothermia. Take steps to guard against hypothermia. Place particles of ... Do not induce vomiting (emesis).. *Monitor heart function. Evaluate for low blood pressure (hypotension), abnormal heart ... The use of cold water is critical, but be careful to guard the patient/victim against hypothermia. ... Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of munitions disposal residues. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research ...
If phosphides have been ingested, do not induce emesis. If it has not been given previously and the patient is alert and able ... Use caution to avoid hypothermia when decontaminating children or the elderly. Use blankets or warmers when appropriate. ... In cases of phosphide ingestion, do not induce emesis. If activated charcoal has not been given previously, administer a slurry ... If phosphides have been ingested, do not induce emesis. Phosphides will release phosphine in the stomach; therefore, watch for ...
Brain injuries, Critical care, Fever, Hypothermia, Induced, Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, Shivering, Temperature. in Critical ... Hypothermia; Induced; Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; Shivering; Temperature}}, language = {{eng}}, month = {{11}}, number = {{ ... 53.0%; p=0.48). Conclusions: Intravascular and surface cooling was equally effective during induction of mild hypothermia. ... 53.0%; p=0.48). Conclusions: Intravascular and surface cooling was equally effective during induction of mild hypothermia. ...
Furthermore, AT help the mice recover from the C48/80-induced decrease in body temperature and decreased the levels of ... Our results indicate that allantoin inhibits compound 48/80-induced pseudoallergic reactions. AT has the potential to be used ... induced by C48/80. Body temperature is measured, and the levels of cytokines are further determined by ELISA kits in mice with ... active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) induced by C48/80. The results show that AT dose-dependently inhibited degranulation in C48/ ...
Image from The physiology of induced hypothermia: proceedings of a symposium, 28-29 October 1955 ...
Inadequate humidification induces inspissations of airway secretions, destruction of airway epithelium, and hypothermia [2]. ...
15 Drug-Induced Delay of Hypothermia 257-270 * Part III Discussion 271-292 ... It was suggested that this might be due to an increased thyroid activity induced by cold (Rodahl, 1952a, b). Subsequent work ... The possibility of frostbite and hypothermia are always present in cold regions. For these reasons it is important to be ...
Furthermore, JMV2009 did not cause constipation and was ineffective in inducing hypothermia. These findings suggest that NT ... U-47700 induced dose-related increases in hot plate latency (ED = 0.5 mg/kg) and catalepsy (ED = 1.7 mg/kg), while the 3.0 mg/ ... Then, ATP-induced activation of P2X7R mediates the release of IL-1β from SGC. This evidence places the SGC as an active player ... Inflammation was induced by CFA, carrageenan, IL-1β, or PGE administered in rats hind paw. Blockage of P2X7R at the DRG ...
Hypothermia was induced during anesthesia at the time of TTPA catheter placement; on 3 occasions after placement of the ... and subcutaneous microchips during hypothermia, euthermia, and hyperthermia. Reliability (variability) of temperature ... catheter, hyperthermia was induced via administration of a low dose of endotoxin. Near-simultaneous duplicate temperature ...
The benefits of cooling, or induced hypothermia, have been known for decades. At normal body temperature - around 37 °C - cells ...
Drowning is the endpoint of death in the water, but were trying to determine the actual cause of death: Hypothermia? Hypoxia? ... Swimming-induced pulmonary edema? he told the Times of San Diego. The study also found that migrant drownings in the Rio ...
... protects from Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute lung injury in mice by ameliorating the cytostorm and associated hypothermia ... Ablation of PDE4B protects from Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute lung injury in mice by ameliorating the cytostorm and ... associated hypothermia. Title: Ablation of PDE4B protects from Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute lung injury in mice by ... induced acute lung injury. Title: Phosphodiesterase 4B is required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation by positive feedback with ...
Induced Hypothermia Nursing and Health Professions 100% * Hypothermia Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 100% ... Conclusions-Hypothermia increases both the prevalence and magnitude of ER in cardiac arrest survivors. Despite the association ... In this retrospective cohort study we examine the impact of therapeutic hypothermia on ER in survivors of cardiac arrest ... Methods and Results-All patients who suffered cardiac arrest and were treated with therapeutic hypothermia over a 7 year period ...
