Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
A method of lowering core BODY TEMPERATURE by filling the STOMACH with chilled fluids.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.
Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.

Reduction of laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, postoperative pain and recovery room length of stay by pre-conditioning gas with the Insuflow device: a prospective randomized controlled multi-center study. (1/754)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of Insuflow (Georgia BioMedical, Inc.) filter heater hydrator device in reducing the incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, length of recovery room stay and postoperative pain at the time of laparoscopy. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled multi-center study. Patients underwent gynecologic procedures via laparoscopy; surgeons, anesthesiologists and recovery room personnel assessed the results. SETTING: Seven North American institutions. PATIENTS: Seventy-two women for safety evaluation and efficacy studies. INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas with the Insuflow device (treatment) or standard raw gas (control) during laparoscopic surgery and postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, postoperative pain perception and length of recovery room stay. RESULTS: The Insuflow group had significantly less intraoperative hypothermia, reduced length of recovery room stay and reduced postoperative pain. Pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating was well tolerated with no adverse effects. The safety profile of the Insuflow pre-conditioned gas showed significant benefits compared to currently used raw gas. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-conditioning laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating with the Insuflow device was significantly more effective than the currently used standard raw gas and was safe in reducing or eliminating laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, shortening recovery room length of stay and reducing postoperative pain.  (+info)

The effect of graded postischemic spinal cord hypothermia on neurological outcome and histopathology after transient spinal ischemia in rat. (2/754)

BACKGROUND: Previous data have shown that postischemic brain hypothermia is protective. The authors evaluated the effect of postischemic spinal hypothermia on neurologic function and spinal histopathologic indices after aortic occlusion in the rat. METHODS: Spinal ischemia was induced by aortic occlusion lasting 10 min. After ischemia, spinal hypothermia was induced using a subcutaneous heat exchanger. Three studies were conducted. In the first study, the intrathecal temperature was decreased to 34, 30, or 27 degrees C for 2 h beginning with initial reperfusion. In the second study, hypothermia (target intrathecal temperature 27 degrees C) was initiated with reflow and maintained for 15 or 120 min. In the third study, the intrathecal temperature was decreased to 27 degrees C for 2 h starting 5, 60, or 120 min after normothermic reperfusion. Animals survived for 2 or 3 days, at which time they were examined and perfusion fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. RESULTS: Normothermic ischemia followed by normothermic reflow resulted in spastic paraplegia and spinal neuronal degeneration. Immediate postischemic hypothermia (27 degrees C for 2 h) resulted in decreasing motor dysfunction. Incomplete protection was noted at 34 degrees C. Fifteen minutes of immediate cooling (27 degrees C) also provided significant protection. Delay of onset of post-reflow hypothermia (27 degrees C) by 5 min or more failed to provide protection. Histopathologic analysis revealed temperature-dependent suppression of spinal neurodegeneration, with no effect of delayed cooling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the immediate period of reperfusion (0-15 min) represents a critical period that ultimately defines the degree of spinal neuronal degeneration. Hypothermia, when initiated during this period, showed significant protection, with the highest efficacy observed at 27 degrees C.  (+info)

Perinatal risk and severity of illness in newborns at 6 neonatal intensive care units. (3/754)

OBJECTIVES: This multisite study sought to identify (1) any differences in admission risk (defined by gestational age and illness severity) among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and (2) obstetric antecedents of newborn illness severity. METHODS: Data on 1476 babies born at a gestational age of less than 32 weeks in 6 perinatal centers were abstracted prospectively. Newborn illness severity was measured with the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology. Regression models were constructed to predict scores as a function of perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: The sites differed by several obstetric case-mix characteristics. Of these, only gestational age, small for gestational age. White race, and severe congenital anomalies were associated with higher scores. Antenatal corticosteroids, low Apgar scores, and neonatal hypothermia also affected illness severity. At 2 sites, higher mean severity could not be explained by case mix. CONCLUSIONS: Obstetric events and perinatal practices affect newborn illness severity. These risk factors differ among perinatal centers and are associated with elevated illness severity at some sites. Outcomes of NICU care may be affected by antecedent events and perinatal practices.  (+info)

Hypothermic stress leads to activation of Ras-Erk signaling. (4/754)

The small GTPase Ras is converted to the active, GTP-bound state during exposure of vertebrate cells to hypothermic stress. This activation occurs more rapidly than can be accounted for by spontaneous nucleotide exchange. Ras-guanyl nucleotide exchange factors and Ras GTPase-activating proteins have significant activity at 0 degrees C in vitro, leading to the hypothesis that normal Ras regulators influence the relative amounts of Ras-GTP and Ras-GDP at low temperatures in vivo. When hypothermic cells are warmed to 37 degrees C, the Raf-Mek-Erk protein kinase cascade is activated. After prolonged hypothermic stress, followed by warming to physiologic temperature, cultured fibroblasts assume a rounded morphology, detach from the substratum, and die. All of these biologic responses are attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition of Mek. Previously, it had been found that low temperature blocks acute growth factor signaling to Erk. In the present study, we found that this block occurs at the level of Raf activation. Temperature regulation of Ras signaling could help animal cells respond appropriately to hypothermic stress, and Ras-Erk signaling can be manipulated to improve the survival of cells in cold storage.  (+info)

Hypothermia: a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. (5/754)

During 1969-77, 20 episodes of severe hypothermia occurred in 19 diabetic patients in Nottingham. Thirteen were associated with ketotic hyperosmolar coma, two with lactic acidosis, and one with hypoglycaemia, while in four there was no loss of diabetic control. Ketoacidosis accounted for 11.8% of all admissions for severe accidental hypothermia and was a commoner cause than hypothyroidism (8%). Patients with ketoacidosis were younger and developed hypothermia as often during the summer as during the winter. The metabolic disturbance was characteristic, with severe acidosis (mean pH 7.04), a high blood glucose concentration (mean 56.6 mmol/l; 1020 mg/100 ml), and high plasma osmolality (mean 379.7 mmol (mosmol)/kg). Eight of the 13 episodes proved fatal. Hypothermia may aggravate ketoacidosis and complicate treatment and should be sought in all patients with severe diabetic coma.  (+info)

F 11356, a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) derivative with potent, selective, and unique high intrinsic activity at 5-HT1B/1D receptors in models relevant to migraine. (6/754)

