Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Bartter Syndrome: A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Gitelman Syndrome: An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Potassium Deficiency: A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 3: Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.Vipoma: A tumor that secretes VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE, a neuropeptide that causes VASODILATION; relaxation of smooth muscles; watery DIARRHEA; HYPOKALEMIA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. Vipomas, derived from the pancreatic ISLET CELLS, generally are malignant and can secrete other hormones. In most cases, Vipomas are located in the PANCREAS but can be found in extrapancreatic sites.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic: Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.Chlorthalidone: A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Sodium Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Triamterene: A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Magnesium Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Glycyrrhizic Acid: A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Glycyrrhiza: A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Hypernatremia: Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Achlorhydria: A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.Torsades de Pointes: A malignant form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is characterized by HEART RATE between 200 and 250 beats per minute, and QRS complexes with changing amplitude and twisting of the points. The term also describes the syndrome of tachycardia with prolonged ventricular repolarization, long QT intervals exceeding 500 milliseconds or BRADYCARDIA. Torsades de pointes may be self-limited or may progress to VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Thyrotoxicosis: A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.18-Hydroxydesoxycorticosterone: An analog of desoxycorticosterone which is substituted by a hydroxyl group at the C-18 position.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Fanconi Syndrome: A hereditary or acquired form of generalized dysfunction of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE without primary involvement of the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS. It is usually characterized by the tubular wasting of nutrients and salts (GLUCOSE; AMINO ACIDS; PHOSPHATES; and BICARBONATES) resulting in HYPOKALEMIA; ACIDOSIS; HYPERCALCIURIA; and PROTEINURIA.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.

Impairment of skeletal muscle adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channels in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. (1/496)

The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel is the most abundant K+ channel active in the skeletal muscle fibers of humans and animals. In the present work, we demonstrate the involvement of the muscular KATP channel in a skeletal muscle disorder known as hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOPP), which is caused by mutations of the dihydropyridine receptor of the Ca2+ channel. Muscle biopsies excised from three patients with HOPP carrying the R528H mutation of the dihydropyridine receptor showed a reduced sarcolemma KATP current that was not stimulated by magnesium adenosine diphosphate (MgADP; 50-100 microM) and was partially restored by cromakalim. In contrast, large KATP currents stimulated by MgADP were recorded in the healthy subjects. At channel level, an abnormal KATP channel showing several subconductance states was detected in the patients with HOPP. None of these were surveyed in the healthy subjects. Transitions of the KATP channel between subconductance states were also observed after in vitro incubation of the rat muscle with low-K+ solution. The lack of the sarcolemma KATP current observed in these patients explains the symptoms of the disease, i.e., hypokalemia, depolarization of the fibers, and possibly the paralysis following insulin administration.  (+info)

C-terminal HERG mutations: the role of hypokalemia and a KCNQ1-associated mutation in cardiac event occurrence. (2/496)

BACKGROUND: The long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetically heterogeneous disease in which 4 genes encoding ion-channel subunits have been identified. Most of the mutations have been determined in the transmembrane domains of the cardiac potassium channel genes KCNQ1 and HERG. In this study, we investigated the 3' part of HERG for mutations. METHODS AND RESULTS: New specific primers allowed the amplification of the 3' part of HERG, the identification of 2 missense mutations, S818L and V822 M, in the putative cyclic nucleotide binding domain, and a 1-bp insertion, 3108+1G. Hypokalemia was a triggering factor for torsade de pointes in 2 of the probands of these families. Lastly, in a large family, a maternally inherited G to A transition was found in the splicing donor consensus site of HERG, 2592+1G-A, and a paternally inherited mutation, A341E, was identified in KCNQ1. The 2 more severely affected sisters bore both mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of mutations in the C-terminal part of HERG emphasizes that this region plays a significant role in cardiac repolarization. Clinical data suggests that these mutations may be less malignant than mutations occurring in the pore region, but they can become clinically significant in cases of hypokalemia. The first description of 2 patients with double heterozygosity associated with a dramatic malignant phenotype implies that genetic analysis of severely affected young patients should include an investigation for >1 mutation in the LQT genes.  (+info)

Hypokalemia with syncope caused by habitual drinking of oolong tea. (3/496)

A 61-year-old woman developed hypokalemia, atrioventricular block and ventricular tachycardia with syncope after habitual drinking 2 to 3 liters of oolong tea per day. She had been suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome and her serum albumin was decreased (2.9 g/dl). Oolong tea contains caffeine at approximately 20 mg/dl. Great quantities of caffeine can induce hypokalemia. The serum protein binding caffeine is albumin. Accordingly, in patients with hypoalbuminemia, caffeine is apt to induce hypokalemia. This case suggested that great quantities of oolong tea, one of the so-called "healthy" drinks, result in serious symptoms for patients with hypoalbuminemia.  (+info)

Early prediction of neurological outcome after falls in children: metabolic and clinical markers. (4/496)

Falls are the foremost reason for non-fatal injuries and are second only to motor vehicle accidents in causing accidental death. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical and metabolic predictors of the outcome of head injury caused by falls from a height. Medical records of 61 children who had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit from 1990 to 1993 after falling from a height were reviewed retrospectively. Outcomes were categorised as good, moderate, severe, and poor. Glasgow coma scores, pupillary responses, brain oedema, and midline shift are significantly associated with poor outcome (p < 0.05). Metabolic markers associated with poor outcome included hyperglycaemia and hypokalaemia. Children with a poor outcome had, at admission, significantly higher glucose concentrations compared with children with good outcomes (mean SD): 20.0 (7.1) v 9.31 (4.0) mmol/l, p < 0.01), and lower potassium concentrations compared with children with good, moderate, and severe outcomes (mean (SD): 2.8 (0.4) v 3.7 (0.4) mmol/l, p < 0.001, 3.5 (0.3) mmol/l, p < 0.01, and 3.41 (0.3) mmol/l, p < 0.05, respectively). These findings allow for an early allocation of effort and resources to children injured from such falls.  (+info)

