Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.
A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
A book is not a medical term, but generally refers to a set of printed or written sheets of paper bound together that can contain a wide range of information including literature, research, educational content, and more, which may be utilized in the medical field for various purposes such as learning, reference, or patient education.

Why is the retention of gonadotrophin secretion common in children with panhypopituitarism due to septo-optic dysplasia? (1/500)

Septo-optic dysplasia (De Morsier syndrome) is a developmental anomaly of mid-line brain structures and includes optic nerve hypoplasia, absence of the septum pellucidum and hypothalamo-pituitary abnormalities. We describe seven patients (four female, three male) who had at least two out of the three features necessary for the diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia. Four patients had hypopituitarism and yet normal gonadotrophin secretion: one of these also had anti-diuretic hormone insufficiency; three had isolated GH deficiency and yet had premature puberty, with the onset of puberty at least a year earlier than would have been expected for their bone age. In any progressive and evolving anterior pituitary lesion it is extremely unusual to lose corticotrophin-releasing hormone/ACTH and TRH/TSH secretion and yet to retain gonadotrophin secretion. GnRH neurons develop in the nasal mucosa and migrate to the hypothalamus in early fetal life. We hypothesise that the arrival of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus after the development of a midline hypothalamic defect may explain these phenomena. Progress in spontaneous/premature puberty in children with De Morsier syndrome may have important implications for management. The combination of GH deficiency and premature puberty may allow an apparently normal growth rate but with an inappropriately advanced bone age resulting in impaired final stature. GnRH analogues may be a therapeutic option. In conclusion, some patients with De Morsier syndrome appear to retain the ability to secrete gonadotrophins in the face of loss of other hypothalamic releasing factors. The migration of GnRH neurons after the development of the midline defect may be an explanation.  (+info)

Post-traumatic anterior pituitary insufficiency developed in a patient with partial lipodystrophy. (2/500)

A case of partial lipodystrophy developing anterior pituitary insufficiency, chronic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary fibrosis was reported. The patient died of respiratory failure secondary to pituitary crisis during the hospital course. From the clinical course in recent several years and the postmortem examination the head injury following car accident in the past history was considered to be the most plausible cause of hypopituitarism. The etiology of pulmonary fibrosis remained unresolved.  (+info)

Radioimmunoassay for 11-deoxycortisol using iodine-labeled tracer. (3/500)

A simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay for 11-deoxycortisol was developed. The antiserum produced in rabbits by immunizing with a complex of 11-deoxycortisol-3-oxime and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has little cross-reactivity with other endogenous steroids. The immunoassay procedure requires only one-step ethanol denaturation of binding proteins in plasma and extraction by an organic solvent can be omitted. Furthermore, use of 125I-labeled tracer significantly simplify the counting procedure. The method is sensitive enough to detect 1 microng/100 ml of 11-deoxycortisol. Plasma 11-deoxycortisol levels measured by this method after the administration of a single dose of metyrapone ranged from 5.0 to 19.2 microng/100 ml, whereas they were 0 to 4.0 microng/100 ml in hypopituitary patients. It is concluded that this simple method is useful for the routine assay of plasma 11-deoxycortisol as a parameter of the metyrapone tests.  (+info)

Hypercalcemia accompanied by hypothalamic hypopituitarism, central diabetes inspidus and hyperthyroidism. (4/500)

We present here a case of prominent hypercalcemia accompanied by hypothalamic tumor and Graves' disease. A 24-year-old man with hypothalamic tumor showed hypopituitarism, central diabetes inspidus (DI) and hyperthyroidism. Nausea, loss of thirst and appetite, and general fatigue were found with the unveiling of hypercalcemia and hypernatremia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1alpha-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were suppressed with a normal range of PTH-related protein values. One-desamino-(8-D-arginine)-vasopressin (DDAVP) and half-saline administration normalized hypernatremia, while hypercalcemia was still sustained. Administration of cortisone acetate and thiamazole reduced the elevated serum Ca level. In the present case, concurrent hyperthyroidism was assumed to accelerate skeletal mobilization of calcium into the circulation. Hypocortisolism and central DI was also considered to contribute, to some extent, to the hypercalcemia through renal handling of Ca.  (+info)

A case of congenital hypopituitarism: difficulty in the diagnosis of ACTH deficiency due to high serum cortisol levels from a hypothyroid state. (5/500)

A three-month-old boy presented congenital hypopituitarism in which the hypothyroid state masked ACTH deficiency. Multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, including ACTH, were finally confirmed. High basal serum cortisol levels (up to 45.1 microg/dl) were observed during a stressful episode before L-thyroxine replacement therapy was started. Decreased morning serum cortisol levels (5.0 microg/dl or below) were observed on the sixth day of L-thyroxine replacement therapy despite mild hypoglycemia (lowest serum glucose level of 50 mg/dl). ACTH deficiency was then confirmed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia test (peak serum cortisol level of 4.9 microg/dl). The present findings showed that serum cortisol levels can be high during a stressful episode in an infant with ACTH deficiency and a coexisting hypothyroid state. Thus, the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal function soon after L-thyroxine replacement therapy is important in order to verify a possible subclinical ACTH deficiency, even in the presence of high serum cortisol levels before L-thyroxine replacement therapy.  (+info)

Dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery associated with transsphenoidal encephalocele: a neural crest syndrome? (6/500)

We describe two original cases of internal carotid artery dysgenesis associated with a malformative spectrum, which includes transsphenoidal encephalocele, optic nerve coloboma, hypopituitarism, and hypertelorism. Cephalic neural crest cells migrate to various regions in the head and neck where they contribute to the development of structures as diverse as the anterior skull base, the walls of the craniofacial arteries, the forebrain, and the face. Data suggest that the link between these rare malformations is abnormal neural crest development.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of insulin-like growth factor I in hypopituitarism: correlation with binding proteins. (7/500)

We investigated the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) in growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Nine GHD adults [age 25 +/- 3 (SE) yr] received rhIGF-I (60 microgram/kg sc) twice, 10 h apart, and blood was sampled over 24 h. IGF-I and free IGF-I concentrations increased, whereas IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and acid labile subunit (ALS) were unchanged during treatment. There was no correlation between absorption or terminal half-life of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 or ALS, but negative correlations with IGF-I clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F). Positive correlations between both IGFBP-3 and ALS and IGF-I maximal concentration (C(max)) and time of C(max) (T(max)) were observed. Compared with normal individuals studied similarly (using 80 microgram/kg), GHD subjects showed a normal absorption half-life, a faster elimination half-life, lower C(max), yet normal T(max) and V/F. In conclusion, GHD is associated with normal absorption and distribution of IGF-I yet faster elimination kinetics. Additionally, IGFBP-3 and ALS concentrations modulate the peak concentrations of IGF-I achieved and correlate reciprocally with its V/F and CL/F, underscoring the critical importance of binding proteins in modulating the bioavailability of IGF-I in vivo in humans.  (+info)

Observational study in adult hypopituitary patients with untreated growth hormone deficiency (ODA study). Socio-economic impact and health status. Collaborative ODA (Observational GH Deficiency in Adults) Group. (8/500)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the socio-economic impact at baseline and after one year of follow-up of clinical and health status characteristics and laboratory tests of adult-onset GH deficiency (AGHD), a well-known clinical entity, in a large group of Spanish hypopituitary patients with untreated AGHD. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 926 eligible patients with GHD (GH +info)

Hypopituitarism is a medical condition characterized by deficient secretion of one or more hormones produced by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland controls several other endocrine glands in the body, including the thyroid, adrenals, and sex glands (ovaries and testes).

