Urogenital Surgical Procedures
46, XY Disorders of Sex Development
True hermaphroditism associated with microphthalmia. (1/205)A 4-year-old boy with an undescending left testis, penoscrotal hypospadia and bilateral microphthalmia was admitted to our hospital. Chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype of 46, XX del(x)(p2 2,31) and the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) was negative. The right testis was located in the scrotum and a left cystic ovary-like gonad, a salpinx and a unicorn uterus were found in the left inguinal canal. Histologically the gonad was an ovotestis in which primordial follicles covered infantile seminiferous tubules. Microphthalmia is observed in some congenital syndromes caused by interstitial deletion of the X chromosome. This case suggested that the short arm of the X chromosome was involved in the differentiation of the gonad. Very closely located follicles and infantile seminiferous tubules indicated that induction of meiosis in the fetus was controlled by the local microenvironment in follicles and seminiferous tubules, and not by the systemic hormonal condition. (+info)
International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. (2/205)Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others. (+info)
Incidence of congenital malformations in children born after ICSI. (3/205)The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of congenital malformations in a complete cohort of children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The medical records were retrieved for 1139 infants, 736 singletons, 200 sets of twins and one set of triplets. The total number of infants with an identified anomaly was 87 (7.6%), 40 of which were minor. The incidence of malformations in children born after ICSI was also compared with all births in Sweden using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry and the Registry of Congenital Malformations. For ICSI children, the odds ratio (OR) for having any major or minor malformation was 1.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.58] after stratification for delivery hospital, year of birth and maternal age. If stratification for singletons/twins was also done, the OR was reduced to 1.19 (95% CI 0.79-1.81). The increased rate of congenital malformations is thus mainly a result of a high rate of multiple births. The only specific malformation which was found to occur in excess in children born after ICSI was hypospadias (relative risk 3.0, exact 95% CI 1. 09-6.50) which may be related to paternal subfertility. (+info)
Is the incidence of hypospadias increasing? Analysis of Finnish hospital discharge data 1970-1994. (4/205)Reports suggesting an increasing incidence of male genitourinary anomalies such as hypospadias, possibly related to environmental factors such as environmental estrogen-like compounds, have recently received considerable publicity. These reports are based on birth defects registry data, and there may be variation in the completeness of the registries used. We analyzed temporal trends in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland to assess the previously reported low overall prevalence and to detect any possible increasing tendencies during the past decade. We identified all patients who were surgically treated for hypospadias before the age of 9 years among boys born 1970-1986 in the national hospital discharge registry. We calculated the cumulative prevalence by dividing the number of patients by the number of male births, and we used Poisson regression analysis. Out of 549,176 boys born in Finland in 1970-1986, 1,543 were treated for hypospadias by the age of 8 years (28.1 surgically treated patients per 10,000 male live births; 95% confidence interval, 26.7-29.5). The prevalence of hypospadias in Finland remained constant throughout the study period and appears to have been approximately three times higher than previously reported. Changes in completeness of registration may account for a substantial proportion of the reported increases in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland and possibly also elsewhere. (+info)
Abnormalities of the genitourinary tract in female mice lacking GATA5. (5/205)Members of the GATA family of transcription factors play important roles in cell fate specification, differentiation, and morphogenesis during mammalian development. GATA5, the only one of the six vertebrate GATA factor genes not yet inactivated in mice, is expressed in a pattern that overlaps with but is distinct from that of other GATA factor genes. During mouse embryogenesis, GATA5 is expressed first in the developing heart and subsequently in the lung, vasculature, and genitourinary system. To investigate the function of GATA5 in vivo, we created mice homozygous for a GATA5 null allele. Homozygous mutants were viable and fertile, but females exhibited pronounced genitourinary abnormalities that included vaginal and uterine defects and hypospadias. In contrast, the genitourinary system was unaffected in male GATA5 mutants. These results reveal a specific role of GATA5 in development of the female genitourinary system and suggest that other GATA factors may have functions overlapping those of GATA5 in other tissues. (+info)