Temporal responses of oxidative vs. glycolytic skeletal muscles to K+ deprivation: Na+ pumps and cell cations. (5/496)

When K+ output exceeds input, skeletal muscle releases intracellular fluid K+ to buffer the fall in extracellular fluid (ECF) K+. To investigate the mechanisms and muscle specificity of the K+ shift, rats were fed K+-deficient chow for 2-10 days, and two muscles at phenotypic extremes were studied: slow-twitch oxidative soleus and fast-twitch glycolytic white gastrocnemius (WG). After 2 days of low-K+ chow, plasma K+ concentration ([K+]) fell from 4.6 to 3.7 mM, and Na+-K+-ATPase alpha2 (not alpha1) protein levels in both muscles, measured by immunoblotting, decreased 36%. Cell [K+] decreased from 116 to 106 mM in soleus and insignificantly in WG, indicating that alpha2 can decrease before cell [K+]. After 5 days, there were further decreases in alpha2 (70%) and beta2 (22%) in WG, not in soleus, whereas cell [K+] decreased and cell [Na+] increased by 10 mM in both muscles. By 10 days, plasma [K+] fell to 2.9 mM, with further decreases in WG alpha2 (94%) and beta2 (70%); cell [K+] fell 19 mM in soleus and 24 mM in WG compared with the control, and cell [Na+] increased 9 mM in soleus and 15 mM in WG; total homogenate Na+-K+-ATPase activity decreased 19% in WG and insignificantly in soleus. Levels of alpha2, beta1, and beta2 mRNA were unchanged over 10 days. The ratios of alpha2 to alpha1 protein levels in both control muscles were found to be nearly 1 by using the relative changes in alpha-isoforms vs. beta1- (soleus) or beta2-isoforms (WG). We conclude that the patterns of regulation of Na+ pump isoforms in oxidative and glycolytic muscles during K+ deprivation mediated by posttranscriptional regulation of alpha2beta1 and alpha2beta2 are distinct and that decreases in alpha2-isoform pools can occur early enough in both muscles to account for the shift of K+ to the ECF.  (+info)

Severe muscle weakness due to hypokalemia as a manifestation of small-cell carcinoma. (6/496)

We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with severe muscle weakness due to heavy hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.44 mmol/l) associated with inappropriate kaliuria and alkalemia. Subsequent investigation revealed the presence of ectopic ACTH hypersecretion due to a small-cell lung carcinoma. A significant clinical/laboratory improvement was achieved following chemotherapy-induced regression of the primary tumor. The profound hypokalemia was probably the result of cortisol hypersecretion, which in concert with the ACTH-induced decreased 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity can exhibit an increased mineralocorticoid activity. In addition, other ACTH-dependent mineralocorticoids may play a contributory role in the development of severe hypokalemia.  (+info)

The relationship between distal tubular proton secretion and dietary potassium depletion: evidence for up-regulation of H+ -ATPase. (7/496)

BACKGROUND: Dietary potassium depletion is associated with elevated plasma bicarbonate concentration and enhanced bicarbonate reabsorption in the distal tubule. The relationship between distal proton secretion and potassium status was investigated by in vivo microperfusion of the superficial distal tubule. METHODS: Experiments were performed on anaesthetized rats that had been maintained on either a low-potassium or control diet for 3-5 weeks prior to experimentation. The distal tubules were perfused at 10 nl/min with either a standard or a barium chloride-containing solution, and the late distal tubular transepithelial potential difference (Vte) and pH of the luminal fluid were recorded using a double-barrelled voltage and ion-sensitive microelectrode. RESULTS: In control rats, the Vte was -40.7+/-2.4 mV and the tubular fluid pH was 6.44+/-0.07; in potassium-depleted animals, the Vte was -15.0+/-1.4 mV and the pH was 6.76+/-0.03. The pH values in both groups of animals were significantly lower than would be predicted from the Vte and systemic pH for passive H+ distribution, indicating active proton secretion. Moreover, in hypokalaemic rats, this difference from predicted pH was significantly greater than in control animals (control = 0.27+/-0.06 vs. low-potassium = 0.46+/-0.03; P<0.01), suggesting enhanced active proton secretion. During perfusion with a solution containing BaCl2, the late distal tubule Vte became lumen positive in potassium-depleted rats, contrasting with an increased lumen negativity in potassium-replete controls. The barium-induced lumen-positive potential difference observed in the hypokalaemic rats was abolished by intravenous administration of acetazolamide. CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with enhanced electrogenic proton secretion (H+ -ATPase) during dietary potassium deprivation.  (+info)

Hypokalaemic paralysis revealing Sjogren syndrome in an elderly man. (8/496)

A 73 year old white man presented with life threatening hypokalaemic paralysis requiring admission to an intensive care unit. Biochemical investigations showed severe hypokalaemia with hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis, a spot urine pH of 6.5, and a positive urinary anion gap, establishing the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. Autoimmune tests revealed Sjogren syndrome as the underlying cause of the distal renal tubular acidosis. Full recovery followed potassium and alkali replacement. This dramatic presentation of Sjogren syndrome has not previously been reported in an elderly man.  (+info)

