Median Eminence: Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Tuber Cinereum: Layer of GRAY MATTER in the HYPOTHALAMUS that also forms part of the floor of the THIRD VENTRICLE and merges anteriorly into the infundibulum (see PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Capillary Action: A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Third Ventricle: A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Hemangioma, Capillary: A dull red, firm, dome-shaped hemangioma, sharply demarcated from surrounding skin, usually located on the head and neck, which grows rapidly and generally undergoes regression and involution without scarring. It is caused by proliferation of immature capillary vessels in active stroma, and is usually present at birth or occurs within the first two or three months of life. (Dorland, 27th ed)Capillary Resistance: The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Hypothalamus, Middle: Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Polydipsia: Excessive thirst manifested by excessive fluid intake. It is characteristic of many diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS; and NEPHROGENIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS. The condition may be psychogenic in origin.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Galanin: A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Capillary Leak Syndrome: A condition characterized by recurring episodes of fluid leaking from capillaries into extra-vascular compartments causing hematocrit to rise precipitously. If not treated, generalized vascular leak can lead to generalized EDEMA; SHOCK; cardiovascular collapse; and MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Photomicrography: Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neurokinin B: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Capillary Fragility: The susceptibility of CAPILLARIES, under conditions of increased stress, to leakage.Kisspeptins: Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.

*Dopaminergic pathways

This system delivers factors released by hypothalamic neurons into portal capillaries at the median eminence. The figure shows ... Median eminence (dopamine released at the median eminence reaches the pituitary gland via the hypophyseal portal system) Other ... nuclei via the tuberoinfundibular tract to the median eminence. Cragg SJ, Baufreton J, Xue Y, Bolam JP, Bevan MD (2004). " ... The anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, receives rich blood flow from the capillaries of the portal hypophyseal system. ...

*Tuberoinfundibular pathway

This system delivers factors released by hypothalamic neurons into portal capillaries at the median eminence. The figure shows ... in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus to the median eminence. It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain. ... nuclei via the tuberoinfundibular tract to the median eminence. ancil-745 at NeuroNames Diagram. ... The anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, receives rich blood flow from the capillaries of the portal hypophyseal system. ...

*Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

The median eminence contains fiber terminals from many hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons, secreting different ... where their neurosecretory nerve terminals release their hormones at the primary capillary plexus of the hypophyseal portal ... The axons of the parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the PVN project to the median eminence, a neurohemal organ at the base ... in the median eminence and in the posterior pituitary) beyond the blood-brain barrier. The PVN contains magnocellular ...

*Hypophyseal portal system

The peptides released at the median eminence enter the primary plexus capillaries. From there, they are transported to the ... Peptides released near the median eminence from hypothalamic nuclei are transported to the anterior pituitary, where they apply ... The superior hypophyseal arteries form the primary capillary plexus that supplies blood to the median eminence. From this ... Other evidence indicates that capillary perivascular spaces of the median eminence and arcuate nucleus are contiguous, ...

*Posterior pituitary

The median eminence is only occasionally included as part of the posterior pituitary. Other sources specifically exclude it ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ... These axons store and release neurohypophysial hormones oxytocin and vasopressin into the neurohypohyseal capillaries, from ... Median eminence at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) www.pituitary.org - The Pituitary ...

*Corticotropin-releasing hormone

... hypothalamus and is released at the median eminence from neurosecretory terminals of these neurons into the primary capillary ... Vale W, Spiess J, Rivier C, Rivier J (September 1981). "Characterization of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that ... and autosomal recessive hypothalamic corticotropin deficiency has multiple and potentially fatal metabolic consequences ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor ACTH Glucocorticoids Proopiomelanocortin Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Cushing's ...

*Pituitary gland

Hypothalamic hormones are secreted to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic- ... is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the ... Diffusing out of the second capillary bed, the hypothalamic releasing hormones then bind to anterior pituitary endocrine cells ... is released under the influence of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and is inhibited by hypothalamic ...

*Circumventricular organs

The median eminence is rich in fenestrated capillaries, allowing for the passage of proteins and neurohormones. More ... It seems that the most essential of all these connections is the SFO's projections to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus ... The median eminence is also closely linked to the transport of GnRH between the median eminence and the anterior pituitary. ... They are tightly packed on the capillaries, forming a seal between the third ventricle and the median eminence. This seal can ...

*Arcuate nucleus

Projections of these neurons extend a long distance from the arcuate nucleus to the median eminence to influence the release of ... the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH, and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Populations of neurons connect to the ... collections of neurons reside within a special compartment with glial cells and have their own network of capillaries and a ... TIDA neurons have nerve endings in the median eminence that release dopamine into the hypophysial portal blood. In lactating ...

*Neuroimmune system

... and the median eminence [35]. In the meninges, they are found within the dural layer in association with vessels and terminals ... Cytokines regulate immune responses, possibly through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.[medical ... thereby increasing the permeability of immune cells across capillaries. Neuroimmune interactions also occur when pathogens, ...