Hormone-dependent cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes in farmers' families--effects of climatic conditions favoring fungal growth in grain. (6/205)OBJECTIVES: The impact of grain farming and climate on late-term abortion among female farmers, male genital birth defects among their sons, and hormone-dependent cancer among male and female farmers and their adult children was investigated. METHODS: National registers were cross-matched in Norway and 246,043 male and female farmers born in 1925-1971 were identified, as were their 264,262 children, born in 1952-1980, in agricultural censuses and in the population register. The subjects were followed in the Cancer Register through 1995. Farmers' births, conceived in 1973-1991, were identified, and the prevalences of late-term abortion in mothers and hypospadias and cryptorchidism in their sons at birth were examined. Exposure, defined as the combination of grain farming and categories of seasonal or cumulative warnings, was based on data in agricultural censuses and on local, seasonal, field fungal warnings. Estimated adjusted rate ratios or prevalence ratios served as the measures of association. RESULTS: Categories of high exposure were associated with reproductive outcomes and cancer among female farmers, the strongest occurring for late-term abortion (ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6-4.3). Exposure associations for ovarian and breast cancer, and male genital defects, were more moderate. Endometrial cancer was associated with grain farming (ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-2.8) across all levels of fungal warnings. Exposure associations for cancer were strongest for premenopausal, parous women. Exposure was not associated with cancer among male farmers or children. CONCLUSIONS: Climatic conditions favoring fungal growth in grain were associated with hormone-dependent adverse outcomes among female farmers; the results are consistent with hormonal effects of inhaled mycotoxins during pregnancy. (+info)
Genetic evidence for a novel gene(s) involved in urogenital development on 10q26. (7/205)BACKGROUND: Although the frequent association between distal 10q monosomy and urogenital anomalies suggests the presence of a gene(s) for urogenital development on distal 10q, molecular deletion mapping has not been performed for the putative gene(s). In this study, we examined genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with distal 10q monosomy. METHODS: This study consisted of six karyotypic males (cases 1 through 6) and four karyotypic females (cases 7 through 10) with 10q26 monosomy. Cases 3 through 5 and 7 through 10 had urinary anomalies such as vesicoureteral reflux and hypoplastic kidney, and cases 1 through 6, 8, and 9 exhibited genital anomalies such as micropenis, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and hypoplastic labia majora. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for 10q telomere, whole chromosome 10 painting, and microsatellite analysis for 35 loci on distal 10q were performed in cases 1 through 8. RESULTS: FISH and whole chromosome painting confirmed distal 10q monosomy in cases 1 through 8. Microsatellite analysis revealed that hemizygosity for the region distal to D10S186 was shared by cases with urinary anomalies and that for the region distal to D10S1248 was common to cases with genital anomalies. Furthermore, it was indicated that PAX2, GFRA1, and EMX2 on distal 10q, in which the deletions could affect urinary and/or genital development, were present in two copies in cases 1 through 8. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a novel gene(s) for urinary development and that for genital development reside in the approximately 20 cM region distal to D10S186 and in the approximately 10 cM region distal to D10S1248, respectively, although it remains to be determined whether the two types of genes are identical or different. (+info)
Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: an increasingly common developmental disorder with environmental aspects. (8/205)Numerous reports have recently focused on various aspects of adverse trends in male reproductive health, such as the rising incidence of testicular cancer; low and probably declining semen quality; high and possibly increasing frequencies of undescended testis and hypospadias; and an apparently growing demand for assisted reproduction. Due to specialization in medicine and different ages at presentation of symptoms, reproductive problems used to be analysed separately by various professional groups, e.g. paediatric endocrinologists, urologists, andrologists and oncologists. This article summarizes existing evidence supporting a new concept that poor semen quality, testis cancer, undescended testis and hypospadias are symptoms of one underlying entity, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), which may be increasingly common due to adverse environmental influences. Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that TDS is a result of disruption of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. Therefore, we recommend that future epidemiological studies on trends in male reproductive health should not focus on one symptom only, but be more comprehensive and take all aspects of TDS into account. Otherwise, important biological information may be lost. (+info)
There are several types of hypospadias, ranging from mild to severe, and they can be classified based on the location of the opening and the extent of the defect. Some common types of hypospadias include:
* Mild hypospadias: The urethral opening is located just behind the tip of the penis.
* Moderate hypospadias: The urethral opening is located further back on the shaft of the penis.
* Severe hypospadias: The urethral opening is located on the scrotum or perineum (the area between the base of the penis and the anus).
Hypospadias can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and abnormalities during fetal development. In some cases, hypospadias may be associated with other congenital anomalies, such as chromosomal abnormalities or heart defects.