Potassium (K+) balance is achieved by the control of urinary K+ excretion and by the control of K+ absorption from the digestive tract. While it is well established that colonic H/K-ATPase a subunit mRNA is expressed in the kidney, distal colon, and uterus, little is known about the cellular localization and expression levels of this gene in chronic hypokalemia. Accordingly, Northern analysis and in situ hybridization (ISH) were carried out to analyze the expression of mRNA encoding the colonic H/K-ATPase a subunit in normal and potassium-restricted (2 weeks) rats. Northern analysis demonstrated that colonic H/K-ATPase a subunit mRNA was abundantly expressed in normal and potassium-restricted rat uterus. Abundance of colonic H/K-ATPase a subunit mRNA in potassium-restricted rat uterus was increased but, not statistically significant compared to that of controls. By ISH, mRNA for colonic H/K-ATPase a subunit was detected in the endometrial epithelial cells and the uterine glands. Both groups ...
Severe life threatening hypokalaemia in a patient with an eating disorder.. 1. Describe and Interpret:. Hyperchloraemic non anion gap metabolic acidosis. HCO3 16. AG 16. CL high. Severe hypokalaemia. Rhabdomyolysis. Interpretation -. RTA with severe hypokalaemia causing Rhabdomyolysis (look for other causes of Rhabdo). Potassium plays a major role in regulating the skeletal muscle blood flow; an increased potassium concentration in the muscle during muscle activity causes vasodilatation, which increases the regional blood flow. In state of hypokalemia, this increase is hampered causing relative ischemia in the active muscle consecutively leading to muscle cramps, and in a severely depleted state may cause muscle necrosis and rhabdomyolysis. In addition to hypoperfusion, hypokalemia-induced impairment in muscle metabolism also may contribute to muscle dysfunction.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109789/?report=printable. 2. Treatment. HDU/ICU admission. ivi fluids. replace ...
Do You Have Normokalemic Periodic Paralysis? Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Have Normokalemic Periodic Paralysis group. Find support forums, advice and chat with groups who share this life experience. A Normokalemic Periodic Paral...
In the September issue of the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Asmar et al summarize a physiologic approach to the treatment of hypokalemia. The following questions will test your knowledge of hypokalemia. 1. Liddle syndrome is characterized by each of the following except: A. Chronic hypokalemia B. Hypotension C. Suppressed serum aldosterone D. Suppressed plasma renin activity…
Our patient, a 31-year old, previously healthy Caucasian Swiss man, had a case of impressive symptomatic hypokalemia. His neurological symptoms (cramping and muscle weakness) resolved rapidly after correction of hypokalemia.. Hypokalemic paresis (paralysis) may be acquired in patients with thyrotoxicosis [1]. Our patient showed neither clinical nor biochemical signs of this disease, which is mainly found in Asians but still is more common as a cause of severe neurological symptoms in a patient presenting with hypokalemia in our hospital than Gitelmans syndrome, with the latter being more commonly found by chance on the basis of a laboratory finding of low potassium. Our patient had no history suggestive of familial periodic paralysis. This rare, hereditary defect of calcium or magnesium channels in skeletal muscles enhances the likelihood that insulin secreted after the intake of carbohydrate-rich food or catecholamine bursts (in response to stress or exertion) will result in increased ...
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion is responsible for 12% to 17% of all cases of the Cushing syndrome. One of the most commonly described causes of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion is small cell carcinoma of the lung. A rare c
Intravenous patient controlled analgesia(IV-PCA) has been widely used to control postoperative pain. The increase in stress hormone level and hyperventilation caused by the postoperative pain may contribute to the development of hypokalemia during postoperative period. Hypokalemia is a risk factor for postoperative arrhythmia. Therefore, if the postoperative pain is well controlled by the IV-PCA, the plasma potassium level during the postoperative period may be not affected by stress response, and the incidence of hypokalemia may be reduced. The researchers tried to investigate the effect of IV-PCA on potassium regulation during the postoperative period.. The researchers divided the patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy into two groups of IV-PCA group and control group. The researchers compared the plasma potassium concentration from the preoperative to postoperative period. ...
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum. Normal potassium levels are between 3.5 and 5.0 mmol/L (3.5 and 5.0 mEq/L) with levels below 3.5 mmol/L defined as hypokalemia. Mildly low levels do not typically cause symptoms. Symptoms may include feeling tired, leg cramps, weakness, and constipation. It increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm, which are often too slow, and can cause cardiac arrest. Causes of hypokalemia include diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet. It is classified as severe when levels are less than 2.5 mmol/L. Low levels can also be detected on an electrocardiogram (ECG). Hyperkalemia refers to a high level of potassium in the blood serum. The speed at which potassium should be replaced depends on whether or not there are symptoms or ECG changes. Mildly low levels can be managed with changes in the diet. ...
Low potassium intake or a low potassium diet is one of the major causes for a condition medically known as Hypokalemia. Hypokalemia literally means a paucity of potassium in the blood. However, in contrast to what might seem obvious, Hypokalemia is not caused only by a poor dietary intake of potassium. Hypokalemia is a condition that is caused by loss through the integuments in your digestive system and also through your kidneys.. The two major causes for the loss of potassium from the digestive system can be vomiting and diarrhea. In addition to this, excessive laxative use and intestinal surgeries can also cause this.. Hyperaldosteronism Can Lead To Hypokalemia. Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition that may lead to the increased production of aldosterone by the adrenal glands. This hormone can cause potassium to decrease in your blood, which can translate to Hypokalemia.. Symptoms of Hypokalemia. In addition to common symptoms such as vomiting, nausea, constipations, hypotension and a ...
Do You Have Hypokalemia? Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Have Hypokalemia group. Find support forums, advice and chat with groups who share this life experience. A Hypokalemia anonymous support group with information on diagnosis, ...