*Index of anatomy articles

... plate medial rectus muscle medial vestibular nucleus medial vestibulospinal tract median aperture median eminence median ... fissure calcarine sulcus calf calix calvaria calyx canal of Schlemm canaliculus cancellous canine tooth canthus capillary ... trigone hypopharynx hypophyseal artery hypophyseal fossa hypophyseal portal system hypophysis hypophysis cerebri hypothalamic ... clivus cloaca clonus coccyx cochlea cochlear duct cochlear nerve coeliac coelom coeruleus collar bone collateral eminence ...
Blood Capillary Function - See more about Blood Capillary Function, blood capillaries in skin function, blood capillaries structure and function, blood capillary function, blood capillary tube function, capillaries blood cell function, capillary blood vessel function, function of blood capillary, function of blood capillary in skin, function of blood capillary in villi
Sanger Sequencing - Capillary Lengths - posted in Bioinformatics and Biostatistics: Dear all We had an ABI 3130 sequence analyzer, and I was just wondering how do the different capillary lengths (36cm and 50cm) differ? Do they have anything to do with the read lengths? Thanks
TY - JOUR. T1 - Penetration of small molecular weight substances through cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cell monolayers. T2 - the early effects of cyclic adenosine 3,5‐monophosphate. AU - Deli, MA. AU - Dehouck, MP. AU - Abraham, CS. AU - Cecchelli, R.. AU - Joo, F.. PY - 1995/7/1. Y1 - 1995/7/1. N2 - Second messengers, such as cyclic adenosine 3,5‐monophosphate (cAMP), have been shown to take part in the regulation of blood‐brain barrier permeability. in the present study, elevation of cAMP levels decreased sucrose (mol. wt, 342) and inulin (mol. wt, 5000) permeability across monolayers of bovine brain capillary endothelial cells as early as 1 h after exposure. Since both tracers use predominantly a paracellular pathway, we assume that cAMP may increase the tightness of the tight junctions through protein phosphorylation.. AB - Second messengers, such as cyclic adenosine 3,5‐monophosphate (cAMP), have been shown to take part in the regulation of blood‐brain barrier ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship of age, sex, and reproductive status to the quantity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the median eminence and superior cervical ganglion of the rat. AU - Porter, J. C.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the median eminence (ME) and superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of the rat was quantified by means of an immunoblot procedure, using highly purified rat TH as the standard. Antibodies against rat TH were produced in the rabbit. The assay was linear from 0-100 ng TH and had a correlation coefficient of 0.990 ± 0.0014 (mean ± SE: n = 22). The interassay coefficient of variation was 8.65% (n = 17). In young female rats (12-16 weeks old) with regular 4-day estrous cycles, the quantity of TH in the ME on various days of the cycle was as follows: estrus, 42 ± 2.9 ng; diestrous day, 1, 61 ± 2.8 ng; diestrous day 2, 75 ± 4.2 ng; and proestrus, 84 ± 3.3 ng. In ovariectomized rats (15-16 weeks old), the ME ...
Looking for blood capillary? Find out information about blood capillary. microscopic blood vessel, smallest unit of the circulatory system circulatory system, group of organs that transport blood and the substances it carries to... Explanation of blood capillary
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the morphological basis of the limited coronary reserve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). BACKGROUND: Some of the symptoms in Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), such as chest pain, dyspnea and arrhythmia, may be explained by myocardial ischemia. Many patients with HCM are known to exhibit these symptoms in the absence of atherosclerosis in the major coronary vessels. Decreased myocardial perfusion has been demonstrated in HCM, however, little is known about the myocardial capillary morphology in this disease. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry and morphometry, we analysed capillaries and cardiomyocytes in myectomy specimens from 5 patients with HCM with moderate hypertrophy and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and in 5 control hearts. RESULTS: The number of capillaries per cardiomyocyte (p,0.009) and number of capillaries per cardiomyocyte area unit, reflecting ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Label-free in vivo optical micro-angiography imaging of cerebral capillary blood flow within meninges and cortex in mice with the skull left intact. AU - Yali, Jia. AU - Wang, Ruikang K.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Abnormal microcirculation within meninges is common in many neurological diseases. There is a need for an imaging method that is capable of visualizing functional meningeal microcirculations alone, preferably decoupled from the cortical blood flow. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a recently developed label-free imaging method capable of producing 3D images of dynamic blood perfusion within micro-circulatory tissue beds at an imaging depth up to ~2 mm, with an unprecedented imaging sensitivity to the blood flow at ~4 μm/s. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of ultra-high sensitive OMAG in imaging the detailed blood flow distributions, at a capillary level resolution, within meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact. The results indicate that ...
ABSTRACT: In order to study the neonatal microcirculation, the capillary hemodynamics in skin was investigated in 43 full-term infants 2-7 days after birth. The nailfold capillaries of the thumb were visualized by means of television microscopy and the capillary blood cell velocity (CBV) was videophotometrically quantified in 107 microvessels. The skin temperature, mean arterial blood pressure, and heel puncture hematocrit were measured simultaneously to evaluate any relation with the CBV. The mean CBV in all infants was 0.38 ± 0.21 mm/s, with a range of 0.04 to 1.2 mm/s in individual capillaries. There was no correlation between CBV and skin temperature (27-33° C), mean arterial blood pressure (44-68 mm Hg), or postnatal age. However, a significant correlation was found between the log CBV and the skin prick hematocrit (r = −0.64, p | 0.001). It is concluded that the mean CBV during the 1st wk of life is not significantly different from the ...
The external layer of the lateral muscle wall in the neck occupies a posterior position in relation to its other lateral counterparts. The muscle, the posterior scalene, spans from the costal elements of the cervical vertebrae to the outer surface of the second rib ...
A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are ...
For centuries it has been known that wetting liquids penetrate porous materials if the pores are sufficiently small. In some cases the liquid penetration is desired, like in kitchen paper or diapers, in other systems the penetration should be minimised or avoided, like in water repellent textiles or paper printing. Either way capillary flow has been studied extensively starting from smooth to rough surfaces and from single capillaries to porous systems. However, one field, which is lacking attention is the behaviour of capillary flow in porous gels. How does a semi-solid material influence capillary flow? Possible applications could be to absorb solutes or cell solutions in porous gels with the aim to get an even distribution of those. In this thesis alginate and agarose gels are used to study capillary flow. A thorough study of the gel characteristics including rheology measurements and investigation of the microstructure using two different gelation mechanisms gave the ...
Recent studies have revealed that functional hyperemia is initiated in capillaries (14, 15) and that RBCs themselves can act as oxygen-sensing regulators to control capillary RBC velocity in response to local PO2 changes (15). However, the underlying mechanisms of how PO2 could modulate RBC velocity in capillaries are unknown. Experimental findings presented here implicate that deoxyHb-band 3 interactions in RBCs are the molecular switch that responds to local PO2 changes and controls RBC deformability and consequently RBC capillary velocity. Evidently, we showed that (i) while ex vivo capillary velocity and deformation of mRBC-WT and mRBC-subst 1-35 exhibited a linear relation with local PO2 changes, RBCs from transgenic mice that had enhanced or weakened deoxyHb-band 3 interactions showed capillary velocity and deformation independent of PO2. RBCs with enhanced deoxyHb-band 3 interactions showed higher capillary velocity and deformability ...
Using two different immunocytochemical approaches at the electron microscopic level, it was shown that substances related to enkephalin and somatostatin coexist in the same granules in the median eminence of the guinea-pig. This finding means that the two neuropeptides are simultaneously released. The possible inhibiting action of enkephalins on somatostatin release is discussed related to other data.
A capillary gate mechanism regulates flow resistance efficiently, because pressures, flows, and turbulence are minimal in capillaries, and capillary surface area is greater than that of all larger vessels combined.(1-5) Sympathetic nervous activity releases von Willebrand Factor (VWF) from the capillary endothelium; VWF increases factor VIII activity, which generates insoluble fibrin in the capillary lumen to increase flow resistance (aka viscosity, or systemic vascular resistance). Parasympathetic nervous innervation releases nitric oxide (NO) from the capillary endothelium, which binds to Ca+, inhibits thrombin, accelerates the disintegration of insoluble fibrin, and reduces flow resistance (aka "nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation") Hypoxia and hypercarbia open the capillary gate by releasing nitric oxide from the capillary endothelium.(6) The capillary gate mechanism governs cardiac output, cardiac efficiency, tissue perfusion, tissue oxygenation, and organ function. Its ...
discrimination of different flow pattern changes within muscle. Three in vitro models were used: (i) bulk flow rate was varied within a single length of capillary tubing; (ii) at constant bulk flow, capillary volume was increased 3-fold by joining lengths of capillary in series, and compared to a single length; and (iii) at constant bulk flow, capillary volume was increased by sharing flow between a number of lengths of identical capillaries in parallel. The contrast medium for CEU was gas-filled albumin microbubbles. Pulsing interval (time) versus acoustic-intensity curves were constructed and from these, capillary volume and capillary filling rate were calculated. CEU estimates of capillary volume were not affected by changes in bulk flow. Furthermore, as CEU estimates of capillary volume increased, measures of capillary filling rate decreased, regardless of whether capillaries were connected in series or parallel. Therefore, CEU can ...
1 Preparation of glass capillary tubes. Glass capillary tubes (Hilgenberg GmbH,D-34321 Malsfeld; article no. 1400290, "Sodaklarglas", length 90 mm, O. D. 1,4 mm, wall 0.261 mm) are rinsed several times in demineralized water, dried, stored in test tubes and autoclaved at 121 C for 20 min, but may be used also without prior washing.. 2 Preparation of capillary holders and plastic straws. For storing the capillaries aluminium tubes or polypropylene tubes are used. They are labelled with the number of the strain preserved by special ink markers (Nalgene Cryo-Marker). If capillaries of more than one strain are to be stored in the same capillary holder, the capillaries are colour coded by putting them into PVC straws cut to length and squeezed together at one end. The accession no. of the strain(s) is written on the straws and the capillary holder. The straws (2 mm in diameter) are available in different colours ...
Whereas the cellular basis of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow has been characterized, the nature of the fetal liver niche is not yet elucidated. We show that Nestin+NG2+ pericytes associate with portal vessels, forming a niche promoting HSC expansion. Nestin+NG2+ cells and HSCs scale during development with the fractal branching patterns of portal vessels, tributaries of the umbilical vein. After closure of the umbilical inlet at birth, portal vessels undergo a transition from Neuropilin-1+Ephrin-B2+ artery to EphB4+ vein phenotype, associated with a loss of periportal Nestin+NG2+ cells and emigration of HSCs away from portal vessels. These data support a model in which HSCs are titrated against a periportal vascular niche with a fractal-like organization enabled by placental circulation. ...
The Djungarian hamster displays photoperiodic variations in gonadal size synchronized to the seasons by the nightly secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin. In short photoperiod (SP), the gonads regress in size, and circulating sex steroids levels decline. Thus, the brain is subject to seasonal variations of both melatonin and sex steroids. Tanycytes are specialized glial cells located in the ependymal lining of the third ventricle. They send processes either to the meninges or to blood vessels of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Furthermore, they are known to locally modulate GnRH release in the median eminence and to display seasonal structural changes. Seasonal changes in tanycyte morphology might be mediated either through melatonin or sex steroids. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of photoperiod, melatonin, and sex steroids 1) on tanycyte vimentin expression by immunohistochemistry and 2) on the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and polysialic acid ...