Symptoms of hypospadias can include:
* Incontinence (urine leaking from the penis)
* Difficulty urinating
* Abnormal appearance of the penis
* Painful urination
Treatment for hypospadias typically involves surgery to correct the defect and improve urinary function. The type of surgery used will depend on the severity of the condition and the age of the patient. In some cases, multiple procedures may be necessary to achieve optimal results.
In addition to surgery, other treatments for hypospadias may include:
* Medications to help manage incontinence or other symptoms
* Devices such as catheters or urethral dilators to help improve urinary function
* Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding certain foods or drinks that can irritate the bladder
It's important for individuals with hypospadias to follow their healthcare provider's recommendations for treatment and follow-up care to ensure the best possible outcome. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with hypospadias can achieve good urinary function and a normal quality of life.
Cryptorchidism can be classified into two types:
1. Abdomenal cryptorchidism: In this type, the testis is located in the abdominal cavity above the inguinal ring and is not covered by any skin or membrane.
2. Inguinoscrotal cryptorchidism: In this type, the testis is located in the inguinal canal and may be covered by a thin layer of skin or membrane.
Cryptorchidism is usually diagnosed at birth or during childhood, and it can occur as an isolated condition or as part of other congenital anomalies. Treatment options for cryptorchidism include:
1. Watchful waiting: In mild cases, doctors may choose to monitor the child's development and delay any treatment until they are older.
2. Surgical repair: In more severe cases or those that cause discomfort or other complications, surgery may be recommended to move the testes into the scrotum.
3. Hormone therapy: In some cases, hormone therapy may be used to stimulate the descent of the testes.
4. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): In cases where fertility is a concern, ART such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be recommended.
It's important to note that cryptorchidism can increase the risk of complications such as testicular cancer, infertility, and twisting or inflammation of the testes (torsion). Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are essential for monitoring and managing this condition.
The symptoms of urinary fistula can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Incontinence or leakage of urine
* Pain or discomfort in the abdomen or pelvis
* Frequent urination or difficulty starting a stream of urine
* Blood in the urine
* Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
* Recurring urinary tract infections
Treatment for urinary fistula typically involves surgery to repair the abnormal connection and restore normal urinary function. In some cases, this may involve creating a new opening for urine to pass through or repairing damaged tissue.
Preventive measures for urinary fistula are not well established, but good hygiene practices and proper care after surgery can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Terms commonly used when discussing cutaneous fistula include:
* Cutaneous: refers to the skin
* Fistula: a tunnel-like structure that connects two organs or tissues
* Drainage: the removal of fluid or pus from the body
Example sentences using the word "cutaneous fistula":
1. The patient developed a cutaneous fistula on their abdomen after undergoing surgery for an abscess.
2. The cutaneous fistula was causing discomfort and infection, so the doctor recommended draining it to prevent further complications.
3. The cause of the cutaneous fistula was determined to be a cyst that had ruptured and formed a tunnel-like structure to the skin.
1. Urethritis: This is an inflammation of the urethra, often caused by bacterial or viral infections. Symptoms can include burning during urination, frequent urination, and discharge.
2. Urethral stricture: This is a narrowing of the urethra, which can cause difficulty urinating and may require surgical treatment.
3. Urethral cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the cells lining the urethra. Symptoms can include blood in the urine, painful urination, and weight loss.
4. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): This is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, which can cause symptoms such as frequent urination, difficulty starting or stopping urination, and incontinence.
5. Prostatitis: This is inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause symptoms such as painful urination, frequency, and discomfort during sex.
6. Erectile dysfunction (ED): This is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It can be caused by a range of factors, including urethral diseases.
7. Premature ejaculation: This is when a man experiences orgasm and expels semen too quickly, often before he or his partner is ready. It can be caused by a range of factors, including urethral diseases.
8. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that affect the urinary tract, including the urethra, bladder, and kidneys. Symptoms can include burning during urination, frequent urination, and discomfort during sex.
9. Interstitial cystitis: This is a chronic condition characterized by recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder and pelvic area, often accompanied by frequency and urgency of urination.
10. Peyronie's disease: This is a condition that causes the development of scar tissue inside the penis, which can lead to curvature, shrinkage, and pain during sex.
It is important to note that many of these conditions can have similar symptoms, making it difficult to diagnose them without proper medical testing and evaluation. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Morning sickness can range from mild to severe and may last throughout the day or only occur in the morning. Some women experience severe nausea and vomiting that can interfere with daily activities, while others may have only minor symptoms.