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A 70-year-old man was admitted from the gastroenterology clinic for evaluation of chronic weight loss, malnutrition, and progressive dysphagia for 1 year. He was recently admitted to a local hospital after sustaining a fall. Blood tests at that time showed profound electrolyte disturbances with severe hypokalemia (potassium level of 1.7 mEq/L) and hypomagnesemia (magnesium level 0.3 mg/dL). Since the time of that admission, the patient reported feeling weak and with loss of taste for food. Altogether, he had lost 40 lbs over the previous 12 months. He denied abdominal pain, nausea, or ...
Preoperative Evaluation. I. Cardiac evaluation. 1. What do her symptoms signify to you?. 2. Why is she cyanotic?. 3. Does she require pulmonary function tests?. 4. Does she require cardiac catheterization?. 5. What would you expect each to show?. II. Drug therapy decisions. 1. Why is she on coumadin?. 2. Would you reverse coumadins effects? Why or why not?. 3. How would you reverse coumadins effects?. 4. How is coumadins effect measured?. III. Hypokalemia. 1. Why is her potassium low?. The most likely cause is secondary to diuretic therapy.. 2. Is this a special problem for this patient?. Hypokalemia can lead to the serious cardiac arrhythmias, and this patient is at increased risk of this, secondary to her preexisting fibrillation, and to her digitalis therapy. This is a mild, probably chronic hypokalemia, which is less serious than acute hypokalemia, and the serum concentration of potassium does not reflect total body deficit of this ion well, for it is an intracellular cation.. 3. What is ...
Hypokalemia or Hypokalaemia,Normal potassium levels,Causes of hypokalemia,Investigations to diagnose and Treatment with potassium administration
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Supplementing diets with high potassium helps reduce hypertension in humans. Inwardly rectifying K+ channels Kir4.1 (Kcnj10) and Kir5.1 (Kcnj16) are highly expressed in the basolateral membrane of distal renal tubules and contribute to Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion through the direct control of transepithelial voltage. To define the importance of Kir5.1 in blood pressure control under conditions of salt-induced hypertension, we generated a Kcnj16 knockout in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats (SSKcnj16-/-). SSKcnj16-/- rats exhibited hypokalemia and reduced blood pressure, and when fed a high-salt diet (4% NaCl), experienced 100% mortality within a few days triggered by salt wasting and severe hypokalemia. Electrophysiological recordings of basolateral K+ channels in the collecting ducts isolated from SSKcnj16-/- rats revealed activity of only homomeric Kir4.1 channels. Kir4.1 expression was upregulated in SSKcnj16-/- rats, but the protein was predominantly localized in the cytosol in SSKcnj16-/- rats.
The prevention of clinically significant hypokalemia and hyperkalemia is essential. In the absence of early detection and treatment, hypokalemia can cause serious complications and even death. Because potassium imbalance can appear in a wide range of patients, the information provided in this course will be helpful for the majority of healthcare professionals. First, the terms and clinical criteria for each condition will be thoroughly reviewed. Next, a clear overview of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and useful tests to determine etiology will be given. Finally, the course will end with a discussion of treatment options and management techniques, including patient education points.
(1) Concept Hypokalemia indicates the [K+] in plasma is < 3.5 mmol/L. If the hypokalemia is caused by the movement of K+ from ECF to ICF, reduced [K+] ≠ K deficiency in the body.
Question - Losing calcium. Diagnosed with hypokalemia. What to do?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hypokalemia, Ask a General & Family Physician
Persons with anorexia nervosa eventually become visibly recognizable because of their severely underweight status. In contrast, those affected by bulimia are typically of normal weight and are not as easily detected. This disorder is characterized by binge eating and purging. Mehler reviews the diagnosis and treatment of bulimia, using a hypothetical case of a 20-year-old woman noted to have severe hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis.. Bulimia is most common in late adolescent females. Comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is typical, and patients with a concomitant personality disorder (e.g., borderline, narcissistic, and antisocial disorders) have a worse prognosis. Although most bulimics purge by vomiting, abuse of laxatives or diuretics also occurs. The number of times a bulimic patient purges can vary widely, from as seldom as once or twice weekly to as often as 10 times per day.. The medical complications of bulimia relate to the method and frequency of purging. Repeatedly induced ...
We read with great interest the article by MacDonald and Struthers (1) in a recent issue of the Journal.The article reports that potassium depletion is important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death. The authors suggest that avoiding hypokalemia is beneficial in several cardiovascular disease states, including acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and hypertension. The data linking hypokalemia with arrhythmia and cardiac arrest in acute myocardial infarction are fairly strong (2-4).. We want to add atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery to the list of cardiovascular diseases where electrolyte imbalance may play an important pathogenetic role. Although the etiology of AF after heart surgery is incompletely understood, stimuli and triggers such as pre-existing structural changes of the atria related to hypertension, mechanical damage, volume overload, age, intraoperative atrial ischemia, and pericardial lesions are thought to play a role in the ...
Hypolalemic periodic paralysis is an uncommon complication of thyrotoxicosis. It usually affects men of Oriental origin and presents with acute and profound muscle weakness especially of the lower extremities. We report a 46 year old man from Kuwait with sudden paralysis of both legs. Physical examination showed signs of thyrotoxicosis and laboratory tests revealed severe hypokalemia, very low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and very high free thyroxin. The motor deficit regressed within 8 hours of 80 mmol ofKCI infusion. Awareness of such a problem is essential to avoid life threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Once recognized the treatment is simple and the prognosis is excellent.
