Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.
Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
The consumption of edible substances.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)
A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Loose heterogeneous collection of cells in the anterior hypothalamus, continuous rostrally with the medial and lateral PREOPTIC AREAS and caudally with the TUBER CINEREUM.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Sexual activities of animals.
Peptides derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which can stimulate MELANOCYTES or CORTICOTROPHS. Melanocortins include ACTH; ALPHA-MSH; and other peptides such as BETA-MSH and GAMMA-MSH, derived from other fragments of POMC. These peptides act through a variety of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS to control different functions including steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, feeding, and skin pigmentation.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
The delivery of a drug into a fluid-filled cavity of the brain.
A 28-amino acid peptide with the same biological activities of somatostatin-14 but with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal. SRIF-28 is the major form of somatostatin in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for GALANIN and galanin peptides. They are generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN to meditate the neurological effects of galanin. Several subtypes of galanin receptors occur with differing specificities for the full length galanin, galanin peptide fragments, and galanin-like peptide.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.
Cell surface proteins that bind neuropeptide Y with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Abstaining from all food.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase and an antagonist of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.
Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.

Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.(1/4503)


Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated inhibition of K+ channel subunit kv2.2 in brain stem and hypothalamic neurons. (2/4503)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful modulatory actions on cardiovascular function that are mediated by specific receptors located on neurons within the hypothalamus and brain stem. Incubation of neuronal cocultures of rat hypothalamus and brain stem with Ang II elicits an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor-mediated inhibition of total outward K+ current that contributes to an increase in neuronal firing rate. However, the exact K+ conductance(s) that is inhibited by Ang II are not established. Pharmacological manipulation of total neuronal outward K+ current revealed a component of K+ current sensitive to quinine, tetraethylammonium, and 4-aminopyridine, with IC50 values of 21.7 micromol/L, 1.49 mmol/L, and 890 micromol/L, respectively, and insensitive to alpha-dendrotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), charybdotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), and mast cell degranulating peptide (1 micromol/L). Collectively, these data suggest the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Biophysical examination of the quinine-sensitive neuronal K+ current demonstrated a macroscopic conductance with similar biophysical properties to those of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Ang II (100 nmol/L), in the presence of the AT2 receptor blocker PD123,319, elicited an inhibition of neuronal K+ current that was abolished by quinine (50 micromol/L). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b mRNA in these neurons. However, Western blot analyses demonstrated that only Kv2.2 protein was present. Coexpression of Kv2.2 and the AT1 receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated an Ang II-induced inhibition of Kv2.2 current. Therefore, these data suggest that inhibition of Kv2.2 contributes to the AT1 receptor-mediated reduction of neuronal K+ current and subsequently to the modulation of cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. (3/4503)

Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons.  (+info)

Leptin and reproduction. (4/4503)

In the few years since leptin was identified as a satiety factor in rodents, it has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes. Leptin has been shown to promote sexual maturation in rodent species and a role in reproduction has been investigated at various sites within the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review considers the evidence that leptin (or alteration in amount of body fat) can affect reproduction. There is evidence that leptin plays a permissive role in the onset of puberty, probably through action on the hypothalamus, where leptin receptors are found in cells that express appetite-regulating peptides. There is little evidence that leptin has a positive effect on the pituitary gonadotrophs and the gonads. There is also very little indication that leptin acts in an acute manner to regulate reproduction in the short term. It seems more likely that leptin is a 'barometer' of body condition that sends signals to the brain. Studies in vitro have shown negative effects on ovarian steroid production and there are no reports of effects on testicular function. Leptin concentrations in plasma increase in women during pregnancy, owing to production by the placenta but the functional significance of this is unknown. A number of factors that affect the production and action of leptin have yet to be studied in detail.  (+info)

Developing hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones as potential targets for environmental estrogens. (5/4503)

Environmental chemicals which mimic the actions of estrogen have the potential to affect any estrogen responsive tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate their potential to mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on developing primary rat hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) neurones maintained in a chemically defined medium. We now show that both E2 and octylphenol (OP), but not the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, enhanced the uptake of [3H]DA by the cultured cells, whereas they had no effect on the uptake of [14C]GABA. Although the sensitivity of responses may change with the age of the developing cultures, the dose response curves for E2 and OP were typically 'bell-shaped', with a rise in response followed by a decline to control levels with increasing concentrations. Effects were seen as low as 10(-14) M for E2 and 10(-11) M for OP. Responses to E2 (10(-12) M) and OP (10(-9) M) were reversed in the presence of the antiestrogen, ZM 182780 (10(-5) M). This study thus provides direct evidence, using a mechanistic rather than toxicological end-point, in support of the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to environmental estrogens at critically sensitive stages of development, could potentially perturb the organisational activities of estrogen on selected neuronal populations in the CNS.  (+info)

The effect of the orexins on food intake: comparison with neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone and galanin. (6/4503)

Orexin-A and orexin-B (the hypocretins) are recently described neuropeptides suggested to have a physiological role in the regulation of food intake in the rat. We compared the orexigenic effect of the orexins administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) with other known stimulants of food intake, one strong, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two weaker, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and galanin. Orexin-A consistently stimulated food intake, but orexin-B only on occasions. Both peptides stimulated food intake significantly less than NPY, but to a similar extent to MCH (2 h food intake: NPY 3 nmol, 7.2+/-0.9 g vs saline, 1.5+/-0.2 g, P<0.001, MCH 3 nmol, 3.2+/-0.8 g vs saline, P<0.01, orexin-B 30 nmol, 2. 6+/-0.5 g vs saline, P=0.11) and to galanin (1 h food intake: galanin 3 nmol, 2.0+/-0.4 g vs saline, 0.8+/-0.2 g, P<0.05, orexin-A 3 nmol 2.2+/-0.4 g vs saline, P<0.01; 2 hour food intake: orexin-B 3 nmol, 2.4+/-0.3 g vs saline, 1.3+/-0.2 g, P<0.05). Following ICV orexin-A, hypothalamic c-fos, a maker of neuronal activation, was highly expressed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the arcuate nucleus (P<0.005 for both). IntraPVN injection of orexin-A stimulated 2 h food intake by one gram (orexin-A 0.03 nmol, 1.6+/-0. 3 g vs saline, 0.5+/-0.3 g, P<0.005). These findings support the suggestion that the orexins stimulate food intake. However, this effect is weak and may cast doubt upon their physiological importance in appetite regulation in the rat.  (+info)

Somatostatin inhibits release of thyrotropin releasing factor from organ cultures of rat hypothalamus. (7/4503)

Somatostatin in concentrations of 10(-6) to 10(-8) M inhibited basal release of thyrotropin releasing factor in organ culture of rat hypothalamus. Norepinephrine in doses of 10(-4)--10(-6) M induced release of thyrotropin releasing factor which increased progressively with time and was temperature and dose dependent. This enhanced thyrotropin-releasing-factor release was inhibited by somatostatin at 10(-6)--10(-8) M.  (+info)

Comparison of two aquaretic drugs (niravoline and OPC-31260) in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. (8/4503)

kappa-Opioid receptor agonists (niravoline) or nonpeptide antidiuretic hormone (ADH) V2 receptor antagonists (OPC-31260) possess aquaretic activity in cirrhosis; however, there is no information concerning the effects induced by the chronic administration of these drugs under this condition. To compare the renal and hormonal effects induced by the long-term oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle, urine volume, urinary osmolality, sodium excretion, and urinary excretion of aldosterone (ALD) and ADH were measured in basal conditions and for 10 days after the daily oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle to cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. Creatinine clearance, serum osmolality, ADH mRNA expression, and systemic hemodynamics were also measured at the end of the study. Niravoline increased water excretion, peripheral resistance, serum osmolality, and sodium excretion and reduced creatinine clearance, ALD and ADH excretion, and mRNA expression of ADH. OPC-31260 also increased water metabolism and sodium excretion and reduced urinary ALD, although the aquaretic effect was only evident during the first 2 days, and no effects on serum osmolality, renal filtration, and systemic hemodynamics were observed. Therefore, both agents have aquaretic efficacy, but the beneficial therapeutic effects of the long-term oral administration of niravoline are more consistent than those of OPC-31260 in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucose modulates the release of histamine from the mouse hypothalamus in vitro. AU - Nishibori, Masahiro. AU - Oishi, R.. AU - Itoh, Y.. AU - Saeki, K.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - The effect of glucose concentration on the in vitro release of histamine (HA) was examined, using two different preparations of the mouse hypothalamus. The HA and tele-methylhistamine released from whole blocks of the hypothalamus into the medium linearly increased during 2-h incubation in normal Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution in the absence of external depolarizing stimuli. The release of HA from this preparation depended on the temperature and Ca2+ in the medium and was progressively increased with decrease in the glucose concentration from 11.5 to 1 mM. The rate of the HA release was dependent on the absolute concentration of glucose and not on an abrupt change in the concentration. When slices of the hypothalamus were incubated in high K+ medium, a temperature- and Ca2+-dependent HA release was ...
The Sleep Switch Hypothalamic Control of Sleep and Wakefulness - Read online for free. The Sleep Switch Hypothalamic Control of Sleep and Wakefulnes in rats
The hypothalamus is a brain region with essential functions for homeostasis and energy metabolism, and alterations of its development can contribute to pathological conditions in the adult, like hypertension, diabetes or obesity. However, due to the anatomical complexity of the hypothalamus, its development is not well understood. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a key developmental regulator gene expressed in a dynamic pattern in hypothalamic progenitor cells. To obtain insight into hypothalamic organization, we used genetic inducible fate mapping (GIFM) to map the lineages derived from Shh- expressing progenitor domains onto the four rostrocaudally arranged hypothalamic regions: preoptic, anterior, tuberal and mammillary. Shh- expressing progenitors labeled at an early stage (before embryonic day (E)9.5) contribute neurons and astrocytes to a large caudal area including the mammillary and posterior tuberal regions as well as tanycytes (specialized median eminence glia). Progenitors labeled at later stages
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Diet-induced obesity can originate from the dysregulated activity of hypothalamic neuronal circuits, which are critical for the regulation of body weight and food intake. The exact mechanisms underlying such neuronal defects are not yet fully understood, but a maladaptive cross-talk between neurons and surrounding microglial is likely to be a contributing factor. Functional and anatomical connections between microglia and hypothalamic neuronal cells are at the core of how the brain orchestrates changes in the bodys metabolic needs. However, such a melodious interaction may become maladaptive in response to prolonged diet-induced metabolic stress, thereby causing overfeeding, body weight gain, and systemic metabolic perturbations. From this perspective, we critically discuss emerging molecular and cellular underpinnings of microglia-neuron communication in the hypothalamic neuronal circuits implicated in energy balance regulation. We explore whether changes in this intercellular dialogue induced by
Liu J, Cao S, Liu M, et al. A high nutrient dense diet alters hypothalamic gene expressions to influence energy intake in pigs born with low birth weight[J]. Scientific reports, 2018, 8(1): 5514.
The hypothalamus is an evolutionarily ancient part of the brain that acts as a master homeostatic regulator. It controls the circadian cycle, endocrine function, energy and stress balance through the concerted activity of its resident neurons. These neurons are located in nuclei that are assigned to distinct rostro-caudal domains: anterior, tuberal and mammillary (Swanson, 1987). Particular subclasses of hypothalamic neurons, termed neuroendocrine neurons, project axons to the median eminence and posterior pituitary - the ventral-most regions of the tuberal hypothalamus. Here, they release neurohormones that act directly, or indirectly, via cells of the adjacent anterior pituitary, to govern endocrine function (Swanson, 1987). An understanding of hypothalamic development is therefore fundamental to our understanding of neuroendocrine axis formation and function in health and disease.. In the embryonic chick, as in all vertebrates examined, conserved molecular features define the developing ...
Rasd1 is becoming somewhat of avant-garde member of the Ras family of GTPases by performing many non-conventional signaling functions. Our identification of Rasd1 in Avp neurons starts a new chapter for this small GTPase. Here we show that Rasd1 is rapidly induced by stress in the PVN, and by elevated plasma osmolality in the PVN and SON of the hypothalamus. We propose that the abundance of RASD1 in MCN and PCNs, based on its inhibitory actions on CREB phosphorylation, is an important mechanism for controlling the transcriptional responses to stressors in both the PVN and SON. In MCN we show, by virally mediated overexpression of Rasd1, that Rasd1 inhibits HS induced stimulation of cAMP inducible genes. When a CAAX box deficient mutant form of Rasd1 is expressed in the SON cAMP inducible genes were further increased by SL. These effects likely occur through modulation of cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway.. Our interest in Rasd1 began following identification increased expression of this gene in ...