BioAssay record AID 177098 submitted by ChEMBL: Duration of anti-ovulatory activity was measured at noon on proestrous and the vehicle was 50% propylene glycol /0.9 % mazola corn oil.
Catharine Cox published two studies of highly eminent creators and leaders, the first in 1926 as the second volume of Termans landmark Genetic Studies of Genius and the second in 1936 as a coauthored article. The former publication concentrated on the relation between IQ and achieved eminence, and the latter focused on early physical and mental health. Taking advantage of unpublished data from the second study, we examined, for the first time, the relationships among achieved eminence, IQ, early physical and mental health, and achievement domain. The correlation and regression analyses showed, for these 282 individuals, that eminence is a positive function of IQ and that IQ is a positive function of mental health and a negative function of physical health, implying an indirect effect of physical and mental health on eminence. Furthermore, levels of early physical and mental health vary across 10 specific domains of achievement ...
Catharine Cox published two studies of highly eminent creators and leaders, the first in 1926 as the second volume of Termans landmark Genetic Studies of Genius and the second in 1936 as a coauthored article. The former publication concentrated on the relation between IQ and achieved eminence, and the latter focused on early physical and mental health. Taking advantage of unpublished data from the second study, we examined, for the first time, the relationships among achieved eminence, IQ, early physical and mental health, and achievement domain. The correlation and regression analyses showed, for these 282 individuals, that eminence is a positive function of IQ and that IQ is a positive function of mental health and a negative function of physical health, implying an indirect effect of physical and mental health on eminence. Furthermore, levels of early physical and mental health vary across 10 specific domains of achievement ...
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The present invention generally pertains to multilayer film comprising four or more discrete layers. The films contain two external layers, an internal stiffening layer and an internal shrink layer. The external layers comprise linear low density polyethylene resin, the stiffening layer comprises polypropylene or a high density polyethylene and the shrink layer comprises low density polyethylene. The multilayer films of the present invention are characterized by having a gloss of at least 62% at 45 degrees, together with a 2% secant tensile modulus greater than 400 MPa.
This is the outermost muscle layer in the floor of the body wall. The muscles of this layer are the superficial transverse perineal muscle, the ischiocavernosus muscle, the bulbospongiosus muscle, the superficial part of the external anal sphincter, and the obturator externus ...
schwit1 quotes a report from Indy100: A team of scientists from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School have used adult skin cells to regenerate functional human heart tissue. The study, published in the journal Circulation Research, detailed that the team took adult skin cells, u...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final output neurons of a hypothalamic network controlling fertility in mammals. They release GnRH from axon terminals into the portal blood circulation of the pituitary, where GnRH triggers the secretion of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones. GnRH neuron anatomy, morphology and physiology have been studied extensively at the levels of the cell bodies and dendrites in the basal forebrain and axons in the median eminence. However little is known about the subcellular origin of the axon and the physiological role of the dense GnRH fiber innervation of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Using a cell-filling approach in acute brain slices from GnRH-green fluorescent protein mice, GnRH neuron morphology was analyzed with a confocal microscope. The vast majority (83%) of GnRH neurons were found to extend long dendrites in the direction of the median ...
The nature of the genetic defects which define the obese (ob) and diabetes (db) loci in mice remain unknown, but both produce similar syndromes when maintained in the same strain of mice. There is some evidence suggesting a lesion in the central nervous system (CNS) in db/db mice, while ob/ob mice appear to have a primary lesion outside the CNS. In a search for further evidence of a unique central lesion in db/db mice, we have examined neuropeptide content in selected, microdissected brain areas in both of these mutants and lean controls. In order to rule out possible interactions of the db mutation with the genetic background, diabetes mice of both C57BL/KsJ and C57BL/6J strains were studied. When concentrations of nine neuropeptide immunoreactivities were examined in up to seven microdissected areas of the brain, C57BL/6J ob/ob mice showed only one reproducible alteration, a lower content of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in the preoptic area at both 3 and 6 weeks of age as
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A. Refereed Papers. 1. Fink, G., Nallar, R. & Worthington, W.C. Jr. (1967) The demonstration of luteinizing hormone releasing factor in hypophysial portal blood of pro-oestrous and hypophysectomized rats. J. Physiol. 191 407-416.. 2. Fink, G. (1967) Nature of luteinizing hormone releasing factor in hypophysial portal blood. Nature 215 159-161.. 3. Brown-Grant, K., El Kabir, D.J. & Fink, G. (1968) The effect of mating on pituitary luteinizing hormone and thyrotrophic hormone content in the female rabbit. J. Endocrinol. 41 91-94.. 4. Fink, G. & Harris, G.W. (1970) The luteinizing hormone releasing activity of extracts of blood from the hypophysial portal vessels of rats. J. Physiol. 208 221-241.. 5. Fink, G., Smith, J.R. & Tibballs, J. (1971) Corticotrophin releasing factor in hypophysial portal blood of rats. Nature 203 467-468.. 6. Fink, G. & Smith, G.C. (1971) Ultrastructural features of the developing hypothalamo-hypophysial axis in the rat: a correlative study. Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. ...
In neuroanatomy and neuroembryology, a ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transitory brain structure that guides cell and axon migration. It is present in the embryonic and fetal stages of neural development found between the thalamus and caudate nucleus. The eminences are found in the ventral ventricular zone of the telencephalon, where they facilitate tangential cell migration during embryonic development. Tangential migration does not involve interactions with radial glial cells; instead the interneurons migrate perpendicularly through the radial glial cells to reach their final location. The characteristics and function of the cells that follow the tangential migration pathway seem to be closely related to the location and precise timing of their production. GABAergic interneurons migrate tangentially, and the GEs contribute significantly to building up the GABAergic cortical cell population. Another structure that the GEs contribute to is the basal ganglia. The GEs also ...
Hypothalamic CRH neurons that control ACTH secretion from the pituitary gland have secretory terminals in the external zone of the median eminence (ZEME). These neurons can coproduce vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that potentiates the ACTH releasing effects of CRH. Recently, we found increased AVP production in adult rats weeks after single exposure to a stressor, which may play a role in event-induced stress disorders. Here, we describe the long-term changes in the HPA axis of adult male rats following a single exposure to a stressor, the cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). The effects on storage and release of AVP and CRH were established by quantitative immunocytochemistry, the effects on ACTH and corticosterone responses by radioimmunoassay. Single administration of IL-1 beta (5 micrograms/kg i.p.) induces a delayed (at least 4 d) and a long-lasting (at least 3 weeks) increase of vasopressin (AVP) stores in CRH terminals of the ZEME without ...
The mRNA encoding vasopressin has recently been documented within the magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal projections of the rat such as the median eminence (ME) and the posterior pituitary (PP), suggesting the possibility of its axonal transport. To address the origin of this mRNA and to investigate the functional significance of this unexpected axonal transport of mRNA, we have examined its subcellular localization within both magnocellular perikarya and their axonal projections. For this purpose, we have used nonradioactive in situ hybridization techniques in order to localize the vasopressin mRNA with precision at the ultrastructural level in magnocellular perikarya, dendrites, and axons from control, salt-loaded, and lactating rats. This approach permitted us to demonstrate directly the axonal localization of vasopressin mRNA. Moreover, we were able to obtain novel information concerning vasopressin mRNA compartmentation within both perikarya and axons. At both ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of some CNS effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and progesterone. AU - Tennent, Barbra J.. AU - Smith, Erla R.. AU - Dorsa, Daniel. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) has been reported to facilitate lordotic behavior in estrogen-primed ovariectomized (OVX) female rats in a manner similar to progesterone (P). This study compared P and LHRH with respect to their behavioral effects and site of action within the brain. The hormones were compared using two different components of sexual behavior, receptivity and proceptivity. To test for receptivity, OVX females were given behaviorally ineffective estradiol benzoate (EB) injections sc 48 hr before testing. They were then treated with either P, LHRH, or vehicle by various routes. Two and/or four hours later, receptivity (LQ) was measured. Treatments for the proceptivity test were similar except that a larger EP-priming dose, which facilitates preceptive behavior, was used. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perfusion of the rat anterior pituitary via a cannulated portal vessel.. AU - Porter, J. C.. AU - Mical, R. S.. AU - Ondo, J. G.. AU - Kamberi, I. A.. PY - 1972. Y1 - 1972. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0015258166&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0015258166&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 4536844. AN - SCOPUS:0015258166. VL - 158. SP - 249. EP - 269. JO - European Journal of Endocrinology. JF - European Journal of Endocrinology. SN - 0804-4643. ER - ...
In the adult brain, well-characterized neurogenic niches are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. In both regions, neural precursor cells (NPCs) share markers of embryonic radial glia and astroglial cells, and in vitro clonal expansion of these cells leads to neurosphere formation. It has also been more recently demonstrated that neurogenesis occurs in the adult hypothalamus, a brain structure that integrates peripheral signals to control energy balance and dietary intake. The NPCs of this region, termed tanycytes, are ependymal-glial cells, which comprise the walls of the infundibular recess of the third ventricle and contact the median eminence. Thus, tanycytes are in a privileged position to detect hormonal, nutritional and mitogenic signals. Recent studies reveal that in response to nutritional signals, tanycytes are capable of differentiating into orexigenic or anorexigenic neurons, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is the postovulatory release of follicle-stimulating hormone in the rabbit mediated by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone?. AU - Mills, T. M.. AU - Copland, J. A.. AU - Coy, D. H.. AU - Schally, A. V.. PY - 1983/9. Y1 - 1983/9. N2 - Studies were performed to determine whether the postovulatory secretion of FSH in the rabbit is an LHRH-mediated event. Does were mated and then injected at 12 and 18 h postcoitum with pentobarbital (30 mg/kg BW), an agent known to block endogenous LHRH release. The injecton of this barbiturate had no measurable effect on the postovulatory FSH secretion pattern. Administration of the LHRH antagomist [Ac-D-p-Cl-Phe1,2, Phe3, D-Arg6, D-Ala10]LHRH (0.5 mg/doe) prevented all gonadotropin release in response to LHRH injection (10 μg/kg BW). When this same dose of the antagonist was injected at 18 h postcoitum, the postovulatory FSH secretion pattern was unaffected. Finally, to prove that the pituitary was sensitive to LHRH at 18-h postcoitum, LHRH (10 ...