F 11356 (4-[4-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-1H-indol-5-yloxyl]acetyl]piperazinyl-1-yl] ben zonitrile) was designed to take advantage of the superior potency and efficacy characteristics of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) compared with tryptamine at 5-HT1B/1D receptors. F 11356 has subnanomolar affinity for cloned human and nonhuman 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors, and its affinity for 5-HT1A and other 5-HT receptors, including the 5-ht1F subtype, is 50-fold lower and micromolar, respectively. In C6 cells expressing human 5-HT1B or human 5-HT1D receptors, F 11356 was the most potent compound in inhibiting forskolin-induced cyclic AMP formation (pD2 = 8.9 and 9.6), and in contrast to tryptamine and derivatives, it produced maximal enhancement of [35S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate-specific binding equivalent to 5-HT. F 11356 was equipotent to 5-HT (pD2 = 7.1 versus 7.2) and more potent than tryptamine derivatives in contracting rabbit isolated saphenous vein. In isolated guinea pig trigeminal ganglion neurons, F 11356 was more potent (pD2 = 7.3 versus 6.7) and induced greater increases in outward hyperpolarizing Ca2+-dependent K+ current than sumatriptan. In anesthetized pigs, F 11356 elicited highly cranioselective, more potent (from 0.16 microgram/kg i.v.) and greater carotid vasoconstriction than tryptamine derivatives. Decreases in carotid blood flow were observed in conscious dogs from 0.63 mg/kg oral F 11356 in the absence of changes in heart rate or behavior. Oral activity was confirmed when hypothermic responses were elicited in guinea pigs (ED50 = 1.6 mg/kg), suggesting that F 11356 also accesses the brain. F 11356 thus is a selective, high-potency agonist at 5-HT1B/1D receptors, which distinguishes itself from tryptamine and derivatives in exerting high intrinsic activity at these receptors in vascular and neuronal models relevant to migraine.  (+info)

Humanization of mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptor gene by homologous recombination: in vitro and in vivo characterization. (7/754)

We replaced the coding region of the murine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1B receptor by the human 5-HT1B receptor using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and generated and characterized homozygous transgenic mice that express only the human (h) 5-HT1B receptor. The distribution patterns of h5-HT1B and murine (m) 5-HT1B receptor mRNA and binding sites in brain sections of transgenic and wild-type mice were identical as measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry and radioligand receptor autoradiography. When measured in parallel under identical conditions, the h5-HT1B receptor expressed in mouse brain had the same pharmacological characteristics as that in human brain. Stimulation by 5-HT1B agonists of [35S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding in brain sections demonstrated the functional coupling of the h5-HT1B receptor to G proteins in mouse brain. In tissue slices from various brain regions, electrically stimulated [3H]5-HT release was not modified by 5-HT1B agonists in tissue from either transgenic and wild-type mice; a 5-HT1B antagonist enhanced electrically stimulated [3H]5-HT release in wild-type mouse brain, but was ineffective in the transgenics. The centrally active 5-HT1A/5-HT1B agonist RU24969 induced hypothermia but did not increase locomotor activity in the transgenic mice. The ineffectiveness of RU24969 in the transgenic mice could be due to the lower affinity of the compound for the h5-HT1B receptor compared with the m5-HT1B receptor. The present study demonstrates a complete replacement of the mouse receptor by its human receptor homolog and a functional coupling to G proteins. However, modulation of [3H]5-HT release could not be shown. Furthermore, behavioral effects were not clearly observed, which may be due to a lack of appropriate tools.  (+info)

Acute systemic reaction and lung alterations induced by an antiplatelet integrin gpIIb/IIIa antibody in mice. (8/754)

Shock is frequently accompanied by thrombocytopenia. To investigate the pathogenic role of platelets in shock, we examined the in vivo effects of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against mouse platelet membrane proteins. Injection of the platelet-specific MoAb MWReg30 to the fibrinogen receptor (gpIIb/IIIa) rendered mice severely hypothermic within minutes. Isotype-matched control antibodies, even if they also recognized platelet surface antigens, did not induce comparable signs. MWReg30 induced early signs of acute lung injury with increased cellularity in the lung interstitium and rapid engorgement of alveolar septal vessels. Despite this in vivo activity, MWReg30 inhibited rather than stimulated platelet aggregation in vitro. MWReg30-binding to platelets led to phosphorylation of gpIIIa, but did not induce morphological signs of platelet activation. The MWReg30-induced reaction was abolished after treatment with MoAbs 2.4G2 to FcgammaRII/III and was absent in FcgammaRIII-deficient mice, clearly demonstrating the requirement for FcgammaRIII on involved leukocytes. Simultaneous administration of tumor necrosis factor exacerbated, whereas a tolerizing regimen of tumor necrosis factor or bacterial lipopolysaccharide completely prevented the reaction. These data suggest that platelet surface-deposited MWReg30-immune complexes lead to an acute Fc-mediated reaction with pulmonary congestion and life-threatening potential that could serve as an in vivo model of acute lung injury.  (+info)

Induced hypothermia is a medically controlled lowering of the core body temperature to around 89.6-93.2°F (32-34°C) for therapeutic purposes. It is intentionally induced to reduce the metabolic rate and oxygen demand of organs, thereby offering protection during periods of low blood flow or inadequate oxygenation, such as during cardiac bypass surgery, severe trauma, or after a cardiac arrest. The deliberate induction and maintenance of hypothermia can help minimize tissue damage and improve outcomes in specific clinical scenarios. Once the risk has passed, the body temperature is gradually rewarmed to normal levels under controlled conditions.

Hypothermia is a medically defined condition where the core body temperature drops below 35°C (95°F). It is often associated with exposure to cold environments, but can also occur in cases of severe illness, injury, or immersion in cold water. Symptoms may include shivering, confusion, slowed heart rate and breathing, and if not treated promptly, can lead to unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, and even death.

Rewarming, in a medical context, refers to the process of gradually increasing the body temperature of a person who is experiencing hypothermia. Hypothermia is a condition in which the core body temperature drops below 95°F (35°C), which can be caused by exposure to cold environments or certain medical conditions.

Rewarming can be accomplished through various methods, including:

1. Passive rewarming: This involves removing wet clothing and covering the person with warm blankets to allow their body to naturally increase its temperature.
2. Active external rewarming: This involves using warming devices such as heating pads or warm water bottles to apply heat to the skin surface.
3. Active core rewarming: This involves using more invasive methods, such as warmed intravenous fluids, warm air insufflation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with a heat exchanger, to directly warm the internal organs and blood.

The choice of rewarming method depends on the severity of hypothermia, the presence of other medical conditions, and the resources available. It is important to monitor the person's vital signs and core temperature during rewarming to avoid complications such as rewarming shock or arrhythmias.