Background: Local oestrogen production in the brain regulates critical functions including neuronal development, gonadotropin secretion and sexual behaviour. In the mouse brain, a 36 kb distal promoter (l.f) regulates the Cyp19a1 gene that encodes aromatase, the key enzyme for oestrogen biosynthesis. In vitro, promoter l.f interacts with oestrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) and Progesterone receptor (Pgr) to mediate Cyp19a1 mRNA expression and enzyme activity in mouse hypothalamic neuronal cell lines. The in vivo mechanisms that control mammalian brain aromatase expression during fetal and adult development, however, are not thoroughly understood.. Objective and hypotheses: Our aim was to elucidate the basis of the in vivo connection between Esr1, Pgr and Cyp19a1.. Method: Pregnant mice were sacrificed at gestational days 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 21 and the brain tissues of the foetuses were harvested along with five newborns at the age of postnatal day 2. Esr1KO (female) were also sacrificed and their ...
Does anyone have any info with respect to concentration of histamine within the mouse brain. I am planning to assay histamine (using ELISA) in the mouse hypothalamus after cytokine treatments. Thanks Shawn ...
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by the systemic inflammatory response to a bacterial infection. Although much is known about the cellular and molecular changes that characterize the peripheral inflammatory response to sepsis, almost nothing is known of the neuronal changes that cause associated perturbations in the central control of homeostasis. Osmoregulation is one of the key homeostatic systems perturbed during sepsis. In healthy subjects, systemic hypertonicity normally excites osmoreceptor neurons in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT), which then activates downstream neurons that induce a parallel increase in water intake and arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion to promote fluid expansion and maintain blood pressure. However, recent studies have shown that the early phase of sepsis is associated with increased AVP levels and suppressed thirst. Here we examined the electrophysiological properties of OVLT neurons and magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in ...
About the size of a pearl, the hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). As a limbic system structure, the hypothalamus also influences various emotional responses. The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem. It is posterior to the optic chiasm and bordered on the sides by the temporal lobes and optic tracts. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is roughly the size of an almond. The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of ...
How might hypothalamic regulation of ageing have evolved? Chronic inflammation arises from many kinds of insult, from acute infection to genomic instability. The concept that the hypothalamus can sense inflammation through immune pathways is a new one; just as the hypothalamus responds to nutrient status, its response to inflammation may enable the organism to rapidly adapt to physiological perturbations. Turning down the hypothalamic release of modulators such as GnRH to prevent reproduction and reduce growth may be evolutionarily advantageous during acute infection, injury or deprivation. Although this would have been adaptive for our shorter-lived ancestors, it may accelerate ageing in older individuals and have become apparent now that we live longer. This idea also raises the intriguing possibility that hypothalamic regulation could be therapeutically manipulated to have broad effects on the ageing process and age-related pathology ...
Dr Wallach 90 For Life Youngevity™ Hypothalamus Support Good Herbs [USGH000003_Hypothalamus] - Hypothalamus Support Item #: USGH000003 Good HerbsHypothalamus Support contains a proprietary herbal blend of organic or wild-crafted herbs that help support a healthy hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands plus, feeds the endocrine system and provides glandular support. Good Herbs Hypothalamus Support is made with pure, unaltered, chemical-free natural herbs that
Located just behind and between the eyes, the anterior border of the hypothalamus is formed by the optic chiasm. It is bordered laterally by the optic tracts and temporal lobes, and the posterior limit of the hypothalamus, occupied by the mammillary bodies, is bounded by the cerebral peduncles. The hypothalamus, literally located below the thalamus, is divided in the midline by the third ventricle. It contains a series of reasonably well differentiated cell groups or nuclei, sandwiched between to major axonal pathways that connect it with the rest of the brain and with the endocrine system. The periventricular axon system occupies the medial wall of the hypothalamus along the third ventricle, medial to most of the hypothalamic nuclei. It contains axons that connect the hypothalamus with the brainstem and thalamus. Some periventricular axons, from neurons that produce pituitary releasing hormones, travel to the median eminence, which is a vascular area in the floor of the third ventricle. Here ...
The mammalian hypothalamus regulates key homeostatic and neuroendocrine functions ranging from circadian rhythm and energy‐balance to growth and reproductive cycles via the hypothalamo‐pituitary and hypothalamo‐thyroid axes. In addition to its neurons, tanycytes are taking centre stage in the short and long term augmentation and integration of diverse hypothalamic functions, but the genetic regulators and mediators of their involvement are poorly understood. Exogenous interventions have implicated Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling, but the focal point of FGF action and any role for putative endogenous players also remains elusive. We carried out a comprehensive high‐resolution screen of FGF signalling pathway mediators and modifiers using a combination of in situ hybridization, immunolabelling and transgenic reporter mice, to map their spatial distribution in the adult hypothalamus. Our findings suggest that beta tanycytes are the likely focal point of exogenous and endogenous ...
Introduction: Previous studies have investigated the effects and importance of orexin and estradiol on food intake. In this study the effects of orexin on estradiol release by the ventromedial hypothalamus (satiety center) and lateral hypothalamus (feeding center) have been investi-gated. Forty adult male rats, divided to two groups, the control ...
Hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus, is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is roughly the size of an almond ...
The hypothalamus is a complex area of the brain and is important in co-coordinating signals between the nervous system and the endocrine system, primarily via the pituitary gland. Various processes throughout life, such as birth, puberty, and pregnancy, as well as neurological and psychiatric disorders are regulated by the hypothalamus (1). It influences many hormonal and behavioural circadian rhythms, as well as being involved in the control of body temperature, hunger, and thirst. Damage to the hypothalamus whether it is congenital or acquired will lead to significant clinical morbidity (Box Recent advances in molecular techniques and improved neuroimaging, particularly MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) have given us a better understanding of hypothalamic syndromes and their clinical manifestations. It may be very difficult to differentiate between hypothalamic and pituitary disease as the endocrine abnormalities are often similar. As the hypothalamus regulates both endocrine and
ALL WELCOME. My long-term research goal has been to understand how the vertebrate hypothalamus is built. This evolutionarily-ancient part of the brain centrally regulates homeostasis and adaptative mechanisms and is essential to life. Until recently, we and others have assumed that distinct progenitor cells in the hypothalamus are patterned in response to Sonic hedgehog acting as a spatial morphogen. Our recent work suggests a fundamentally different mechanism, in which the hypothalamus is built from a multipotent Fgf10+ stem-like progenitor that generates other hypothalamic progenitors and neurons in a predictable manner in space-and-time, and is itself retained - potentially even into adulthood. Shh acts locally to initiate progression of the Fgf10+ stem-like progenitor to a more-differentiated progenitor, and is part of a network that ensures the correct balance of stem-like and progenitor cells.. ...
Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-θ, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-θ was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus, specifically the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons and the dorsal medial nucleus in the hypothalamus. CNS exposure to palmitic acid via direct infusion or by oral gavage increased the localization of PKC-θ to cell membranes in the hypothalamus, which was associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling. This finding was specific for palmitic acid, as the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, neither increased membrane localization of PKC-θ nor induced ...
Science: anatomy, endocrinology) a portion of the brain which lies beneath the thalamus and secretes substances which control metabolism by exerting an influence on pituitary gland function. The hypothalamus is also involved in the regulation of body temperature, water balance, blood sugar and fat metabolism. The hypothalamus also regulates other glands such as the ovaries, parathyroids and thyroid. A basal part of the diencephalon governing autonomic nervous system.A section of the brain that is involved in many regulatory functions like osmoregulation and thermoregulation. The hypothalamus has a degree of control over the pituitary gland, and also controls sleeping patterns, eating and drinking and speech. It is also responsible for the secretion of adh Antidiuretic Hormone via its neurosecretory cells. ...
In the current study, we showed that in the hypothalamus of DIO and genetic obese mice, there was an increase in IKKε protein expression and activation. In addition, IKKε inhibition reduced adiposity and food intake, increased energy expenditure, and improved inflammation and glucose metabolism.. Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation in various tissues, including the hypothalamus (17,28,29). Activation of the IKK/NF-κB pathway is a marker of inflammatory signals in the hypothalamus (18). It was shown before that hypothalamic neuronal IKKβ plays an important role in controlling energy homeostasis (18). In the current study, we demonstrate that IKKε is predominantly expressed in neurons not in astrocytes and may affect the neuronal regulation of energy balance.. The results showed that the inhibition of hypothalamic IKKε reduced NF-κB activity in the hypothalamus, suggesting alleviation of the inflammatory environment in this tissue. The molecular link between inflammation and ...
The overall goal of this research proposal is to better understand how hypothalamic histaminergic (HA) projec- tion neurons control behavioral state transitions...
The hypothalamus controls feeding and satiety in vertebrates, and directs growth and metabolism [6]. We performed microarray analysis to evaluate global gene expression in the hypothalamus in order to identify genes and gene networks differentially expressed in response to fasting and feeding of newly hatched chicks. Our analysis compared gene expression in the hypothalamus of chicks that were fed or fasted for 24 or 48 h, as well as chicks that were fed following a 48 h fast. Fasting of chicks can retard growth compared to chicks fed immediately for up to 6 weeks of age [7], yet the mechanisms behind the long-term effects of fasting on growth and metabolism are not known. Therefore, we included delayed feeding treatments (fasted for 48 h, then fed for 4 h, 24 h, or 48 h) to provide insight into potential gene expression differences that may persist after animals are allowed access to feed.. Among genes that were increased by fasting, were the neuropeptide receptors NPY5R and SSTR5. As NPY is ...
Page 1 of 7 HYPOTHALAMUS AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM A. Hypothalamus = Homeostasis The main function of the hypothalamus is homeostasis, or maintaining the bodys status quo. Factors such as blood pressure,
Addiction affects another area of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus has many duties. It controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep. The hypothalamus plays a key role in our response to stress.
The work described in this thesis investigates the actions of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of energy homeostasis and reproduction. Cerebellin 1 (Cbln1) is a 16-amino acid peptide abundantly expressed in the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. I have shown that Cbln1 increases food intake when administered centrally to rats, and that this effect may be partly mediated by neuropeptide Y. I have also demonstrated that Cbln1 mRNA expression within the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is up-regulated following a 48-hour fast, suggesting that Cbln1 may have a physiological role in the control of food intake. In addition to hypothalamic centres, the reward system has an important role in the control of feeding. The melanocortin system has a well characterised role in the homeostatic control of food intake. My work suggests that the melanocortin system may also have a previously unknown role within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the hedonic control of feeding. Intra- VTA ...
This grant application seeks to define the genetic and neural circuit basis of the functional role of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). The VMH is molecularl...
The present data for the first time demonstrate that the PKC-activating agent PMA stimulates ethanol-induced IR-β-EP release, and PKC-inhibiting agents cause inhibition of ethanol-induced IR-β-EP release. Furthermore, the data suggest that δ and ε PKC isoenzymes may be involved in ethanol-modulated IR-β-EP secretion from hypothalamic cells in primary culture.. The data presented here show that exposure of hypothalamic cells to ethanol or PMA causes stimulation of IR-β-EP secretion. These results corroborate our previous studies (Boyadjieva et al., 1997; Boyadjieva and Sarkar, 1997) and the findings of Kapcala et al. (1992). The PKC stimulator PMA also has been shown to increase pro-opiomelanocortin fragment release in static cultures of anterior pituitary cells (Abou-Samra et al., 1986). Hence, it appears that the PKC signaling pathway may be important in the regulation of β-EP release in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary. In the present study, we found that ethanol-induced IR-β-EP ...
The hypothalamus is a section of the brain responsible for the production of many of the bodys essential hormones, chemical substances that help control different cells and organs. The hormones from the hypothalamus govern physiologic functions such as temperature regulation, thirst, hunger, sleep, mood, sex drive, and the release of
Functions in signal transduction from heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors. Binds to membranes containing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Can bind DNA (in vitro). May contribute to the regulation of transcription in the nucleus. Could be involved in the hypothalamic regulation of body weight (By similarity). Contribute to stimulation of phagocytosis of apoptotic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and macrophages.
Addiction affects another area of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus has many duties. It controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, a
Bodys Thermostat The hypothalamus,at the brains center, acts as the bodys thermostat. So when the hypothalamus gets word that germs are on the scene, it starts to set the bodys internal temperature higher. The heat helps fight the germs by making the body a less comfortable place for them. And certain cold. acetaminophenan overall feeling of tirednessbodys thermostatchicken poxchillscommon colddehydrationheadacheshypothalamusibuprofeninfectioninfluenzaLoss of appetiteMeaslesover-the-counter medicinesstrep throatvirusWeakness Read More ...
