Hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Urinary Fistula: An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male: Surgery performed on the male genitalia.Urogenital Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.Cutaneous Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Foreskin: The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Morning Sickness: Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Urethral Stricture: Narrowing of any part of the URETHRA. It is characterized by decreased urinary stream and often other obstructive voiding symptoms.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Urogenital Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Dictionaries, MedicalScrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Penile Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Libraries, MedicalTrihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Doxylamine: Histamine H1 antagonist with pronounced sedative properties. It is used in allergies and as an antitussive, antiemetic, and hypnotic. Doxylamine has also been administered in veterinary applications and was formerly used in PARKINSONISM.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedPenile Erection: The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.Fascia Lata: CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Paternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

True hermaphroditism associated with microphthalmia. (1/205)

A 4-year-old boy with an undescending left testis, penoscrotal hypospadia and bilateral microphthalmia was admitted to our hospital. Chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype of 46, XX del(x)(p2 2,31) and the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) was negative. The right testis was located in the scrotum and a left cystic ovary-like gonad, a salpinx and a unicorn uterus were found in the left inguinal canal. Histologically the gonad was an ovotestis in which primordial follicles covered infantile seminiferous tubules. Microphthalmia is observed in some congenital syndromes caused by interstitial deletion of the X chromosome. This case suggested that the short arm of the X chromosome was involved in the differentiation of the gonad. Very closely located follicles and infantile seminiferous tubules indicated that induction of meiosis in the fetus was controlled by the local microenvironment in follicles and seminiferous tubules, and not by the systemic hormonal condition.  (+info)

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. (2/205)

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others.  (+info)

Incidence of congenital malformations in children born after ICSI. (3/205)

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of congenital malformations in a complete cohort of children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The medical records were retrieved for 1139 infants, 736 singletons, 200 sets of twins and one set of triplets. The total number of infants with an identified anomaly was 87 (7.6%), 40 of which were minor. The incidence of malformations in children born after ICSI was also compared with all births in Sweden using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry and the Registry of Congenital Malformations. For ICSI children, the odds ratio (OR) for having any major or minor malformation was 1.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.58] after stratification for delivery hospital, year of birth and maternal age. If stratification for singletons/twins was also done, the OR was reduced to 1.19 (95% CI 0.79-1.81). The increased rate of congenital malformations is thus mainly a result of a high rate of multiple births. The only specific malformation which was found to occur in excess in children born after ICSI was hypospadias (relative risk 3.0, exact 95% CI 1. 09-6.50) which may be related to paternal subfertility.  (+info)

Is the incidence of hypospadias increasing? Analysis of Finnish hospital discharge data 1970-1994. (4/205)

Reports suggesting an increasing incidence of male genitourinary anomalies such as hypospadias, possibly related to environmental factors such as environmental estrogen-like compounds, have recently received considerable publicity. These reports are based on birth defects registry data, and there may be variation in the completeness of the registries used. We analyzed temporal trends in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland to assess the previously reported low overall prevalence and to detect any possible increasing tendencies during the past decade. We identified all patients who were surgically treated for hypospadias before the age of 9 years among boys born 1970-1986 in the national hospital discharge registry. We calculated the cumulative prevalence by dividing the number of patients by the number of male births, and we used Poisson regression analysis. Out of 549,176 boys born in Finland in 1970-1986, 1,543 were treated for hypospadias by the age of 8 years (28.1 surgically treated patients per 10,000 male live births; 95% confidence interval, 26.7-29.5). The prevalence of hypospadias in Finland remained constant throughout the study period and appears to have been approximately three times higher than previously reported. Changes in completeness of registration may account for a substantial proportion of the reported increases in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland and possibly also elsewhere.  (+info)

Abnormalities of the genitourinary tract in female mice lacking GATA5. (5/205)

Members of the GATA family of transcription factors play important roles in cell fate specification, differentiation, and morphogenesis during mammalian development. GATA5, the only one of the six vertebrate GATA factor genes not yet inactivated in mice, is expressed in a pattern that overlaps with but is distinct from that of other GATA factor genes. During mouse embryogenesis, GATA5 is expressed first in the developing heart and subsequently in the lung, vasculature, and genitourinary system. To investigate the function of GATA5 in vivo, we created mice homozygous for a GATA5 null allele. Homozygous mutants were viable and fertile, but females exhibited pronounced genitourinary abnormalities that included vaginal and uterine defects and hypospadias. In contrast, the genitourinary system was unaffected in male GATA5 mutants. These results reveal a specific role of GATA5 in development of the female genitourinary system and suggest that other GATA factors may have functions overlapping those of GATA5 in other tissues.  (+info)