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Our investigations into the molecular control of tangential cell migration indicate that BDNF and NT4, the high-affinity ligands for the TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase, stimulate the migration of MGE-derived neurons. While a role for neurotrophins in cell migration had been previously suggested (Behar et al., 1997; Brunstrom et al., 1997; Schwartz et al., 1997; Ringstedt et al., 1998), there has been little or no direct evidence showing that neurotrophins can acutely regulate cell motility or migration. We find that BDNF and NT4 greatly increase the number of MGE cells that migrate into the cortex. Time lapse imaging experiments show that NT4 induces motility in stationary cells and acutely increases the rate of migration in cells already migrating. We also find that inhibiting the Trk receptors drastically reduces tangential migration and that tangential migration of calbindin+ interneurons is reduced in TrkB-null mice. These experiments strongly support a role for TrkB ligands in regulating ...
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In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae). The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum).. Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help ...
Located just behind and between the eyes, the anterior border of the hypothalamus is formed by the optic chiasm. It is bordered laterally by the optic tracts and temporal lobes, and the posterior limit of the hypothalamus, occupied by the mammillary bodies, is bounded by the cerebral peduncles. The hypothalamus, literally located below the thalamus, is divided in the midline by the third ventricle. It contains a series of reasonably well differentiated cell groups or nuclei, sandwiched between to major axonal pathways that connect it with the rest of the brain and with the endocrine system. The periventricular axon system occupies the medial wall of the hypothalamus along the third ventricle, medial to most of the hypothalamic nuclei. It contains axons that connect the hypothalamus with the brainstem and thalamus. Some periventricular axons, from neurons that produce pituitary releasing hormones, travel to the median eminence, which is a vascular area in the ...
The time period circumventricular organs refers back to the extremely-vascularized, specialised tissues dispersed principally alongside the midline of the ventricular procedure through the forebrain to your hindbrain, bordering the 3rd and 4th ventricles. The CVOs incorporate the pineal gland, median eminence, neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary), subfornical organ, space postrema, subcommissural organ, organum vasculosum in the lamina terminalis, along with the choroid plexus. The intermediate and neural lobes from the pituitary are sometimes provided and note the posterior pituitary releases neurohormones like oxytocin and vasopressin into your blood. The subcommissural organ contacts the third ventricle masking the posterior commissure. It comprises a posh of neurosecretory ependymal cells recognized check here to secrete a variety of glycoproteins into your CSF ...
The hypothalamus is an evolutionarily ancient part of the brain that acts as a master homeostatic regulator. It controls the circadian cycle, endocrine function, energy and stress balance through the concerted activity of its resident neurons. These neurons are located in nuclei that are assigned to distinct rostro-caudal domains: anterior, tuberal and mammillary (Swanson, 1987). Particular subclasses of hypothalamic neurons, termed neuroendocrine neurons, project axons to the median eminence and posterior pituitary - the ventral-most regions of the tuberal hypothalamus. Here, they release neurohormones that act directly, or indirectly, via cells of the adjacent anterior pituitary, to govern endocrine function (Swanson, 1987). An understanding of hypothalamic development is therefore fundamental to our understanding of neuroendocrine axis formation and function in health and disease.. In the embryonic chick, as in all vertebrates examined, ...
The present study examined the effects of the 5-hydroxytryptaminergic (5HT)2/1c agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) on periventricular-hypophysial dopaminergic (DA) neuronal activity and the secretion of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha MSH). For comparison, the effects of DOI on tuberoinfundibular DA neuronal activity and the secretion of prolactin were also examined. Periventricular hypophysial and tuberoinfundibular DA neuronal activities were estimated by measuring the concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the terminal regions of these neurons; i.e., in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary and median eminence, respectively. Acute administration of DOI produced dose- and time-related decreases in intermediate lobe DOPAC concentrations and corresponding increases in plasma alpha MSH concentrations. Pretreatment of animals with either the 5HT2/1c antagonist ritanserin or the selective 5HT2 antagonist ...
Apple fruit section, skin to parenchyma cells (Malus domestica), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Shown here is a section through the apple from skin, through a layer of compact epidermal cells, to the first layer of the interior cortex parenchyma (storage) cells. Dense epidermal tissue is developed in external layers; its cells have thick walls and the outer surface is covered with waxy cuticle. Compared to many other fruits and vegetables, apples contain relatively low amounts of vitamin C, as well as a several other antioxidant compounds. They may also help with heart disease, weight loss and controlling cholesterol, as they do not have any cholesterol, have fibre, which reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption, and are bulky for their caloric content like most fruits and vegetables. Magnification: x120 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/4605
In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle. Moulting can involve shedding the epidermis (skin), pelage (hair, feathers, fur, wool), or other external layer. In some groups, other body parts may be shed, for example, wings in some insects or the entire exoskeleton in arthropods. In birds, moulting is the periodic replacement of feathers by shedding old feathers while producing new ones. Feathers are dead structures at maturity which are gradually abraded and need to be replaced. Adult birds moult at least once a year, although many moult twice and a few three times each year. It is generally a slow process as birds rarely shed all their feathers at any one time; the bird must retain sufficient ...
Uveitis is a provocative methodology including the center of the three layers in the eye. To comprehend uveitis it is vital to know the fundamental life structures of the eye. The external layer encasing the eye is made out of the acceptable cornea and the white sclera. The deepest layer is the nerve layer or the retina. The center layer is the uveal tract, which is rich in veins. It is made out of the iris in the front some piece of the eye, the ciliary body, which generates the liquid (fluid diversion) inside the eye, and the choroid which sustains the retina in the once again of the eye. Due to its rich blood supply, the uveal tract is a common focus for infections beginning in different parts of the body. At the point when aggravation strike particular portions of the uveal tract, the sickness is further delegated iritis (irritation of the iris), cyclitis (irritation of the ciliary body) or choroiditis (aggravation of the choroid), contingent upon the influenced structure. In the event that ...
Nanoparticle-based systems can alleviate systemic toxicity via surface functionalization to promote tissue-specific targeting as well as passive targeting abilities [1], such as the enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR) [2]. The transport of nanoparticles is limited in hypoxic tumor regions due to the typically impaired tumor vasculature. To enhance diffusion of nanotherapeutics within tumor tissue; functionalized citrate gold nanoparticles and silica gold nanoshells with surface modifications of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were synthesized. 3D cell cultures were used as a representative model of portions of hypoxic tissue in liver, lung, and pancreatic solid tumors. Our results indicate that two layered silica gold nanoshells (surface modifications of -thiol and PC) permit enhanced accumulate compared to PEGylated nanoparticles. The addition of HDL for the smaller, citrate gold nanoparticles as a third external layer provided enriched accumulation compared to
Onion skins have now joined the list of things that could offer potential benefits for people with from type 2 diabetes, after scientists in Spain announced the findings from a study into the substances and possible uses of each part of the onion and their possible health benefits on a variety of conditions. The study, at the University of Madrid and which also involved scientists from Cranfield University in the UK, and which was published in the journal Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, found that the brown skin and external layers of onions contain useful amounts of fibre and flavonoids, and that the bulbs contain sulphurous compounds and fructans.
In drawing the foreskin forward in this manner there is danger that its outer portion will be cut farther back than will its inner portion; hence, after the first clip of the scissors the traction upon the clamps should be relaxed and the reflected portion of the foreskin should be cut farther if necessary. Two clamps are then placed upon the orifice of the foreskin at its lower edge and an incision is made between them. This incision is far shorter than the dorsal one. The two clamps on the left side are then drawn outward and left half of the foreskin is removed, care being taken that the incision through the inner layer of the foreskin shall be nearly parallel to the corona of the glans, and that the incision through the external layer shall be directly opposite to it when only slight traction is made upon the clamps. The best result is obtained when the portion of the inner layer which is left is a third or a half of an inch in width. The right half of the foreskin is next cut away. Any ...
The invention relates to foam comprising hollow microbeads and intended for sound absorption, comprising from 40 to 85% by weight of open-cell polymer foam and from 15 to 60% by weight of hollow microbeads with flexible external layer, where the D50 value of the hollow microbeads is at least 70 μm and at most 250 μm, based on the total weight of polymer foam and hollow microbeads, and also to a process for producing the same, comprising the following steps: I) impregnation of an open-cell polymer foam with a liquid dispersion comprising expandable hollow microbeads, II) if appropriate, pressing/compression and/or drying of the polymer foam, and III) heat-treatment of the impregnated polymer foam at a temperature above the expansion temperature and below the decomposition temperature of the expandable hollow microbeads, for the expansion of the hollow microbeads.
en] The production of extracellular catalase in date flour submerged medium by a selected mutant Aspergillus phoenicis K30 (member of the Aspergillus niger group) was investigated. The strain was tested in 500 ml shake-flasks and in a 20 l bioreactor with date powder as a single carbon source. Extracellular catalase production reached 59 U ml-1 in both cases. This value is much greater than that of a wild-type strain (9.5 U ml-1). Microscopic examination showed that the extracellular catalase production was correlated with the ramified hyphals morphology in the external layer of the pellets ...
Milia are firm, raised, pain-free, white, fluid-filled cavities, in between 1- 4 mm wide that develop on the surface of the skin.. Main milia occur arbitrarily, when keratin, a healthy protein that aids solidify the external layer of the skin, comes to be trapped under the skin and also develops a fluid-filled cavity.. Second milia establish as a result of trauma from occasions, such as dermabrasion, tissue damages, blistering, and also skin inflammation. Second milia could likewise take place as an adverse effects of some medicines.. Though really rare, a condition called milia en plaque creates milia surrounded by locations of raised, red, scaly, itchy skin. Milia en plaque has the tendency to occur arbitrarily in healthy and balanced skin and also presently has no recognized cause.. Researchers, nevertheless, assume that milia en plaque might be a sign of discoid lupus erythematosus, a long-term skin condition that creates swollen sores and scarring on the face, scalp, as well as ears.. ...
Denervation in cases of interstitial cystitis has been performed in various ways. Extended resections of the external layers of bladder wall have been attempted. Overdistension of the bladder can at...
A pituitary glycopeptide whose amino acid sequence was previously identified has now been recognized as the final portion of the precursor to arginine vasopressin and its associated neurophysin. Immunocytochemical techniques with antiserums against this 39 amino acid peptide and vasopressin were used to study their distribution in the rat central nervous system. The peptide is located in vasopressin-synthesizing cells in the neurosecretory magnocellular nuclei. Positively stained fibers project from the magnocellular nuclei through the median eminence to the posterior pituitary. Studies of the homozygous Brattleboro rat, which is known to be deficient in the production of vasopressin and its related neurophysin, also show the absence of immunoreactivity to this peptide. These immunocytochemical data strongly indicate that the peptide is synthesized with vasopressin. ...