We describe severe hypokalaemia and hypertension due to a mineralocorticoid effect in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome taking posaconazole as antifungal prophylaxis. Two distinct mechanisms due to posaconazole are identified: inhibition of 11β hydroxylase leading to the accumulation of the mineralocorticoid hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and secondly, inhibition of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2), as demonstrated by an elevated serum cortisol-to-cortisone ratio. The effects were ameliorated by spironolactone. We also suggest that posaconazole may cause cortisol insufficiency. Patients taking posaconazole should therefore be monitored for hypokalaemia, hypertension and symptoms of hypocortisolaemia, at the onset of treatment and on a monthly basis. Treatment with mineralocorticoid antagonists (spironolactone or eplerenone), supplementation of glucocorticoids (e.g. hydrocortisone) or dose reduction or cessation of posaconazole should all be considered as ...
See how others experience low potassium (hypokalemia). Join the community to connect with others like you and learn about their real-world experiences.
Potassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium ...
Potassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium ...
Hypokalemia disease refers to low concentration of potassium level in blood. Potassium is one of the crucial primary Electrolytes for functioning of heart.
4. PotassiumPotassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma ...
all relevent test has been done and patient is in ICU and IV potassium is given to him but of no use.one day value is 4 mmol/L other day it is 2.4 mmol/L.all relevent test has been done.{aldestrone,cortisol,renin,uric chloride,thyroid,magnesium,phophorus,calcium,abdominal ct scan,abdominal X ray,ultrasound,urinary potassium test].dcotors are saying that this is a resistant case of hypokalemia and they are not able to identify the medical cause of hypokalemaia and they are now saying that patient has to be shifted to another hospital other wise he will die.his heart beat is 115/minute and cardiologist told us we cant fly patient ...
1) Inadequate intake of potassium. This one is not so likely because potassium is found in ALL foods, even junk food. The only people who dont have enough potassium are because they are anorexic (somebody who doesnt eat) or bulimic (somebody who eats and then throws it up).. 2) The use of diuretics. Diuretics are commonly referred to as water pills. They make you pee. The fancy word for "make you pee" is that diuretics increase urine output. Diuretics cause you to secrete water and salt and thats fine. Thats usually the reason why one takes it. But they also cause the kidneys to excrete potassium and they develop hypokalemia. Who takes diuretics? People with edema (a build up of fluid) and there are many, many reasons why that would happen such as injury to the body. The most common reason for edema is high blood pressure, known as hypertension. Everybody with high blood pressure has edema. The high blood pressure is causing fluid to squirt out of their capillaries. Its usually noticed in ...
A common treatment modality for hypokalemia is intravenous potassium replacement; especially in the setting of critically low values (|2.
This patient had a K of 2.8. Difficult case because she does not have prominent U waves (though they are there). I just finished a study of patients with proven hypokalemia compared to a control group. The QTc was the single best differentiator, with 450 ms the best cutoff. ST depression had good specificity but very poor sensitivity. Prominent U-waves were specific but not sensitive, and presence of any U-wave was sensitive but not specific. The best combination of factors was: Subjective diagnosis + QTc , 450 + Prominent U-waves, vs. none of the 3, with sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 92%. This held true when the subjective interpretation was done by residents who had had a short tutorial by me ...
List of causes of Abdominal pain and Diarrhea and Fainting and Hypokalemia and Stomach symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Reviews and ratings for kaon when used in the treatment of prevention of hypokalemia. Share your experience with this medication by writing a review.
Care guide for Hypokalemia (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
An overview of low potassium levels, its effects on the body and the common causes of hyokalemia in senior citizens. Kidney, diet and medication that causes hyopkalemia.
Burmese Hypokalemia, also known as Familial Episodic Hypokalaemic Polymyopathy, is a recessive genetic defect characterized by episodes of low serum potassium levels and high CPK (creatine phosphate kinase, an enzyme that indicates muscle damage). Clinical signs include episodes of skeletal muscle weakness which can affect the whole animal or may be restricted to certain muscles. This is most obvious in the neck muscles, but sometimes occurs in just the limbs. As a result affected cats may show problems with walking and holding their head correctly. The disease is not typically fatal and affected cats usually can be managed by adding potassium supplements to their diet. For specifics on management of this condition, owners are urged to consult with their veterinarian. ...
The diagnosis is made by measuring the potassium level in the blood. Doctors then try to identify what is causing the decrease. The cause may be clear based on the persons symptoms (such as vomiting) or use of drugs or other substances. If the cause is not clear, doctors measure how much potassium is excreted in urine to determine whether excess excretion is the cause. Because low potassium levels can cause abnormal heart rhythms, doctors usually do electrocardiography (ECG) to check for abnormal rhythms ...
Hypokalemia Hypokalemia is a american english word Hypokalaemia in British english.It is also known as also hypopotassemia or hypopotassaemia… Read More ». ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Electrolyte Disorders from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Potassium Loss Shareware and Freeware Programs - Weight Loss Recipe Book (www.My-Health-And-Fitness.org), Does Fat Loss 4 Idiots Work (Fat-Loss-4-Idiots-Reviews.info), Fat Loss 4 Idiots Weight (Fat Loss 4 Idiots Weight) ...
Good question! The answer is obscure, however. The computer is supposed to take the longest of the QT intervals as the final number. I dont know how it evaluates U-waves. If you look in precordial leads, the QT interval is not terribly long. If you look in limb leads, it is impossible to identify a U-wave: are the T- and U-waves merged? Is there no U-wave? Should the QT only be measured in the precordial leads where the T- and U-waves are distinct? I think these are academic questions; in practice, either the U-waves are very prominent, and this signifies probable hypokalemia, or there is a very long QT, which also signals hypokalemia.. ReplyDelete ...