Hypopituitarism can result from damage to the pituitary gland due to various causes such as tumors, surgery, radiation therapy, trauma, or inflammation. In some cases, hypopituitarism may also be caused by a dysfunction of the hypothalamus, a region in the brain that regulates the pituitary gland's function.

The symptoms and signs of hypopituitarism depend on which hormones are deficient and can include fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, decreased sex drive, infertility, irregular menstrual periods, intolerance to cold, constipation, thinning hair, dry skin, and depression.

Treatment of hypopituitarism typically involves hormone replacement therapy to restore the deficient hormones' normal levels. The type and dosage of hormones used will depend on which hormones are deficient and may require regular monitoring and adjustments over time.

Pituitary diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproduction.

Pituitary diseases can be classified into two main categories:

1. Pituitary tumors: These are abnormal growths in or around the pituitary gland that can affect its function. Pituitary tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can vary in size. Some pituitary tumors produce excess hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms, while others may not produce any hormones but can still cause problems by compressing nearby structures in the brain.
2. Pituitary gland dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the normal function of the pituitary gland without the presence of a tumor. Examples include hypopituitarism, which is a condition characterized by decreased production of one or more pituitary hormones, and Sheehan's syndrome, which occurs when the pituitary gland is damaged due to severe blood loss during childbirth.

Symptoms of pituitary diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the hormones that are affected. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Empty Sella Syndrome is a condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of the pituitary gland in the sella turcica, a bony structure at the base of the skull that houses the pituitary gland. This can occur due to the herniation of the arachnoid membrane, which surrounds the brain and spinal cord, into the sella turcica, compressing or replacing the pituitary gland.

In some cases, Empty Sella Syndrome may be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on imaging studies. However, in other cases, it can lead to hormonal imbalances due to the disruption of the pituitary gland's function. Symptoms may include headaches, vision changes, menstrual irregularities, fatigue, and decreased libido. Treatment typically involves addressing any underlying hormonal deficiencies with medication or hormone replacement therapy.

Diabetes Insipidus is a medical condition characterized by the excretion of large amounts of dilute urine (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia). It is caused by a deficiency in the hormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH), which regulates the body's water balance.

In normal physiology, vasopressin is released from the posterior pituitary gland in response to an increase in osmolality of the blood or a decrease in blood volume. This causes the kidneys to retain water and concentrate the urine. In Diabetes Insipidus, there is either a lack of vasopressin production (central diabetes insipidus) or a decreased response to vasopressin by the kidneys (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).

Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, such as from tumors, trauma, or surgery. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic factors, kidney disease, or certain medications that interfere with the action of vasopressin on the kidneys.

Treatment for Diabetes Insipidus depends on the underlying cause. In central diabetes insipidus, desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, can be administered to replace the missing hormone. In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, treatment may involve addressing the underlying kidney disease or adjusting medications that interfere with vasopressin action. It is important for individuals with Diabetes Insipidus to maintain adequate hydration and monitor their fluid intake and urine output.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

Pituitary hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls several other endocrine glands and regulates various bodily functions.

There are two main types of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary hormones and posterior pituitary hormones, which are produced in different parts of the pituitary gland and have distinct functions.

Anterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Growth hormone (GH): regulates growth and metabolism.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
5. Prolactin: stimulates milk production in lactating women.
6. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

Posterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during lactation.
2. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH): regulates water balance in the body by controlling urine production in the kidneys.

Overall, pituitary hormones play crucial roles in regulating growth, development, metabolism, reproductive function, and various other bodily functions. Abnormalities in pituitary hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, such as dwarfism, acromegaly, Cushing's disease, infertility, and diabetes insipidus.

Pituitary function tests are a group of diagnostic exams that evaluate the proper functioning of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and releasing several essential hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and lactation.

These tests typically involve measuring the levels of different hormones in the blood, stimulating or suppressing the pituitary gland with specific medications, and assessing the body's response to these challenges. Some common pituitary function tests include:

1. Growth hormone (GH) testing: Measures GH levels in the blood, often after a provocative test using substances like insulin, arginine, clonidine, or glucagon to stimulate GH release.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) testing: Assesses the function of the thyroid gland by measuring TSH and FT4 levels in response to TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol testing: Evaluates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by measuring ACTH and cortisol levels after a CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation test or an insulin tolerance test.
4. Prolactin (PRL) testing: Measures PRL levels in the blood, which can be elevated due to pituitary tumors or other conditions affecting the hypothalamus.
5. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) testing: Assesses reproductive function by measuring FSH and LH levels, often in conjunction with estradiol or testosterone levels.
6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test: Evaluates gonadal function by measuring FSH and LH levels after GnRH administration.
7. Growth hormone (GH) testing: Measures GH levels in response to various stimuli, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), glucagon, or arginine.
8. Vasopressin (ADH) testing: Assesses the posterior pituitary function by measuring ADH levels and performing a water deprivation test.

These tests can help diagnose various pituitary disorders, such as hypopituitarism, hyperpituitarism, or pituitary tumors, and guide appropriate treatment strategies.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone produced in the pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in human development and growth by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 promotes the growth and reproduction of cells throughout the body, particularly in bones and other tissues. HGH also helps regulate body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, sugar and fat metabolism, and possibly heart function. It is essential for human development and continues to have important effects throughout life. The secretion of HGH decreases with age, which is thought to contribute to the aging process.

Russell's Viper is not a medical condition or term. It is a type of venomous snake, scientifically known as Daboia russelii, found in parts of Asia. The bite of this viper can cause severe symptoms such as pain, swelling, bleeding, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects like kidney failure, blood clotting problems, and cardiac arrest. Medical personnel should be notified immediately in case of a snakebite, and appropriate antivenom therapy should be initiated as soon as possible to reduce the risk of complications or mortality.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain responsible for regulating many vital functions in the body. The hypothalamus helps control:

1. Body temperature
2. Hunger and thirst
3. Sleep cycles
4. Emotions and behavior
5. Release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by genetic factors, infections, tumors, trauma, or other conditions that damage the hypothalamus. Some examples of hypothalamic diseases include:

1. Hypothalamic dysfunction syndrome: A condition characterized by various symptoms such as obesity, sleep disturbances, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic damage.
2. Kallmann syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hypothalamus and results in a lack of sexual maturation and a decreased sense of smell.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes obesity, developmental delays, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic dysfunction.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, often causing visual impairment, hormonal imbalances, and growth problems.
5. Infiltrative diseases: Conditions such as sarcoidosis or histiocytosis can infiltrate the hypothalamus, leading to various symptoms related to hormonal imbalances and neurological dysfunction.
6. Traumatic brain injury: Damage to the hypothalamus due to head trauma can result in various hormonal and neurological issues.
7. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the hypothalamus, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause damage and lead to hypothalamic dysfunction.

Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or other interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

Hypothalamic neoplasms refer to tumors that originate in the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain that is located at the base of the brain and forms part of the limbic system. The hypothalamus plays a critical role in regulating many bodily functions, including hormone release, temperature regulation, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior.

Hypothalamic neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can arise from various cell types within the hypothalamus, such as neurons, glial cells, or supportive tissue. These tumors can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include endocrine disorders (such as diabetes insipidus or precocious puberty), visual disturbances, headaches, behavioral changes, and cognitive impairment.

The diagnosis of hypothalamic neoplasms typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and sometimes biopsy or surgical removal of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or progression of the tumor.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Septo-Optic Dysplasia (SOD) is a rare disorder that affects the development of the brain, eyes, and pituitary gland. It is also known as De Morsier's syndrome. The condition is characterized by underdevelopment of the optic nerve, which can lead to varying degrees of vision loss, from mild visual impairment to complete blindness.

The septum pellucidum, a part of the brain that separates the two hemispheres, may be absent or poorly formed in individuals with SOD. This can result in a range of neurological symptoms, including developmental delays, intellectual disability, and movement disorders.

Additionally, SOD is often associated with pituitary gland dysfunction, which can lead to hormonal imbalances and growth problems. Treatment for SOD typically involves managing the individual symptoms and may include vision therapy, special education services, and hormone replacement therapy.

Neurogenic diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by the production of large amounts of dilute urine (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia) due to deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, which is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland.

Neurogenic diabetes insipidus can occur when there is damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, leading to a decrease in ADH production or release. Causes of neurogenic diabetes insipidus include brain tumors, head trauma, surgery, meningitis, encephalitis, and autoimmune disorders.

In this condition, the kidneys are unable to reabsorb water from the urine due to the lack of ADH, resulting in the production of large volumes of dilute urine. This can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications if not properly managed. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing ADH with a synthetic hormone called desmopressin, which can be administered as a nasal spray, oral tablet, or injection.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

The Sella Turcica, also known as the Turkish saddle, is a depression or fossa in the sphenoid bone located at the base of the skull. It forms a housing for the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes several essential hormones. The Sella Turcica has a saddle-like shape, with its anterior and posterior clinoids forming the front and back of the saddle, respectively. This region is of significant interest in neuroimaging and clinical settings, as various conditions such as pituitary tumors or other abnormalities may affect the size, shape, and integrity of the Sella Turcica.

A craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor that develops near the pituitary gland, which is a small gland located at the base of the brain. These tumors arise from remnants of Rathke's pouch, an embryonic structure involved in the development of the pituitary gland.

Craniopharyngiomas are typically slow-growing and benign (non-cancerous), but they can still cause significant health problems due to their location. They can compress nearby structures such as the optic nerves, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland, leading to symptoms like vision loss, hormonal imbalances, and cognitive impairment.

Treatment for craniopharyngiomas usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy in some cases. Regular follow-up with a healthcare team is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Hyponatremia is a condition characterized by abnormally low sodium levels in the blood, specifically levels less than 135 mEq/L. Sodium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate water balance in and around your cells and plays a crucial role in nerve and muscle function. Hyponatremia can occur due to various reasons, including certain medical conditions, medications, or excessive water intake leading to dilution of sodium in the body. Symptoms may range from mild, such as nausea, confusion, and headache, to severe, like seizures, coma, or even death in extreme cases. It's essential to seek medical attention if you suspect hyponatremia, as prompt diagnosis and treatment are vital for a favorable outcome.

A chromophobe adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically arises in the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The term "chromophobe" refers to the appearance of the cells under a microscope - they lack pigment and have a characteristic appearance with abundant clear or lightly stained cytoplasm.

Chromophobe adenomas are slow-growing tumors that can vary in size, and they may cause symptoms due to pressure on surrounding structures or by producing excess hormones. The most common hormone produced by chromophobe adenomas is prolactin, leading to symptoms such as menstrual irregularities, milk production (galactorrhea), and decreased sexual function in women, and decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility in men.

Treatment for chromophobe adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, often through a transsphenoidal approach (through the nose and sphenoid sinus). In some cases, radiation therapy or medical management with hormone-blocking drugs may also be necessary. Regular follow-up with an endocrinologist is important to monitor for any recurrence or hormonal imbalances.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Diagnostic techniques in endocrinology are methods used to identify and diagnose various endocrine disorders. These techniques include:

1. Hormone measurements: Measuring the levels of hormones in blood, urine, or saliva can help identify excess or deficiency of specific hormones. This is often done through immunoassays, which use antibodies to detect and quantify hormones.

2. Provocative and suppression tests: These tests involve administering a medication that stimulates or suppresses the release of a particular hormone. Blood samples are taken before and after the medication is given to assess changes in hormone levels. Examples include the glucose tolerance test for diabetes, the ACTH stimulation test for adrenal insufficiency, and the thyroid suppression test for hyperthyroidism.

3. Imaging studies: Various imaging techniques can be used to visualize endocrine glands and identify structural abnormalities such as tumors or nodules. These include X-rays, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine scans using radioactive tracers.

4. Genetic testing: Molecular genetic tests can be used to identify genetic mutations associated with certain endocrine disorders, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 2, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

5. Biopsy: In some cases, a small sample of tissue may be removed from an endocrine gland for microscopic examination (biopsy). This can help confirm the presence of cancer or other abnormalities.

6. Functional tests: These tests assess the ability of an endocrine gland to produce and secrete hormones in response to various stimuli. Examples include the glucagon stimulation test for gastrinoma and the calcium infusion test for hyperparathyroidism.

7. Wearable monitoring devices: Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) are wearable devices that measure interstitial glucose levels continuously over several days, providing valuable information about glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its primary function is to regulate the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones from the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin binds to receptors on the surface of thyroid follicular cells, stimulating the uptake of iodide and the synthesis and release of T4 and T3. The secretion of thyrotropin is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates the release of thyrotropin, while T3 and T4 inhibit its release through a negative feedback mechanism.

Pituitary apoplexy is a medical emergency that involves bleeding into the pituitary gland (a small gland at the base of the brain) and/or sudden swelling of the pituitary gland. This can lead to compression of nearby structures, such as the optic nerves and the hypothalamus, causing symptoms like severe headache, visual disturbances, hormonal imbalances, and altered mental status. It is often associated with a pre-existing pituitary tumor (such as a pituitary adenoma), but can also occur in individuals without any known pituitary abnormalities. Immediate medical attention is required to manage this condition, which may include surgical intervention, hormone replacement therapy, and supportive care.