Body temperature is the measure of heat produced by the body. In humans, the normal body temperature range is typically between 97.8°F (36.5°C) and 99°F (37.2°C), with an average oral temperature of 98.6°F (37°C). Body temperature can be measured in various ways, including orally, rectally, axillary (under the arm), and temporally (on the forehead).

Maintaining a stable body temperature is crucial for proper bodily functions, as enzymes and other biological processes depend on specific temperature ranges. The hypothalamus region of the brain regulates body temperature through feedback mechanisms that involve shivering to produce heat and sweating to release heat. Fever is a common medical sign characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range, often as a response to infection or inflammation.

Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain refers to a condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen (hypoxia) and blood flow (ischemia) to the brain. This can lead to serious damage or death of brain cells, depending on the severity and duration of the hypoxic-ischemic event.

Hypoxia occurs when there is insufficient oxygen available to meet the metabolic needs of the brain tissue. Ischemia results from a decrease in blood flow, which can be caused by various factors such as cardiac arrest, stroke, or severe respiratory distress. When both hypoxia and ischemia occur together, they can have a synergistic effect, leading to more severe brain damage.

Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia can result in neurological deficits, cognitive impairment, and physical disabilities, depending on the area of the brain affected. Treatment typically focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the hypoxia-ischemia and providing supportive care to minimize secondary damage. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia may be used to reduce metabolic demands and protect vulnerable brain tissue.

Cardiac arrest, also known as heart arrest, is a medical condition where the heart suddenly stops beating or functioning properly. This results in the cessation of blood flow to the rest of the body, including the brain, leading to loss of consciousness and pulse. Cardiac arrest is often caused by electrical disturbances in the heart that disrupt its normal rhythm, known as arrhythmias. If not treated immediately with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation, it can lead to death or permanent brain damage due to lack of oxygen supply. It's important to note that a heart attack is different from cardiac arrest; a heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked, often by a clot, causing damage to the heart muscle, but the heart continues to beat. However, a heart attack can sometimes trigger a cardiac arrest.

Body temperature regulation, also known as thermoregulation, is the process by which the body maintains its core internal temperature within a narrow range, despite varying external temperatures. This is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which acts as a thermostat and receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body. When the body's temperature rises above or falls below the set point, the hypothalamus initiates responses to bring the temperature back into balance. These responses can include shivering to generate heat, sweating to cool down, vasodilation or vasoconstriction of blood vessels to regulate heat loss, and changes in metabolic rate. Effective body temperature regulation is crucial for maintaining optimal physiological function and overall health.

Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a medical procedure in which the body temperature is lowered to around 15-20°C (59-68°F), and the circulation of blood is temporarily stopped. This technique is often used during complex cardiac surgeries, such as aortic arch reconstruction or repair of congenital heart defects, to reduce the body's metabolic demand for oxygen and allow surgeons to operate in a still and bloodless field.

During DHCA, the patient is connected to a heart-lung machine that takes over the function of pumping blood and oxygenating it. The blood is then cooled down using a cooling device before being returned to the body. Once the body temperature reaches the desired level, the circulation is stopped for a short period, usually no more than 30 minutes, during which time the surgeon can work on the heart or great vessels.

After the surgical procedure is complete, the patient is gradually rewarmed, and the circulation is restarted. DHCA carries some risks, including neurological complications such as stroke, cognitive impairment, or delirium, but it remains an important tool in complex cardiac surgery.

Asphyxia neonatorum is a medical condition that refers to a newborn baby's lack of oxygen or difficulty breathing, which can lead to suffocation and serious complications. It is often caused by problems during the birthing process, such as umbilical cord compression or prolapse, placental abruption, or prolonged labor.

Symptoms of asphyxia neonatorum may include bluish skin color (cyanosis), weak or absent breathing, poor muscle tone, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and a slow heart rate. In severe cases, it can lead to organ damage, developmental delays, or even death.

Prompt medical attention is necessary to diagnose and treat asphyxia neonatorum. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to support the baby's heart function and blood pressure. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia (cooling the body) may be used to reduce the risk of brain damage. Preventive measures such as proper prenatal care, timely delivery, and careful monitoring during labor and delivery can also help reduce the risk of asphyxia neonatorum.

Shivering is a physical response to cold temperature or emotional stress, characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations. It's a part of the body's thermoregulation process, which helps to generate heat and maintain a normal body temperature. During shivering, the muscles rapidly contract and relax, producing kinetic energy that is released as heat. This can be observed as visible shaking or trembling, often most noticeable in the arms, legs, and jaw. In some cases, prolonged or intense shivering may also be associated with fever or other medical conditions.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving procedure that is performed when someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped. It involves a series of steps that are designed to manually pump blood through the body and maintain the flow of oxygen to the brain until advanced medical treatment can be provided.

CPR typically involves a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths, which are delivered in a specific rhythm and frequency. The goal is to maintain circulation and oxygenation of vital organs, particularly the brain, until advanced life support measures such as defibrillation or medication can be administered.

Chest compressions are used to manually pump blood through the heart and into the rest of the body. This is typically done by placing both hands on the lower half of the chest and pressing down with enough force to compress the chest by about 2 inches. The compressions should be delivered at a rate of at least 100-120 compressions per minute.

Rescue breaths are used to provide oxygen to the lungs and maintain oxygenation of the body's tissues. This is typically done by pinching the nose shut, creating a seal around the person's mouth with your own, and blowing in enough air to make the chest rise. The breath should be delivered over about one second, and this process should be repeated until the person begins to breathe on their own or advanced medical help arrives.

CPR can be performed by trained laypeople as well as healthcare professionals. It is an important skill that can help save lives in emergency situations where a person's breathing or heartbeat has stopped.

A coma is a deep state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be awakened, cannot respond to stimuli, and does not exhibit any sleep-wake cycles. It is typically caused by severe brain injury, illness, or toxic exposure that impairs the function of the brainstem and cerebral cortex.

In a coma, the person may appear to be asleep, but they are not aware of their surroundings or able to communicate or respond to stimuli. Comas can last for varying lengths of time, from days to weeks or even months, and some people may emerge from a coma with varying degrees of brain function and disability.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tools and assessments to evaluate the level of consciousness and brain function in individuals who are in a coma, including the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which measures eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. Treatment for coma typically involves supportive care to maintain vital functions, manage any underlying medical conditions, and prevent further complications.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

Induced heart arrest, also known as controlled cardiac arrest or planned cardiac arrest, is a deliberate medical intervention where cardiac activity is temporarily stopped through the use of medications or electrical disruption. This procedure is typically carried out during a surgical procedure, such as open-heart surgery, where the heart needs to be stilled to allow surgeons to work on it safely.