I was in touch with Fred over the weekend. He reported being emotionally in an unusual place. He couldnt quite put language to it, but it was not his norm, and it was not good. He also needed more sleep and was pretty under-energized for three days.. This was no surprise. On the one hand, we had removed a very significant AHS that had kept him secretly tied to his sexual abuser all these years. Second, we had prayed for a lot of alignment work in his hypothalamus. Either of those could have destabilized him.. By Tuesday he had his feet under him and came in for another round. It was with great anticipation/concern that we tested his hypothalamus. To my immense surprise, it was EXACTLY even at the start. I am not sure I have ever had someone perfectly connected and balanced even after manual bridging. The fact that the connection from five days ago held was quite astounding and encouraging.. We will continue to check that every time, but we now have a lightly held hypothesis that a chronic ...
Hypothalamus disorders results in various health related complications. Such hypothalamus disorders are caused primarily because of the stress and other factors that include tumours, infections and swelling, genetic disorders. Know the causes, symptoms, treatment, prognosis etc.
It is the object of the following discussion to give the reader a relatively complete yet concise introduction to the structure and function of the hypothalamus. The mere volume of material considered during research precludes inclusion of material on all facets of the topic. The material that was included was chosen in a manner which will undoubtedly reflect the background and interests of the author. This material was included, however, with the belief that it is representative of what is known about the hypothalamus. Perhaps some of the hypotheses presented or implied in the following material will someday be disproved, but for the present it is hoped that this discussion will help synthesize what is known and serve to aid in understanding research that is currently being undertaken ...
Pharmacology of the hypothalamus , Pharmacology of the hypothalamus , کتابخانه الکترونیک و دیجیتال - آذرسا
The vertebrate embryonic prosencephalon gives rise to the hypothalamus, which plays essential roles in sensory information processing as well as control of physiological homeostasis and behavior. While patterning of the hypothalamus has received much attention, initial neurogenesis in the developing hypothalamus has mostly been neglected. The first differentiating progenitor cells of the hypothalamus will give rise to neurons that form the nucleus of the tract of the postoptic commissure (nTPOC) and the nucleus of the mammillotegmental tract (nMTT). The formation of these neuronal populations has to be highly controlled both spatially and temporally as these tracts will form part of the ventral longitudinal tract (VLT) and act as a scaffold for later, follower axons. This review will cumulate and summarize the existing data available describing initial neurogenesis in the vertebrate hypothalamus. It is well-known that the Notch signaling pathway through the inhibition of proneural genes is a key
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypothalamic nutrient sensing in the control of energy homeostasis. AU - Blouet, Clémence. AU - Schwartz, Gary J.. PY - 2010/5/1. Y1 - 2010/5/1. N2 - The hypothalamus is a center of convergence and integration of multiple nutrient-related signals. It can sense changes in circulating adiposity hormones, gastric hormones and nutrients, and receives neuroanatomical projections from other nutrient sensors, mainly within the brainstem. The hypothalamus also integrates these signals with various cognitive forebrain-descending information and reward/motivation-related signals coming from the midbrain-dopamine system, to coordinate neuroendocrine, behavioral and metabolic effectors of energy balance. Some of the key nutrient-sensing hypothalamic neurons have been identified in the arcuate, the ventro-medial and the lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the molecular mechanisms underlying intracellular integration of nutrient-related signals in these neurons are currently under ...
Shorter, more intense cortisol bursts-along with your other stress hormone, adrenaline-occur when the brain senses imminent danger. When that happens, a lightning-fast chemical cascade occurs along something called the hypothalamus. This hypothalamus (the part of the brain that communicates with the nervous system shoots a signal to the pituitary gland, triggering a fight-or-flight response in an effort to spur the body into action. The galvanizing force comes from the adrenals, which pump out adrenaline so you can react-fast. As that initial hormone surge diminishes, the hypothalamus kicks off a second chain reaction, this time directing the adrenals to release cortisol to keep you vigilant. Onc the anger has passed, the adrenals send a message back to the hypothalamus to calm down, and you return to the opposite of the fight-or flight-state-commonly referred to as rest-and-digest -which is the bodys preferred, restorative state.. However, we live in a world of saturated stress, thanks to ...
When I find myself in times of trouble Ben and Jerrys comes to me Snarfing Chunky Monkey so sweetly, so sweetly. When stressed, some folks barely eat and consequently lose weight. Others, including myself, reach for high-fat-high-sugar (HFS) foods in an attempt to ameliorate the angst. Although the connection between stress and overeating is not fully understood, the evidence until recently focused on centrally acting (brain & spinal cord) mechanisms, e.g., hypothalamic control of food consumption and metabolism.
by Kelsey Murray. Have you ever wondered why people who are already obese continue to gain weight? Is it laziness, a lack of desire to lose weight, or something else? Two new studies that have been published by the Journal of Clinical Investigation shows that it might be something else: their hypothalamus works differently.. The hypothalamus part of the brain controls how often we feel hungry or thirsty, in addition to controlling our need for sleep and our body temperatures. This means that when the hypothalamus is not working properly, someone might still feel hungry even if he or she has already eaten a lot of food.. In one of the studies, it was found that neurons that surround the hypothalamus of obese humans and obese rats are often damaged by inflammation. This inflammation could be caused by high-fat diets, which are notorious for causing inflammation throughout the body. Although it takes weeks or months for inflammation from high-fat diets to occur in other parts, it only takes a few ...
The broad objective of the ICSNM Program is to provide a multi-disciplinary approach to study the molecular mechanisms of metabolism in health and disease.. The research of the ICSNM Program members encompasses studies in areas of metabolic cell signaling pathways such as those controlled by kinases and phosphatases in addition to post-translational modifications of proteins by glycosylation. How these signaling pathways integrate at the cellular and systems levels is an underlying focus of many of the projects represented by the ICSNM Program members.. ICSNM investigators are interested in the hypothalamic mechanisms of nutrient sensing in the regulation of metabolism, and how neural circuitry in the hypothalamus controls homeostatic and behavioral functions. How the hypothalamic neural circuitry is modified by physiological, behavioral and environmental changes in mature animals are achieved, and the influence of these neural pathways has, on peripheral tissue is a key area of study. Research ...
Rather than thinking of leptin as a satiety hormone, Im beginning to think of it as a body fat census questionnaire, and the hypothalamus as a group
The hypothalamus is composed of at least dozens of types of neurons - and more likely hundreds - each of which corresponds to a gene that has remained unidentified until now. Its cellular arrangement is more akin to a bowl of spaghetti than a neatly organized club sandwich, according to Blackshaw. The catalog of molecular markers identified here helps unravel this complexity.. The teams first challenge was to dissect away, at the very start of neural development, the part of the mouse brain which develops into the hypothalamus, and then cut tiny slices of this region for use in microarray analysis, a technology that reveals multiple gene activity. By analyzing all the roughly 20,000 genes in the mouse genome, the team identified 1200 as strongly activated in developing hypothalamus and characterized the cells within the hypothalamus in which they were activated. The team then characterized the expression of the most interesting 350 genes in detail using another gene called Shh, for sonic ...
First, lets briefly discuss the hypothalamus and its role in both weight gain and the HCG diet. It doesnt just exert its effect on the thyroid, it also lets us know when were full.
The HCG diet protocol has gained much popularity and speculation since its increased availability to consumers in 2009. It is believed this hormone assists in weight loss by coaxing the body and hypothalamus gland to use stored fats.
If a guy is secondary (Hypothalamus Dysfunction).IfsHCG the only treatment for them.Howwlong they need to be on this treatment. Why there is no other
NMDA and nitric oxide act through the cGMP signal transduction pathway to repress hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuropeptides hypothalamic regulation of sleep control in children affected by functional non‐retentive fecal incontinence. AU - Roccella, Michele. AU - Parisi, Lucia. AU - Messina, Giovanni. AU - Porro, Chiara. AU - Ruberto, Maria. AU - Santoro, Claudia. AU - Precenzano, Francesco. AU - Zammit, Christian. AU - Messina, Antonietta. AU - Monda, Vincenzo. AU - Moscatelli, Fiorenzo. AU - Salerno, Monica. AU - Lanzara, Valentina. AU - Sessa, Francesco. AU - Pastorino, Grazia Maria Giovanna. AU - Messina, Antonietta. AU - Operto, Francesca Felicia. AU - Iacono, Diego. AU - Monda, Marcellino. AU - Carotenuto, Marco. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Functional non‐retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI) is a common problem in pediatric age. FNRFI is defined as unintended loss of stool in a 4‐year‐old or older child after organic causes have been excluded. FNRFI tends to affects up to 3% of children older than 4 years, with males being affected more frequently than females. Clinically, ...
The hypothalamus is a key integrative centre in the vertebrate brain that regulates many essential functions, including homeostasis and stress responses. Several transcription factors that are essential for hypothalamic development have been identified but the production of diverse neuron types in this complex brain region is poorly understood. Here (p. 1762), Andrea Wolf and Soojin Ryu identify the transcription factors required for the specification of two distinct neuron types in the zebrafish posterior hypothalamus. They show that the transcription factor Fezf2 is important for the early development of the posterior hypothalamus. Furthermore, the differential expression of Fezf2, Otp, Foxb1.2 and Sim1a defines distinct subdomains in the posterior hypothalamus during neuronal specification. The neuron types that produce the hypothalamic hormones Vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip) and Urotensin 1 (Uts1) develop in these different subdomains, they report, and Vip neuron specification requires ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The hypothalamus and the neurobiology of drug seeking. AU - Marchant, Nathan J.. AU - Zayra Millan, E.. AU - McNally, Gavan P.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - The hypothalamus is a neural structure critical for expression of motivated behaviours that ensure survival of the individual and the species. It is a heterogeneous structure, generally recognised to have four distinct regions in the rostrocaudal axis (preoptic, supraoptic, tuberal and mammillary). The tuberal hypothalamus in particular has been implicated in the neural control of appetitive motivation, including feeding and drug seeking. Here we review the role of the tuberal hypothalamus in appetitive motivation. First, we review evidence that different regions of the hypothalamus exert opposing control over feeding. We then review evidence that a similar bi-directional regulation characterises hypothalamic contributions to drug seeking and reward seeking. Lateral regions of the dorsal tuberal hypothalamus are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of Opioid Receptors in the Mediobasal Hypothalamus Stimulates Prolactin Secretion in the Conscious Rat. AU - Kapoor, Ranjna. AU - Willoughby, John O.. PY - 1990/6. Y1 - 1990/6. N2 - In an attempt to localize the opioid receptor(s) (mu, delta and kappa) involved in opioid‐stimulated prolactin release in the conscious male rat, opioid agonists were microinjected into the mediobasal hypothalamus and prolactin levels measured before and after injection. The specific mu agonist, DAGO ((D‐Ala2, NMe‐Phe4, Gly‐ol5)‐enkephalin) was the most effective in eliciting prolactin release, the smallest effective dose being 0.01 nmoles. The specific delta agonist, DPDPE ((D‐Pen2, D‐Pen5)‐enkephalin) had no significant effect even at the highest dose of 10 nmoles. The specific kappa agonist, U50,488H ((trans‐3,4‐dichloro‐N‐methyl‐N‐(2‐(1‐pyrrolidinyl)‐cyclohexyl)‐benzene acetamide) was effective at the doses 1.0 and 10 nmoles. We conclude that mu and ...
Anorexia can occur as a serious complication of disease. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role, along with a hypothalamic dysregulation characterized by locally elevated serotonin levels. The present study was undertaken to further explore the connections between peripheral inflammation, anorexia and hypothalamic serotonin metabolism and signaling pathways. First, we investigated the response of two hypothalamic neuronal cell lines to TNFα, IL-6 and LPS. Next, we studied transcriptomic changes and serotonergic activity in the hypothalamus of mice after intraperitoneal injection with TNFα, IL-6 or a combination of TNFα and IL-6. In vitro, we showed that hypothalamic neurons responded to inflammatory mediators by releasing cytokines. This inflammatory response was associated with an increased serotonin release. Mice injected with TNFα and IL-6 showed decreased food intake, associated with altered expression of inflammation-related genes in the hypothalamus. In addition,
in Regulatory Peptides (2000), 92(1-3), 17-24. Leptin may act as a negative feedback signal to the hypothalamic control of appetite through suppression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion and stimulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript ... [more ▼]. Leptin may act as a negative feedback signal to the hypothalamic control of appetite through suppression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion and stimulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). We aimed at studying the effects of leptin, CART and NPY on the hypothalamic control of the pituitary-gonadal system. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion was studied in vitro using retrochiasmatic hypothalamic explants from adult rats. In the female, GnRH pulse amplitude was significantly increased by leptin (10(-7) M) and CART (10(-6) M) irrespective of the estrus cycle phase while no such effects were seen in the male. The GnRH interpulse interval was not affected in both sexes. Passive ...