While there is no cure for morning sickness, there are several remedies that can help alleviate symptoms. These include:
1. Ginger products: Ginger has natural anti-inflammatory properties and can help soothe the stomach. It is available in various forms such as ginger ale, ginger tea, or ginger candies.
2. Vitamin B6 supplements: Studies have shown that taking vitamin B6 supplements can help reduce morning sickness symptoms.
3. Rest and relaxation: Getting enough rest and reducing stress can help alleviate morning sickness.
4. Avoiding certain foods: Some women find that certain foods can trigger morning sickness, so it is best to avoid these foods until symptoms improve. Common culprits include spicy or fatty foods.
5. Medication: In severe cases of morning sickness, medication may be prescribed by a healthcare provider. These medications are usually antihistamines or anti-nausea drugs.
While morning sickness can be uncomfortable and disrupt daily activities, it is generally not a cause for concern. However, if symptoms are severe or persistent, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider to rule out any other potential complications.
The term 'disorders of sex development' (DSD) is used to encompass a wide range of conditions that affect the development of the reproductive and sexual systems in individuals with chromosomes XY. The term 'intersex' is sometimes used interchangeably with DSD, but some intersex advocates argue that this term can be problematic, as it has been historically used to pathologize and stigmatize individuals with these conditions.
The 46, XY disorders of sex development can be broadly classified into two categories: (1) genetic and hormonal, and (2) anatomical. Examples of genetic and hormonal DSDs include Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY), Turner syndrome (45, X), and androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Anatomical DSDs can include a range of physical characteristics, such as ambiguous genitalia, hypospadias, or undescended testes.
The management of 46, XY disorders of sex development is often complex and multidisciplinary, involving specialists from fields such as endocrinology, urology, gynecology, psychology, and social work. Treatment may include hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions to support the individual's physical and emotional well-being, as well as their gender identity and expression.
It is important to note that the term 'disorder' in '46, XY disorders of sex development' can be problematic, as it can imply that there is something inherently wrong or abnormal about these conditions. Some advocates argue that a more neutral term, such as ' variations of sex development,' would be more appropriate and respectful of individuals with these conditions.
Also known as: Urethral stenosis, Urethral narrowing.
Examples of Urogenital Abnormalities:
1. Congenital Anomalies: Conditions that are present at birth and affect the urinary tract or genitalia, such as hypospadias (a condition where the urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of the tip), undescended testes (testes that fail to descend into the scrotum), or interrupted or absent vas deferens (tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the penis).
2. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that can cause urogenital abnormalities, such as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection) or prostatitis (an inflammation of the prostate gland).
3. Trauma: Injuries to the urinary tract or genitalia, such as those caused by sexual assault or accidents, can lead to urogenital abnormalities.
4. Neurological Conditions: Certain neurological conditions, such as spina bifida (a birth defect that affects the spine and spinal cord), can cause urogenital abnormalities.
5. Cancer: Cancer of the urinary tract or genitalia, such as bladder cancer or prostate cancer, can cause urogenital abnormalities.
Symptoms of Urogenital Abnormalities:
Depending on the specific condition, symptoms of urogenital abnormalities may include:
1. Difficulty urinating or painful urination
2. Blood in the urine or semen
3. Frequent urination or incontinence
4. Pain during sexual activity
5. Abnormalities in the shape or size of the genitalia
6. Testicular atrophy or swelling
7. Discharge from the vagina or penis
8. Foul-smelling urine
Diagnosis and Treatment of Urogenital Abnormalities:
Diagnosis of urogenital abnormalities typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies (such as X-rays or ultrasound). Treatment depends on the specific condition causing the abnormality. Some common treatments include:
1. Medications to treat infections or inflammation
2. Surgery to repair or remove damaged tissue
3. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise modifications
4. Pelvic floor exercises to strengthen the muscles that control urination and bowel movements
5. Assistive devices, such as catheters or prosthetic limbs
6. Hormone therapy to treat hormonal imbalances or gender identity issues.
List of OMIM disorder codes
Killing of Scout Schultz
Laurence S. Baskin
Disorders of sex development
5α-Reductase 2 deficiency
Denis Browne (surgeon)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency
XX male syndrome
Primary urethral groove
Facts about Hypospadias | CDC
Hypospadias: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Hypospadias: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Hypospadias - Health Library | NewYork-Presbyterian
Mutations of the androgen receptor gene identified in perineal hypospadias. | Journal of Medical Genetics
Environmental and Genetic Contributors to Hypospadias: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence
A multi-site pilot study of a parent-centered tool to promote shared decision-making in hypospadias care - PubMed
Success! Nehimia from Ethiopia raised $1,293 to fund treatment for hypospadias. | Watsi
Surgery Expectations | Hypospadias Specialty Center
Hypospadia | Hypospadias surgery | @Prof. Dr. Hadidi official page
Subjects: Hypospadias - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Search Results
'I feel violated from hypospadias surgery' - Interesting search string … | StopIGM...
Megameatus intact prepuce treated with urethral plate-preserving surgery: a retrospective study of an unusual hypospadias...
Can Circumcision Be Avoided in Adult Male With Phimosis?
IMSEAR at SEARO: Modified Pediatric Penile Perception Scale to Evaluate Cosmetic Outcome in Children With Hypospadias Repair
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Opitz G/BBB syndrome: MedlinePlus Genetics
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NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
- Hypospadias is a birth (congenital) defect in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hypospadias is a congenital defect that is thought to occur during the embryologic development of the urethra, between 8 and 20 weeks' gestation. (medscape.com)
- Nehimia was born with hypospadias, a congenital abnormality that causes urinary dysfunction. (watsi.org)
- In the United States a study reported that hypospadias was the most common congenital anomaly among whites. (hypospadie24.com)
- Hypospadias (pronounced hype-oh-spay-dee-us) is a birth defect in boys where the opening of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) is not located at the tip of the penis. (cdc.gov)
- Hypospadias is a birth defect in boys in which the opening of the urethra is not located at the tip of the penis. (cdc.gov)
- Boys with hypospadias can sometimes have a curved penis. (cdc.gov)
- More severe forms of hypospadias occur when the opening is in the middle or base of the penis. (medlineplus.gov)
- During the first millennium, the primary treatment for hypospadias was amputation of the penis distal to the meatus. (medscape.com)
- Ventral curvature of the penis, termed chordee, is often associated with hypospadias, especially in more severe forms. (medscape.com)
- Most males with Opitz G/BBB syndrome have genital abnormalities such as the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias), undescended testes (cryptorchidism), an underdeveloped scrotum, or a scrotum divided into two lobes (bifid scrotum). (nih.gov)
- Hypospadias is when a man's urethral opening is not in the normal position at the top of the penis. (yourtango.com)
- Affected males usually have a urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). (nih.gov)
- FOR DOCTORS - PART VI Two Stage repair A small group of patients with severe proximal hypospadias, chordee, and a small phallus as well as patients with recurrent hypospadias and fibrous unhealthy skin may benefit from a two-stage procedure (Fig. 10). (hypospadie24.com)
- Perineal hypospadias often occurs in association with other genital abnormalities, such as bilateral cryptorchidism and micropenis, and may be the result of partial androgen insensitivity. (bmj.com)
- The first pair of brothers had partial androgen insensitivity with perineal hypospadias, bilateral cryptorchidism, and micropenis, while the other boys had isolated perineal hypospadias. (bmj.com)
- In boys with hypospadias, the urethra forms abnormally during weeks 8-14 of pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
- In some boys with hypospadias, the testicle has not fully descended into the scrotum. (cdc.gov)
- FOR DOCTORS - PART IV Grade II or Distal Hypospadias: "The Slit-like adjusted Mathieu (SLAM) Technique" The meatal-based flap technique of Mathieu is the most popular technique for distal hypospadias repair and has withstood the test of time. (hypospadie24.com)
- Hypospadias is an abnormality of anterior urethral and penile development. (medscape.com)
- Hypospadias is a common urological abnormality and may occur in simple (glandular or penile) or severe forms (perineal). (bmj.com)