The most common method used to induce heart arrest is by administering a medication called potassium chloride, which stops the heart's electrical activity. Alternatively, an electrical shock may be delivered to the heart to achieve the same effect. Once the procedure is complete, the heart can be restarted using various resuscitation techniques, such as defibrillation or medication administration.

It's important to note that induced heart arrest is a carefully monitored and controlled medical procedure carried out by trained healthcare professionals in a hospital setting. It should not be confused with sudden cardiac arrest, which is an unexpected and often unpredictable event that occurs outside of a medical setting.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a medical condition where the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops functioning outside of a hospital setting, leading to the cessation of blood circulation and breathing. This results in immediate unconsciousness and can be caused by various factors such as electrical disturbances in the heart, severe trauma, or suffocation. It is a serious emergency that requires immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and advanced life support measures to restore spontaneous circulation and improve survival outcomes.

In the context of medical terminology, "heating" generally refers to the application of heat to an area of the body for therapeutic purposes. This can be done using various methods such as hot packs, heating pads, warm compresses, or even heated wax. The goal of applying heat is to increase blood flow, reduce pain and muscle spasms, and promote healing in the affected area. It's important to note that excessive heating or application of heat to sensitive areas should be avoided, as it can lead to burns or other injuries.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is a term used in medicine to describe the process of temporarily taking over the functions of the heart and lungs by using a machine. This allows the surgeon to perform certain types of surgery, such as open-heart surgery, on a still and bloodless operating field.

During ECC, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body through a pump and oxygenator. The pump helps to maintain blood flow and pressure, while the oxygenator adds oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide. This allows the surgeon to stop the heart and arrest its motion, making it easier to perform delicate procedures on the heart and surrounding structures.

Extracorporeal circulation is a complex and high-risk procedure that requires careful monitoring and management by a team of healthcare professionals. It carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and injury to blood vessels or organs. However, when performed correctly, it can be a life-saving measure for patients undergoing certain types of surgery.

Resuscitation is a medical term that refers to the process of reversing cardiopulmonary arrest or preventing further deterioration of someone in cardiac or respiratory arrest. It involves a series of interventions aimed at restoring spontaneous blood circulation and breathing, thereby preventing or minimizing tissue damage due to lack of oxygen.

The most common form of resuscitation is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which combines chest compressions to manually pump blood through the body with rescue breaths to provide oxygen to the lungs. In a hospital setting, more advanced techniques such as defibrillation, medication administration, and intubation may also be used as part of the resuscitation process.

The goal of resuscitation is to stabilize the patient's condition and prevent further harm while treating the underlying cause of the arrest. Successful resuscitation can lead to a full recovery or, in some cases, result in varying degrees of neurological impairment depending on the severity and duration of the cardiac or respiratory arrest.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Asphyxia is a medical condition that occurs when there is insufficient oxygen supply or excessive carbon dioxide buildup in the body, leading to impaired respiration and oxygenation of organs. This can result in unconsciousness, damage to internal organs, and potentially death if not treated promptly.

Asphyxia can be caused by various factors such as strangulation, choking, smoke inhalation, chemical exposure, or drowning. Symptoms of asphyxia may include shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes), rapid heartbeat, confusion, and eventually loss of consciousness.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals experiencing symptoms of asphyxia. Treatment may involve providing supplemental oxygen, removing the source of obstruction or exposure to harmful substances, and supporting respiratory function with mechanical ventilation if necessary. Prevention measures include avoiding hazardous environments, using proper safety equipment, and seeking prompt medical attention in case of suspected asphyxiation.

Skin temperature is the measure of heat emitted by the skin, which can be an indicator of the body's core temperature. It is typically lower than the body's internal temperature and varies depending on factors such as environmental temperature, blood flow, and physical activity. Skin temperature is often used as a vital sign in medical settings and can be measured using various methods, including thermal scanners, digital thermometers, or mercury thermometers. Changes in skin temperature may also be associated with certain medical conditions, such as inflammation, infection, or nerve damage.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and is typically measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). It's the measurement of the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and brain tissue within the confined space of the skull.

Normal ICP ranges from 5 to 15 mmHg in adults when lying down. Intracranial pressure may increase due to various reasons such as bleeding in the brain, swelling of the brain, increased production or decreased absorption of CSF, and brain tumors. Elevated ICP is a serious medical emergency that can lead to brain damage or even death if not promptly treated. Symptoms of high ICP may include severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, and visual changes.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Buspirone is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called azapirones, which are used to treat anxiety disorders. It works by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain, specifically serotonin and dopamine, to produce a calming effect. Buspirone is often used as an alternative to benzodiazepines because it is not habit-forming and has less severe side effects.

The medical definition of buspirone is:

A piperidine derivative and azapirone analogue, with anxiolytic properties. It is believed to work by selectively binding to 5-HT1A receptors and modulating serotonin activity in the brain. Buspirone is used for the management of anxiety disorders and has a lower potential for abuse and dependence than benzodiazepines.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Hyperthermia, induced, is a medically controlled increase in core body temperature beyond the normal range (36.5-37.5°C or 97.7-99.5°F) to a target temperature typically between 38-42°C (100.4-107.6°F). This therapeutic intervention is used in various medical fields, including oncology and critical care medicine. Induced hyperthermia can be achieved through different methods such as whole-body heating or localized heat application, often combined with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to enhance treatment efficacy.

In the context of oncology, hyperthermia is used as a sensitizer for cancer treatments by increasing blood flow to tumors, enhancing drug delivery, and directly damaging cancer cells through protein denaturation and apoptosis at higher temperatures. In critical care settings, induced hyperthermia may be applied in therapeutic hypothermia protocols to protect the brain after cardiac arrest or other neurological injuries by decreasing metabolic demand and reducing oxidative stress.

It is essential to closely monitor patients undergoing induced hyperthermia for potential adverse effects, including cardiovascular instability, electrolyte imbalances, and infections, and manage these complications promptly to ensure patient safety during the procedure.

I am not a doctor, but I can try to help you find information on this topic. However, I was unable to find a specific medical condition called "gastric hypothermia." It is possible that you may be referring to "gastric hypothermic therapy" or "stomach hypothermia," which are procedures used in some alternative medicine practices.

In gastric hypothermic therapy, a cold solution (usually around 4-10°C) is introduced into the stomach through a tube for a certain period of time. The idea behind this therapy is that it can help reduce body temperature and inflammation, improve blood circulation, and promote healing in various conditions such as gastritis, ulcers, and even cancer.