Hormone-dependent cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes in farmers' families--effects of climatic conditions favoring fungal growth in grain. (6/205)

OBJECTIVES: The impact of grain farming and climate on late-term abortion among female farmers, male genital birth defects among their sons, and hormone-dependent cancer among male and female farmers and their adult children was investigated. METHODS: National registers were cross-matched in Norway and 246,043 male and female farmers born in 1925-1971 were identified, as were their 264,262 children, born in 1952-1980, in agricultural censuses and in the population register. The subjects were followed in the Cancer Register through 1995. Farmers' births, conceived in 1973-1991, were identified, and the prevalences of late-term abortion in mothers and hypospadias and cryptorchidism in their sons at birth were examined. Exposure, defined as the combination of grain farming and categories of seasonal or cumulative warnings, was based on data in agricultural censuses and on local, seasonal, field fungal warnings. Estimated adjusted rate ratios or prevalence ratios served as the measures of association. RESULTS: Categories of high exposure were associated with reproductive outcomes and cancer among female farmers, the strongest occurring for late-term abortion (ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6-4.3). Exposure associations for ovarian and breast cancer, and male genital defects, were more moderate. Endometrial cancer was associated with grain farming (ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-2.8) across all levels of fungal warnings. Exposure associations for cancer were strongest for premenopausal, parous women. Exposure was not associated with cancer among male farmers or children. CONCLUSIONS: Climatic conditions favoring fungal growth in grain were associated with hormone-dependent adverse outcomes among female farmers; the results are consistent with hormonal effects of inhaled mycotoxins during pregnancy.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for a novel gene(s) involved in urogenital development on 10q26. (7/205)

BACKGROUND: Although the frequent association between distal 10q monosomy and urogenital anomalies suggests the presence of a gene(s) for urogenital development on distal 10q, molecular deletion mapping has not been performed for the putative gene(s). In this study, we examined genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with distal 10q monosomy. METHODS: This study consisted of six karyotypic males (cases 1 through 6) and four karyotypic females (cases 7 through 10) with 10q26 monosomy. Cases 3 through 5 and 7 through 10 had urinary anomalies such as vesicoureteral reflux and hypoplastic kidney, and cases 1 through 6, 8, and 9 exhibited genital anomalies such as micropenis, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and hypoplastic labia majora. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for 10q telomere, whole chromosome 10 painting, and microsatellite analysis for 35 loci on distal 10q were performed in cases 1 through 8. RESULTS: FISH and whole chromosome painting confirmed distal 10q monosomy in cases 1 through 8. Microsatellite analysis revealed that hemizygosity for the region distal to D10S186 was shared by cases with urinary anomalies and that for the region distal to D10S1248 was common to cases with genital anomalies. Furthermore, it was indicated that PAX2, GFRA1, and EMX2 on distal 10q, in which the deletions could affect urinary and/or genital development, were present in two copies in cases 1 through 8. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a novel gene(s) for urinary development and that for genital development reside in the approximately 20 cM region distal to D10S186 and in the approximately 10 cM region distal to D10S1248, respectively, although it remains to be determined whether the two types of genes are identical or different.  (+info)

Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: an increasingly common developmental disorder with environmental aspects. (8/205)

Numerous reports have recently focused on various aspects of adverse trends in male reproductive health, such as the rising incidence of testicular cancer; low and probably declining semen quality; high and possibly increasing frequencies of undescended testis and hypospadias; and an apparently growing demand for assisted reproduction. Due to specialization in medicine and different ages at presentation of symptoms, reproductive problems used to be analysed separately by various professional groups, e.g. paediatric endocrinologists, urologists, andrologists and oncologists. This article summarizes existing evidence supporting a new concept that poor semen quality, testis cancer, undescended testis and hypospadias are symptoms of one underlying entity, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), which may be increasingly common due to adverse environmental influences. Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that TDS is a result of disruption of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. Therefore, we recommend that future epidemiological studies on trends in male reproductive health should not focus on one symptom only, but be more comprehensive and take all aspects of TDS into account. Otherwise, important biological information may be lost.  (+info)