Definitions Frostbite: A cold induced condition caused by the formation of ice crystals in […] ... Hypothermia:. A cold induced condition which results from over cooling of the body due to excessive loss of body heat. ... A cold induced condition caused by the formation of ice crystals in exposed body parts. It occurs when extremities such as the ... the warning signs and symptoms of cold stress conditions (frostbite and hypothermia) ...
... hypothermia of 30 degrees C was able to reduce the rate of ouabain-induced 86Rb efflux. The findings described above suggest ... Hypothermia and metabolic stress: narrowing the cellular site of early neuroprotection.. G D Zeevalk and W J Nicklas ... Hypothermia and metabolic stress: narrowing the cellular site of early neuroprotection.. G D Zeevalk and W J Nicklas ... Hypothermia and metabolic stress: narrowing the cellular site of early neuroprotection.. G D Zeevalk and W J Nicklas ...
View Rat Genome Database annotations to decreased susceptibility to induced hypothermia ... An association has been curated linking Slc6a4m1Hubr and decreased susceptibility to induced hypothermia in Rattus norvegicus. ... 6 RGD objects have been annotated to decreased susceptibility to induced hypothermia (MP:0020523). ...
... is often induced by cold, wet conditions, such as rain, snow, sleet, or immersion in water. However, hypothermia ... Hypothermia. Some of the most common and dangerous risks to hunters result from exposure to extreme weather. Hypothermia occurs ... Prevention of Hypothermia. *Hypothermia can be prevented by dressing properly, by avoiding potentially dangerous weather ...
General anesthesia is induced and maintained using a combination of intravenous and inhaled agents. A point worth noting is ... Severe hypothermia may result in coagulopathy, delayed awakening, or arrhythmia.. Commonly Used Anesthetic Drugs. Numerous ... When inducing general anesthesia, the patient is no longer able to protect their airway or provide an effective respiratory ... When inducing general anesthesia, patients can no longer protect their airway, provide effective respiratory effort, or protect ...
It was ascertained that the behavioral responses like cannabinoid-induced immobility and hypothermia continued to remain the ... The experts explained that approximately 12 percent mice with diet-induced obesity reduced weight. Similar results may not have ...
Therapeutic hypothermia can be induced and maintained using either commercial water bottles or a "phase changing material" ... Passive induction of hypothermia during transport of asphyxiated infants: a risk of excessive cooling. ... On neonatal asphyxia : clinical and animal studies including development of a simple, safe method for therapeutic hypothermia ...
  • Very mild hypothermia (down to 35°C) has no effect on any part of the coagulation cascade. (springer.com)
  • The clinical effects of mild hypothermia on bleeding appear to be minor, and clinical studies suggest that the risk of severe bleeding associated with mild hypothermia is very low or even absent. (springer.com)
  • Conclusions: Intravascular and surface cooling was equally effective during induction of mild hypothermia. (lu.se)
  • Intentional hypothermia is an induced state generally directed at neuroprotection after an at-risk situation (usually after cardiac arrest, see Therapeutic Hypothermia ). (medscape.com)
  • In this retrospective cohort study we examine the impact of therapeutic hypothermia on ER in survivors of cardiac arrest attributed to idiopathic VF (ID-VF) and draw comparisons with a control group who experienced coronary artery disease related VF (CAD-VF). (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Methods and Results-All patients who suffered cardiac arrest and were treated with therapeutic hypothermia over a 7 year period were considered for inclusion in the study. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Despite the association of ER with idiopathic VF, therapeutic hypothermia only increases ER amplitude in CAD-VF survivors. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • In this retrospective cohort study we examine the impact of therapeutic hypothermia on ER in survivors of cardiac arrest attributed to idiopathic VF (ID-VF) and draw comparisons with a control group who experienced coronary artery disease related VF (CAD-VF).Methods and Results-All patients who suffered cardiac arrest and were treated with therapeutic hypothermia over a 7 year period were considered for inclusion in the study. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • In induced hypothermia, the body's core temperature is maintained between 32°C and 34°C during an early period of treatment to provide a neuroprotective effect in patients with suspected brain injury [ 7 , 8 ]. (ceemjournal.org)