We correlated single-cell expression of the GABAAR ϵ-subunit in native neurons with the pharmacological properties of GABA-mediated responses, as well as with spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents. We demonstrated a somatic localization of the ϵ-subunit protein in two neuronal groups: histaminergic neurons from the TM nucleus and both orexinergic and histaminergic neurons from the perifornical area. Non-identified hypothalamic neurons were investigated as well. Several properties of the human or rat ϵ-subunit determined in artificially expressed systems are not readily found in native cells, e.g., constitutive activity of ϵ-containing GABAARs. In accordance, cardiac parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in brainstem slices with transfected ϵ-subunits did not display significant constitutive GABAAR activity (Irnaten et al., 2002). The shift of baseline current by GABAAR antagonists in our study represented no more than 1% of the maximal GABA-mediated currents and was not observed in all ...
Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the α-subunits of the associated signalling complex (αGustducin, Gα14 and αTransducin), in oral and extra-oral tissues from lean and obese mice, remains poorly characterized. We focused on the impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis, namely the hypothalamus and brainstem. We demonstrate that many of the GPCTRs and α-subunits are co-expressed in these tissues and that obesity decreases expression of T1R3, T2R116, Gα14, αTrans and TRPM5. In vitro high levels of glucose caused a prominent down-regulation of T1R2 and Gα14 expression in cultured hypothalamic neuronal cells, leptin caused a transient down-regulation of T1R2 and T1R3 expression. Intriguingly, expression differences were also ...
To determine whether the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2), the principal central nervous system enzyme converting T4 to biologically active T3, is regulated in tanycytes by im- mune activation, D2 activity was measured in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) 4, 12, and 24 h after administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and compared with D2 lev- els in the cortex and anterior pituitary of rats. In contrast to D2 activity in the cortex and anterior pituitary that showed a steady linear increase over 24 h, which was coincident with a decline in thyroid hormone and TSH levels, D2 activity peaked in the MBH 12 h after LPS administration. By in situ hybrid- ization, the increased D2 mRNA synthesis induced by LPS was specifically localized to tanycytes lining the third ventricle. In vitro assays in HC11 and HEK-293 cells demonstrated that the p65 subunit of nuclear factor- B markedly increased both rat and human D2 genes (dio2) as analyzed by promoter assays. No activation of human dio2 ...
Looking for online definition of hypothalami in the Medical Dictionary? hypothalami explanation free. What is hypothalami? Meaning of hypothalami medical term. What does hypothalami mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuronal protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B deficiency results in inhibition of hypothalamic AMPK and isoform-specific activation of AMPK in peripheral tissues. AU - Xue, Bingzhong. AU - Pulinilkunnil, Thomas. AU - Murano, Incoronata. AU - Bence, Kendra K.. AU - He, Huamei. AU - Minokoshi, Yasuhiko. AU - Asakura, Kenji. AU - Lee, Anna. AU - Haj, Fawaz. AU - Furukawa, Noboru. AU - Catalano, Karyn J.. AU - Delibegovic, Mirela. AU - Balschi, James A.. AU - Cinti, Saverio. AU - Neel, Benjamin G.. AU - Kahn, Barbara B.. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - PTP1B-/- mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity due to leptin hypersensitivity and consequent increased energy expenditure. We aimed to determine the cellular mechanisms underlying this metabolic state. AMPK is an important mediator of leptins metabolic effects. We find that α1 and α2 AMPK activity are elevated and acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase activity is decreased in the muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of PTP1B-/- mice. The ...
Ardrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin and the melanotropins (MSHs) are all derived from a single large precursor molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) by individual processing through a series of co- and post-translational modifications. Although the primary site of synthesis is in the pituitary, POMC-derived peptides have been identified in various tissues, notably the brain (see refs 6, 7 for review). A major question concerning brain POMC is whether it is synthesized within the central nervous system (CNS) itself or whether it is taken up from plasma flowing in a retrograde fashion from the pituitary. POMC peptides have been detected immunohistochemically and biochemically in the medial basal hypothalamus, the amygdala and throughout the brain stem. POMC peptide-containing cell bodies have been identified only in two cell groups, however, principally in the periarcuate region of the hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. These and other observations
Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important modulator of whole-body energy homeostasis, particularly within the ventromedial nucleus, where it regulates energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. A recent paper in Cell Reports has demonstrated that AMPK in the paraventri …
Feldman, J M.; Blalock, J A.; and Zern, R T., Elevated hypothalamic norepinephrine content in mice with the hereditary obese-hyperglycemic syndrome. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2970 ...
Mouse (Mus musculus) のHnl (hypothalamic norepinephrine level)遺伝子を含むベクター、レンチウイルス、アデノウイルス、 (AAV) アデノ随伴、アデノ随伴ウイルス、MMLV レトロウイルス,、piggyBac, shRNA、gRNA、 ガイドRNA、 CRISPR-Cas9 、クリスパー、プラスミド
Appetite is regulated by a number of hypothalamic neuropeptides including neuropeptide Y (NPY), a powerful feeding stimulator that responds to feeding status, and drugs such as nicotine and cannabis. There is debate regarding the extent of the influence of obesity on hypothalamic NPY. We measured hypothalamic NPY in male SpragueDawley rats after short or long term exposure to cafeteria-style high fat diet (32% energy as fat) or laboratory chow (12% fat). Caloric intake and body weight were increased in the high fat diet group, and brown fat and white fat masses were significantly increased after 2 weeks. Hypothalamic NPY concentration was only significantly decreased after long term consumption of the high fat diet. Nicotine decreases food intake and body weight, with conflicting effects on hypothalamic NPY reported. Body weight, plasma hormones and brain NPY were investigated in male Balb/c mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 days, 4 and 12 weeks. Food intake was significantly decreased by ...
Given that microglia-specific Sirt1-knockout mice display elevated IL-1β production and exhibit exacerbated memory deficits in a neurodegenerative mouse model102, we can infer that SIRT1 affects the crosstalk between neurons and microglia and that its age-induced inactivation may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.. Linking brain ageing and systemic ageingAs described in the previous section, the brain displays a range of crucial pathophysiological changes in its con-stituent cells, structures and functions during the pro-cess of ageing. Its own ageing also affects the functions of peripheral tissues and organs through many hormones and the autonomic nervous system. In particular, the hypothalamus plays a critical part in the production of many hormones and in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, and it is emerging that age-associated decline in hypothalamic function mediates ageing at a systemic level and ultimately affects longevity.The hypothalamus ...
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The hypothalamus is a relatively small region that is topographically located ventral to the prethalamus. That is why the name hypothalamus and why it has been traditionally included as part of the diencephalon. However, that position is the result of the bending of neural tube during the embryonic development. Actually, topologically, the hypothalamus is rostral to the diencephalon, more precisely to the p3 diencephalic region. The hypothalamus is divided in alar and basal plates. The basal plate is subdivided in a caudal part containing the mamillar region and a rostral part or infundibular that originates the neurohypophisis. The hypothalamic alar plate is rostral to the prethalamus, and in the caudal part contains the paraventricular areas, whereas in the rostral part there is the supraoptic area. ...
Classic lesion experiments from the 1940s have established the hypothalamus as playing an essential role in controlling energy homeostasis. Gold-thioglucose (GTG) induces lesions in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) resulting in hyperphagia and obesity. To identify genes involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis, we employed a screen to search for genes that were dysregulated in GTG induced obese mice. In this screen, GPR7, the endogenous G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for the recently identified ligands neuropeptide B (NPB) and neuropeptide W (NPW), was found to be specifically down-regulated after GTG treatment. The physiological role of GPR7 was investigated by generating and analyzing mice with targeted disruption of GPR7. Male GPR7-/- mice developed an adult-onset obesity syndrome that progressively worsened with age and was greatly exacerbated when animals were fed a high fat diet. Male GPR7A mice were hyperphagic and had decreased energy expenditure and
CHAPTER 9 PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE BRAIN AND HYPOTHALAMUS Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism CHAPTER 9 PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE BRAIN AND HYPOTHALAMUS PAUL E. COOPER Hypothalamic-Pituitary Unit Embryology Functional Neuroanatomy Hypophysiotropic Hormones Functions of the Nonendocrine Hypothalamus Temperature Regulation Appetite Regulation Emotion and Libido Autonomic Functions Biologic Rhythms…
Action of enpiprazole on emotional behavior elicited by hypothalamic stimulation in rats and cats was investigated and comparisons were made with effects of diazepam. Two behavioral patterns were...
Peptide hormones have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must evade the blood-brain barrier. The hypothalamus is bounded in part by specialized brain regions that lack an effective blood-brain barrier; the capillary endothelium at these sites is fenestrated to allow free passage of even large proteins and other molecules. Some of these sites are the sites of neurosecretion - the neurohypophysis and the median eminence. However others are sites at which the brain samples the composition of the blood. Two of these sites, the subfornical organ and the OVLT (organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis) are so-called circumventricular organs, where neurons are in intimate contact with both blood and CSF. These structures are densely vascularized, and contain osmoreceptive and sodium-receptive neurons which control drinking, vasopressin release, sodium excretion, and sodium appetite. They also contain neurons with receptors for angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ...
Craniopharyngioma is a common tumor in childhood, but can also be seen in adults. These tumors often present with endocrine problems, abnormalities of appetite, visual problems. MRI gives diagnosis and treatment involves surgery. Attempt must be made at complete excision, with safeguarding of vital hypothalamic functions. Radiation may be required after surgery to halt tumor followed by surgical excision, with excellent results.. ...
Exploring the Regulatory Mechanism of Stress Responses in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: Backgrounds and Future Perspectives of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-Modified Yellow Fluorescent Protein-Knock-In MouseExploring the Regulatory Mechanism of Stress Responses in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: Backgrounds and Future Perspectives of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-Modified Yellow Fluorescent Protein-Knock-In Mouse ...
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due to the fact that in children the value of the surface area ratio and body weight greater than that of adults, children are at greater risk of hypothalamic function suppression -gipofizarno-adrenal system and the development of Cushings syndrome when applying any topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of children corticosteroids may impair their growth and development ...
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its family of five receptors are known to be associated with hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior, metabolism, and energy homeostasis in both rodents and humans. In particular, knock-out mice for the gene neuropeptide Y 2 receptor, NPY2R, exhibit hyperphagia and excessive weight gain. As a result, research on the gene has focused on genotyping analysis for the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obese human subjects and drug development for manipulation of its expression as a novel therapeutic treatment for obesity. Although primarily expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, NPY2R may also be found in other tissues including trabecular bone, vascular tissue, and colonic mucosa.. ...
Aging leads to the diminished pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin‑releasing hormone (GnRH). Kisspeptin (Kp), the upstream regulator of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑gonadal (HPG) axis, regulates GnRH synthesis and release through its cognate receptor, G‑protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54). In turn, GnRH regulates GPR54 expression. GnRH administration into the third ventricle has been shown to induce neurogenesis in different brain regions in old age. However, aging‑associated changes in hypothalamic and extra‑hypothalamic GPR54 expression were unclear. Therefore, the expression levels of GPR54 were evaluated in various brain regions of adult (age, 3‑4 months) and old (age, 20‑24 months) male Wistar rats in the present study. In the hypothalamus, mRNA and protein levels of Kp and GPR54 were identified to be significantly decreased in old age. Furthermore, GnRH1 expression in the hypothalamus was analyzed to observe the functional consequence of a reduced Kp‑GPR54 ...
Lesioning studies performed nearly 100 years ago identified the hypothalamus as a critical structure for the control of food intake. However the dynamics of the hypothalamic circuits that give rise to feeding behavior have long been a mystery. In 2015, we reported the first measurements of the activity dynamics of hypothalamic neurons that control hunger (AgRP neurons) in awake, behaving mice (Chen et al., Cell 2015). Prior to our work, these cells were thought to be regulated primarily by hormones and nutrients that circulate in the blood, such that their activity would gradually fluctuate in unison with changes in nutritional state. We discovered unexpectedly that these hunger neurons are also potently regulated by sensory cues associated with food: that is, we found that merely showing a piece of food to a hungry mouse was sufficient to shut off its AgRP neurons within seconds, often before a single bite of food could be consumed. We showed that this sensory regulation resembles an expected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - GnRH in non-hypothalamic reproductive tissues. AU - Ramakrishnappa, N.. AU - Rajamahendran, R.. AU - Lin, YungMing. AU - Leung, P. C.K.. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic neuronal secretory decapeptide that plays a pivotal role in mammalian reproduction. GnRH and its analogues are used extensively in the treatment of hormone dependent diseases and assisted reproductive technology. Fourteen structural variants and three different forms of GnRH, named as hypothalamic GnRH or GnRH-I, mid brain GnRH or GnRH-II and GnRH-III across various species of protochordates and vertebrates have been recognised. The hormone acts by binding to cell surface transmembrane G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and activates Gq/11 subfamily of G proteins. Although hypothalamus and pituitary are the principal source and target sites for GnRH, several reports have recently suggested extra-hypothalamic GnRH and GnRH receptors in various reproductive ...