However, it's important to note that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of gastric hypothermic therapy, and it may not be a widely accepted or recommended practice in conventional medicine. Always consult with a healthcare professional before trying any alternative therapies.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Neuroprotective agents are substances that protect neurons or nerve cells from damage, degeneration, or death caused by various factors such as trauma, inflammation, oxidative stress, or excitotoxicity. These agents work through different mechanisms, including reducing the production of free radicals, inhibiting the release of glutamate (a neurotransmitter that can cause cell damage in high concentrations), promoting the growth and survival of neurons, and preventing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Neuroprotective agents have been studied for their potential to treat various neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and to develop effective therapies.

Pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for its sedative and hypnotic effects in the treatment of insomnia, seizure disorders, and occasionally to treat severe agitation or delirium. It works by decreasing the activity of nerves in the brain, which produces a calming effect.

In addition to its medical uses, pentobarbital has been used for non-therapeutic purposes such as euthanasia and capital punishment due to its ability to cause respiratory depression and death when given in high doses. It is important to note that the use of pentobarbital for these purposes is highly regulated and restricted to licensed medical professionals in specific circumstances.

Like all barbiturates, pentobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare provider. It can also cause serious side effects such as respiratory depression, decreased heart rate, and low blood pressure, especially when used in large doses or combined with other central nervous system depressants.

Pargyline is an antihypertensive drug and a irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type B. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, which can help improve mood and behavior in people with depression.

Pargyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects, including interactions with certain foods and medications that can lead to dangerously high blood pressure. It is also associated with a risk of serotonin syndrome when taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain.

Pargyline is available only through a prescription and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals. It is also known by its brand name Demerol and is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine has a rapid onset of action and its effects typically last for 2-4 hours.

Meperidine can cause various side effects such as dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and respiratory depression (slowed breathing). It also has a risk of abuse and physical dependence, so it is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Meperidine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects and addiction. It may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or those who are taking other medications that can interact with meperidine.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a type of cardiac arrhythmia, which is an abnormal heart rhythm. In VF, the ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart, beat in a rapid and unorganized manner. This results in the heart being unable to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body, leading to immediate circulatory collapse and cardiac arrest if not treated promptly. It is often caused by underlying heart conditions such as coronary artery disease, structural heart problems, or electrolyte imbalances. VF is a medical emergency that requires immediate defibrillation to restore a normal heart rhythm.

"Near drowning" is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is a term used to describe a situation where a person has nearly died from suffocation or cardiac arrest due to submersion in water, followed by survival for at least 24 hours after the incident. It can result in various short-term and long-term health consequences, such as respiratory complications, neurological damage, and even death.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines near drowning as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid." The term "drowning" is used when the process results in death, while "near drowning" refers to survival after the incident. However, it's important to note that even if a person survives a near-drowning incident, they may still experience significant health issues and long-term disabilities.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Myxedema is not a term used in modern medicine to describe a specific medical condition. However, historically, it was used to refer to the severe form of hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland that doesn't produce enough thyroid hormones. In hypothyroidism, various body functions slow down, which can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, and dry skin.

Myxedema specifically refers to the physical signs of severe hypothyroidism, including swelling (edema) and thickening of the skin, particularly around the face, hands, and feet, as well as a puffy appearance of the face. The term myxedema coma was used to describe a rare but life-threatening complication of long-standing, untreated hypothyroidism, characterized by altered mental status, hypothermia, and other systemic manifestations.

Nowadays, healthcare professionals use more precise medical terminology to describe these conditions, such as hypothyroidism or myxedematous edema, rather than the outdated term myxedema.

Yawning is a reflex characterized by the involuntary opening of the mouth and deep inhalation of air, often followed by a long exhalation. While the exact purpose and mechanism of yawning are not fully understood, it's believed to be associated with regulating brain temperature, promoting arousal, or stretching the muscles of the jaw and face. Yawning is contagious in humans and can also be observed in various animal species. It usually occurs when an individual is tired, bored, or during transitions between sleep stages, but its underlying causes remain a subject of ongoing scientific research.