This study provides novel insights into the neurochemical organization of the mammalian hypothalamus. We report that secretagogin in many parvocellular neurons modulates CRH release. Unlike for small neurotransmitters, CRH, as many other neuropeptides/hormones, is not reused or recycled at the locus of its release. Moreover, CRH is transported over considerable distances from its somatic site of synthesis in the PVN to the median eminence (Supplementary Fig S6). Thus, hormonal secretion into the bloodstream is reliant on the coordination of regulated checkpoints, which might be either indirectly (vesicle formation and axonal transport; Supplementary Fig S6A) or directly (vesicular exocytosis) affected by secretagogin. From a technical standpoint, our study uses an interactive design of single‐cell transcriptome and proteome discovery, verified at the level of systems neurobiology. Yet we did not apply real‐time imaging of CRH release upon genetic manipulation of secretagogin ...
The present study, performed in neonatal male rabbit pups sacrificed at 6 different time intervals during a 24-h cycle, describes for the first time significant changes in plasma prolactin levels throughout the day. In concomitant measurements of median eminence and adenohypophysial concentration of DA, 5HT, GABA and taurine, a clear daily pattern was found in almost every case. Contrasting with neonatal rats that did not display any circadian pattern of plasma prolactin [18], a daily rhythm of plasma prolactin occurred in neonatal male rabbits, with a maximal value attained 1 h after lights-off (at 01:00 h) and a secondary peak found during the first part of the resting phase (at 13:00 h).. In adult rabbits, daily patterns of prolactin secretion depend on light/dark phases [25]. The present results indicate that, already on day 11 of life, male rabbit pups display daily changes in plasma prolactin levels, remarkably similar to those described in adult male rats (e.g., the ...
Peptide hormones have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must evade the blood-brain barrier. The hypothalamus is bounded in part by specialized brain regions that lack an effective blood-brain barrier; the capillary endothelium at these sites is fenestrated to allow free passage of even large proteins and other molecules. Some of these sites are the sites of neurosecretion - the neurohypophysis and the median eminence. However others are sites at which the brain samples the composition of the blood. Two of these sites, the subfornical organ and the OVLT (organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis) are so-called circumventricular organs, where neurons are in intimate contact with both blood and CSF. These structures are densely vascularized, and contain osmoreceptive and sodium-receptive neurons which control drinking, vasopressin release, sodium excretion, and sodium appetite. They also contain neurons with receptors for angiotensin, atrial ...
The isoflavone, daidzein is a biologically active, plant-derived compound that interacts with estrogen receptors. Data from previous studies have suggested that daidzein exerts beneficial effects in many diseases; however, as an endocrine disrupter, it may also alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Data regarding the effect of daidzein on the morphofunctional and histological parameters of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is still lacking. Therefore, using the newCAST stereological software, we investigated the effects of chronic (21 days) daidzein treatment on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons within the hypothalamus and corticotropes (ACTH cells) in the pituitary, while image analysis was employed to-examine the intensity of fluorescence of CRH in the median eminence (ME) and adrenocorticotropin hormone in the pituitary in adult orchidectomized (Ovx) rats ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of growth hormone short loop negative feedback delays puberty in the female rat. AU - Advis, J. P.. AU - Smith-White, S.. AU - Ojeda, Sergio. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Implantation of GH in the median eminence of the hypothalamus of 23-day-old female rats tonically inhibited serum GH levels throughout prepubertal development (days 23-36) and depressed GH diurnal pulsatile release. Puberty was significantly delayed in GH-deficient animals, a delay associated with a blunted in vitro ovarian steroidal responsiveness to gonadotropins (particularly estradiol) and a marked decrease in prepubertal uterine weight, as evaluated 4, 7, and 13 days after GH implantation. The prepubertal body weight increase was also depressed. Neither ovarian weight nor serum levels of LH, FSH, PRL, or TSH were consistently altered by the GH implant. In addition, evaluation of pulsatile PRL release in 33-day-old rats revealed no difference between control and GH-deficient ...
Control of trophic hormone secretion from the adenohypophysis by hypothalamic-releasing hormones (RH) and release-inhibiting hormones (RIH). The releasing and release-inhibiting hormones are synthesized by neurons in the hypothalamus, transported by axonal processes, and released into capillary plexus in the median eminence. They are transported to the adenohypophysis by the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system, where they interact with specific populations of trophic hormone-secreting cells to govern the rate of release of preformed hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), somatotropic hormone (STH), luteotropic hormone (LTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyrotropic hormone (TTH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). There are RIHs for those trophic hormones (e.g., prolactin and growth hormone) that do not directly influence the activity of target cells and result in ...
Other articles where Pituitary hormone is discussed: hormone: Hormones of the pituitary gland: The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, which dominates the vertebrate endocrine system, is formed of two distinct components. One is the neurohypophysis, which forms as a downgrowth of the floor of the brain and gives rise to the median eminence and the neural lobe;…
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH, GnRH) is a 10-amino acid peptide produced in the brain that regulates the release of LH from the pituitary gland. LH is crucial for initiating the successful ovulation of mature ovarian follicles (Graafian follicles) and transforming the ovulated follicle into a steroid-secreting corpus luteum. In the male, LH causes Leydig cells in the testis to secrete testosterone, a hormone essential for male sexual behavior secretory activity of accessory glands of the reproductive tract, muscle accretion, and spermatogenesis. The focus of this study was to determine the prepubertal ontogeny of LHRH-like immunoreactivity (LHRH-IR) in the male Chinese Meishan pig. The Meishan breed is known for reproductive traits, including increased litter size and precocious puberty, but slow growth and obesity. Brains of animals from gestational day (g) 30, 50, 70, 90, and 110 and postnatal day (pn) 1, 10, 20, and 50 (duration of pregnancy averages 114 days) were processed by a
article{3127253, abstract = {GABAergic interneurons mainly originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) of the embryonic ventral telencephalon (VT) and migrate tangentially to the cortex, guided by membrane-bound and secreted factors. We found that Sip1 (Zfhx1b, Zeb2), a transcription factor enriched in migrating cortical interneurons, is required for their proper differentiation and correct guidance. The majority of Sip1 knockout interneurons fail to migrate to the neocortex and stall in the VT. RNA sequencing reveals that Sip1 knockout interneurons do not acquire a fully mature cortical interneuron identity and contain increased levels of the repulsive receptor Unc5b. Focal electroporation of Unc5b-encoding vectors in the MGE of wild-type brain slices disturbs migration to the neocortex, whereas reducing Unc5b levels in Sip1 knockout slices and brains rescues the migration defect. Our results reveal that Sip1, through tuning of Unc5b levels, is essential for cortical interneuron ...
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Objectives: This study was conducted with an objective to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatization of articular eminence (PAT) using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, which included CBCT images of 62 patients in which TMJ region was completely visualized. The demographic details of the patient viz. age, gender were retrieved from their records. These scans were evaluated in sagittal, coronal and axial section using Kodak dental imaging software. Tyndall and Matteson criteria were used for diagnosis and characterization of PAT. Evaluation of both right and left side was done and the frequency and characteristics of PAT were recorded. Frequencies/percentages and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 62 patients included in the study 40.3% showed presence of PAT. Of these pneumatization, 38% were unilocular ...
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Fusion of Regionally Specified hPSC-Derived Organoids Models Human Brain Development and Interneuron Migration Researchers described the generation of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and cortex-specific organoids from hPSCs that recapitulate the development of MGE and cortex domains, respectively. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract , Graphical Abstract Surface Topography Guides Morphology and Spatial Patterning of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Colonies Investigators demonstrated that groove-ridge structures with a periodicity in the submicrometer range induce elongation of iPSC colonies, guide the orientation of apical actin fibers, and direct the polarity of cell division. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article , Graphical Abstract Mir-29b Mediates the Neural Tube versus Neural Crest Fate Decision during Embryonic Stem Cell Neural Differentiation Using ESC neural differentiation systems, scientists found that miR-29b was upregulated in neural tube epithelial (NTE) cells and downregulated in neural crest ...
... We have now enumerated three sutures that more frequently occur in the naturally shaped head. When a skull is lying on its side, these describe the letter H, or rather h. 65 In the heads that vary from the natural structure, the sutures are as follows. 66 Where the anterior eminence of the head is missing (Chapter 5, figure 2), the coronal suture is absent and the lambdoid remains together with the sagittal, which then runs to the middle of the brows [sutura metopica]. Where the posterior eminence is missing (Chapter 5, figure 3), the lambdoid suture is lost and the coronal remains, while the sagittal is extended through the middle of the occiput to the base of the skull. If you imagine this one resting on its occiput, each of the remaining sutures will resemble the letter T; similarly, the sutures of the first unnatural type will resemble a T 67 when it is rested on its forehead. When the anterior and posterior eminences are both missing (Chapter 5, ...
Show All 20]acellular anatomical structure. , anatomical group. , body. , cell. , cell component. , cell condensation. , compound organ. , electrosensory lateral line lobe. , embryonic structure. , eminentia granularis. , extraembryonic structure. , fontanel. , horizontal septum. , medullary command nucleus. , multi-cell-component structure. , multi-cellular organism. , multi-tissue structure. , organism subdivision. , process. , tissue. ...
Ardrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin and the melanotropins (MSHs) are all derived from a single large precursor molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) by individual processing through a series of co- and post-translational modifications. Although the primary site of synthesis is in the pituitary, POMC-derived peptides have been identified in various tissues, notably the brain (see refs 6, 7 for review). A major question concerning brain POMC is whether it is synthesized within the central nervous system (CNS) itself or whether it is taken up from plasma flowing in a retrograde fashion from the pituitary. POMC peptides have been detected immunohistochemically and biochemically in the medial basal hypothalamus, the amygdala and throughout the brain stem. POMC peptide-containing cell bodies have been identified only in two cell groups, however, principally in the periarcuate region of the hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. These and other observations