Pituitary dwarfism, also known as growth hormone deficiency dwarfism or hypopituitarism dwarfism, is a type of dwarfism that results from insufficient production of growth hormone by the pituitary gland during childhood. The medical term for this condition is "growth hormone deficiency."

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain that produces several important hormones, including growth hormone. Growth hormone plays a critical role in regulating growth and development during childhood and adolescence. When the pituitary gland fails to produce enough growth hormone, children do not grow and develop normally, resulting in short stature and other symptoms associated with dwarfism.

Pituitary dwarfism can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, brain tumors, trauma, or infection. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Symptoms of pituitary dwarfism include short stature, delayed puberty, and other hormonal imbalances.

Treatment for pituitary dwarfism typically involves replacing the missing growth hormone with injections of synthetic growth hormone. This therapy can help promote normal growth and development, although it may not completely eliminate the short stature associated with the condition. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to optimize outcomes and improve quality of life for individuals with pituitary dwarfism.

Growth Hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone secreted by the somatotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the liver and other tissues. GH also has important metabolic functions, such as increasing glucose levels, enhancing protein synthesis, and reducing fat storage. Its secretion is regulated by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), which stimulates its release, and somatostatin (SRIF), which inhibits its release. Abnormal levels of GH can lead to various medical conditions, such as dwarfism or gigantism if there are deficiencies or excesses, respectively.

Central nervous system (CNS) cysts are abnormal fluid-filled sacs that develop in the brain or spinal cord. These cysts can be congenital, meaning they are present at birth and develop as a result of abnormal embryonic development, or they can be acquired later in life due to injury, infection, or disease.

CNS cysts can vary in size and may cause symptoms depending on their location and the amount of pressure they place on surrounding brain or spinal cord tissue. Symptoms may include headaches, seizures, weakness, numbness, or difficulty with coordination and balance. In some cases, CNS cysts may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons.

There are several types of CNS cysts, including:

1. Arachnoid cysts: These are the most common type of CNS cyst and occur between the layers of the arachnoid membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.
2. Colloid cysts: These cysts typically develop at the junction of the third and fourth ventricles in the brain and can obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leading to increased intracranial pressure.
3. Ependymal cysts: These cysts arise from the ependymal cells that line the ventricular system of the brain and can cause symptoms by compressing surrounding brain tissue.
4. Neuroglial cysts: These cysts are composed of glial cells, which support and protect nerve cells in the CNS.
5. Pineal cysts: These cysts develop in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland located near the center of the brain.

Treatment for CNS cysts depends on their size, location, and symptoms. In some cases, observation and monitoring may be all that is necessary. However, if the cyst is causing significant symptoms or is at risk of rupturing or obstructing CSF flow, surgical intervention may be required to remove or reduce the size of the cyst.

Hyperprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, this can lead to menstrual irregularities, milk production outside of pregnancy (galactorrhea), and infertility. In men, it can cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and infertility. The condition can be caused by various factors, including pituitary tumors, certain medications, and hypothyroidism. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include medication to lower prolactin levels.

A snake bite is a traumatic injury resulting from the puncture or laceration of skin by the fangs of a snake, often accompanied by envenomation. Envenomation occurs when the snake injects venom into the victim's body through its fangs. The severity and type of symptoms depend on various factors such as the species of snake, the amount of venom injected, the location of the bite, and the individual's sensitivity to the venom. Symptoms can range from localized pain, swelling, and redness to systemic effects like coagulopathy, neurotoxicity, or cardiotoxicity, which may lead to severe complications or even death if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disorder that typically occurs in middle-aged adults. It results from the pituitary gland producing too much growth hormone (GH) during adulthood. The excessive production of GH leads to abnormal growth of body tissues, particularly in the hands, feet, and face.

The term "acromegaly" is derived from two Greek words: "akros," meaning extremities, and "megaly," meaning enlargement. In most cases, acromegaly is caused by a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland, which results in overproduction of GH.

Common symptoms include enlarged hands and feet, coarse facial features, deepened voice, joint pain, and sweating. If left untreated, acromegaly can lead to serious complications such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and arthritis. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, or medication to control GH production.

Thyroxine (T4) is a type of hormone produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of your neck. It is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, with the other being triiodothyronine (T3).

Thyroxine plays a crucial role in regulating various metabolic processes in the body, including growth, development, and energy expenditure. Specifically, T4 helps to control the rate at which your body burns calories for energy, regulates protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and influences the body's sensitivity to other hormones.

T4 is produced by combining iodine and tyrosine, an amino acid found in many foods. Once produced, T4 circulates in the bloodstream and gets converted into its active form, T3, in various tissues throughout the body. Thyroxine has a longer half-life than T3, which means it remains active in the body for a more extended period.

Abnormal levels of thyroxine can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). These conditions can cause a range of symptoms, including weight gain or loss, fatigue, mood changes, and changes in heart rate and blood pressure.

A prolactinoma is a type of pituitary tumor that produces an excess amount of the hormone prolactin, leading to various symptoms. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, is responsible for producing and releasing several hormones that regulate different bodily functions. Prolactin is one such hormone, primarily known for its role in stimulating milk production in women during lactation (breastfeeding).

Prolactinoma tumors can be classified into two types: microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas. Microprolactinomas are smaller tumors, typically less than 10 millimeters in size, while macroprolactinomas are larger tumors, generally greater than 10 millimeters in size.

The overproduction of prolactin caused by these tumors can lead to several clinical manifestations, including:

1. Galactorrhea: Unusual and often spontaneous milk production or leakage from the nipples, which can occur in both men and women who do not have a recent history of pregnancy or breastfeeding.
2. Menstrual irregularities: In women, high prolactin levels can interfere with the normal functioning of other hormones, leading to menstrual irregularities such as infrequent periods (oligomenorrhea) or absent periods (amenorrhea), and sometimes infertility.
3. Sexual dysfunction: In both men and women, high prolactin levels can cause decreased libido and sexual desire. Men may also experience erectile dysfunction and reduced sperm production.
4. Bone loss: Over time, high prolactin levels can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis due to the disruption of other hormones that regulate bone health.
5. Headaches and visual disturbances: As the tumor grows, it may put pressure on surrounding structures in the brain, leading to headaches and potential vision problems such as blurred vision or decreased peripheral vision.

Diagnosis typically involves measuring prolactin levels in the blood and performing imaging tests like an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan to assess the size of the tumor. Treatment usually consists of medication to lower prolactin levels, such as dopamine agonists (e.g., bromocriptine or cabergoline), which can also help shrink the tumor. In some cases, surgery may be necessary if medication is ineffective or if the tumor is large and causing severe symptoms.