Hypoglycemia is also found in many people with hypothermia, as hypothermia may be a result of hypoglycemia. As hypothermia ... People with hypothermia may appear pale and feel cold to touch. Infants with hypothermia may feel cold when touched, with ... Hypothermia occurs frequently in major trauma, and is also observed in severe cases of anorexia nervosa. Hypothermia is also ... In mild hypothermia, there is shivering and mental confusion. In moderate hypothermia, shivering stops and confusion increases ...
Official website Hypothermia at AllMovie Hypothermia at IMDb Hypothermia at Rotten Tomatoes (Articles with short description, ... "Bloody Hypothermia Images Stain the Snow Red". 31 August 2012. "Hypothermia (2010) -". Allmovie.com. Allmovie. Retrieved 27 ... Hypothermia received mostly negative review upon its release. Dread Central awarded the film a score of 2.5 out of 5, ... Hypothermia is a 2012 American independent horror film written and directed by James Felix McKenney. It stars Michael Rooker, ...
Induced pediatric hypothermia was approved in the U.S. by the FDA in March 2007. The most prominent such hypothermia cap which ... No side effects related to the hypothermia cap were observed. The study concluded that "prehospital use of hypothermia caps is ... A hypothermia cap (also referred to as cold cap or cooling cap) is a therapeutic device used to cool the human scalp. Its most ... The hypothermia cap was applied to 20 patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, with a median of 10 min after ROSC. The ...
... may refer to: Beyond Hypothermia (album), a compilation album by Cave In Beyond Hypothermia (film), a 1996 ... film directed by Patrick Leung This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Beyond Hypothermia. If an ...
"Beyond Hypothermia [Bonus Track] - Cave In". AOL Music. Retrieved June 18, 2010. ""Beyond Hypothermia" Limited Edition LP/CD". ... "Beyond Hypothermia > Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved January 17, 2010. Beyond Hypothermia (CD booklet). Cave In. Los Angeles, ... Beyond Hypothermia production Cave In - Beyond Hypothermia production Tracks 6, 8 recorded at Salad Days Studio with Brian ... Beyond Hypothermia is a compilation and the first full-length album by Cave In. Released in February 1998 on Hydra Head Records ...
... si 32 dou at IMDb Beyond Hypothermia at Hong Kong Cinemagic Beyond Hypothermia at Hong Kong Movie DataBase Beyond Hypothermia ... Beyond Hypothermia (Chinese: 攝氏32度) is a 1996 Hong Kong-South Korean action film directed by Patrick Leung, co-produced by ... at cinemasie database Morris, Gary (1 March 1997). "Patrick Leung's Beyond Hypothermia (1996)". Bright Lights Film Journal. ...
Hypothermia appears to have multiple effects at a cellular level following cerebral injury. Hypothermia reduces vasogenic ... Mild hypothermia helps prevent disruptions to cerebral metabolism both during and following cerebral insults. Hypothermia ... "Neonatal asphyxia pallida treated with hypothermia alone or with hypothermia and transfusion of oxygenated blood". Surgery. 45 ... Mild total body hypothermia, induced by cooling a baby to 33-34°C for three days after birth, is nowadays a standardized ...
Hypothermia also has a significant therapeutic role, the technique of therapeutic hypothermia involves deliberate reduction of ... Hypothermia is defined as having a core body temperature below 35 °C (or 95 °F). Under 35 °C, the body loses more heat than it ... Mild hypothermia ought to begin directly following resuscitation of the patient for maximum effectiveness, though there is some ... Babies suffering from hypothermia will experience low skin temperatures despite appearing healthy otherwise. Heat loss from the ...
The latter resembles paradoxical undressing, a symptom of hypothermia (being exposed to too cold of weather), in which people ... Turk, EE (June 2010). "Hypothermia". Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology. 6 (2): 106-15. doi:10.1007/s12024-010-9142-4. ...
Normal body temperature is around 37°C(98.6°F), and hypothermia sets in when the core body temperature gets lower than 35 °C ( ... "Hypothermia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment". WebMD. Retrieved 1 May 2017. Chisholm 1911, p. 48. "Khan Academy". Khan Academy ... The opposite condition, when body temperature decreases below normal levels, is known as hypothermia. It results when the ... death by hypothermia quickly follows. Occasionally, however, convulsions may set in towards the end, and death is caused by ...
"Therapeutic Hypothermia: eMedicine Clinical Procedures". Retrieved 21 February 2011. "Hypothermia". Retrieved 21 February 2011 ... Kuchner, E. F.; Hansebout, R. R.; Pappius, H. M. (1 October 2000). "Effects of dexamethasone and of local hypothermia on early ... One experimental treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, is used in treatment but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes. ... Some experimental treatments, including systemic hypothermia, have been performed in isolated cases in order to draw attention ...
hypothermia A lowering of core body temperature, usually due to heat loss. hypoxia Abnormally low tissue oxygen concentration. ... Duong, H.; Patel, G. (24 January 2022). "Hypothermia". StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID ...
Hypothermia can set in when the core temperature drops to 35 °C (95 °F). Hyperthermia can set in when the core body temperature ... Brown, Douglas J. A.; Brugger, Hermann; Boyd, Jeff; Paal, Peter (2012-11-15). "Accidental Hypothermia". The New England Journal ... rises above 37.5-38.3 °C (99.5-100.9 °F). Humans have adapted to living in climates where hypothermia and hyperthermia were ...
Hypothermia is defined as a body core temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F) in humans. Symptoms range from shivering and mental ... Brown DJ, Brugger H, Boyd J, Paal P (November 2012). "Accidental hypothermia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 367 (20): ... Other effects of high altitude include frostbite, hypothermia, sunburn, and dehydration. Tibetans and Andeans are two groups ... frostbite and hypothermia become risks to humans. Frostbite is a skin injury that occurs when exposed to extreme low ...
The treatment of mild hypothermia involves warm drinks, warm clothing and physical activity. In those with moderate hypothermia ... People with moderate or severe hypothermia should be moved gently. In severe hypothermia extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ( ... Hypothermia occurs when the body core temperature drops below 35 °C (95 °F). Symptoms depend on the temperature and range from ... Three types of cold injury can occur in the theater, hypothermia, trench foot, and frostbite in ascending amount of exposure to ...
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs and produces. Hypothermia ... Sterba, J.A. (1990). "Field Management of Accidental Hypothermia during Diving". US Navy Experimental Diving Unit Technical ... "Accidental hypothermia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 367 (20): 1930-8. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1114208. PMID 23150960. S2CID ... so water temperatures that would be quite reasonable as outdoor air temperatures can lead to hypothermia in inadequately ...
If equilibrium is not restored, hypothermia can set in, which can be fatal. Long-term adjustments to extreme temperatures, of a ... Brown, Douglas J.A.; Brugger, Hermann; Boyd, Jeff; Paal, Peter (2012-11-15). "Accidental Hypothermia". New England Journal of ... or hypothermia, below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). Buildings modify the conditions of the external environment and reduce the effort that ... using different heating systems to prevent hypothermia in the patient and to improve the thermal comfort for hospital staff ...
Brown, DJ; Brugger, H; Boyd, J; Paal, P (Nov 15, 2012). "Accidental hypothermia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 367 (20 ... Tveita, T. (2000-10-01). "Rewarming from hypothermia. Newer aspects on the pathophysiology of rewarming shock". International ...