WADSWORTH, Ohio, August 5, 2015) - The SME Education Foundation and Alcoa Foundation are partnered with Wadsworth City Schools to offer more than 450 K-8 students a science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) Mission: Mars summer camp experience this week. Throughout the camp students work collaboratively to create rockets, rovers, satellites and other mechanisms to explore both the planet and their own potential future in STEM courses and careers.. The camp is one of several programs created, coordinated and offered by the SME Education Foundations Partnership Response In Manufacturing Education (PRIME) network of industry partners and schools. "PRIME is our response to the nations call and industrys critical need for more students to be engaged and interested in STEM studies and careers - its our mission," said Brian Glowiak, SME Education Foundation director. "Were so pleased to partner with responsible industry leaders like Alcoa to make opportunities available to inspire future ...
What is Cypoprime?. Cypoprime is a natural sex hormone that is produced in human testicles. Small amounts of testosterone are also produced in the ovaries of women and the adrenal system.. Testosterone injections are used in men and boys to treat diseases caused by a deficiency of this hormone, such as delayed puberty, impotence, or other hormonal imbalances.. Cypoprime (Testosterone Cypionate) is a long testosterone ester. Its half-life is approximately two weeks, so testosterone cypionate will be a good choice for those who are against frequent injections of steroids. Most often, this branch of test esters is used in cycles of muscle mass gain and increase in strength indicators, in particular together with other drugs, for example, such as nandrolone. And this is not surprising, since it is highly anabolic and androgenic hormone, and this makes it an excellent weapon for recruiting muscle mass and increasing strength. Before we go into the description of this substance, lets clarify one ...
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Hormone replacement therapy: post-stroke syndrome, eurychoidism, hypopituitarism, endocrine impotence, menopausal disorders in men (including decreased libido, mental and physical activity), osteoporosis due to androgen deficiency.. Methods of application and dosage of Testomix. The Sustanon course should be conducted for no more than ten weeks. After that, the effectiveness of the anabolic will start to fall quickly. Dosages of the steroid range from 0.25 to 0.6 grams. Since the drug is actively aromatized, then approximately 14 days after the first injection of sustanone, it is necessary to start taking antiestrogens.. Restorative therapy can be started only 21 days after the cancellation of Testomix . The drug can be used in combination with nandrolone for weight gain or vinstrolom in order to improve the quality of the musculature. Thanks to combined cycles, the risks of side effects are significantly reduced, which is confirmed by Testomix reviews left by pro-athletes.. ...
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The Society of Manufacturing Engineers is the premier source for manufacturing knowledge, education and networking. Through its many programs, events and activities, SME connects manufacturing practitioners to each other, to the latest technology and the most up-to-date processes spanning all manufacturing industries and disciplines, plus the key areas of aerospace and defense, medical device, motor vehicles, including motorsports, and oil and gas. A 501(c)3 organization, SME has members in more than 70 countries and is supported by a network of technical communities and chapters worldwide. For more information, please click here. Contacts: ...
DEARBORN, Mich., May 8, 2012 -"Reality" is their genre, connectivity in their DNA. The SME Education Foundation and its industry partners have a laser focus on Gen Y -72 million Americans born between 1977 and 1994 with a goal to change their perception of manufacturing and prime the pump for manufacturing careers they need to consider. The Foundation has provided $100,000 in additional funding to The Edge Factor, a film and media company that features real life manufacturing stories.. Bart A. Aslin, CEO, SME Education Foundation says, "The response weve received across the board dictated our willingness to fund this media-based initiative. We believe the video series, design competition, and providing teachers with tools to reach and inspire students will greatly energize their learning experience. They need and deserve real-life, first-hand tutorials to help them make career choices.". Edge Factors ultimate goal: to revolutionize the stereotype of manufacturing as a "dark and dirty" industry ...
An analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), also known as a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist analogue. Indicated in the palliative treatment of advanced carcinoma of the prostate, several other carcinomas, and endometrial thinning.
Recent findings from University of Warwick researchers could help find new treatments to control eating habits that lead to obesity. Researchers discovered tanycytes detect amino acids from food and directly tell the brain when we feel full. Certain food, such as chicken, lentils and avocados, activate tanycytes and make us feel fuller quicker.... Read More... ...
5. MINNIE4 DOWNEY (JOHN T.3 DOWNY, JOHN J.2, JOHN1) was born October 23, 1883 in Henry Co. KY, and died June 28, 1923 in Lakeland, KY.. She married (1) CALVIN ETHINGTON October 23, 1898 in Home of Sarah Kinney, son of JOHN ETHINGTON. He was born 1877 in Henry Co. Ky, and died Abt. 1904. She married (2) WINFRED REEVES July 19, 1906 in Frankfort, Ky, son of ABRAHAM REEVES and MARTHA PEYTON. He was born September 1888 in Franklin Co. KY, and died 1953 in Eminence, KY ...
Direct (competitor) as of the good management through the cloudy vision glare a key role. Often take a common for lesofat he and again while for a timer. Overdosage with Alopecia may reduce in most, likely able overabound, and not enough (nutritional supplementation prior в6h).. (2005). Alprostadil is the granddaddy of all ED events, and also the most common in life goes. However the stagnated overdose off, Frodo last to the Best of Acute. Tibial eminence fractures that infection areata is characterized by an allegory in the surgery system that times daily activities. OLSS rolls a little hard of cancer symptoms and because our lives are the most prestigious and vasoactive intestinal in most distressing distal we are obliged to retrieve many genetic alterations other manufacturers are wholesome to work.. I have cellulitis and use an Anoro Ellipta streaking. LPNs are acidic to be used by the rate in which theyвll do. (2004). Decreasing, such as Geodon are much-manics, while others, such as ...
UN1VERSIT 3 1822 01010 2465 dMMWti WWWIIII WJtfMM MM l,mBIIII«B I HIHU J J M J, ■, W H i l l I III l i l l l I JM ■ W W»l HI II ■ 1 1 ■ ■■ H I 1 1 1l I II !■ I II WH II I ll» K il b, IIK r , LIBRARY UNIVEMHf §t CAUf«R,-.i1* SAW DIEGO CT 788 D37 03 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO 3 1822 010 2465 \ I JOHN C. F. S. DAY His Forbears and Himself JOHN C. F. S. DAY: HIS FORBEARS AND HIMSELF. A BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY By ONE OF HIS SONS. WITH INTRODUCTIONS BY HIS EMINENCE FRANCIS AIDAN CARDINAL GASQUET, O.S.B., and SIR ROBERT BANNATYNE FINLAY, K.C., M.P. HEATH, CRANTON LTD. FLEET LANE LONDON 1916 CONTENTS Authors Preface. Two Introductions : (i) (2) I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. By H. E. Aidan Cardinal Gasquet, O.S.B. By the Rt. Hon. Sir R. B. Finlay, K.C., M.P. The Days of Englesbatch The Hartsincks of Holland My Fathers Parents His Early Years Marriage and Professional Beginnings At the Bar Home and Out-of-Doors . On the Bench . His Interior Spirit Retirement ...
We be experiencing even shown that TFS can shut down eminence epilepticus (SE)--more than 30 min of constant possession activity without full revival of consciousness from seizures. In addition to complete nutrition, immunologic protection is transferred from mam to infant via chest tap and affectionateВ-infant bonding is promoted. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zocor in subjects with hypercholesteremia benicar 20 mg without a prescription arrhythmia types ecg. As a result, this debate will be limited to the bosses of emergent cardiac conditions that are more typically establish in children. The investigation of Leishmania arginase genes revealed the presence of undivided of the most visit glycosome import signals, the PST1 carboxyl signal, which consists of tree amino acids В- SKL (Opperdoes and Szikora 2006; da Silva et al. Every cardinal wants a whiter brighter smiling trusted plendil 10mg heart attack 50 years. The continued drink of these methods at an end many decades has also generated ...
0048] Referring to FIGS. 10, 11, and 14A-14B, the fourth region 252 of the handle 240 includes a palm grip relief 284, which is configured to receive the hypothenar eminence 116 of the users palm. The palm grip relief 284 wraps around the rear of the handle and is symmetrical on both sides of the handle. The palm grip relief includes a left portion 285 and a right portion 287 on opposite sides of the handle 240 that meet at a central portion 289. When viewed from the side view (i.e., as shown in FIG. 10), the left portion 285 and right portion 287 each have a generally C-shape. Referring also to FIG. 13, in cross-section C-C (taken through the handle at the palm-grip relief generally parallel to the tool bit holder axis X-X), the handle 240 has a first generally elliptical shape 286 with the left portion 285 and the right portion 287 of the palm grip relief 284 each having a second generally elliptical shape 288 that is different from the first generally elliptical shape 286. For example, ...
Beck-Sickinger Another receptor has been characterized by intracerebroventriclar or hypo- thalamic administration of NPY to rats, near the tibial eminence, and the PCL inserts into the pos- terior aspect of the epiphysis.
Parameters to prefect • Keep an eye on eminence and trough serum levels 48 hours after start remedial programme and every 3-4 days thereafter as properly as after chang- ing doses order genuine nitroglycerin on-line. Essay comments • In front of instituting treatment with levamisole buy 6.5mg nitroglycerin visa, the case should be peripheral exhausted of the asylum nitroglycerin 6.5mg line, ambulatory buy cheap fucidin 10 gm online, and fully recovered from postsurgical complications buy oxybutynin now. As described in the foregoing department lexapro 20mg cheap, the digit of people in remedy treatment increased by way of 129. Acid fuorides, on the reverse, are known to be more stable to hydrolysis than acid chlorides and in addition are not undergo to the limitation mentioned with detail to t-butyl-based side-chain guard. Precautons Espy notes in excess of and consult belles-lettres; renal impairment (Appendix 7d) and hepatc harm (Appendix 7a); interactons (Appendix 6c). Long ago the in ...
The notion that the parliamentary democracy of the industrial nations is a sham, and that the real power lies not in the hands of the people (or their elected representatives) but in the hands of a small, ruling elite is a view most closely associated with Karl Marx. This is one meaning of the word "conspiracy": the ruling class knows what its interests are, and it acts to protect them. In this sense of the term, conspiracy is equivalent to elite theory, because the implication is that the ruling class acts with a unified consciousness. Indeed, Marx argued that the emergence of conflicts within the ranks of the elite was a sign that the system was ripe for revolutionary overthrow.. Elite theory, then, holds that the people (or masses) are under the illusion that through their vote they control the direction of the ship of state, whereas the real captains of the ship-the captains of industry, the eminences grises-are not themselves on the ballot. The public does not get to vote for them, but ...
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One cause for confusion of junior residents has been the type of equipment and the inappropriate use of it. For example, although a chest tube comes with a central trochar, for years, it has been taught that the trochar should not be used for fear of puncturing internal organs. However, unless there is stipulation from trainer that the trochar should not be used and that forceps introduction of the drain is safer, it is easy to see how wrong techniques and subsequent mistakes on patients can occur, especially if supervision of junior residents is not optimal. No junior doctor should ever be let loose to Just Do It without first training the doctor appropriately and ensuring that they are safe for the patients. Many modern texts exclude the use of the trochar because it is dangerous. It should not be used. We need to diverge from the Eminence Based Instruction of this is how I learnt it and this is how I will teach it to you concept and use Evidence and Benchmarking as much as possible, ...
Thursday evening, June 4th, at 5.15pm Bishop Joseph Perry, Auxiliary Bishop in Chicago, will celebrate Pontifical Mass at the faldstool for the feast of Corpus Christi (Missale Romanum 1962). An outdoor procession of the Blessed Sacrament and Benediction will follow. We are delighted that, at the suggestion of the Archbishop of New York, His Eminence, Timothy Michael Cardinal Dolan, Bishop John J. OHara, Auxiliary Bishop in New York, will be present for this Mass and procession and will preach ...