The sphenoid sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the sphenoid bone, which is one of the bones that make up the skull base. These sinuses are located deep inside the skull, behind the eyes and nasal cavity. They are paired and separated by a thin bony septum, and each one opens into the corresponding nasal cavity through a small opening called the sphenoethmoidal recess. The sphenoid sinuses vary greatly in size and shape between individuals. They develop during childhood and continue to grow until early adulthood. The function of the sphenoid sinuses, like other paranasal sinuses, is not entirely clear, but they may contribute to reducing the weight of the skull, resonating voice during speech, and insulating the brain from trauma.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

An Encephalocele is a type of neural tube defect that occurs when the bones of the skull do not close completely during fetal development. This results in a sac-like protrusion of the brain and the membranes that cover it through an opening in the skull. The sac may be visible on the scalp, forehead, or back of the head, and can vary in size. Encephaloceles can cause a range of symptoms, including developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, vision problems, and seizures, depending on the severity and location of the defect. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the encephalocele soon after birth to prevent further damage to the brain and improve outcomes.

Puerperal disorders are a group of medical conditions that can affect women during the period following childbirth, also known as the puerperium. The puerperium typically lasts for six to eight weeks after delivery. These disorders can be complications of childbirth or postpartum infections and include:

1. Puerperal fever: This is a febrile illness that occurs during the puerperium, usually caused by a bacterial infection. The most common causative organisms are group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli.

2. Puerperal sepsis: This is a severe form of puerperal fever characterized by the presence of bacteria in the blood (bacteremia) and widespread inflammation throughout the body. It can lead to organ failure and even death if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

3. Puerperal endometritis: This is an infection of the lining of the uterus (endometrium) that occurs during the puerperium. Symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain, and foul-smelling vaginal discharge.

4. Puerperal mastitis: This is an inflammation of the breast tissue that can occur during lactation, often caused by a bacterial infection. It is more common in women who are breastfeeding but can also occur in non-lactating women.

5. Puerperal psychosis: This is a rare but serious mental health disorder that can occur after childbirth. It is characterized by symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking.

6. Puerperal thromboembolism: This is a blood clot that forms during the puerperium, usually in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) or in the lungs (pulmonary embolism). It can be a serious complication of childbirth and requires prompt medical attention.

Overall, puerperal disorders are a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in low-income countries where access to healthcare is limited. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term complications.

The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary system, is a crucial part of the endocrine system that regulates many bodily functions. It consists of two main components: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain that receives information from various parts of the body and integrates them to regulate vital functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior. It also produces and releases neurohormones that control the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary (also called adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (also called neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system works together to maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes through hormonal signaling. Dysfunction of this system can lead to several endocrine disorders, such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary tumors, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders.

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by the inability of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) to produce sufficient amounts of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. This can lead to various symptoms including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction in men, irregular menstrual periods in women, and reduced fertility in both sexes. Hypogonadism may be caused by genetic factors, aging, injury to the gonads, or certain medical conditions such as pituitary disorders. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions in the body, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Endocrine system diseases or disorders occur when there is a problem with the production or regulation of hormones. This can result from:

1. Overproduction or underproduction of hormones by the endocrine glands.
2. Impaired response of target cells to hormones.
3. Disruption in the feedback mechanisms that regulate hormone production.

Examples of endocrine system diseases include:

1. Diabetes Mellitus - a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin deficiency or resistance.
2. Hypothyroidism - underactive thyroid gland leading to slow metabolism, weight gain, fatigue, and depression.
3. Hyperthyroidism - overactive thyroid gland causing rapid heartbeat, anxiety, weight loss, and heat intolerance.
4. Cushing's Syndrome - excess cortisol production resulting in obesity, high blood pressure, and weak muscles.
5. Addison's Disease - insufficient adrenal hormone production leading to weakness, fatigue, and low blood pressure.
6. Acromegaly - overproduction of growth hormone after puberty causing enlargement of bones, organs, and soft tissues.
7. Gigantism - similar to acromegaly but occurs before puberty resulting in excessive height and body size.
8. Hypopituitarism - underactive pituitary gland leading to deficiencies in various hormones.
9. Hyperparathyroidism - overactivity of the parathyroid glands causing calcium imbalances and kidney stones.
10. Precocious Puberty - early onset of puberty due to premature activation of the pituitary gland.

Treatment for endocrine system diseases varies depending on the specific disorder and may involve medication, surgery, lifestyle changes, or a combination of these approaches.

Aseptic meningitis is a type of meningitis (inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) that is not caused by bacterial infection. Instead, it can be due to viral infections, fungal infections, or non-infectious causes such as certain medications, chemical irritants, or underlying medical conditions. In aseptic meningitis, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis may show increased white blood cells, typically lymphocytes, but no bacterial growth on culture. Common viral causes include enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus, and varicella-zoster virus. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, antiviral medications, or immunosuppressive therapy in some cases.

The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, is the front portion of the pituitary gland. It is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones include:

* Growth hormone (GH), which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in bones and other tissues.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females by controlling the development and release of eggs or sperm.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and nursing women.
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain located just above it. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. These hormones are released into a network of blood vessels called the portal system, which carries them directly to the anterior pituitary gland.

Damage or disease of the anterior pituitary can lead to hormonal imbalances and various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, reproductive problems, and diabetes insipidus.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

The posterior pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis, is the posterior portion of the pituitary gland. It is primarily composed of nerve fibers that originate from the hypothalamus, a region of the brain. These nerve fibers release two important hormones: oxytocin and vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH).

Oxytocin plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. During childbirth, it stimulates uterine contractions to help facilitate delivery, and after birth, it helps to trigger the release of milk from the mother's breasts during breastfeeding.

Vasopressin, on the other hand, helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of water that is excreted by the kidneys. It does this by increasing the reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts of the kidney, which leads to a more concentrated urine and helps prevent dehydration.