gLAD THERES A MODERATOR HERE TO RESTORE THE INTEGRITY OF MY MESSAGE. ACCIDENTALLY HIT A "SEND" EQUIVALENT IN THE MIDDLE OF MY MESSAGE. THIS TIME iLL NOT ENTER THE IMAGE VERIFICATION UNTIL IM DONE!(After Dr. Snively reference:)Dr Max Gerson (see gersontherapy.org website) in his book, "A Cancer Cure, the Results of Fifty Cases" prescribes a three-kinds-of-potassium mixture, in equal parts:Potassium GluconatePotassium ... (monobasic), andPotassium AcedateThese are available in Los Angeles from the Spectrum Chemical retailer, or premixed from the Key company in the midwest. I think its St. Louis. They have an 800 number and sell directly to the public. Stay away from the lady in Mexico who sells the stuff and then tries to bill you over and over even after youve paid.Dr. Gerson writes that the fetus is a sodium animal that converts to a potassium animal at birth, remains so throughout life until at death, the cadaver again becomes a sodiuim animal.The implication is that anything that will ...
Edema associated with congestive heart failure (CHF), liver cirrhosis, and renal disease, including nephrotic syndrome 20-80 mg PO once daily; may be
I am honestly not sure how to articulate this post. So please bear with me, as I sort through the jumbled thoughts into a clear piece of writing. This is hard to do at the best of times, but when … Continue reading →. ...
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug ...
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This category contains information for patients, their families and caregivers, about Hypokalemia. This is a condition in which potassium moves from the outside of cells to the inside, decreasing levels in the blood.
Hypopotassemia symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Hypopotassemia (Hypokalemia) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
1979). Nafcillin-associated hypokalemia. JAMA *^ Lang CC, Jamal SK, Mohamed Z, Mustafa MR, Mustafa AM, Lee TC (June 2003). " ... although one retrospective study found greater rates of hypokalemia and acute kidney injury in patients taking nafcillin ...
HypokalemiaEdit. There have been a handful of published reports describing individuals with severe hypokalemia (low potassium ... Sharma R, Guber HA (2013). "Cola-induced hypokalemia-a case report and review of the literature". Endocr Pract (Review). 19 (1 ...
Huang CL, Kuo E (2007). "Mechanism of Hypokalemia in Magnesium Deficiency". J Am Soc Nephrol. 18 (10): 2649-2652. doi:10.1681/ ... Thus hypomagnesemia results in an increased excretion of potassium in kidney, resulting in a hypokalaemia. This condition is ... Intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) can be given in response to cardiac arrhythmias to correct for hypokalemia, preventing ... hypokalemia, hypoparathyroidism which might result in hypocalcemia, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, epileptic ...
Visveswaran, Kasi (2009). "hypokalemia". Essentials of Nephrology (edisi ke-2nd). BI Publications. hlm. 257. ISBN 978-81-7225- ...
Several cases of severe hypokalemia have been reported.[14][15] Meropenem, like other carbapenems, is a potent inducer of ...
It occurs with hypokalemia due to vomiting or diarrhea. The ultrastructural changes of reversible cell injury include: * ...
A P wave with increased amplitude can indicate hypokalemia.[3] It can also indicate right atrial enlargement.[4] ... http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ecg-library/basics/hypokalaemia/ *^ http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/ecg_outline/Lesson7/index. ...
... decreases external sodium concentration Hypokalemia - hyper polarization of the resting membrane potential Acetylcholine - same ...
However, there is a continuous risk of dehydration and loss of potassium that may lead to hypokalemia. ... Thiazide diuretics are sometimes combined with amiloride to prevent hypokalemia. It seems paradoxical to treat an extreme ... hypokalemia, or release of ureteral obstruction. Therefore, a lack of ADH prevents water reabsorption and the osmolarity of the ...
See hypokalemia. Na+ - sodium ions have a similar role to potassium ions. See sodium deficiency. Mg2+. Most importantly, ...
Hypokalemia - Thiazide diuretics reduces potassium concentration in blood through two indirect mechanisms: inhibition of sodium ... Therefore, ACE inhibitor and thiazide combination is used to prevent hypokalemia. Hyperglycemia Hyperlipidemia Hyperuricemia - ... Hypotension Allergy to sulphur-containing medications Gout Renal failure Lithium therapy Hypokalemia May worsen diabetes ...
A severe shortage of potassium in body fluids may cause a potentially fatal condition known as hypokalemia. Hypokalemia ... Hypokalemia Hyperkalemia Action potential Membrane potential Electrolyte Pohl, Hanna R.; Wheeler, John S.; Murray, H. Edward ( ... Mumoli N, Cei M (2008). "Licorice-induced hypokalemia". Int. J. Cardiol. 124 (3): e42-4. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.11.190. PMID ... In rare cases, habitual consumption of large amounts of black licorice has resulted in hypokalemia. Licorice contains a ...
Hypokalemia often results. And the completely immobile patient is at increased risk of bed sores as well as infection from ...
"Hypokalemia - PubMed Health". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-02-06. "Evaluation of hypokalemia Diagnostic Approach - ... Stage 1 is characterized by no symptoms but mild hypokalemia. Stage 2 is characterized with symptoms and mild hypokalemia. ... The effects of hypokalemia can include fatigue, muscle weakness, or paralysis. The severity of the hypokalemic state can be ... Stage 3 is characterized by only moderate to severe hypokalemia. Although the passage of food into the gastrointestinal tract ...
If the U wave is very prominent, suspect hypokalemia, hypercalcemia or hyperthyroidism.[29] ...
Fluid retention my also lead to dilutional anemia (in 10 to 15% of patients). Hypokalemia my also result. Symptoms of fluid ...
Lhotta, Karl; Höfle, Günther; Gasser, Rudolf; Finkenstedt, Gerd (1998). "Hypokalemia, Hyperreninemia and Osteoporosis in a ... Long-term heavy vinegar ingestion has one recorded case of possibly causing hypokalemia, high blood levels of renin, and ...
Hypokalemia is a potassium deficiency. It is defined by the level of potassium in the blood; levels 3.5 and 5.0 mmoL are ... And so it was concluded that extreme cola consumption can lead to hypokalemia. Symptoms caused by an increased consumption of ... There are many case reports on the relationship between hypokalemia and sugar sweetened beverages such as cola-based drinks. ... Packer, C. D. (2009-06-01). "Cola-induced hypokalaemia: a super-sized problem". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 63 ...
Blachley, Jon D.; Knochel, James P. (1980). "Tobacco Chewer's Hypokalemia: Licorice Revisited". New England Journal of Medicine ... such as hypokalemia, increased blood pressure, and muscle weakness. The word "liquorice" is derived (via the Old French ... hypokalaemia, weight gain or loss, and hypertension. The United States Food and Drug Administration believes that foods ...