Estradiol (E(2)) acts as a potent feedback molecule between the ovary and hypothalamic GnRH neurons, and exerts both positive and negative regulatory actions on GnRH synthesis and secretion. However, the extent to which these actions are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) expressed in GnRH neurons …
TLR4-mediated signaling pathways also activate the MAPK pathway, which triggers p38- and JNK-dependent signaling and activation of various activator protein-1 (AP-1) subunits. JNK mediates inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins at serine 307, thereby impairing insulin action (54). Constitutive JNK activation in AgRP neurons of the hypothalamus induces weight gain and adiposity in mice as a consequence of hyperphagia (55). In fact, conditional JNK1 knockout specifically in the brain, but not in other tissues, leads to protection against insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance (56, 57). Interestingly, activation of TLR4 signaling controls apoptotic activity of cells in the hypothalamus but subsequently activates proinflammatory pathways that ultimately lead to the development of central insulin and leptin resistance (58).. Elevations of sphingolipids such as ceramides, whose synthesis depends on SFAs, and alterations in downstream ...
Development and differentiation are key areas of research in our department. The specific fates of embryonic progenitor cells, and their patterning require a molecular dialogue between adjacent cell populations; yet the details of these molecular interactions remain elusive. Studies are therefore aimed to unravel the molecular underpinnings of the cross-talk between naïve embryonic cells utilizing both avian embryos and mouse genetic approaches, focusing on the signaling molecules that regulate heart and craniofacial development during early vertebrate embryogenesis. Utilizing zebrafish as a vertebrate model organism, researchers study the mechanisms of development that contribute to the formation of hypothalamic circuits starting from early cell fate decisions through later morphogenic processes that shape the neuro-anatomy of the hypothalamus. Studies also involve the characterization of myelinating glial cells and the mechanisms that enable them to form one of the most complex structures ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - PI3K signaling effects in hypothalamic neurons mediated by estrogen. AU - Malyala, Anna. AU - Zhang, Chunguang. AU - Bryant, Damani N.. AU - Kelly, Martin J.. AU - Rønnekleiv, Oline K.. PY - 2008/2/20. Y1 - 2008/2/20. N2 - Multiple mechanisms mediate the effects of estrogen in the central nervous system, including signal transduction pathways such as protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Previously we demonstrated that estrogen regulates a number of PI3K-related genes in the hypothalamus, including the PI3K p55γ regulatory subunit. We hypothesized that PI3K activation is critical for the effects of estrogen and that the p55γ subunit may be more prevalent than the p85α regulatory subunit in the hypothalamus. Therefore, in the present study, we compared the mRNA distribution of the p55γ and p85α regulatory subunits by using in situ hybridization in guinea pig. Expression level of p55γ mRNA was greater than p85α in most ...
Intensive selection for growth rate (GR) in broiler chickens carries negative after-effects, such as aberrations in skeletal development and the immune system, heart failure, and deterioration of meat quality. In Poland, fast-growing chicken populations are highly non-uniform in term of growth rate, which is highly unprofitable for poultry producers. Therefore, the identification of genetic markers for boiler GR that could support the selection process is needed. The hypothalamus is strongly associated with growth regulation by inducing important pituitary hormones. Therefore, the present study used this tissue to pinpoint genes involved in chicken growth control. The experiment included male broilers of Ross 308 strain in two developmental stages, after 3rd and 6th week of age, which were maintained in the same housing and feeding conditions. The obtained results show for the overexpression of genes related to orexigenic molecules, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member
Kim, Dong-Wook and Yao, Zizhen and Graybuck, Lucas T. et al. (2019) Multimodal Analysis of Cell Types in a Hypothalamic Node Controlling Social Behavior. Cell, 179 (3). pp. 713-728. ISSN 0092-8674. PMCID PMC7534821. Lo, Liching and Yao, Shenqin and Kim, Dong-Wook et al. (2019) Connectional architecture of a mouse hypothalamic circuit node controlling social behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116 (15). pp. 7503-7512. ISSN 0027-8424. PMCID PMC6462064. ...
Rezai-Zadeh K, Yu S, Jiang Y, Laque A, Schwartzenburg C, Morrison CD, Derbenev AV, Zsombok A, Münzberg H. Leptin receptor neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus are key regulators of energy expenditure and body weight, but not food intake. Mol Metab. 2014 Aug 6;3(7):681-93. doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2014.07.008. eCollection 2014 Oct. PubMed PMID: 25352997; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4209380. ^ top ...
The article covers a fractal analysis carried out on neuronal complexes of 5 nuclei in hypothalamus of the cow and cat. It has been established that they can be defined as monofractal clusters of the three nuclei with the same fractal dimension, the two clusters characterized by the bovine fewer measures of D clusters compared to the feline ones. Overall, the nuclei are defined as multifractals ...
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the interrelationships of the anatomy and functions of the hypothalamus and the posterior and a
The protein fragment nesfatin-1 was recently implicated in the control of food intake. Central administration of this fragment results in anorexia and reduced body weight gain, whereas antisense or immunological nesfatin-1 antagonism causes increased food intake and overweight. Nesfatin-1 is derived from the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). To identify the neurocircuitry underpinning the catabolic effects of NUCB2/nesfatin-1, we have used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the distribution of this protein and its mRNA in the rat CNS and performed double-labeling experiments to localize its expression to functionally defined neuronal populations. These experiments confirm previous observations but also present several novel NUCB2 cell populations. Both NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-like immunoreactivity was most concentrated in the hypothalamus, in the supraoptic, paraventricular, periventricular and arcuate nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area/perifornical region. Additionally, ...
This is an article covering the gross anatomy, the nuclei and the neuroendocrine pathways of the hypothalamus. Learn now everything about it at Kenhub!
In this study, researchers at Ewha Womans University in South Korea investigated the molecular mechanisms that link obesity to inflammation in the hypothalamus. Their findings were published in the journal Nutrition Research. Inflammation is a distinct feature of obesity. Insulin resistance is associated with increased inflammation in the adipose tissue and the liver. Recent studies also suggest […]
BioAssay record AID 628198 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of drug uptake in hypothalamus to cerebellum in Sprague-Dawley rat at 25 uCi, iv after 2 mins.
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About the size of a pearl, the hypothalamus directs a multitude of important functions in the body. It is the control center for many autonomic functions.
Hypothalamus[edit]. Main article: Hypothalamus. The endocrine system consists of numerous glands throughout the body that ... remains under the control of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary gland via releasing factors and ... The GHRH neurones are located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, whereas the somatostatin cells involved in growth ... The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary's hormone secretion by sending trophic hormones down the ...
Secondary amenorrhoea (menstrual cycles ceasing) is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the ... hypothalamus. Pituitary and hypothalamic causes are often grouped together. Women who perform considerable amounts of exercise ...
Hypothalamic dysfunction refers to the hypothalamus, which is a structure within the brain which participates in regulating the ... "hypothalamus , Definition, Anatomy, & Function". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-06-03. Bougnères, Pierre; Pantalone, ... Central hypoventilation syndrome Obesity hypoventilation syndrome Hypoventilation Hypothalamus Rare disease Ibáñez-Micó, S.; ...
... hypothalamus; subthalamus, basal ganglia - putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens; septal nuclei), cerebellar (deep ...
Hypothalamus. Medulla: dorsal nuc. of vagus. - Autonomic dysfunction: temperature; cardiocirculatory; respiratory. Medulla: ... hypothalamus, and cerebellar vermis. Brainstem lesions may include cranial nerve III, IV, VI and VIII nuclei, the medial ...
... hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine organs. The hypothalamus and the ... Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is a key regulator of the autonomic nervous system. The endocrine system has three sets of ... In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. In humans, the major endocrine glands ... Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary gland Pineal gland Posterior pituitary gland The posterior pituitary gland is a section of the ...
Hypothalamus. *gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency). *vasopressin ...
It may be due to a defect or damage to the thirst mechanism, located in the hypothalamus;[7] or due to mental illness. ... In addition, the hypothalamus regulates the sensation of thirst in the ventromedial nucleus by sensing increases in serum ... The regulation of urine production occurs in the hypothalamus, which produces ADH in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei ... With increased osmolarity, the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect this change and stimulate thirst. With increased thirst ...
Hypothalamus. *gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency). *vasopressin ...
It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa ... The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the ... Oxytocin, most of which is released from the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is one of the few hormones ... The release of pituitary hormones by both the anterior and posterior lobes is under the control of the hypothalamus, albeit in ...
Melmed S, Jameson JL (2005). "Disorders of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus". In Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, et al ... It is attached to the hypothalamus, a part of the brain, by a stalk that also contains the blood vessels that supply the gland ... The pituitary gland normally derives its blood supply from vessels that pass through the hypothalamus, but tumors develop a ...
Hypothalamus. *gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency). *vasopressin ...
Nuclei of the Hypothalamus: The preoptic area is located in the anterior portion of the hypothalamus, superior to the optic ... The median preoptic nucleus is located dorsal to the other three nuclei of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus. The ... The hypothalamus is highly involved in maintaining homeostasis of the body, and the median preoptic nucleus is no exception, ... The median preoptic nucleus is located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. Forming a critical part of the anteroventral ...
Main article: Hypothalamus. Hypothalamic control. Hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by hormones ... Neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus project axons to the median eminence, at the base of the brain. At this site, these ... The hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and ... These glucocorticoids act back on the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus with negative feedback to slow the ...
Hypothalamus. *gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency). *vasopressin ...
Thalamocortical (TC) fibers have been referred to as one of the two constituents of the isothalamus, the other being micro neurons. Thalamocortical fibers have a bush or tree-like appearance as they extend into the internal capsule and project to the layers of the cortex. The main thalamocortical fibers extend from different nuclei of the thalamus and project to the visual cortex, somatosensory (and associated sensori-motor) cortex, and the auditory cortex in the brain. Thalamocortical radiations also innervate the gustatory pathways, as well as pre-frontal motor areas. Visual input from the optic tract is processed by the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, auditory input in the medial geniculate nucleus, and somatosensory input in the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Thalamic nuclei project to cortical areas of distinct architectural organization and relay the processed information back to the area of original activity in the thalamus via corticothalamic (CT) fibers.[2] The ...
Hypothalamus. *gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency). *vasopressin ...
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH,[1] ARC,[2] or infundibular nucleus[2][3]) is an aggregation of ... project strongly to the lateral hypothalamus and to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and are important in the ... Dudas B (2013). The Human Hypothalamus: Anatomy, Functions and Disorders. New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-62081- ... Other types of neurons have projection pathways from the arcuate nucleus to mediate different regions of the hypothalamus or to ...
This hormone is naturally secreted by the hypothalamus and stimulates the pituitary gland. The pituitary responds by releasing ...
Hypothalamus. *gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency). *vasopressin ...
... many of these children will have already had central precocious puberty triggered by the prolonged exposure of the hypothalamus ...
Brain tumors e.g. craniopharyngioma, prolactinoma, germinoma, glioma; diseases of hypothalamus, irradiation and trauma. ...
hypothalamus. Dopamine system Dopamine pathways: *mesocortical pathway. *mesolimbic pathway. *nigrostriatal pathway. * ...
The subthalamus is located ventral to the thalamus, medial to the internal capsule and lateral to the hypothalamus. It is a ... During development the subthalamus is continuous with the hypothalamus, but is separated by white matter fibres mainly from the ... It also lies dorsolateral to the hypothalamus. ...
The hypothalamus is a small region at the base of the forebrain, whose complexity and importance belies its size. It is ... The hypothalamus is a collection of small nuclei, most of which are involved in basic biological functions. Some of these ... The hypothalamus is engaged in additional involuntary or partially voluntary acts such as sleep and wake cycles, eating and ... The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake ...
"Threshold - "For The Journey" Tour 2014". Hypothalamus (in German). 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 21 April ...
... nerve cells also receive signals from the brainstem and from neurons in the hypothalamus, a brain area ... "Hypothalamus," Neuroscience Coursebook. University of Wisconsin. January 21, 2005. Web. ...
Histamine works with the central nervous system (CNS), specifically the hypothalamus (tuberomammillary nucleus) and CNS mast ... and hypothalamus. ... While the best characterized function of the histamine system in the brain is regulation of sleep and ... of the posterior hypothalamus. As discussed in Chapter 6, these neurons project widely throughout the brain from restricted ... which pass through the lateral hypothalamus and reach axons of the histaminergic tubero-mamillary nucleus (TMN), together ...