Overall, the posterior pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining fluid balance, social bonding, and reproduction.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Physiology is the scientific study of the normal functions and mechanisms of living organisms, including all of their biological systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules. It focuses on how various bodily functions are regulated, coordinated, and integrated to maintain a healthy state in an organism. This field encompasses a wide range of areas such as cellular physiology, neurophysiology, cardiovascular physiology, respiratory physiology, renal physiology, endocrine physiology, reproductive physiology, and exercise physiology, among others. Physiologists use a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches to understand the principles underlying normal biological function and to investigate how these functions are altered in various disease states.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "books" is a general term that refers to bound sets of pages that are printed or written with text, illustrations, or signs, and are meant to be read, studied, or consulted. It does not have a specific medical definition. If you're looking for information about a specific medical term or concept, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

The diagnosis of hypopituitarism is made by blood tests, but often specific scans and other investigations are needed to find ... Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland ... Hypopituitarism is usually permanent. It requires lifelong treatment with one or more medicines. There is only one study that ... Hypopituitarism is a rare disease, but may be significantly underdiagnosed in people with previous traumatic brain injury. The ...
"Hypopituitarism". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 27 July 2021. Grasberger H, Vaxillaire M, Pannain S, et al. ( ... either isolated or as part of congenital hypopituitarism. Genetic types of nongoitrous congenital hypothyroidism include: ...
with V. K. Summers: Summers, V. K.; Sheehan, H. L. (8 September 1951). "Cortisone and A.C.T.H. in Hypopituitarism". Br Med J. 2 ... with R. T. Cooke: Cooke, R. T.; Sheehan, H. L. (22 April 1950). "Cases of Hypopituitarism". Br Med J. 1 (4659): 928-931. doi: ... with V. K. Summers: Sheehan, H. L.; Summers, V. K. (27 March 1954). "Oral Cortisone Treatment of Hypopituitarism". Br Med J. 1 ... In 1949, with Victor Kirwan Summers he published an important paper on the syndrome of hypopituitarism. The paper showed ...
Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar neoplasms, extrasellar brain tumours, head ... Radiation-induced hypopituitarism mainly affects growth hormone and gonadal hormones. In contrast, adrenocorticotrophic hormone ... 1] Fernandez A, Brada M, Zabuliene L, Karavitaki N, Wass JA (September 2009). "Radiation-induced hypopituitarism". Endocrine- ... deficiencies are the least common among people with radiation-induced hypopituitarism. Changes in prolactin-secretion is ...
Medicine portal Hypopituitarism Gross, PM; Joneja, MG; Pang, JJ; Polischuk, TM; Shaver, SW; Wainman, DS (1993). "Topography of ...
Hypopituitarism Hales, Robert E. (2007). The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of neuropsychiatry and behavioral ...
Morris Simmonds first reports hypopituitarism. Oxymorphone, a powerful narcotic analgesic closely related to morphine, is first ...
Hypophysitis Hypopituitarism Pituitary disease Naran, J; Can, AS (January 2020). "Lymphocytic Hypophysitis". PMID 32965926. {{ ... patients present with symptoms of hypopituitarism and must undergo pituitary hormone function evaluation. Biopsy is the only ... "Pituitary autoantibodies in patients with hypopituitarism and their relatives". J. Endocrinol. 157 (3): 475-80. doi:10.1677/joe ...
NTIS looks similar to central hypopituitarism; both frequently have reduced TSH and thyroid hormone levels. Debate is ongoing ...
Silver, HS; Morris, LR (May 1983). "Hypopituitarism Secondary to Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis". Southern Medical Journal. 76 (5 ...
After an episode of pituitary apoplexy, 80% of people develop hypopituitarism and require some form of hormone replacement ... 161-2. ISBN 978-0-19-263045-2. van Aken MO, Lamberts SW (2005). "Diagnosis and treatment of hypopituitarism: an update". ...
Apart from diagnosing hyperprolactinemia and hypopituitarism, prolactin levels are often checked by physicians in those who ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Hypopituitarism Thapa, Sudan; Bhusal, Kamal (2021), "Hyperprolactinemia", StatPearls, ...
Treatment for hypopituitarism involves hormone replacement therapy. Neurogenic diabetes insipidus may occur due to low levels ... Hypopituitarism, neurogenic diabetes insipidus, tertiary hypothyroidism, and developmental disorders are examples of ...
Additional symptoms would be associated with hypopituitarism. Additional symptoms are as follows:[citation needed] Abnormality ...
Mody S, Brown MR, Parks JS (2003). "The spectrum of hypopituitarism caused by PROP1 mutations". Best Pract. Res. Clin. ... 1999). "Clinical and biochemical phenotype of familial anterior hypopituitarism from mutation of the PROP1 gene". J. Clin. ...
These include hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency and hypopituitarism. Findings affecting pituitary function in some ... autopsy findings with special emphasis on hypopituitarism and review of the literature". Pediatric and Developmental Pathology ...
These mutations also lead to varying degrees of hypopituitarism. The human fetal pancreas begins to develop by the fourth week ...
These mutations also lead to varying degrees of hypopituitarism. The human fetal pancreas begins to develop by the fourth week ...
Other findings may include low sugars, proteinuria and hypopituitarism. The placenta may appear large and pale. Other ...
Examples of pituitary defects include hypopituitarism and pituitary hypoplasia. An example of a hypogonadism resulting from the ... Examples of hypogonadism that affect hormone production more than fertility are hypopituitarism and Kallmann syndrome; in both ...
Prabhakar VK, Shalet SM (2006). "Aetiology, diagnosis, and management of hypopituitarism in adult life". Postgrad Med J. 82 ( ... Hypoprolactinemia can result from autoimmune disease, hypopituitarism, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, excessive ...
Pituitary macroadenomas are the most common cause of hypopituitarism. While pituitary adenomas are common, affecting ...
It is very typical of patients that have hypopituitarism. There are many preexisting complications that may result in stenosis ...
Primary hypopituitarism may be linked to a genetic cause. So a genetic evaluation may be done for men with azoospermia as a ... Examples include hypopituitarism (for various causes), hyperprolactinemia, and exogenous FSH suppression by testosterone. ...
However, the risk of hypopituitarism makes this a poor choice. It may be necessary for rapidly growing tumors, but its benefits ...
However, ACTH has only a minor role in regulating aldosterone production; with hypopituitarism there is no atrophy of the zona ...
He looks like a child since he suffers from hypopituitarism. Ling Miu-shat, Sheila (凌緲薩, portrayed by Aimee Chan) is Ling Kam's ...
Local tumor expansion may cause visual disturbance, headache, and hypopituitarism. Pituitary tumors in MEN 1 patients appear to ...
Autoimmune hypophysitis Lymphocytic hypophysitis Pituitary disease Hypopituitarism "Autoimmune Hypophysitis Symptoms". Johns ...
Signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism may develop and be screened for in adults with moderate TBI and in mild TBI with imaging ... Children with moderate to severe head injury may also develop hypopituitarism. Screening should take place 3 to 6 months, and ... Hormonal disturbances may occur secondary to hypopituitarism, occurring immediately or years after injury in 10 to 15% of TBI ...
The diagnosis of hypopituitarism is made by blood tests, but often specific scans and other investigations are needed to find ... Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland ... Hypopituitarism is usually permanent. It requires lifelong treatment with one or more medicines. There is only one study that ... Hypopituitarism is a rare disease, but may be significantly underdiagnosed in people with previous traumatic brain injury. The ...
Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. ... Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. ... In hypopituitarism, there is a lack of one or more pituitary hormones. Lack of a hormone leads to loss of function in the gland ... Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. ...