  • Clinically, peritoneal injury caused by drying has been linked to post-operative pain, evaporative cooling resulting in a decrease in core temperature and increased risk of intra-operative hypothermia, as well as adhesion formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical hypothermia, defined as a core temperature below 36.0 °C, is associated with increased risk of infectious and non-infections complications, longer post-operative ICU and overall hospital recovery, and more frequent requirement of transfusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of induced hypothermia on severe acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains to be addressed further. (ceemjournal.org)
  • We investigated the effect of induced hypothermia on severe acute CO poisoning. (ceemjournal.org)
  • Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who diagnosed as severe acute CO poisoning in emergency department and underwent induced hypothermia from May 2013 to May 2014. (ceemjournal.org)
  • Most of patients underwent induced hypothermia had a good recovery from severe acute CO poisoning. (ceemjournal.org)
  • Therefore, induced hypothermia may be considered as a possible treatment in severe acute CO poisoning. (ceemjournal.org)
  • Considering these facts, induced hypothermia is expected to play a major role in treating moderate to severe acute CO poisoning. (ceemjournal.org)
  • Although anecdotal case reports have shown a good prognosis after induced hypothermia in patients with severe acute CO poisoning, the current clinical indications of induced hypothermia have not included acute CO poisoning [ 9 , 10 ]. (ceemjournal.org)
  • The effects of hypothermia on coagulation may represent a two-edged sword in patients with acute brain injury who are treated with therapeutic cooling. (springer.com)
  • Ablation of PDE4B protects from Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute lung injury in mice by ameliorating the cytostorm and associated hypothermia. (nih.gov)
  • Swelling and increased gamma-aminobutyric acid release were first evident at 15 min of incubation with ouabain at 37 degrees C. Hypothermia (30 degrees C) delayed the onset of acute excitotoxicity caused by ouabain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Current studies have shown that the use of surgical humidification during open abdominal surgery (laparotomy) have warmer core body temperatures and reduced risk of operative hypothermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially in open surgery (rather than endoscopic/robotic surgery), respiratory humidification can be used in concert with forced air warming blankets or gowns, warmed IV, and irrigation fluids to prevent hypothermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inadequate humidification induces inspissations of airway secretions, destruction of airway epithelium, and hypothermia [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • They found that the incidence of bleeding was not increased by hypothermia, although there was a trend towards more red blood cell units being required to reach target hematocrit in hypothermic patients who did develop bleeding complications. (springer.com)
  • Many patients have recovered from severe hypothermia, so early recognition and prompt initiation of optimal treatment is paramount. (medscape.com)
  • In a dose response study, implants of 10, 100 and 200 mg of brand (C) drain material produced dose dependent clinical signs (severe vasodilatation, hypothermia, and ataxia) and clevations in serum alanine amino-transferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. (cdc.gov)
  • Systemic hypothermia may also be accompanied by localized cold injury (see Emergent Management of Frostbite ). (medscape.com)
  • A standardized animal model of contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) with incomplete paraplegia was used to test the hypothesis that moderate systemic hypothermia reduces neural cell death. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that systemic hypothermia has a neuroprotective effect following SCI by attenuating post-traumatic TPC. (nih.gov)
  • Hypothermia describes a state in which the body's mechanism for temperature regulation is overwhelmed in the face of a cold stressor. (medscape.com)
  • Preclinical and preliminary clinical data suggest that rapid patient cooling using intravenous cold saline in combination with endovascular hypothermia can be initiated without causing delay of reperfusion therapy and may have the potential to enable interventional cardiologists to dramatically reduce heart tissue damage following a heart attack," stated David Erlinge, M.D., Ph.D. of the Lund University Cardiology Center. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
  • See Treating Hypothermia: What You Need to Know , a Critical Images slideshow, to help recognize the signs of hypothermia as well as the best approach for hypothermic patients. (medscape.com)
  • Hypothermia results in decreased depolarization of cardiac pacemaker cells, causing bradycardia. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions-Hypothermia increases both the prevalence and magnitude of ER in cardiac arrest survivors. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The effects of hypothermia on coagulation have been studied mostly in vitro . (springer.com)