Hypokalemia (low blood potassium), which is more common in women than men[15] ... Chay WY, Chew L, Yeoh TT, Tan MH (May 2010). "An association between transient hypokalemia and severe acute oxaliplatin-related ...
1975; 231: 734-5. Micturition syncope, hypokalemia, and atrial fibrillation. Kounis NG, Kenmure AC. JAMA 1976; 236: 954 " ...
In states of hypokalemia (a state of potassium deficiency), concurrent magnesium deficiency results in a state of hypokalemia ... Conversely, magnesium deficiency alone is not likely to cause a state of hypokalemia . GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Huang, Chou-Long (2007). "Mechanism of Hypokalemia in Magnesium Deficiency". Science in Renal Medicine. 18: 2649 -2651. ...
Muscle cramps can also be a symptom or complication of pregnancy; kidney disease; thyroid disease; hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia ... particularly hypokalemia and hypocalcaemia, may cause cramping and muscle tetany. This disturbance can also be caused by the ...
Rastegar, A; Soleimani, M (2001). "Hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia". Postgraduate Medical Journal. 77 (914): 759-64. doi:10.1136 ...
A serious consequence of hypokalemia can be heart rhythm abnormalities, including sudden arrhythmia death syndrome.[15] Terri ... she was noted as suffering from hypokalemia (low potassium levels): her serum potassium level was an abnormally low 2.0 mEq/L ( ...
On the other hand, sustained hypokalemia and hyperreninemia can cause progressive tubulointerstitial nephritis, resulting in ... and ameliorate the aldosterone-induced salt wasting and hypokalemia. Given that activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ...
Hypothermia, hypokalemia, sodium chloride and glucose infusions as well as myotoxic substances like succinylcholine in the ...
Risk of hypokalemia:. @. Hypokalemia increases digitalis toxicity.. @. @. See: Food high in potassium ... Hypo-magnesemia must be corrected in order for hypokalemia correction to work properly.. Do not overcorrect potassium in ... There is a low level of potassium in the bloodstream (hypokalemia) during the attack. But the serum potassium levels are normal ... The following can cause hypokalemia. Alcoholism. Hypokalemic attack may be precipitated by the administration of oral glucose, ...
Nielsen ML, Pareek M, and Andersen I. [Liquorice-induced hypertension and hypokalaemia]. Ugeskr.Laeger 4-9-2012;174(15):1024- ...
Many medical conditions and other factors may affect a patients sodium levels, including:. Hypokalemia is when the body is ...
... hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia ) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. Patients with both renal ... which include some antiarrhythmics hypokalaemia being a predisposing factor to hydrochlorothiazide torsades de pointes. You ...
The medical name of this condition is hypokalemia. ... or if you are taking diuretics and have symptoms of hypokalemia ...
Hypokalemia is when a person has too little potassium in their blood. Symptoms include low blood pressure, muscle twitching, ... A person may not be aware of mild hypokalemia. However, if hypokalemia is moderate or severe, the individual is likely to have ... Hypokalemia is always a symptom of another illness or a side effect of a medication. It is not an illness in itself. Therefore ... the underlying condition requires treatment to resolve the hypokalemia. A medical professional can diagnose hypokalemia by ...
do you have any other assessment data, especially for the low potassium? see the many other symptoms of hypokalemia on this ... When I was diagnosed with hypokalemia, I had renal failure. With the patients history of hypertension and diabetes, renal ...
... hypokalemia). Join the community to connect with others like you and learn about their real-world experiences. ...
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum. Normal potassium levels are ... defined as hypokalemia. The earliest electrocardiographic (ECG) findings associated with hypokalemia is a decrease in T waves ... Mild hypokalemia (>3.0 meq/l) may be treated with oral potassium chloride supplements (Klor-Con, Sando-K, Slow-K). As this is ... The hypokalemia is thought to be from the combination of the diuretic effect of caffeine and copious fluid intake, although it ...
That said, a low-potassium diet is rarely the cause of potassium deficiency, or hypokalemia.. Deficiency is characterized by a ...
Care guide for Hypokalemia (Aftercare Instructions). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options ... Hypokalemia is a low level of potassium in your blood. Potassium helps control how your muscles, heart, and digestive system ... Hypokalemia occurs when your body loses too much potassium or does not absorb enough from food. ...
Patients with hypokalemia may have relatively alkaline urine because hypokalemia increases renal ammoniagenesis. Excess NH3 ... Patients with hypokalemia may have relatively alkaline urine because hypokalemia increases renal ammoniagenesis. Excess NH3 ... encoded search term (What is the most common cause of hypokalemia in metabolic acidosis?) and What is the most common cause of ... hypokalemia in metabolic acidosis? What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Hypokalemia ...
Hypokalemia (Low Potassium) chemotherapy side effect, causes, symptom management and when to contact your healthcare provider ... What Is Hypokalemia?. Hypokalemia is an electrolyte imbalance and is indicated by a low level of potassium in the blood. The ... This is the most common cause of hypokalemia.. Other causes of hypokalemia include:. ... What Causes Hypokalemia?. One way your body regulates blood potassium levels is by shifting potassium into and out of cells. ...
... or lowered level of potassium in the body can affect the muscles and nerves. Learn to identify symptoms of low ... Tags:#hypokalemia #hypokalemia symptoms #hypokalemia signs and symptoms #hypokalemia treatment #causes of hypokalemia #symptoms ... Treatment for hypokalemia. Mild hypokalemia may be treated by intake of potassium supplements by way of mouth. Serum potassium ... Hypokalemia Metabolic Syndrome X Heat Stroke Altitude Sickness Body Sculpting Gout Symptoms Polymyalgia Rheumatica Systemic ...
Hypokalemia and Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Hypokalemia is a risk factor for postoperative arrhythmia. Therefore, if the postoperative pain is well controlled by the IV- ... Hypokalemia. Potassium Deficiency. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance. Metabolic Diseases. Deficiency Diseases. Malnutrition. ... and the incidence of hypokalemia may be reduced. The researchers tried to investigate the effect of IV-PCA on potassium ...
Hypokalemia. The Merck Manual Home Edition states: "In hypokalemia, the level of potassium in blood is too low. *A low ... Certain drugs cause more potassium to move from blood into cells and can result in hypokalemia. However, these drugs usually ... If a disorder is causing hypokalemia, it is treated. Usually, potassium can be replaced by taking potassium supplements by ... Hypokalemia is rarely caused by consuming too little potassium because many foods contain potassium.". ...