Dopaminergic pathways - WikipediaDopaminergic pathways - Wikipedia

This system delivers factors released by hypothalamic neurons into portal capillaries at the median eminence. The figure shows ... Median eminence (dopamine released at the median eminence reaches the pituitary gland via the hypophyseal portal system) Other ... nuclei via the tuberoinfundibular tract to the median eminence. Cragg SJ, Baufreton J, Xue Y, Bolam JP, Bevan MD (2004). " ... The anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, receives rich blood flow from the capillaries of the portal hypophyseal system. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopaminergic_pathways

Tuberoinfundibular pathway - WikipediaTuberoinfundibular pathway - Wikipedia

This system delivers factors released by hypothalamic neurons into portal capillaries at the median eminence. The figure shows ... in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus to the median eminence. It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain. ... nuclei via the tuberoinfundibular tract to the median eminence. ancil-745 at NeuroNames Diagram. ... The anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, receives rich blood flow from the capillaries of the portal hypophyseal system. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberoinfundibular_pathway

hormone | Definition, Function, & Types | Britannica.comhormone | Definition, Function, & Types | Britannica.com

The median eminence is a neurohemal organ containing a capillary bed into which hypothalamic neurosecretory fibres discharge ... One is the neurohypophysis, which forms as a downgrowth of the floor of the brain and gives rise to the median eminence and the ... it is a vascular route that depends upon the median eminence, which lies at the front end of the neurohypophysis. ... Hypothalamic polypeptides may also be involved in the movements of water and ions (charged particles) in fishes. Changes in the ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/hormone

JCI -
Hypothalamic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseaseJCI - Hypothalamic inflammation in obesity and metabolic disease

... fenestrated capillary system in the median eminence exposes hypothalamic cell populations to stress-promoting signals emanating ... Adult NG2-glia are required for median eminence-mediated leptin sensing and body weight control. Cell Metab. 2016;23(5):797-810 ... Hypothalamic vasculature and the BBB. Alterations of the BBB are fundamentally involved in the development of hypothalamic ... Hypothalamic inflammation and deregulation of peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic neurons project to autonomic sites such as the ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/88878

JCI -
Hypothalamic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseaseJCI - Hypothalamic inflammation in obesity and metabolic disease

... fenestrated capillary system in the median eminence exposes hypothalamic cell populations to stress-promoting signals emanating ... Adult NG2-glia are required for median eminence-mediated leptin sensing and body weight control. Cell Metab. 2016;23(5):797-810 ... Hypothalamic vasculature and the BBB. Alterations of the BBB are fundamentally involved in the development of hypothalamic ... Hypothalamic inflammation and deregulation of peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic neurons project to autonomic sites such as the ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/88878

The design of barriers in the hypothalamus allows the median eminence and the arcuate nucleus to enjoy private milieus: the...The design of barriers in the hypothalamus allows the median eminence and the arcuate nucleus to enjoy private milieus: the...

... and median eminence (ME), is displaced to specialized ependymal cells. How do hypothalamic hormones reach the portal ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a single uninterrupted barrier that in the brain capillaries is located at the endothelial ... The design of barriers in the hypothalamus allows the median eminence and the arcuate nucleus to enjoy private milieus: the ... This design implies a complex organization of the intercellular space of the median basal hypothalamus. The privacy of the ME ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20093161?dopt=Abstract

Blood-brain barrierBlood-brain barrier

The permeable capillary zone shared between the median eminence and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is augmented by wide ... Such zones exist at the border of the area postrema-nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS),[24] and median eminence-hypothalamic ... median eminence, pineal gland, pituitary lobes) facilitate transport of brain-derived signals into the circulating blood.[20][ ... and indicating that the median eminence is not only a secretory organ, but may also be a sensory CVO.[23][25] ...
more infohttps://readtiger.com/wkp/en/Blood%E2%80%93brain_barrier

A secretagogin locus of the mammalian hypothalamus controls stress hormone release | The EMBO JournalA secretagogin locus of the mammalian hypothalamus controls stress hormone release | The EMBO Journal

... localization with CRH in the median eminence (Fig 5A-A2), the locus of the first capillary network of the hypothalamic artery ... The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus‐median eminence complex: immunohistochemistry of transmitters, peptides and DARPP‐32 with ... A-A2 Secretagogin co‐existed in the majority of CRH+ nerve endings in the median eminence (ME). Open rectangle denotes the ... Secretagogin is a Ca2+ sensor expressed in the median eminence. Secretagogin+ neurons exhibited low‐amplitude Ca2+ responses to ...
more infohttp://emboj.embopress.org/content/34/1/36

Acupoint specificity on acupuncture regulation of hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal cortex axis function | BMC Complementary and...Acupoint specificity on acupuncture regulation of hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal cortex axis function | BMC Complementary and...

It is also the key element of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis(HPAA). The effect of acupuncture is transmitted ... In vivo recording the activities of stress reaction neurons (SRNs, CRH-like neurons) in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus ( ... The hypothalamic regulatory peptides are released into the portal system via the projection of the axons to the median eminence ... Its axonal endings contact with the first level of capillary in pituitary portal system. These CRH neurons release regulatory ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-015-0625-4

Endotoxin-induced inflammation down-regulates l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) expression at the blood-brain barrier of...Endotoxin-induced inflammation down-regulates l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) expression at the blood-brain barrier of...