All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is the size of an almond. The hypothalamus is responsible for the ... Most nerve fibres within the hypothalamus run in two ways (bidirectional). *Projections to areas caudal to the hypothalamus go ... The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most ... The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system.[1] In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it ...
HypothalamusEdit. In turn, the hypothalamus controls the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary by secreting a class ... Most tropic hormones are produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary.[1] The hypothalamus secretes tropic hormones that ... target the anterior pituitary, and the thyroid gland secretes thyroxine, which targets the hypothalamus and therefore can be ...
All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is the size of an almond. The hypothalamus is responsible for the ... Most nerve fibres within the hypothalamus run in two ways (bidirectional). Projections to areas caudal to the hypothalamus go ... Stained brain slice images which include the "Hypothalamus" at the BrainMaps project The Hypothalamus and Pituitary at ... The hypothalamus (from Ancient Greek ὑπό, "under", and θάλαμος, "chamber") is a portion of the brain that contains a number of ...
The hypothalamus.. Br Med J 1972; 2 doi: (Published 08 April 1972) Cite this as: Br Med J ...
The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces hormones that control: ... Because the hypothalamus controls so many different functions, hypothalamic disease can have many different symptoms, depending ... Pituitary hormones and their control by the hypothalamus. In: Hall JE, ed. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 13th ...
... melanin-concentrating hormone in the lateral hypothalamus and with pre-pro-orexin in the ventromedial hypothalamus (Inui, 1999 ... The lateral hypothalamus (LH), also called the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within ... Two of the most commonly noted functions of orexin peptides in the lateral hypothalamus are the promotion of feeding behavior ... Through the diverse outputs of the orexin system, the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus mediate an array of functions ...
The hypothalamus is a highly complex structure in the brain that regulates many important brain chemicals. Malfunction of this ... The hypothalamus is a highly complex structure in the brain that regulates many important brain chemicals. Malfunction of this ...
Women who take the birth control pill have a smaller hypothalamus than those who do not, and report more anger and depression, ... Women who take the birth control pill have a smaller hypothalamus than those who do not, and report anger and depression more ... However, "I would not tell people that their hypothalamus might shrink if they take the pill, given that this is a cross- ... "This is the first time anyone has looked at the hypothalamus; its always been a difficult area to measure," said Vincent ...
Parts of the hypothalamus related to appetite. Some parts of the hypothalamus are related to appetite. These include:. *The ... The hypothalamus via various mechanisms controls appetite and food intake. It is also responsible for the control of hunger and ... In the basal hypothalamus there are several nuclei that regulate daily energy homeostasis. These control the appetite. ... Ventromedial nucleus and lateral hypothalamus - It has been seen that any lesion in these areas leads to excessive appetite, ...
The hypothalamus controls some of the basic functions of life including hormonal activity via the pituitary gland. There are ... The volume of a specific nucleus in the hypothalamus (third cell group of the interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus ... In men, the hypothalamus has a higher number of androgen receptors (AR) than young adult women. There are differences in ARs in ... The hypothalamus controls some of the basic functions of life including hormonal activity via the pituitary gland. There are ...
Hypothalamus definition is - a basal part of the diencephalon that lies beneath the thalamus on each side, forms the floor of ... Comments on hypothalamus. What made you want to look up hypothalamus? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the ... Post the Definition of hypothalamus to Facebook Share the Definition of hypothalamus on Twitter ... Examples of hypothalamus in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web. When a stressor occurs, the amygdala region perceives the ...
... , Hypothalamus Gland, Anterior Hypothalamus, Medial Hypothalamus, Posterior Hypothalamus, Paraventricular ... hypothalamus gland, gland hypothalamus, glands hypothalamus, Hypothalamus / hypothalamus gland, hypothalamus/hypothalamus gl. ... Hypothalamus. Aka: Hypothalamus, Hypothalamus Gland, Anterior Hypothalamus, Medial Hypothalamus, Posterior Hypothalamus, ... Hypothalamus, Medial, Hypothalamus, Middle, Medial Hypothalamus, Middle Hypothalamus, Intermediate hypothalamic region, ...
The tumor seems to be pushing on the little tube connecting the hypothalamus to the pituitary, which could be elevating my ... Did your MRI report actually mention that it is pressing against the hypothalamus? Also keep in mind that these pituitary ... prolactin levels (not the tumor). Alternatively, has anyone else had a tumor that has affected their hypothalamus? Thanks in ...
Hypothalamus. The hypothalamus, also known as the "master gland," is a supervising center in the brain that links the bodys ... The hypothalamus is a very complex region, and even small nuclei within the hypothalamus are involved in many different ... Most fiber systems of the hypothalamus run in two ways (bidirectional).. *Projections to areas caudal to the hypothalamus go ... Hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system. Neuroscience tutorial, The Washington University School of Medicine. Retrieved May ...
... Shawn Hayley shayley at Mon Feb 5 12:55:32 EST 2001 *Previous message: Map of the ... I am planning to assay histamine (using ELISA) in the mouse hypothalamus after cytokine treatments. Thanks Shawn *Previous ...
... Pedro J. Recover precover at Mon Jul 8 11:19:54 EST 1996 *Previous ... It is due to a brain tumor at the hypothalamus. If you have any answers about treatment, please let me know via E-mail. ...
All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is the size of an almond. The hypothalamus is responsible for the ... Most nerve fibres within the hypothalamus run in two ways (bidirectional). *Projections to areas caudal to the hypothalamus go ... The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most ... The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system.[1] In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it ...
Make research projects and school reports about hypothalamus easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Hypothalamus Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a tiny part of the brain of ... Hypothalamus Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. Hypothalamus. A section of the forebrain, ... Hanging on a stalk underneath the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland.. The hypothalamus receives many important sensory inputs ...
The hypothalamus is a small, vital section of the brain located just below the thalamus; it is in charge of numerous important ... Hypothalamus Gains Admittance Essays. 1106 Words Nov 14th, 2007 5 Pages The hypothalamus is a small, vital section of the brain ... Damage to the Hypothalamus Essay. 2166 Words , 9 Pages * The Hypothalamus : Human Body s Internal Balance System. 1824 Words ... Damage to the Hypothalamus Essay. 2166 Words , 9 Pages "The hypothalamus is a small area near the base of the brain just ...
The Hypothalamus. Lesson 6. The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain beneath the thalamus. It may be helpful to divide this ... It is imperative to recognize that the hypothalamus creates strong drives or impulses to maintain a constant internal balance. ...
The orexinergic projections from the lateral hypothalamus innervate the entirety of the remainder of the hypothalamus, with ... The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area,[1] contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the ... melanin-concentrating hormone in the lateral hypothalamus and with pre-pro-orexin in the ventromedial hypothalamus (Inui, 1999 ... Two of the most commonly noted functions of orexin peptides in the lateral hypothalamus are the promotion of feeding behavior ...
Can you pick the Hypothalamus (Lec.13b)? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to ... Science Quiz / Hypothalamus (Lec.13b). Random Science or Clickable Quiz Can you pick the Hypothalamus (Lec.13b)?. by ... Lateral Hypothalamus= Hunger... Medial Hypothalamus=Satiety). The FLAT PiG hormones are released via the ANTERIOR PITUITARY. ... The Anterior Hypothalamus is responsible for __________. (Heat Loss OR Heat Conservation). The Posterior Hypothalamus is ...
... The neuroscience sequence is foundational in nature ... Disciplines with similar materials as M1 Central Nervous System/ Head & Neck- Hypothalamus Pituitary Development ... Other materials like M1 Central Nervous System/ Head & Neck- Hypothalamus Pituitary Development ... Edit comment for material M1 Central Nervous System/ Head & Neck- Hypothalamus Pituitary Development ...
Blood supply of the hypothalamus. Strokes of the hypothalamus are vanishingly rare, as the hypothalamus has the most luxuriant ... Architecture of the hypothalamus Located just behind and between the eyes, the anterior border of the hypothalamus is formed by ... Inputs to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus sits at a crossroads in the brain, receiving direct sensory inputs from the smell ... The hypothalamus is a small area at the base of the brain, weighing about 4 gm out of the 1400 gm brain weight of an adult ...
The hypothalamus has received significant attention in this regard given its ability to influence feeding behavior, yet ... Neuronal Regulation of Energy Homeostasis: Beyond the Hypothalamus and Feeding.. Waterson MJ1, Horvath TL2. ...
Purchase Human Hypothalamus: Basic and Clinical Aspects, Part II, Volume 80 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... 17.1 Blood supply to the hypothalamus and pituitary. 17.2 Vascular lesions of the hypothalamus. 17.3. Choroid plexus of the ... 21.1 Neurosarcoidosis of the hypothalamus. 21.2 Multiple sclerosis (MS) and the hypothalamus. 21.3 Langerhans cell ... Human Hypothalamus: Basic and Clinical Aspects, Part II, Volume 80 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ...
Hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. ... The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, and circadian cycles.. This text uses material from ... The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the Autonomic Nervous System. It ... One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary ...
My main suggestion is to include a figure showing the various nuclei of the hypothalamus. Other minor points: 1. par. 2 of ... Secondary figures for the different functions of the hypothalamus, mostly showing or highlighting the particular nuclei ... Retrieved from "" ...
This is well illustrated in the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hypothalamus and Endocrine Functions held in ... This is well illustrated in the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hypothalamus and Endocrine Functions held in ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad Axis. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that ... Keep in mind that what we are going to be focusing on is the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad Axis. So, a lot of this is going to ... And were going to have secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus, which is going to control FSH and LH from the pituitary, again ... So were going to form GnRH in the hypothalamus, thats going to cause production of two different hormones in the pituitary. ...
... By Mark Wanner A collaborative team from UConn Storrs and The Jackson ... The hypothalamus, while physically a small part of the brain, nonetheless controls some of our most fundamental life functions ... It is also known that the hypothalamus and its substructures are populated by diverse neuronal cell types, underlying the many ... The neural circuitry of the hypothalamus is highly conserved, meaning its very similar across species, including mice and ...