Hypopituitarism is a partial or complete insufficiency of pituitary hormone secretion that may derive from pituitary or ... encoded search term (Pediatric Hypopituitarism) and Pediatric Hypopituitarism What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pediatric Hypopituitarism. Updated: Oct 04, 2023 * Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: Sasigarn A Bowden, MD ... Causes of hypopituitarism can be divided into categories of congenital and acquired causes. An overview of causes based on ...
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Causing Hypopituitarism and Diabetes Insipidus, and Subsequent Association With Primary Autoimmune ... Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Causing Hypopituitarism and Diabetes Insipidus, and Subsequent Association With Primary Autoimmune ... Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Causing Hypopituitarism and Diabetes Insipidus, and Subsequent Association With Primary Autoimmune ... In view of visual disturbance and clinical hypopituitarism, transphenoidal resection of the tumor was performed and normal- ...
In hypopituitarism, there is a lack of one or more pituitary hormones. Lack of a hormone leads to loss of function in the gland ... Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. ... Sometimes, hypopituitarism is due to uncommon immune system or metabolic diseases, such as:. *Too much iron in the body ( ... If hypopituitarism is caused by a tumor, you may need surgery to remove the tumor. Radiation therapy may also be needed. ...
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Increased cerebrovascular mortality in patients with hypopituitarism. *Mark. Bülow, B LU ; Hagmar, L LU ; Mikoczy, Z LU ; ... OBJECTIVE: An increased prevalence of atherosclerosis has been shown among patients with hypopituitarism. The aim of the ... OBJECTIVE: An increased prevalence of atherosclerosis has been shown among patients with hypopituitarism. The aim of the ... The aim of the present study was to assess whether patients with hypopituitarism experience increased cardiovascular, in ...
HGF Live Webinar , Congenital Hypopituitarism: What We Have Learned from Neuroimaging. Registration is closed ...
Fertility After Hypophysectomy / Hypopituitarism. Doctors Answers , Doctors Answers, Effects of Cushings, Hypopituitarism, ... hypopituitarism? Answer: The terms are often used interchangeably. Strictly speaking, panhypopituitarism refers to loss of all ... If a patient has hypopituitarism (low pituitary function) from either the tumor or the surgery… Continue Reading. ...
A Case of Anorexia Nervosa with Necropsy Findings and a Discussion of Secondary Hypopituitarism ... A Case of Anorexia Nervosa with Necropsy Findings and a Discussion of Secondary Hypopituitarism ...
45(8): p.405-9. Traumatic hypopituitarism was diagnosed in an 11-month-old male neutered cat. The presenting complaints were ... Traumatic hypopituitarism was diagnosed in an 11-month-old male neutered cat. The presenting complaints were polydipsia, ...
Hypopituitarism refers to either partial or complete deficiency of the an-terior and/or posterior pituitary function. ... Congenital hypopituitarism. Mutations in pituitary transcription factor genes (e.g. HESX-1, PIT-1, LHX-4) can result in ... Hypopituitarism may be congen-ital or acquired, secondary to pituitary disease or to hypothalamic pathol-ogy that interferes ... Hypopituitarism refers to either partial or complete deficiency of the an-terior and/or posterior pituitary function. ...
Copyright © . All rights reserved by myacare.com. ...
Tag: Hypopituitarism. June 17, 2020. June 17, 2020. Critical care, Haemorrhage, Obstetrics ...
"Hypopituitarism" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hypopituitarism" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Hypopituitarism" by people in Profiles. ... whether "Hypopituitarism" was a major or minor topic of these publications. To see the data from this visualization as text, ...
Hypopituitarism is a partial or complete insufficiency of pituitary hormone secretion that may derive from pituitary or ... encoded search term (Pediatric Hypopituitarism) and Pediatric Hypopituitarism What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pediatric Hypopituitarism. Updated: Nov 02, 2015 * Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD ... Causes of hypopituitarism can be divided into categories of congenital and acquired causes. An overview of causes based on ...
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Hypopituitarism secondary prevention All Images. X-rays. Echo & Ultrasound. CT Images. ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Hypopituitarism_secondary_prevention&oldid=1639706" ...
Context Women with hypopituitarism have lower pregnancy rates after ovulation induction. Associated pituitary hormone ...
Hypopituitarism answers are found in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... "Hypopituitarism." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2020. Medicine Central, im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/ ... view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816293/all/Hypopituitarism. Hypopituitarism. In: Domino FJF, Baldor RAR, Golding JJ, et al, eds ... Hypopituitarism. (2020). In Domino, F. J., Baldor, R. A., Golding, J., & Stephens, M. B. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult ( ...
In the setting of typical and overt manifestations of hypopituitarism, basal serum hormone measurements may suffice. However, ... How is hypopituitarism diagnosed?. In the setting of typical and overt manifestations of hypopituitarism, basal serum hormone ... How common is hypopituitarism. How common is hypopituitarism in the general population? A study conducted in northwestern Spain ...
Hypopituitarism - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... What is hypopituitarism? Hypopituitarism is when your pituitary gland doesnt make enough of one or more pituitary hormones ... How can doctors tell if I have hypopituitarism? Doctors may suspect hypopituitarism when you have problems with other glands, ... Causes of hypopituitarism include tumors in your pituitary gland, not enough blood supply to your pituitary gland, or certain ...
Congenital Hypopituitarism). Viola Frymann DO FAAO FCA Downs Syndrome(Congenital Hypopituitarism). Dec06 ...
Hypopituitarism - Atlas of pathophysiology - Atlas of Pathophysiology, 2 Edition, will help students of all health care ... Hypopituitarism. Hypopituitarism, also known as panhypopituitarism, is a complex syndrome marked by metabolic dysfunction, ... When hypopituitarism follows surgical ablation or trauma, the pattern of hormonal events may not necessarily follow that ... Primary hypopituitarism usually develops in a predictable pattern. It generally begins with decreased gonadotropin (FSH and LH ...
... -idiopathic -African trypanosomiasis -sickle cell disease - ... Differential diagnosis of no mass lesions causing hypopituitarism -idiopathic. -African trypanosomiasis -sickle cell disease. - ...
Get free shipping on Hypopituitarism Following Traumatic Brain Injury ISBN13:9783838304434 from TextbookRush at a great price ... This is a higher frequency than previously thought and suggests that most cases of post traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) remain ...
Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality rate mostly related to cardiovascular disorders. These studies also ... about the details of the analysis and the importance of Growth Hormone replacement therapies in adults with hypopituitarism. ...
More severe hypopituitarism can lead to hypothyroidism or abnormally low cortisol levels, which may be life threatening. ... Pituitary Failure or Hypopituitarism. Increased compression of the normal gland can cause hormone insufficiency, called ... If your symptoms suggest pituitary failure (hypopituitarism), you need a complete evaluation of the endocrine system.. Based on ... hypopituitarism. The symptoms depend upon which hormone is involved.. *Reduction of sex hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and ...
The reproductive cycle can be divided into an ovarian cycle and a uterine cycle (compare ovarian histology and uterine histology in the diagram on the right). During the uterine cycle, the endometrial lining of the uterus builds up under the influence of increasing levels of estrogen (labeled as estradiol in the image). Follicles develop, and within a few days one matures into an ovum, or egg. The ovary then releases this egg, at the time of ovulation. After ovulation the uterine lining enters a secretory phase, or the ovarian cycle, in preparation for implantation, under the influence of progesterone. Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum (the follicle after ovulation) and enriches the uterus with a thick lining of blood vessels and capillaries so that it can sustain the growing fetus. If fertilization and implantation occur, the embryo produces Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG), which maintains the corpus luteum and causes it to continue producing progesterone until the placenta can ...