  • Hypospadias is a condition in infant boys in which the opening that carries urine out of the body (the urethra) is on the underside, rather than the tip, of the penis. (nemours.org)
  • Depending on the severity of hypospadias, our doctor may perform straightening of the penis, relocation of the meatus (urethra opening) to the tip of the penis and the creation of a cosmetic glans (head of the penis) and penile shaft. (nemours.org)
  • The goal of hypospadias repair is to normalize urination, create normal erections, and to improve the cosmetic appearance of the penis. (nemours.org)
  • Conclusions Our findings provide preliminary evidence of an association between exposure to EDCs with oestrogenic or anti-androgenic properties and increased risk of hypospadias. (bmj.com)
  • Modified Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty (Snodgrass) Procedure for Hypospadias Repair. (lvhn.org)
  • Promising directions for future research include identification of subgroups with genetic hypospadias risk factors, measurement of intermediate outcomes, and study of EDC mixtures that will more accurately represent the total fetal environment. (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • We aimed to determine the frequency of hypospadias in families of boys with hypospadias, to establish whether these familial forms exhibit a particular phenotype and to evaluate the prevalence of genetic defects of the main candidate genes. (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • What are the signs and causes of hypospadias? (nemours.org)
  • A total of 395 boys with hypospadias were prospectively screened for a family history with a standardized questionnaire, extensive clinical description, family tree and sequencing of AR, SF1, SRD5A2 and MAMLD1. (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • Considering the emerging literature on the role of potential endocrine disrupting substances on the occurrence of hypospadias and the potential to inform public health efforts to prevent the occurrence of these malformations, we have summarized the current literature, identified areas of consensus, and highlighted areas that warrant further investigation. (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • Methods This registry-based case-control study considered 1202 cases of hypospadias in children born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2000 and 2583 male controls randomly selected from birth records for whom information regarding parental occupation was available from the Western Australian Maternal and Child Health Research Database. (bmj.com)
  • Compared with mild or isolated cases, the risks of moderate-severe hypospadias or multiple defects were increased up to two- and fivefold, respectively, with maternal exposure to most types of EDCs. (bmj.com)
  • An early cohort study conducted in the Netherlands identified four cases of hypospadias among 205 sons of women exposed to DES in utero (~ 2% prevalence) versus 8 cases out of 8729 sons of mothers without DES exposure (0.09% prevalence). (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • It is a book that should be available in all paediatric urological departments since it will help the paediatric urologist to develop an optimal approach to the different forms of hypospadias repair. (springer.com)
  • It must be kept in mind, however, that although the most minor forms of hypospadias are insignificant in physiologic terms, they too may merit repair on the basis of the potential psychological stress associated with having abnormal genitalia. (medscape.com)
  • Mild forms of hypospadias are more common, but pediatric urologists at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia are experienced in treating both mild hypospadias as well as the less common but more severe forms of hypospadias. (chop.edu)
  • Mild hypospadias repair can take 60-120 minutes, whereas more severe forms of hypospadias can take three or more hours to repair. (chop.edu)
  • Males who have hypospadias located within or near the scrotum should also have a procedure called a voiding cystogram to rule out additional urinary tract anomalies. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Hypospadias kur uretrës nuk është në kokën e penisit, dhe ajo u zhvendos në mur mbrapa, mund të jetë në scrotum ose perineum. (in.ua)
  • Degrees of hypospadias are classified according to location, including anterior (50 percent of cases), middle (20 percent of cases), and posterior (30 percent of cases). (healthcommunities.com)
  • According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about one in every 200 boys born in the U.S. have hypospadias and the incidence appears to be increasing, although researchers aren't sure why. (urologists.org)
  • Note that overall exposure to pesticides was linked with hypospadias risk, but that no association was found for a specific pesticide. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Surgical repair of severe hypospadias may require multiple procedures and mucosal grafting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment for hypospadias is surgical repair. (medscape.com)
  • Surgical protocols and records were used to register every case of hypospadias and potentially associated curvature treated in this period, including both new and redos. (hindawi.com)
  • Without surgical correction, severe hypospadias may result in the inability to urinate standing and infertility. (healthcommunities.com)
  • In general, hypospadias repair requires refined surgical and plastic surgical skills. (urologyweb.com)
  • While multiple techniques have been described and are available for the repair of hypospadias, marked refinements in surgical techniques, the use of microsurgical instrumentation and fine suture material, and optical magnification have allowed the pediatric urologist to perform the vast majority of hypospadias repairs in a single stage. (urologyweb.com)
  • Children from more than 20 countries have benefitted from surgical expertise and caring attitude of team at Hypospadias Foundation located at Navi mumbai, India. (hypospadiasfoundation.com)