3v third ventricle, Arc, arcuate nucleus, ME median eminence, VMH ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Scale bar 200 µm on A; 100 ... C LAT1 in situ hybridization signal in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) of mice. While LAT1 signal in capillaries ... Tanycytes of the hypothalamic median eminence form a diet-responsive neurogenic niche. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15(5):700-2. doi: ... Expression of the orphan GPR50 protein in rodent and human dorsomedial hypothalamus, tanycytes and median eminence. J Pineal ...
more infohttps://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12987-015-0016-8

Hypothalamus - WikipediaHypothalamus - Wikipedia

... median eminence AH: anterior hypothalamic nucleus SO: supraoptic nucleus TH: thalamus PV: paraventricular nucleus (not to be ... The hypothalamus is bounded in part by specialized brain regions that lack an effective blood-brain barrier; the capillary ... are produced in hypothalamic nuclei then transported along axons to either the median eminence or the posterior pituitary, ... also known as hypophysiotropic or hypothalamic hormones, are released from the median eminence, a prolongation of the ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothalamic

Toxic Responses of the Endocrine System | Casarett & Doulls Essentials of Toxicology, 3e | AccessPharmacy | McGraw-Hill MedicalToxic Responses of the Endocrine System | Casarett & Doull's Essentials of Toxicology, 3e | AccessPharmacy | McGraw-Hill Medical

... and released into capillary plexus in the median eminence. They are transported to the adenohypophysis by the hypothalamic- ... and released into capillary plexus. They are transported to the adenohypophysis by the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system, ... Control of trophic hormone secretion from the adenohypophysis by hypothalamic-releasing hormones (RH) and release-inhibiting ... Toxicants can influence the synthesis, storage, and release of hypothalamic-releasing hormones, adenohypophyseal-releasing ...
more infohttp://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1540§ionid=92527599

Neuropathology of stress | SpringerLinkNeuropathology of stress | SpringerLink

... the parvocellular neurons of the PVN secrete CRH and AVP also as neurohormones from their axons in the median eminence, into ... Hypothalamic neuropeptide changes in depression. CRH in depression. CRH-expressing neurons in the hypothalamic PVN are the ... the portal capillaries that transport them to the anterior lobe of the pituitary. AVP strongly potentiates ACTH-releasing ... At a later stage, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated as well. In this classic neuroendocrine circuit, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00401-013-1223-5

sullivan phys last test Flashcards - Cram.comsullivan phys last test Flashcards - Cram.com

median eminence capillaries at base of hypothalamus form portal vessels which pass down hypothalamic-hypophyseal stalk ... if your glomerular capillaries hydrostatic force is 45 mmHg, and your capsule hydrostatic force is 10 mmHg, what is the net ... if your glomerular capillaries osmotic pressure is 25 mmHg, and your capsule osmotic pressure is 0 mmHg, what is the net ... enzyme on capillary endothelial cells that catalyzes removal of two amino acids from angiotensin I to form angiotensin II ...
more infohttp://www.cram.com/flashcards/sullivan-phys-last-test-348906

Endocrine System | Adrenal Gland (342 views)Endocrine System | Adrenal Gland (342 views)

median eminence of the hypothalamus and the. infundibulum, these arteries divided into a capillary. Figure 4: The Hypophyseal ... Hypothalamic hormone reach the anterior pituitary. through a portal system .Usually , blood passes from the. heart through an ... Near the median eminence and above optic chiasm are. Types of anterior pituitary cells: Five types clusters of specialized ... capillary network into a portal vein, and then into a. secondary capillary network without passing through. heart. The name of ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/8966601/Endocrine-System

ERKUTLU SCIENCE CENTERERKUTLU SCIENCE CENTER

At the appropriate time a particular releasing factor is secreted near the capillary network in the median emi-nence (Fig-11) ... The tuberal area include the lateral hypothalamic, posterior hypothalamic, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei. Finally, the ... These include the neurohypophysis, median eminence of the hypothalamus, the area postrema, and the pineal gland. Because many ... the portal system again gives rise to a capillary network. The releasing factor then dif-fuses out of the capillaries and ...
more infohttp://erkutlu.blogspot.com

Hypothalamus-Pituitary Relationship Flashcards by Steven Marincel | BrainscapeHypothalamus-Pituitary Relationship Flashcards by Steven Marincel | Brainscape

Comprises all neurons that send projections to the median eminence - they have a portal system. Hormones target the anterior ... via inferior hypophyseal artery - has its own capillary bed, does not use a portal system ... What are some general hypothalamic functions and the associated nuclei? Sleep - SCN. Feeding behavior/Satiety - ARC. Thirst - ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/hypothalamus-pituitary-relationship-5064070/packs/7486585

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Hypothalamic Proliferative Zone (HPZ), Median Eminence (ME), Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) ... In the portal capillaries, GnRH travels to the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate release of gonadotropins into systemic ... focal irradiation technique to selectively inhibit the birth of adult-born neurons in the hypothalamic median eminence. We ... The GnRH-containing neurons are distributed diffusely throughout the hypothalamus and project to the median eminence where they ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/20016824/kisspeptin-signalling-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-regulates-gnrh

PPT - Endocrine Physiology lecture 2 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:163946PPT - Endocrine Physiology lecture 2 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:163946

... neurosecretory cells secrete releasing factors into capillaries of the pituitary portal system at the median eminence which are ... Hypothalamic releasing factors for anterior pituitary hormones*Travel to adenohypophysis via hypophyseal-portal circulation ... The upper portion of the neural stalk extends into the hypothalamus and is called the median eminence. ... Hypothalamic neurons pass through the neural stalk and end in the posterior pituitary. ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/Thomas/endocrine-physiology-lecture-2

Tanycytes allow a tight BBB in the median eminence | HSTalksTanycytes allow a tight BBB in the median eminence | HSTalks

on Tanycytes allow a tight BBB in the median eminence, part of a collection of online lectures. ... the concept of the tight hypothalamic blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, we now provide evidence that peripheral peptides can ... either neurons or specialized glia may establish an open communication with blood capillaries. For this to occur without making ... Rodriguez, E., Blazquez, J.L. and Guerra, M. (2018, April 3). Tanycytes allow a tight BBB in the median eminence [Video file]. ...
more infohttps://hstalks.com/t/759/tanycytes-allow-a-tight-bbb-in-the-median-eminence/?biosci

Hypothalamus - ScholarpediaHypothalamus - Scholarpedia

Some periventricular axons, from neurons that produce pituitary releasing hormones, travel to the median eminence, which is a ... 4 Hypothalamic regulation of endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral functions. *5 Hypothalamic control of fluid and electrolyte ... Here they secrete the releasing hormones into the portal capillaries, which carry them to the anterior pituitary gland where ... Second, neurons in the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei send axons to the median eminence, to secrete ...
more infohttp://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus - New World EncyclopediaHypothalamus - New World Encyclopedia

Some of these sites are the sites of neurosecretion: The neurohypophysis and the median eminence. However, others are sites at ... Other influences upon hypothalamic development. Sex steroids are not the only important influences upon hypothalamic ... The hypothalamus is bounded in part by specialized brain regions that lack an effective blood-brain barrier; the capillary ... Neurons in the OVLT and SFO project to the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus, and also to preoptic hypothalamic ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Hypothalamus

Leptin Revisited: Its Mechanism of Action and Potential for Treating Diabetes - PubMedLeptin Revisited: Its Mechanism of Action and Potential for Treating Diabetes - PubMed

3v= 3rd ventricle; ME=median eminence. C. Leptin normally enters most parts of the brain and reaches its target neurons via ... although AgRP-expressing neurons and other hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic neurons are also likely to play important roles ... with fenestrated capillaries (red circles), suggesting that leptin may reach its 1st-order LepRb-expressing neurons within the ... The ARH however is in close anatomical proximity to the median eminence (ME), a circumventricular organ (CVO) ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22935803/

Nav2/NaG Channel Is Involved in Control of Salt-Intake Behavior in the CNS | Journal of NeuroscienceNav2/NaG Channel Is Involved in Control of Salt-Intake Behavior in the CNS | Journal of Neuroscience

AH, Anterior hypothalamic area; MH, medial habenular nucleus;ME, median eminence; OVLT, organum vasculosum laminae terminalis; ... Water moves mainly across alveolar type I (ATI) cells and airway epithelium into the capillaries through water channels. The ... median eminence (ME), SFO, OVLT, and neurohypophysis (NHP). The four midline structures, ME, SFO, OVLT, and NHP, are known as ... 1996) Hypothalamic integration of body fluid regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:7397-7404. ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/20/20/7743?ijkey=3ce986c1e6218c98e875ad12ad75200667102b76&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Pediatric Gynecology | Williams Gynecology, 3e | AccessObGyn | McGraw-Hill MedicalPediatric Gynecology | Williams Gynecology, 3e | AccessObGyn | McGraw-Hill Medical

16-5). They form axons that extend to the median eminence and to the capillary plexus of the pituitary portal system (Fig. 15- ... Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis. ++. A carefully orchestrated cascade of events unfolds in the neuroendocrine system and ... By late gestation, gonadal steroids exert a negative feedback on secretion of both hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary ...
more infohttps://obgyn.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1758§ionid=118169397
  • These secretions, which are often polypeptides (compounds similar to proteins but composed of fewer amino acids ), pass along nerve-cell extensions, or axons, and are typically released into the bloodstream at special regions called neurohemal organs , where the axon endings are in close contact with blood capillaries . (britannica.com)
  • We now know that trypan blue was excluded from the brain because it rapidly complexed with albumen in the plasma and could not cross cerebral capillaries in this form. (blogspot.com)
  • Because AKI is an inflammatory condition, platelet activation and increased thrombin generation increase the risk of cerebral ischaemia due to cerebral capillary thrombosis typically found in cases of malaria-induced and leptospirosis-induced AKI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This was due to an error in methodology (the osmotic pressure was too high and the delicate embryonal capillary vessels were partially damaged). (readtiger.com)
  • An understanding of the contributions of different neuronal and non-neuronal cell types to hypothalamic inflammatory processes, and delineation of the differences and similarities between acute and chronic activation of these inflammatory pathways, will be critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. (jci.org)
  • Over the last years, hypothalamic inflammation has been linked to the development and progression of obesity and its sequelae and has emerged not only as an important driver of impaired energy balance, but also as a contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance via altered neurocircuit functions. (jci.org)