  • The left photograph shows an untreated 21-month-old girl with congenital hypopituitarism. (medscape.com)
  • Mutations in these genes are causes of congenital hypopituitarism and have specific pituitary hormone deficiencies associated with the involved gene. (medscape.com)
  • To describe a new patient with syndromic congenital hypopituitarism and diffuse brain atrophy due to RNPC3 mutations and to compare her clinical and molecular characteristics and pituitary functions with previously published patients. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • The Y443C variant in RNPC3 associated with syndromic congenital hypopituitarism and abnormal brain development. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Context: Genetic defects affecting the expression and function of factors involved in pituitary development have been found to be associated with congenital hypopituitarism (CH). However, for most cases of CH, the etiology remains unknown. (cmich.edu)
  • Thakur, M, Taha, D & Misra, VK 2017, ' A case of congenital hypopituitarism associated with a 1p31 microdeletion: A possible role for LEPR and JAK1 ', Journal of the Endocrine Society , vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 278-282. (cmich.edu)
  • More severe hypopituitarism can lead to hypothyroidism or abnormally low cortisol levels, which may be life threatening. (uclahealth.org)
  • The overall incidence of new onset hypopituitarism was 22.9%, with hypothyroidism serving as the most common individual axis deficiency. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hypopituitarism is a partial or complete insufficiency of pituitary hormone secretion that may derive from pituitary or hypothalamic disease. (medscape.com)
  • Increased compression of the normal gland can cause hormone insufficiency, called hypopituitarism. (uclahealth.org)
  • Hypopituitarism refers to either partial or complete deficiency of the an-terior and/or posterior pituitary function. (brainkart.com)
  • The signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism will depend on the area of the pituitary gland that is affected and the deficiency of specific hormones. (healthhype.com)
  • Dr. Antal has experience treating conditions like Growth Hormone Deficiency and Hypopituitarism among other conditions at varying frequencies. (sharecare.com)
  • for instance, if the hypopituitarism is due to a growth hormone-producing tumor, there may be symptoms of acromegaly (enlargement of the hands and feet, coarse facial features), and if the tumor extends to the optic nerve or optic chiasm, there may be visual field defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • If hypopituitarism is caused by a tumor, you may need surgery to remove the tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In view of visual disturbance and clinical hypopituitarism, transphenoidal resection of the tumor was performed and normal-looking pituitary tissue was preserved. (lww.com)
  • Question: What is the difference between panhypopituitarism vs. hypopituitarism? (csrf.net)
  • Hypopituitarism, also known as panhypopituitarism , is a complex syndrome marked by metabolic dysfunction, sexual immaturity, and growth retardation (when it occurs in childhood). (doctorlib.info)
  • Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism vary, depending on which hormones are undersecreted and on the underlying cause of the abnormality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormones of the pituitary have different actions in the body, and the symptoms of hypopituitarism therefore depend on which hormone is deficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In hypopituitarism, there is a lack of one or more pituitary hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the HYPOTHALAMUS and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hypopituitarism may be congen-ital or acquired, secondary to pituitary disease or to hypothalamic pathol-ogy that interferes with pituitary function. (brainkart.com)
  • What are the symptoms of hypopituitarism? (msdmanuals.com)
  • The signs and symptoms will vary accordingly although majority of the different pituitary cell types as described under pituitary gland function has to be destroyed or malfunctioning for hypopituitarism to ensue. (healthhype.com)
  • Several hormone deficiencies associated with hypopituitarism may lead to secondary diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical presentation of hypopituitarism may vary, depending on patient age and on the specific hormone deficiencies, which may occur singly or in various combinations. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with hypopituitarism have complex endocrine deficiencies, and the mechanisms underpinning any excess mortality are unknown. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality rate mostly related to cardiovascular disorders. (pituitaryworldnews.org)
  • Hypopituitarism is a rare disease, but may be significantly underdiagnosed in people with previous traumatic brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traumatic hypopituitarism was diagnosed in an 11-month-old male neutered cat. (avmi.net)
  • This is a higher frequency than previously thought and suggests that most cases of post traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) remain undiagnosed and untreated. (textbookrush.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess whether patients with hypopituitarism experience increased cardiovascular, in particular cerebrovascular, mortality. (lu.se)
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Retrospective cohort study of mortality, 1952-1992, in 344 patients, of whom 130 were female, receiving conventional hormone replacement for hypopituitarism following neurosurgery for pituitary tumours. (lu.se)
  • Association between premature mortality and hypopituitarism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Four retrospective studies have reported premature mortality in patients with hypopituitarism with standard mortality ratios (SMRs) varying between 1.20 and 2.17. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We aimed to clarify these issues by doing a large prospective study of total and specific-cause mortality in patients with hypopituitarism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • INTERPRETATION: Patients with hypopituitarism have excess mortality, predominantly from vascular and respiratory disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Dr. Blevins talks about the details of the analysis and the importance of Growth Hormone replacement therapies in adults with hypopituitarism. (pituitaryworldnews.org)
  • METHODS: We followed up 1014 UK patients (514 men, 500 women) with hypopituitarism from January, 1992, to January, 2000. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The diagnosis of hypopituitarism is made by blood tests, but often specific scans and other investigations are needed to find the underlying cause, such as tumors of the pituitary, and the ideal treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: An increased prevalence of atherosclerosis has been shown among patients with hypopituitarism. (lu.se)
  • If there is decreased secretion of one specific pituitary hormone, the condition is known as selective hypopituitarism. (wikipedia.org)
  • To diagnose hypopituitarism, there must be low hormone levels due to a problem with the pituitary gland. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hypopituitarism is usually a result of destruction of the entire or portion of the pituitary gland. (healthhype.com)
  • Hypopituitarism is also a rare complication caused by severe bleeding during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This report extends the RNPC3-related hypopituitarism phenotype with a severe neurodegenerative presentation. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Primary hypopituitarism usually develops in a predictable pattern. (doctorlib.info)
  • Medicine Central , im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816293/all/Hypopituitarism. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Ichiyama T, Hayashi T, Nishikawa M, Furukawa S: Optic nerve hypoplasia with hypopituitarism and an arachnoid cyst. (karger.com)
  • When hypopituitarism follows surgical ablation or trauma, the pattern of hormonal events may not necessarily follow that sequence. (doctorlib.info)
  • [ 1 ] The focus of this article is childhood-onset hypopituitarism. (medscape.com)