- Objectives: To compare the interpretation for cosmesis post-hypospadias repair by child, parents and surgeons using modified Pediatric Penile Perception Scale (PPPS). (who.int)
- Researchers wanted to find out what penile aspects were important to women, and whether they thought men who had undergone the surgery to correct the Hypospadias had weird-looking penises . (yourtango.com)
- Failure of fusion of the urethral folds in hypospadias impedes this process, and a dorsal hooded prepuce results. (medscape.com)
- The location of the abnormal urethral meatus classifies the hypospadias. (medscape.com)
- To correct hypospadias and achieve a terminal meatus, one may use one of the following basic principles or tissues: Urethral mobilisation a. (hypospadie24.com)
- Megameatus intact prepuce treated with urethral plate-preserving surgery: a retrospective study of an unusual hypospadias variant. (bvsalud.org)
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of hypospadias after MIP repair by urethral plate-preserving urethroplasty. (bvsalud.org)
- Fig. 1: Classifications of hypospadias, according to location of meatus into 4 grades Fig. 2 a - c: Classification of glans configuration in hypospadias. (hypospadie24.com)
- Megameatus intact prepuce (MIP) is a unique variant of hypospadias and is a clinically rare condition. (bvsalud.org)
- Classification Anatomic classification of hypospadias recognizes the level of the meatus without taking into account curvature. (hypospadie24.com)
- Due to the anatomical characteristics of the MIP hypospadias variant presenting a unique challenge to surgeons , no single urethroplasty method provides a universal solution for all patients . (bvsalud.org)
- Modern anesthetic techniques, fine instrumentation, sutures, dressing materials, and antibiotics have improved clinical outcomes and have, in most cases of less severe hypospadias, allowed surgical treatment with a single-stage repair within the first year of life on an outpatient basis. (medscape.com)
- 4. Galanty M , Jurka P , Zielinska P. Surgical treatment of hypospadias. (avma.org)
- Surgical treatment of hypospadias. (avma.org)
- Hypospadias occurs in up to 4 in 1,000 newborn boys. (medlineplus.gov)
- Because the doctor might need to use the foreskin to make some of the repairs, a baby boy with hypospadias should not be circumcised. (cdc.gov)
- RESULTS: Elevated but marginally significant risks of hypospadias were associated with maternal occupational exposure (PRR of 1.36, CI=1.04-1.77), and paternal occupational exposure (PRR of 1.19, CI=1.00-1.41). (cdc.gov)
- In most cases, hypospadias is thought to be caused by a combination of genes and other factors, such as things the mother comes in contact with in her environment, or what the mother eats or drinks, or certain medications she uses during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
- Fertility treatments: Women who used assisted reproductive technology to help with pregnancy had a higher risk of having a baby with hypospadias. (cdc.gov)
- Certain hormones: Women who took certain hormones just before or during pregnancy were shown to have a higher risk of having a baby with hypospadias. (cdc.gov)
- 2. Prevalence of hypospadias in grandsons of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy: a multigenerational national cohort study. (nih.gov)
- Researchers estimate that about 1 in every 200 babies is born with hypospadias in the United States, 1,2 making it one of the most common birth defects. (cdc.gov)
Surgery to correct1
- Most cases of hypospadias will need surgery to correct the defect. (cdc.gov)
- Furthermore, severe familial hypospadias may be a previously unrecognised part of the phenotypic spectrum of the partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. (bmj.com)
- Therefore, the most reliable way to be accurately tested and have the results before surgery is to be tested at one of two labs near the Hypospadias Specialty Center: Real Time or Dev. (hypospadias.com)
- Age and weight: Mothers who were age 35 years or older and who were considered obese had a higher risk of having a baby with hypospadias. (cdc.gov)
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite potential exposure misclassification, which would tend to diminish observed associations, the previous literature indicates a modestly increased risk of hypospadias associated with pesticide exposure. (cdc.gov)
- 13. Risk factors for hypospadias. (nih.gov)
- CDC continues to study birth defects like hypospadias and how to prevent them. (cdc.gov)
- Remember that our center only treats hypospadias, and so, unlike hospitals, there are no ill patients in the facility. (hypospadias.com)
- All the doctors, nurses and staff at the Hypospadias Specialty Center and PARC Surgery Center are fully vaccinated, and all who are eligible have also received a booster shot. (hypospadias.com)
- HEA offers support and education of people born with hypospadias or epispadias and their families, loved ones, and medical care givers. (cdc.gov)
- We know that you have concerns about the coronavirus situation, and how it affects your travel to our facility and your care at the Hypospadias Specialty Center. (hypospadias.com)
- If the patient has complicated hypospadias, he may need to undergo further surgery. (watsi.org)