  • In a previous study we showed that hypothermia of 30 degrees C can expand the time during which retinal neurons in vitro can have their metabolism inhibited without adverse effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The study, conducted by a team of interventional cardiologists at the Lund University Hospital, Sweden, evaluated the effect of early and rapid cooling induced by a combination of cold saline infusion along with InnerCool's endovascular Celsius Control(TM) System, before or immediately after reperfusion when coronary blood flow was restored in the heart in a porcine heart attack model. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
  • Rapid hypothermia, induced by the infusion of one liter of cold saline in combination with InnerCool's endovascular catheter-based temperature modulation system, initiated either prior to or after restoration of blood flow (reperfusion), was compared to a normal core body temperature of 38 degrees Celsius throughout the procedure. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
  • From 1979 through 1992, a total of 10,550 persons in the United States died from hypothermia, an average of 754 deaths per year (range: 557-1021 deaths) (2). (cdc.gov)
  • From October 1994 through February 1996, a total of 10 hypothermia-related deaths were reported by the chief medical examiner in Vermont. (cdc.gov)
  • This report summarizes the investigation of three of these deaths and describes risk factors commonly associated with hypothermia. (cdc.gov)
  • Editorial Note: From 1979 through 1992, approximately half of all hypothermia deaths in the United States occurred among persons aged greater than or equal to 65 years ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Thus immersion (in cold water) may lead to hypothermia, year from 2005 to 2014, plus an additional 679 boating- and submersion at any water temperature may lead to related deaths, 75% of which were from d rowning.5,6 drowning. (bvsalud.org)
  • Elderly persons particularly are at risk for hypothermia because of medical and socioeconomic factors such as underlying diseases, social isolation, and physiologic changes (e.g., lack of appropriate vasoconstriction in response to cold environments, decreased basal metabolic rate, and impaired shivering mechanism). (cdc.gov)
  • Ethanol abuse, which is strongly associated with hypothermia, results in vasodilation and interferes with peripheral vasoconstriction, an important physiologic mechanism of defense against the cold. (cdc.gov)
  • It was suggested that this might be due to an increased thyroid activity induced by cold (Rodahl, 1952a, b). (nationalacademies.org)
  • A cold induced condition caused by the formation of ice crystals in exposed body parts. (toronto.ca)
  • A cold induced condition which results from over cooling of the body due to excessive loss of body heat. (toronto.ca)
  • Because you have less natural insulation, you can get hypothermia in cold weather. (medlineplus.gov)
  • All patients underwent induced hypothermia with a temperature goal 33°C. Initial and follow-up levels of S100B protein after induced hypothermia were 0.47 μg/L (interquartile range, 0.11 to 0.71) and 0.10 μg/L (interquartile range, 0.06 to 0.37), respectively (P = 0.01). (ceemjournal.org)
  • Barring preventive interventions, hypothermia occurs in more than half of all surgical patients undergoing anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperatures below 35°C can in some cases (but not in all patients, see below) induce mild platelet dysfunction and sometimes a mild decrease in platelet count. (springer.com)
  • In the ICTuS-2 trial [ 8 ] thrombolysis plus hypothermia was compared with thrombolysis alone in 120 patients. (medscape.com)
  • The INCH study [ 12 ] looked at patients who had vitamin K antagonist-induced cerebral bleeds, and compared prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) with fresh frozen plasma . (medscape.com)
  • This is a strong argument for initiating PCC therapy in patients with anticoagulation-induced bleeding. (medscape.com)
  • Hypothermia occurs when your body loses heat faster than it can produce it, causing your core body temperature to fall. (hunter-ed.com)
  • Hypothermia and metabolic stress: narrowing the cellular site of early neuroprotection. (aspetjournals.org)
  • [ 1 ] Primary hypothermia is due to environmental exposure, with no underlying medical condition causing disruption of temperature regulation. (medscape.com)
  • Exposure to drain brand (A) induced significant elevation in total IgE (5748 ng/ml VS. 347 ng/ml for the sham control) by day 21. (cdc.gov)