Steinman is expert in sea survival, hypothermia and drowning, and an advocate for the open service of LGBT people in the U.S. ... Steinman is best known, however, for his research into sea-survival, hypothermia and drowning, publishing numerous scientific ... Steinman, AM; Parris, L (1977). "Immersion hypothermia". Emerg Med Serv. 6 (4): 24-25. PMID 10236313. Steinman, AM; Smerin, SE ... ISBN 978-0-323-35942-9. Ducharme, MB; Steinman, AM; Giesbrecht, GG (2014). "Pre-hospital Management of Immersion Hypothermia". ...
"Hypothermia: Symptoms". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016. Ellen Goldbaum ... Extreme cold temperatures may lead to frostbite, sepsis, and hypothermia, which in turn may result in death. A common, but ...
Hence, hypothermia is not usually a reason for drowning or the clinical cause of death for those who drown in cold water. Upon ... Hypothermia of the central nervous system may prolong this. In cold temperatures below 6 °C, the brain may be cooled ... Hypothermia (and cardiac arrest) presents a risk for survivors of immersion. This risk increases if the survivor-feeling well ... Treatment for hypothermia may also be necessary. However, in those who are unconscious, it is recommended their temperature not ...
Hypothermia is reduced core body temperature that occurs when a body loses more heat than it generates. It is a major ... Brown, D.J.; Brugger, H.; Boyd, J.; Paal, P. (15 November 2012). "Accidental hypothermia". The New England Journal of Medicine ... Sterba, J.A. (1990). Field Management of Accidental Hypothermia during Diving (Report). US Navy Experimental Diving Unit ... hypothermia, drowning and sensory variations. More advanced training often involves first aid and rescue skills, skills related ...
Roots, C. (2006). Uncontrolled Hypothermia. Hibernation, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, p. 88, ISBN 0313335443. Werler, J.E ...
"Beyond Hypothermia". Hong Kong Film Archive. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Crow, Jonathan. "Big Bullet: Overview". Allmovie. ...
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs and produces, and is a ... The effectiveness of a dry suit in preventing or delaying hypothermia depends on its insulating value. There are two major ... There are two physiological aspects of heat loss of particular relevance to the diver: Cold shock response and hypothermia. ... Brown, D.J.; Brugger, H.; Boyd, J.; Paal, P. (Nov 15, 2012). "Accidental hypothermia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 367 ...
Reduced production is seen during anesthesia and hypothermia. Capnographs work on the principle that CO 2 is a polyatomic gas ... Danzl, Daniel (February 2002). "Hypothermia system". Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 23 (1): 57-68. doi:10.1055/s-2002-20589. PMID ...
54-. ISBN 978-3-527-60402-9. Cruz A (2014). Therapeutic Hypothermia. CRC Press. pp. 176-. Tracqui A, Berthelon L, Ludes B (May ...
"Book Review: Hypothermia by Alvaro Enrigue". Litro.co.uk. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2018. "The New York Public Library's ... Hypothermia, which offers an "unflinching gaze towards 21st-century life and the immigrant experience", was published in 2013 ... His books Vidas perpendiculares (Perpendicular Lives) and Hipotermia (Hypothermia) have also been widely acclaimed. Álvaro ... Hypothermia. Dalkey Archive Press. 2 May 2013. pp. 133-. ISBN 978-1-56478-969-3. Vidas perpendiculares, Barcelona/Mexico City: ...
"Beyond Hypothermia Limited Edition LP/CD". CaveIn.net. Archived from the original on October 16, 2004. Retrieved October 23, ... Beyond Hypothermia (CD booklet). Cave In. Los Angeles, California: Hydra Head Records. 1998. HH666-025.{{cite AV media notes ... B ^ Denotes a release that was later added to the compilation album Beyond Hypothermia. C ^ The "Lost in the Air" single is ... "Beyond Hypothermia - Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved May 13, 2010. Brodsky, Stephen. "Cave In Biography". ARTISTdirect. ...
Particular dangers of serious hypothermia must be watched out for in the signs so they can make it in time to pull the player ... "What is Hypothermia?". WebMD, LLC. Retrieved 25 April 2017. "Asphyxiation". Farlex, Inc. Retrieved 25 April 2017. "Frostbite". ... Given the freezing temperatures, apnea divers in the sport are at high risk for: Hypothermia: While usual symptoms are obvious ... out of the water, as signs of severe hypothermia cannot be seen underwater. Slurred speech, confusion, no concern for the ...
Hypoglycemia is also found in many people with hypothermia, as hypothermia may be a result of hypoglycemia. As hypothermia ... People with hypothermia may appear pale and feel cold to touch. Infants with hypothermia may feel cold when touched, with ... Hypothermia occurs frequently in major trauma, and is also observed in severe cases of anorexia nervosa. Hypothermia is also ... In mild hypothermia, there is shivering and mental confusion. In moderate hypothermia, shivering stops and confusion increases ...
Stay safe this winter by learning more about hypothermia and frostbite, including who is most at risk, signs and symptoms, and ... Hypothermia (abnormally low body temperature) and frostbite are both dangerous conditions that can happen when a person is ... what to do if someone develops hypothermia or frostbite. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... What is hypothermia?. *Hypothermia is caused by prolonged exposures to very cold temperatures. When exposed to cold ...
Read about the common ways to get hypothermia. ... People with hypothermia suffer from low body temperature, which ... How to prevent frostbite and hypothermia (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Hypothermia (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Avoid Frostbite and Hypothermia (National Safety Council) * Cold Stress Can Be Prevented (Occupational Safety and Health ... The Hazards of Hypothermia: Stay Warm in Cold Weather (National Institutes of Health) Also in Spanish ...
Baboons that were subjected to systemic hypothermia at 32 C had an arm skin temperature of 27.3 C and bleeding time of 5.8 ... Hypothermia-induced reversible platelet dysfunction Ann Surg. 1987 Feb;205(2):175-81. doi: 10.1097/00000658-198702000-00012. ... Baboons that were subjected to systemic hypothermia at 32 C had an arm skin temperature of 27.3 C and bleeding time of 5.8 ...
Hypothermia is classified as accidental or intentional, primary or secondary, and by the degree of hypothermia. ... Hypothermia describes a state in which the bodys mechanism for temperature regulation is overwhelmed in the face of a cold ... See Treating Hypothermia: What You Need to Know, a Critical Images slideshow, to help recognize the signs of hypothermia as ... Hypothermia is classified as accidental or intentional, primary or secondary, and by the degree of hypothermia. ...
Plastic drapes reduce hypothermia in premature babies. University of Houston. Journal. Advances in Neonatal Care. Keywords. * / ... Plastic drapes reduce hypothermia in premature babies Study: Plastic better than cloth for low birth-weight newborns ... "The use of the plastic drape is a quality improvement to reduce the hypothermia rate in very low birth-weight (VLBW) neonates ... A pre-/posttest was used to evaluate the impact of the intervention on hypothermia rates compared with a baseline cloth group ...
The effects of hypothermia on coagulation have been studied mostly in vitro. Very mild hypothermia (down to 35°C) has no effect ... acidosis and hypothermia [22]. The discrepancy may be explained by the interplay between acidosis and hypothermia, as explained ... Polderman KH: Induced hypothermia and fever control for prevention and treatment of neurological injuries. Lancet 2008, 371: ... Polderman KH: Mechanisms of action, physiological effects, and complications of hypothermia. Crit Care Med 2009, 37: S186-S202 ...