  • Through direct attachment to the pituitary gland , the hypothalamus also meters secretions controlling water balance and milk production in the female. (
  • One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. (
  • The hypothalamus controls some of the basic functions of life including hormonal activity via the pituitary gland. (
  • Mark Lieber, CNN , "Maintaining a daily rhythm is important for mental health, study suggests," 15 May 2018 Normally, your brain's hypothalamus releases GnRH, which stimulates your pituitary gland to let loose some FSH and LH. (
  • Defects of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. (
  • The hypothalamus, also known as the "master gland," is a supervising center in the brain that links the body's two control systems, the nervous system and the endocrine system , via interaction with the pituitary gland (hypophysis). (
  • As needed, the hypothalamus synthesizes and secretes neurohormones , often called "releasing hormones," that control the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland . (
  • The hypothalamus has a special structural and functional relationship with the pituitary gland, which dangles below it, attached by a thin stalk of nerve fibers. (
  • The hypothalamus is shaped like a cone and ends in the pituitary stalk, a part of the pituitary gland. (
  • The hypothalamus is the connection between the nervous system and the endocrine system, creating this link by producing and secreting neurohormones that in turn stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones. (
  • The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). (
  • Volumetric differences of the hypothalamus and/or the pituitary gland tend to support involvement of the HPA axis in psychotic disorders. (
  • No significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in volumes of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. (
  • The hypothalamus produces hormones that control the production of hormones in the pituitary gland. (
  • Low levels can cause infertility, while high levels can disrupt communication between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. (
  • Which of the following hormones is created in the hypothalamus, then sent to the pituitary gland? (
  • Instead, the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland are created in the hypothalamus, and are then sent to the pituitary gland. (
  • The pituitary gland is under the control of the hypothalamus. (
  • The pituitary gland is connected to the base of the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk. (
  • Anatomy of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. (
  • The hypothalamic nuclei include the following: See also ventrolateral preoptic nucleus periventricular nucleus Cross-section of the monkey hypothalamus displays two of the major hypothalamic nuclei on either side of the fluid-filled third ventricle. (
  • Hypothalamic nuclei Hypothalamic nuclei on one side of the hypothalamus, shown in a 3-D computer reconstruction The hypothalamus is highly interconnected with other parts of the central nervous system, in particular the brainstem and its reticular formation. (
  • Because the hypothalamus controls so many different functions, hypothalamic disease can have many different symptoms, depending on the cause. (
  • Medial prefrontal cortex Central nucleus of the amygdala The orexinergic projections from the lateral hypothalamus innervate the entirety of the remainder of the hypothalamus, with robust projections to the posterior hypothalamus, tuberomammillary nucleus (the histamine projection nucleus), the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. (
  • Ingestion of food is particularly controlled by hypothalamic sites, such as the ventromedial nucleus (VMN), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and lateral hypothalamus (LH). (
  • A cross section of the monkey hypothalamus displays 2 of the major hypothalamic nuclei on either side of the fluid-filled 3rd ventricle. (
  • When the hypothalamus, using signals like those just described, establishes a need for response, hypothalamic cells influence other cells in two ways. (
  • To understand how the hypothalamic study came to be we must understand the functions of the hypothalamus in the brain. (
  • The periventricular axon system occupies the medial wall of the hypothalamus along the third ventricle, medial to most of the hypothalamic nuclei. (
  • This is well illustrated in the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hypothalamus and Endocrine Functions held in Quebec City on September 21-24th, 1975, which indi- cates that impressive progress has been made in large variety of aspects of hypothalamic hormone research. (
  • present a comprehensive census of molecularly distinct cell types in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), a critical coordinator of behaviors within the hypothalamus. (
  • Our results suggest that the changes in neuronal activity in the hypothalamus are mainly driven by energy ingestion and EB does not influence the hypothalamic response. (
  • Hypothalamic MC4Rs in rodents are well characterized in neuroanatomical and functional terms, but their expression pattern in the human hypothalamus is unknown. (
  • Tangential migrations from nearby forebrain areas into the hypothalamus, as well as internal migrations, are not exceptional during hypothalamic development (e.g. (
  • Mattam U, Talari NK, Thiriveedi VR, Fareed M, Velmurugan S, Mahadev K and Sepuri NV: Aging reduces kisspeptin receptor (GPR54) expression levels in the hypothalamus and extra‑hypothalamic brain regions. (
  • 26.3 Ventromedial hypothalamus syndrome and the effect of lesions on aggression. (
  • To test the hypothesis that nuclei of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) play a key role in the detection of counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, we delivered the glucopenic agent 2-deoxyglucose via bilaterally placed microdialysis probes into the VMH of conscious, chronically catheterized rats. (
  • The modulation of oxytocin (OT) receptors (OTRs) by estrogen was investigated in the ventromedial hypothalamus by in vitro receptor autoradiography. (
  • Thus, the OTR is an estrogen-induced neurotransmitter receptor that is transported to its site of action, the lateral ventromedial hypothalamus, where it is modulated by P and where estrogen-induced OT immunoreactivity is found. (
  • We have previously reported that a glucosensor integrating hormonal responses to hypoglycemia is located in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and that local VMH glucose perfusion blocks counterregulatory hormone responses. (
  • While it is likely that several brain regions as well as extracerebral glucose-sensing neurons are involved ( 3 - 7 ), there is long-standing evidence supporting a central role for the hypothalamus, particularly the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), which is also recognized as a regulator of food intake ( 8 - 11 ). (
  • Here we show that optogenetic, but not electrical, stimulation of neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus, ventrolateral subdivision (VMHvl) causes male mice to attack both females and inanimate objects, as well as males. (
  • The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system. (
  • The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑποθαλαμος, "under the thalamus") is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem, and occupies the major portion of the ventral region of the brain known as the diencephalon. (
  • The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain beneath the thalamus. (
  • The hypothalamus, literally located below the thalamus , is divided in the midline by the third ventricle. (
  • It contains axons that connect the hypothalamus with the brainstem and thalamus. (
  • The hypothalamus, (from Greek ὑποθαλαμος = under the thalamus) is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem. (
  • The primary outcome is the connectivity index of the hypothalamus to the midbrain and pons area known to be activated in migraine attacks and the trigeminal-cervical complex The secondary outcome is the connectivity index of the hypothalamus with the pain matrix (thalamus, sensitive-motor cortex, cingular cortex) This study is a comparative monocentric pathophysiological study of patients with migraine. (
  • The word 'hypothalamus' is derived from the two Greek words 'hypo' and 'thalamus. (
  • Fitting, since the hypothalamus rests below the thalamus, between the two hemispheres of the brain. (
  • To be a bit more specific , the hypothalamus lies near the center of the cranial cavity below the thalamus. (
  • The diencaphalon is a collection of structures housed under the cerebral cortex, including the thalamus and the hypothalamus. (
  • The results show extensive distribution of LR-like immunoreactivity (LR-LI) in the brain with positively stained cells present, e.g., in the choroid plexus, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. (
  • By contrast, decreased connectivity of the hypothalamus-related areas was primarily located in the inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, cingulated gyrus, precuneus, thalamus, and cerebellum. (
  • Hypothalamus and Thalamus: Experimental Documentation. (
  • Any of various specialized groups of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata, thalamus, or hypothalamus of the brain. (
  • Several progesterone derivatives have been shown to activate regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus, and the activations are differentiated with respect to sex and sexual orientation of the smeller in relation to the respective compounds. (
  • Notably, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is colocalized on orexinergic projection neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and many output structures, where the CB1 and orexin receptor 1 (OX1) receptors form the CB1-OX1 receptor heterodimer. (
  • Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is colocalized on orexinergic projection neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and many output structures, where the CB1 and orexin receptor 1 (OX1) receptors physically and functionally join together to form the CB1-OX1 receptor heterodimer. (
  • Through the diverse outputs of the orexin system, the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus mediate an array of functions. (
  • Two of the most commonly noted functions of orexin peptides in the lateral hypothalamus are the promotion of feeding behavior and arousal (i.e., wakefulness). (
  • More generally, the orexinergic neural projections of the lateral hypothalamus are involved in thermoregulation, regulating gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal function by way of the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve, reducing pain and nociception through several output structures (e.g., periaqueductal gray matter), modulating the rewarding property of stimuli through the ventral tegmental area projections and other outputs in the reward system, regulating energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine functions (e.g. (
  • Narcolepsy is associated with a marked reduction in the number of orexinergic projection neurons from the lateral hypothalamus and very low orexin peptides in cerebrospinal fluid. (
  • Ventromedial nucleus and lateral hypothalamus - It has been seen that any lesion in these areas leads to excessive appetite, and abnormal body weight gain that persist for a long time. (
  • Lateral hypothalamus is 'LT', at right, in yellow. (
  • What are the 'Lateral boundaries' of the Hypothalamus? (
  • Lateral Hypothalamus= Hunger. (
  • Treatment of ovariectomized and adrenalectomized rats with various doses of estradiol benzoate (EB) increased OTR binding not only in the ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus (VMN), but also in the area lateral to the nuclei (IVMN). (
  • In the hypothalamus, strongly LR-IR neurons were present in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, and lateral hypothalamus. (
  • Melanin-concentrating hormone-containing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus had LR-LI. (
  • The periventricular grey is formed mainly by isodendritic bipolar and multipolar neurons, while in the lateral hypothalamus a more stellate form of neuronal elements is encountered. (
  • The overall pattern of the lizard hypothalamus (organization of neuropil, lateral nuclei, appearance of cell clusters, morphology of the neuronal elements) represents an intermediate stage in the phylogenetic development of the hypothalamus, being more advanced than the amphibian stage. (
  • Nuclei including the lateral habenula (LHb), the lateral hypothalamus (LH), and the midbrain are not only reciprocally connected, but also respond to negative events contributing to goal-directed behaviors. (
  • The lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the medial portion of the ventral tegmental area (mVTA), innervate the LHb ( Herkenham and Nauta, 1977 ). (
  • In mammals, magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus produce neurohypophysial hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin. (
  • Pituitary hormones and their control by the hypothalamus. (
  • According to the Mayo Clinic, stress affects your brain's hypothalamus , which is the control center for the hormones that govern your menstrual cycle. (
  • Peptide hormones have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must evade the blood-brain barrier . (
  • This structure receives 'releasing or inhibiting factors' from the Hypothalamus to regulate release of its hormones. (
  • The Hypothalamus releases several 'releasing & inhibiting hormones' into the Anterior Pituitary via the Hypophyseal Portal System. (
  • Effect of fluoride on human hypothalamus-hypophysis-testis axis hormones. (
  • The hypothalamus, a part of the brain, is responsible for many hormones. (
  • The two hormones made in the hypothalamus are antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. (
  • I am planning to assay histamine (using ELISA) in the mouse hypothalamus after cytokine treatments. (
  • Estrogen replacement therapy regulation of energy metabolism in female mouse hypothalamus. (
  • Recent analysis of the ontogeny of peptidergic neuronal populations expressing Sst, Ghrh, Crh and Trh mRNAs in the mouse hypothalamus showed that these cell types originate from particular dorsoventral domains, characterized by specific combinations of gene markers. (
  • Neuropathology of the Human Hypothalamus and Adjacent Brain Structures. (
  • Design and methods: To determine the topographic distribution and identity of cells expressing MC4R mRNA in the human hypothalamus, locked nucleic acid in situ hybridization was performed on nine human postmortem hypothalami. (
  • Conclusion: Expression of MC4R mRNA in the human hypothalamus is widespread and in close approximation to endogenous MC4R binding partners AgRP and α-MSH. (
  • 3D rendition of the human hypothalamus within the mid-brain, responsible for homeostasis, viewed through a CGI of an anatomical male cranial vault (head) on a black background. (
  • Secondary figures for the different functions of the hypothalamus, mostly showing or highlighting the particular nuclei involved and their interactions. (
  • This showed that loss of MYT1L in zebrafish causes a problem with the development of the hypothalamus, which may explain how MYT1L mutations cause obesity in humans. (
  • The purpose is to compare, using functional magnetic resonance imagery in resting-state, the connectivity of the hypothalamus in 2 groups of migraineurs. (
  • Our purpose is to study the connectivity of the hypothalamus to midbrain and pons areas activated in previous studies using positon emission tomography (PET) in spontaneous migraine attacks. (
  • The connectivity of the hypothalamus with the trigeminal-cervical complex, conveying the pain from cranial vasculature and dura-mater playing a major role in migraine attack, has never been studied before, mainly for anatomical reasons. (
  • Our secondary purpose is to study the connectivity of the hypothalamus with the pain matrix and the possible correlations with depression, allodynia and attack treatment overuse. (
  • Our findings may infer that antidepressant treatment can alter the functional connectivity of the hypothalamus resting brain to achieve its therapeutic effect. (
  • The Arcuate nucleus - The arcuate nucleus (ARC) is located at the base of the hypothalamus. (
  • A number of hormonal and neural orexigenic and anorexigenic signaling pathways have now been shown to be associated with changes in malonyl CoA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. (
  • The hypothalamus sends signals to the medulla, where the parasympathetic vagal nuclei and cell groups that descend to the spinal cord are located, which help drive the autonomic system. (
  • In the basal hypothalamus there are several nuclei that regulate daily energy homeostasis. (
  • Neuronal Regulation of Energy Homeostasis: Beyond the Hypothalamus and Feeding. (
  • In the present study, we exploited RNA interference mediated by adeno-associated viral vectors to achieve focused silencing of ERα in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, a key center of energy homeostasis. (
  • The hypothalamus regulates body temperature, blood pressure, heartbeat, metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, and sugar levels in the blood. (
  • The middle third of the hypothalamus contains the nuclei that regulate feeding, energy metabolism, stress responses, and coordinate all these with wake-sleep cycles. (
  • The hypothalamus was known to regulate important processes including growth, development, reproduction and metabolism. (