  • recently, studies of cultured cells and manipulation of the nervous system have made it possible to reproduce physiological states related to hypothermia induction. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vivo, Evans Blue extraction, paw swelling, and the diameter of Evans Blue extravasation were evaluated, and skin tissues are examined for histopathological examination in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) induced by C48/80. (mdpi.com)
  • The experts explained that approximately 12 percent mice with diet-induced obesity reduced weight. (healthjockey.com)
  • Hibernating animals maintain hypothermia for days to weeks ( Geiser and Ruf, 1995 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Rats that received hypothermia (32 degrees C/4 h) were killed at the same time points as those that received normothermia (37 degrees C/3 h). (nih.gov)
  • However, hypothermia of 30 degrees C was able to reduce the rate of ouabain-induced 86Rb efflux. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, hypothermia can occur at temperatures as high as 50° Fahrenheit. (hunter-ed.com)
  • Auciliems 2 reported that combinations of low temperatures with strong winds induced a feeling of thermal discomfort and increased the risk of hypothermia (body temperature below 35°C). Thus, the heart rate also tends to become lower, breathing slows down, and the blood vessels constrict, resulting in increased blood pressure. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was ascertained that the behavioral responses like cannabinoid-induced immobility and hypothermia continued to remain the same. (healthjockey.com)
  • In particular, the physiological mechanisms facilitating the switch from an active state to a hibernation period, including behavioral changes and the acquisition of hypothermia tolerance remain to be elucidated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hypothermia is classified as accidental or intentional, primary or secondary, and by the degree of hypothermia. (medscape.com)
  • Drug overdose was listed as the primary cause of death with hypothermia as a contributing cause. (cdc.gov)
  • General anesthesia is induced and maintained using a combination of intravenous and inhaled agents. (medscape.com)
  • Protection against ouabain suggests that hypothermia can intervene at steps subsequent to decreased Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • [ 2 ] Secondary hypothermia is low body temperature resulting from a medical illness lowering the temperature set-point. (medscape.com)
  • The risk of a loss of body temperature and hypothermia increase with the duration of surgery, especially for surgery that lasts more than one hour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elderly persons, especially those with lower muscle and body mass are at greater risk of hypothermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothermia is a lowering of the core body temperature to less than or equal to 95 F (less than or equal to 35 C) (1). (cdc.gov)
  • To determine whether or not moderate hypothermia could have a neuroprotective effect in neural cell death following spinal cord injury in rats. (nih.gov)
  • This manuscript will briefly discuss what is known about the effects of hypothermia on cooling. (springer.com)
  • Finally, a number of animal studies have looked at the effects of hypothermia on hematoma formation in models for intracranial hemorrhage and subdural hematoma [ 12 - 16 ]. (springer.com)
  • Natural pigments seem to provide some protection against sun-induced skin damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • on 3 occasions after placement of the catheter, hyperthermia was induced via administration of a low dose of endotoxin. (avma.org)
  • This study was designed to further investigate the therapeutic potential of early and rapid hypothermia to preserve heart tissue following a heart attack. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
  • Hypothermia is known to result in similar electrocardiographic changes. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Preliminary data suggest that hypothermia can even be used safely in combination with thrombolytic therapy. (springer.com)
  • Conductive and convective heat loss, or direct transfer of heat to another object or circulating air, respectively, are the most common causes of accidental hypothermia. (medscape.com)
  • Reduction by hypothermia of the rate of loss of ATP was shown, In past work, to only partially account for neuroprotection. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Hibernation is a unique physiological phenomenon allowing extreme hypothermia in endothermic mammals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The spinal cord was removed en bloc and of examined at five segments: 5 and 10 mm rostral to the center of injury, center of injury, and 5 and 10 mm caudal to the center of injury. (nih.gov)
  • Hypothermia can be prevented by dressing properly, by avoiding potentially dangerous weather conditions, and by drying out as quickly as possible when you get wet. (hunter-ed.com)
  • An association has been curated linking Slc6a4 m1Hubr and decreased susceptibility to induced hypothermia in Rattus norvegicus. (mcw.edu)