... Some of the most common and dangerous risks to hunters result from exposure to extreme weather. Hypothermia occurs ... Hypothermia is often induced by cold, wet conditions, such as rain, snow, sleet, or immersion in water. However, hypothermia ... Prevention of Hypothermia. *Hypothermia can be prevented by dressing properly, by avoiding potentially dangerous weather ...
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... it can lead to a serious condition known as hypothermia. Learn to recognize the signs of this cold-weather hazard, and keep ... Anyone who spends much time outdoors in very cold weather can get hypothermia. But hypothermia can happen anywhere-not just ... Certain medications and alcohol can also raise the risk for hypothermia.. Left untreated, hypothermia can quickly turn ... Signs of Hypothermia. If you see these warning signs of hypothermia, call 911. ...
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Hypothermia is seen in diabetic acidosis and its features may complicate the evaluation of the diabetic state. These include ... Leukopenia may also be a feature of hypothermia in some of these patients. Speculation that hypothermia is dueto an ... Hypothermia is seen in diabetic acidosis and its features may complicate the evaluation of the diabetic state. These include ... R. Matz; Hypothermia in Diabetic Acidosis. Hormones 1 January 1972; 3 (1): 36-41. https://doi.org/10.1159/000178256 ...
Accidental hypothermia. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1756-60. * Herity B, Daly L, Bourke GJ, Horgan JM. Hypothermia and mortality and ... Average annual death rate for hypothermia .... Article. Hypothermia is defined as a central or core body temperature of less ... Treatment of accidental hypothermia. Am Fam Physician 1992;45:785-92. * Thomas DR. Accidental hypothermia in the sunbelt. J Gen ... Hypothermia-Related Deaths -- Virginia, November 1996-April 1997 MMWR 46(49);1157-1159 Publication date: 12/12/1997. Table of ...
Veterinarian Jennifer Coates explains everything you need to know about hypothermia in dogs and answers all of your frequently ... Dog Hypothermia FAQs. How do you know if your dog has hypothermia? Signs of mild to moderate hypothermia in dogs include:. * ... Severe Hypothermia. As severe hypothermia sets in, a dog will stop shivering because their muscle cells have run out of energy. ... Causes of Dog Hypothermia. Exposure to cold temperatures is the most obvious cause of hypothermia in dogs, particularly if its ...
ABC 6 News) - Two things nobody wants to experience in the cold are frostbite and hypothermia. With wind chills flirting with ... Hypothermia can also be treated by warm water or blankets. Hypothermia can occur faster due to higher winds, wet clothes, and ... Hypothermia really refers to a drop in body temperature. Frostbite can be treated by putting the frostbitten area in warm ... ABC 6 News) - Two things nobody wants to experience in the cold are frostbite and hypothermia. With wind chills flirting with ...
The therapeutic hypothermia systems industry is projected to grow from USD 291 million in 2023 and to reach USD 396 million by ... North America dominates the global therapeutic hypothermia systems market.. Based on the region, the therapeutic hypothermia ... The therapeutic hypothermia systems market, by product, has been segmented into cooling devices, cooling catheters, and cool ... The growth of this market is majorly driven by the growing number of hypothermia cases, the growing number of road accidents ...
Director James Felix McKenneys HYPOTHERMIA is a modern spin on the classic monster movie, featuring memorable performances ...
Department of Health and Senior Services Hypothermia web pages ... View Hypothermia Data. View data and information on hypothermia ... Warning Signs of Hypothermia. Warning signs of hypothermia may include:. *Uncontrollable shivering. In severe cases of ... Hypothermia occurs when the body loses heat faster than its produced. Hypothermia is dangerous and can quickly become life ... Hypothermia (hi-poe-THUR-me-uh) is defined as a drop in body temperature to less than 95 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) or 35 degrees ...
Hypothermia - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Symptoms of Hypothermia Initial symptoms of hypothermia include intense shivering and teeth chattering. As body temperature ... Hypothermia (dangerously low body temperature) is often regarded as a cold injury Overview of Cold Injuries The skin and the ... Treatment of Hypothermia *. Drying and warming the body from the outside, by removing wet clothing and wrapping in warm ...
The very young and elderly are the most susceptible to developing hypothermia when exposed to cold temperatures. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which a persons body temperature has dropped significantly below normal. This occurs from ... What is hypothermia?. Hypothermia is a condition in which a persons body temperature has dropped significantly below normal. ... What should I do if someone has hypothermia?. * If a person becomes unconscious, get medical help immediately. If cardiac ...
Hypothermia blocked the Ca2+ plateau after in vivo SE. (A) Hypothermia in rats was induced using surface cooling methods. Core ... Moderate hypothermia (30-33°C) in rats was induced at 30-min post-SE using chilled ethanol spray in a cold room. Hypothermia ... Hypothermia Blocked the Development of the Ca2+ Plateau Following SE. In order to investigate whether hypothermia was able to ... However, mortality rate assessed at 24 h post-SE was only 7% in hypothermia treated group. Surviving rats in the hypothermia ...
Treatment of Hypothermia. Once hypothermia starts, exercise will not help. You need outside sources of heat to rewarm the body. ... Symptoms and Treatment of Hypothermia. Hypothermia attacks quietly and with only a few warning signs, which usually go ...
Hypothermia (2000) (Ghost Maps LP Vol I) (2014) on dnbradio.com ... Vector Burn - Hypothermia (2000). Artist: Vector Burn Title: ...
... mens national soccer team were reportedly treated for hypothermia on Wednesday during a 3-0 World Cup qualifier loss against ... Quiotos case of hypothermia was reportedly less severe.. USMNT coach Gregg Berhalter defended the decision to play the cold- ... 2 Honduran soccer players treated for hypothermia after US hosts key game in frigid Minnesota. Temps dropped to single digits ... Two players for Honduras mens national soccer team were reportedly treated for hypothermia on Wednesday during a 3-0 World ...
The average human body temperature is 98.6°F. If your body temperature falls below 95°F, you have Hypothermia. ... Hypothermia is a medical disorder that affects the bodys temperature. It happens when you are exposed to extreme cold for some ... What factors contribute to Hypothermia?. Hypothermia is caused by a drop in your body temperature. Your body can no longer ... So let us define Hypothermia before we go any further.. Hypothermia - Background. Many people have experienced a loss of ...
The hypothermia outcome prediction after extracorporeal life support (ECLS) score, or HOPE score, provides an estimate of the ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Accidental and Environmental Hypothermia). Download keyboard_arrow_down Download PDF ... The mechanisms of hypothermia were classified as non-asphyxia-related (e.g., outdoor or indoor exposure to cold, immersion) or ... Figure 2. Hypothermia outcome prediction after extracorporeal life support (HOPE) survival probabilities (left panel) and ...
Kansas City first responders received nearly 70 calls for hypothermia-related issues ... Hypothermia. Fans treated for hypothermia, frostbite at Chiefs, Dolphins Wild Card game. Kansas City first responders received ... Of the 15 who were hospitalized, seven of them received treatment for hypothermia, three more of them had frostbite and five ... The dangerously cold weather resulted in first responders receiving at least 69 calls for hypothermia-related issues, according ...

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