  • A better understanding of how malonyl CoA regulates energy balance should provide novel approaches to targeting intermediary metabolism in the hypothalamus as a mechanism to control appetite and body weight. (
  • The shape of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, involved with circadian rhythms and reproduction cycles is different in men and women. (
  • Bridget Alex, Discover Magazine , "What Science Says About Why You're Stressed and How to Cope," 21 June 2019 Something, perhaps a substance that accumulates in the hypothalamus , might modulate the circadian clock on a multi-day cycle. (
  • Quanta Magazine , "Teeth May Reveal a Multi-Day Biological Clock," 13 Dec. 2016 The part of the brain that controls circadian timing is the suprachiasmatic nucleus within the hypothalamus . (
  • The hypothalamus coordinates many seasonal and circadian rhythms , complex patterns of neuroendocrine outputs, complex homeostatic mechanisms, and many important stereotyped behaviors. (
  • Together, these findings provide mechanistic insights into the generation of neuronal diversity in the hypothalamus. (
  • This analysis should aid ulterior attempts to explain causally the development of neuronal diversity in the hypothalamus, and contribute to our understanding of its topographic complexity in the adult. (
  • hypothalamus hī˝pəthăl´əməs [ key ] , an important supervisory center in the brain , rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. (
  • Despite its numerous vital functions, the hypothalamus in humans accounts for only 1⁄300 of total brain weight, and is about the size of an almond. (
  • The hypothalamus (from Ancient Greek ὑπό, "under", and θάλαμος, "chamber") is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. (
  • The hypothalamus is a highly complex structure in the brain that regulates many important brain chemicals. (
  • Brain MRI depicting hypothalamus in red. (
  • My daughter died of inborn brain tumor, it grows inside her hypothalamus according to her neurologist. (
  • Many can interfere with the activity of the hypothalamus , a part of the brain that helps regulate temperature and thirst. (
  • The hypothalamus is a brain structure made up of distinct nuclei as well as less anatomically distinct areas. (
  • The hypothalamus is a thin (3 to 4 millimeters [.118 to .157 inches] in thickness) plate of neural tissue found along either side of the front end of the third ventricle (one of the fluid-filled cavities inside the brain). (
  • It is almost completely hidden by the overlying cerebral hemisphere, although when a brain is removed for study, the hypothalamus is visible on the basal surface. (
  • The hypothalamus, a specific part of the brain, can show someone's sexuality and justify their sexual behavior based on size and structure. (
  • The hypothalamus is a small area at the base of the brain , weighing about 4 gm out of the 1400 gm brain weight of an adult human, yet it performs a wide range of functions that are vital for the survival of the individual. (
  • Strokes of the hypothalamus are vanishingly rare, as the hypothalamus has the most luxuriant blood supply in the brain, befitting a site that is absolutely critical to maintain life. (
  • The hypothalamus sits at a crossroads in the brain, receiving direct sensory inputs from the smell, taste, visual, and somatosensory systems. (
  • The hypothalamus, while physically a small part of the brain, nonetheless controls some of our most fundamental life functions. (
  • Stem cells in the brain hypothalamus govern how fast aging occurs in the body, and could lead to new strategies for warding off age-related diseases and extending lifespan. (
  • Now, the scientists have pinpointed the cells in the hypothalamus that control aging: a tiny population of adult neural stem cells, which were known to be responsible for forming new brain neurons. (
  • 11 ), TRα1 is expressed widely in the brain, including in the hypothalamus in rodents ( 12 ), which is the control center of central autonomic outflow (Figure 1 ). (
  • The present study attempted to explore modulated hypothalamus-seeded resting brain network underlying the cardiovascular system in primary hypertensive patients after short-term acupuncture treatment. (
  • Acupuncture may regulate the cardiovascular system through a complicated brain network from the cortical level, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem. (
  • Hypothalamus disorders come from a very small cone-shaped area in your brain that has the important job of being in control of various metabolic processes in your body. (
  • When this part of your brain is not functioning the way that it should, the result is an array of hypothalamus disorders. (
  • Tumors - Although, this cause is not as common as the others, hypothalamus disorders can be caused by the growth of a tumor in that area of the brain. (
  • Headaches - Frequent episodes of mild to severe headaches are caused by brain tumors that grow either in or close to the hypothalamus. (
  • The hypothalamus is a key integrative centre in the vertebrate brain that regulates many essential functions, including homeostasis and stress responses. (
  • Subsequently, neurons that are activated or inhibited by glucose have been described in the hypothalamus, brain stem, and the portal vein ( 6 - 9 ). (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of antidepressant treatment (sertraline) on hypothalamus-anchored resting brain circuitry. (
  • Overall, this study identified miRNA profiles and differentially expressed miRNAs among various developmental stages in hypothalamus and pituitary and indicated miRNA profiles change with age and brain location, enhancing our knowledge about spatial and temporal expressions of miRNAs in the porcine developing brain. (
  • If the hypothalamus is damaged due to traumatic brain injury or genetic factors, overall hormonal health will suffer. (
  • We therefore investigate early life predisposition in the round goby Neogobius melanostomus by growth back-calculations and then study DNA methylation by MBD-Seq in the brain region controlling vertebrate reproductive behavior, the hypothalamus. (
  • This study shows that administration of 1 mg/kg of LABELED NAD+ crosses the blood brain barrier to enter the hypothalamus INTACT, increases NAD+ levels, reduces hunger and weight gain, and increases energy expenditure and fat burning in mice. (
  • In the Department of Molecular Neurosciences at the Center for Brain Research of the Medical University of Vienna, scientists have now described many previously unknown neurons in the hypothalamus and determined the function of a hitherto uncharted dopamine cell. (
  • Cardiovascular responses evoked by leptin acting on neurons in the ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamus. (
  • The hypothalamus receives many inputs from the brainstem, the most notable from the nucleus of the solitary tract, the locus coeruleus, and the ventrolateral medulla. (
  • The hypothalamus thus is connected extensively with many parts of the central nervous system , including the brainstem reticular formation and autonomic zones, the limbic forebrain (particularly the amygdala, septum, diagonal band of Broca, and the olfactory bulbs), and the cerebral cortex. (
  • The hypothalamus is highly interconnected with other parts of the central nervous system , in particular the brainstem and its reticular formation . (
  • The primary outcome will be the connectivity index of the hypothalamus to brainstem areas activated during migraine attacks and to the trigeminal-cervical complex. (
  • In this respect, this condition partially resembles an obesity syndrome following lesions of the ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMN), which is also marked by a significant weight gain due to an accumulation of visceral fat, impaired glucose homeostasis, and reduced energy expenditure ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Within a few days, the researchers found high levels of BrdU in an area of the hypothalamus called the median eminence, which lies on the base of the brain's fluid-filled third ventricle. (
  • Each neuroepithelial area of the hypothalamus becomes distinct by its unique gene expression profile. (
  • The effects of neonatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure on the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) and on GnRH-stimulated LH secretion were investigated in castrated female rats of known anogenital distance (AGD) at birth. (
  • Restoring NAD+ levels in the Hypothalamus to those of a young animal is very likely to have a positive impact on organs and tissues throughout the body. (
  • Here, we found that leptin coordinated fertility by acting on neurons in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus and inducing the synthesis of the freely diffusible volume-based transmitter NO, through the activation of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in these neurons. (
  • Chordoid glioma is a new clinicopathologic entity that occurs in the region of the hypothalamus/anterior third ventricle. (
  • In each case, the mass was ovoid, was well circumscribed, was located in the region of the hypothalamus/anterior third ventricle, and enhanced uniformly and intensely. (
  • The hypothalamus helps regulate a number of important behavioral and physiological functions such as body temperature, eating and drinking habits, emotional well-being and sleep, according to the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. (
  • The expression of emotions such as fear, rage, and anger are partly controlled by the hypothalamus, and it even helps regulate sleep and levels of consciousness. (
  • The hypothalamus has received significant attention in this regard given its ability to influence feeding behavior, yet organisms rely on a much broader diversity and distribution of neuronal networks to regulate both energy intake and expenditure. (
  • Leptin, secreted from adipose tissues in proportion to the fat store ( 4 ), acts in the hypothalamus to regulate feeding behavior ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Brat et al (1) recently reported a series of low-grade neoplasms arising in the region of the anterior third ventricle/hypothalamus and determined that they represent a unique histopathologic entity. (
  • The limbic and olfactory systems (the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the olfactory cortex) help control eating and reproduction through the hypothalamus. (
  • In addition, the hypothalamus receives inputs from forebrain areas including the hippocampus , amygdala , and cingulate cortex. (
  • Hypothalamus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • We have previously described a daily rhythm in thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and TRH mRNA in the rat hypothalamus. (
  • Finally, quantitative analysis of the mRNAs encoding orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides indicated that following ERT with TSEC there was a significant change in Agrp, NPY, and Kiss-1 mRNA accumulation in the whole hypothalamus. (
  • In the hypothalamus, mRNA and protein levels of Kp and GPR54 were identified to be significantly decreased in old age. (
  • Basal TRH release was higher at 7:00 h than at any other time (1:00, 13:00 or 19:00 h) in either hypothalamus or olfactory bulb. (
  • The neural circuitry of the hypothalamus is highly conserved, meaning it's very similar across species, including mice and humans. (
  • Paraventricular nucleus and perifornical hypothalamus - This region also has neuronal elements that control ingestive behavior. (
  • Thyroid hormone regulates TRH biosynthesis in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus. (
  • Here, using anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, we investigated the role of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. (
  • Using whole-cell electrophysiology, I have investigated the potential role of H2S in the regulation of neuronal excitability in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), which is a central relay centre for autonomic and endocrine function. (
  • Although the hypothalamus is envisioned as a "master gland," regulating such aspects as emotions (fear, rage) and sexual behavior, the typical religious conception of human beings is more complicated. (
  • The hypothalamus can control every endocrine gland in the body. (
  • Olovnikov believes that because the light exposure of the pineal gland and a possible gravitational lunar sensor, our hypothalamus can keep track of the months that we have lived. (
  • Projections to areas caudal to the hypothalamus go through the medial forebrain bundle, the mammillotegmental tract and the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus. (
  • The medial integrative nuclei of the hypothalamus can roughly be divided into three groups from rostral to caudal. (
  • The caudal third of the hypothalamus contains neurons that are critical for maintaining wakefulness and responding to emergencies. (
  • The posterior (caudal) hypothalamus of the lizard, Lacerta sicula R. was investigated by means of Golgi methods. (
  • Large cells from the hypothalamus send axons to the posterior pituitary, which in turn releases oxytocin and vasopressin into the bloodstream. (
  • In a 2013 Nature paper, Einstein researchers made the surprising finding that the hypothalamus also regulates aging throughout the body. (
  • The hypothalamus exerts neurohumoral and hormonal control over the functions and regulates the activity of the endocrine glands according to the needs of the cells, organs, physiological systems, and the body as a whole. (
  • The hypothalamus is a complex forebrain structure that regulates vital processes and various visceral and somatic behavior. (
  • Elevating NAD+ levels the hypothalamus has great impact throughout the body, as it regulates hunger and energy expenditure. (
  • The hypothalamus is central in the regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, and in the management of emotions and sexual activity. (
  • More recent research suggests that a third area, the hypothalamus - associated with a variety of bodily functions, including sleep, body temperature, hunger and thirst - also produces new neurons. (
  • The hypothalamus is responsible for the regulation of certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. (
  • ObRb expression is very high in the hypothalamus, where its role is well known in mediating body weight regulation. (
  • Then the Hypothalamus activates the Autonomic Nervous System which causes the Adrenal Medulla to release Adrenaline and Noradrenaline into the blood stream. (
  • Other Symptoms - Some individuals with hypothalamus disorders will be unable to control urination, emotional and obesity disturbances and excessive thirst. (
  • Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. (
  • Thus, the reduced levels of Kp and its receptor, GPR54 in the hypothalamus could be cumulatively responsible for reduced levels of GnRH observed in old age. (
  • The nuclei are attached to neurons that transmit signals from the hypothalamus to the endocrine system. (
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and travels down nerve ending from the hypothalamus to be released from the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis). (
  • Avichai Scher /, NBC News , "Here's a surprising extreme heat risk for 1 in 6 Americans," 28 June 2018 This produces a stress response in your body-specifically, your brain's hypothalamus triggers your sympathetic nervous system to release norepinephrine (aka adrenaline) and cortisol (a stress hormone) to get you out of harm's way. (
  • provide evidence that thyroid hormone receptors are essential for the formation of a population of parvalbuminergic neurons in the anterior hypothalamus, linking, for the first time, impaired thyroid hormone signaling during development to cellular deficits in the hypothalamus. (
  • In vivo release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone estimated with push-pull cannulae from the mediobasal hypothalami of ovariectomized, steroid-primed rats. (
  • Fluoride could effect hormone levels of each layer of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-testis axis, and show the reproductive endocrine disturbing effects. (
  • Because of this, hypothalamus function is directly related to overall hormone health. (
  • The hypothalamus is furnished with a rich network of blood vessels and receptors that sense the slightest changes in temperature and sugar, salt, water, and hormone content in the internal environment. (
  • Leptin, a circulating hormone produced by adipose tissue, is believed to act on the hypothalamus to increase sympathetic vasomotor activity, in addition to its well-known effects on appetite and energy expenditure. (
  • The hypothalamus determines which and how much of each hormone the pituitary will release by secreting releasing and/or inhibiting factors. (
  • Hypothalamus does not secrete any hormone. (
  • Fluorin could affect hormone levels of each layer of the Hypothalamus-Hypophysis-Testis axis, and show the male reproductive endocrine disturbing effects. (
  • The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the Autonomic Nervous System. (
  • The hypothalamus is an aggregate of higher adaptive centers that integrate and adjust functions to the body's coordinated activity, playing a major role in maintaining the metabolic level and in regulating the activity of the digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, and other physiological systems. (
  • The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. (
  • The melanocortin system in the hypothalamus controls food intake and energy expenditure. (