  • It is more common in newborns with a family history of hypospadias, and may be associated with certain mutations of genes that control the formation of the male genital. (fertilitypedia.org)
  • It's more common in babies with a family history of hypospadias and may be related to a problem with hormones as a baby develops in the uterus. (foresthillspediatrics.com)
  • Hypospadias occurs in up to 4 in 1,000 newborn boys. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hypospadias is diagnosed based on physical examination which usually occurs by your pediatrician at their well child checks. (rchsd.org)
  • Hypospadias occurs in approximately 1 in 300 males and 1 in 500,000 females in the United States. (healthcommunities.com)
  • Hypospadias occurs fairly frequently and is present in approximately 1 out of every 150 to 300 newborn boys. (chop.edu)
  • Hypospadias occurs in about 1 in 250 boys, though it seems to be becoming more common. (drgreene.com)
  • Hypospadias occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.3% to 0.8% and since the 1970s, multiple reports from the United States, England, Scandinavia, and Hungary have shown an increase in the occurrence of hypospadias [ 1 - 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Because hypospadias occurs in early pregnancy, the data suggest that hypertension and its morphologic/physiologic precursors play an etiologic role, perhaps via compromised uteroplacental perfusion. (ahrq.gov)
  • On behalf of the 2020 congress committee, it is an honor to invite you to the 9th International Pediatric Congress for Hypospadias & Disorder of Sex Development (ISHID) in association with World Feder hosted by the International Society for Hypospadias and DSD (ISHID) to be held on 27-28 March, 2020 at Bab Al Qasr Hotel in Abu Dhabi UAE. (3axid.org)
  • Hence, it is recommended that hypospadias treatment should be conducted only by trained pediatric urologists and hypospadias surgeons. (hypospadiasfoundation.com)
  • The centre is run jointly by Dr A.K.Singal, Hypospadias Surgeon & Pediatric Urologist from Mumbai, India and Dr Mahmood Abbas, Senior Pediatric Surgeon trained in France and living in Bahrain. (hypospadiasfoundation.com)
  • Dr A.K.Singal is a renowned Pediatric urologist and is one of the best & most experienced hypospadias surgeons across India and world. (hypospadiasfoundation.com)
  • In 2001, a report from Sweden suggested an association between maternal use of loratadine and infant hypospadias [ 19 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Having considered year of birth, maternal age, and parity, the odds ratio (OR) for hypospadias in relation to loratadine exposure was 2.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43-3.38). (medsci.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the association between both maternal and paternal occupational exposures to EDCs and hypospadias. (bmj.com)
  • Compared with mild or isolated cases, the risks of moderate-severe hypospadias or multiple defects were increased up to two- and fivefold, respectively, with maternal exposure to most types of EDCs. (bmj.com)
  • The original report published in 2001 on a possible association between maternal use of loratadine and an increased risk of infant hypospadias, based on data in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1995-2001, has been followed up by continued surveillance in the same register. (medsci.org)
  • Estrogens were the first chemicals to be studied in the context of maternal exposure and hypospadias. (diethylstilbestrol.co.uk)
  • In most cases, hypospadias is thought to be caused by a combination of genes and other factors, such as things the mother comes in contact with in her environment, or what the mother eats or drinks, or certain medications she uses during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Fertility treatments: Women who used assisted reproductive technology to help with pregnancy had a higher risk of having a baby with hypospadias. (cdc.gov)
  • Certain hormones: Women who took certain hormones just before or during pregnancy were shown to have a higher risk of having a baby with hypospadias. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association between hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, and the risk of severe hypospadias, particularly when medication use began late in pregnancy. (ahrq.gov)
  • During your office visit, your physician will discuss your son's specific form of hypospadias and the potential need for an operation. (chop.edu)
  • But since first-degrees hypospadias was excluded CDC could not assess the potential association between the mildest form of hypospadias and loratadine. (medsci.org)
  • Very few articles have focused on this form of hypospadias variant and its management, the first description being provided by Juskiewenski et al. (frontiersin.org)
  • In most cases, the exact cause of hypospadias is unknown. (mayoclinic.org)
  • While the specific cause of hypospadias has not been determined, some risk factors have been identified. (urologists.org)
  • As it is present at birth, the exact cause of hypospadias is usually unknown. (fertilitypedia.org)
  • Study of the incidence of hypospadias in Rochester, Minnesota, 1940-1970, and a case-control comparison of possible etiologic factors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • According to the data collected by the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS), apparently increasing trends in the incidence of hypospadias were found in Sweden during the 1960s, and in Norway, Denmark, England and Hungary during the 1970s. (utu.fi)
  • Incidence of hypospadias is reported to be between 1 per 250 to 300 male births. (asopahospital.in)
  • Treatment for hypospadias depends on the type of defect the boy has. (cdc.gov)
  • What is the treatment for hypospadias? (nyhq.org)
  • This depends on many factors including the severity of your son's hypospadias. (chop.edu)
  • Parental fertility and infant hypospadias: an international case-control study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Play media Hypospadias can be a symptom or indication of an intersex condition but the presence of hypospadias alone is not enough to classify as intersex. (wikipedia.org)