1) At what level of hypokalemia should I treat this patient?. The decision to treat hypokalemia depends on two factors: (1) ... A useful approach to treating hypokalemia in the hospital begins by asking three questions: (1) at what level of hypokalemia ... whether or not the patient has symptoms of hypokalemia and (2) what co-morbid conditions are present. Any degree of hypokalemia ... Severe hypokalemia (serum potassium less than 2.5 mEq/l) may be accompanied by muscle weakness and ileus, but in general the ...
Prognosis of hypokalemia depends upon the underlying condition. Natural History. If left untreated, hypokalemia may present as ... Persistent hypokalemia may lead to ventricular ectopy. Complications of hypokalemia include paralysis, arrhythmias, ... If left untreated, hypokalemia may present as nausea, vomiting that progresses to develop ileus, muscle cramps, rhabdomyolysis ... Bach PT, Raaber N (September 2014). "[Rhabdomyolysis caused by thiazid-induced hypokalaemia]". Ugeskr. Laeg. (in Danish). 176 ( ...
Learn about hypokalemia, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment from the experts at Mercy Health. ... Risk factors for hypokalemia. Sometimes using laxatives or diuretics for too long can cause hypokalemia. Or, you might be at ... Causes of hypokalemia. Several different things can cause hypokalemia. One of the most common causes is taking prescription ... Treatments for hypokalemia. The first step to treating hypokalemia is usually to take potassium supplements. These are pills ...
Levels ,25 meq/day (or ,15 meq/L on urine spot) rule out a renal cause of hypokalemia and suggest extrarenal potassium loss or ... the assessment of the acid/base status and urinary chloride helps in determing the underlying etiology of hypokalemia. ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Hypokalemia_laboratory_findings&oldid=1488438" ...
A case is described in which the patient was found to have hypokalemia as well as hyponatremia prior to the development of ODS ... Hypokalemia may predispose patients to develop osmotic demyelination following correction of hyponatremia. The etiology of this ... In neurologically stable patients with severe hyponatremia, it may be beneficial to correct hypokalemia prior to correction of ... Osmotic demyelination syndrome following correction of hyponatremia: association with hypokalemia.. Lohr JW1. ...
List of causes of Breath odor and Hypokalemia and Pain, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and ... Hypokalemia:*87 causes: Hypokalemia *Introduction: Hypokalemia *Hypokalemia: Add a 4th symptom *Hypokalemia: Remove a symptom ... Breath odor AND Hypokalemia AND Pain - Causes of All Symptoms *Breath odor OR Hypokalemia OR Pain - 6340 causes Breath odor:*96 ... Breath odor and Hypokalemia and Pain and Nausea (4 causes). *Breath odor and Hypokalemia and Pain and Nerve symptoms (4 causes) ...
A Hypokalemia anonymous support group with information on diagnosis, ... ... Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Have Hypokalemia group. Find support forums, advice and chat with groups who ... Frustrated With Hypokalemia Hello, everyone. I am a 33 year old female and have been diagnosed with hypokalemia, now, for over ... I am a 26 year old male and I have hypokalemia, i have a question about this hypokalemia can i have a child even i have this ...
  • Burmese Hypokalemia is characterized by episodes of low serum potassium levels and high CPK. (labogen.com)
  • Burmese Hypokalemia, also known as Familial Episodic Hypokalaemic Polymyopathy, is a recessive genetic defect characterized by episodes of low serum potassium levels and high CPK (creatine phosphate kinase, an enzyme that indicates muscle damage). (labogen.com)
  • Hypokalemia is defined as low serum potassium levels going below 3.5 mEq/L. The mechanism included in hypokalemia are increased losses, decreased intake or transcellular shift. (medicforyou.in)
  • The elevation of enzyme levels was independent of the etiology of hypokalemia, occurring with or without clinical muscle weakness or characteristic electrocardiographic changes. (annals.org)
  • Muscle weakness may be brought about by hypokalemia, which is a deficiency of potassium in your bloodstream. (paintermommy.com)
  • Usually, with muscle weakness, there will also be indicators in a blood sample that the muscles have been damaged (enzymes such as creatine kinase - CK, and aspartate aminotransferase - AST, that are usually present inside muscle cells may leak out into the blood when the muscle is damaged by hypokalaemia). (icatcare.org)
  • Certain antibiotics or even drinking too much alcohol can also make you more likely to develop hypokalemia. (mercy.com)
  • But they also cause the kidneys to excrete potassium and they develop hypokalemia. (antranik.org)
  • Key words: adrenal hyperplasia, 11b-hydroxylase, hypertension, hypokalemia, mineralocorticoid excess, posaconazole Introduction and case report tomography of the abdomen, serum aldosterone and renin levels, serum chromogranin A and urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid lev- A 15-year-old male adolescent presented to the hospital with els for carcinoid syndrome, as well as thyroid studies. (deepdyve.com)
  • Causes of hypokalemia from potassium loss by the kidney include renal artery stenosis or adrenal tumors (if excess amounts of the hormone aldosterone is produced), elevated levels of a type of steroid called corticosteroid from medications like prednisone or the disease called Cushing's syndrome, and a disease of the kidneys called Renal tubular acidosis. (medicalassessmentonline.com)
  • A case is described in which the patient was found to have hypokalemia as well as hyponatremia prior to the development of ODS. (nih.gov)
  • Are you sure your patient has hypokalemia or hyperkalemia? (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Umasankar Mathuram Thiyagarajan, A. Ponnuswamy, A. Bagul, and A. Gupta, "An Unusual Case of Resistant Hypokalaemia in a Patient with Large Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Prostate," Case Reports in Surgery , vol. 2017, Article ID 2394365, 4 pages, 2017. (hindawi.com)
  • Acute hypophosphataemia and hypokalaemia in a patient starting antiretroviral therapy in Zambia-a new context for refeeding syndrome? (bmj.com)
  • We report a case of acute hypophosphataemia and hypokalaemia in the first week of antiretroviral therapy in a patient with extreme AIDS wasting. (bmj.com)
  • The patient received repeated doses of metoprolol to treat her cardiovascular stimulation and potassium chloride to treat her hypokalemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Your patient is the exact opposite example, and his hypokalemia should have been corrected. (crashingpatient.com)
  • 1 Accordingly, hypokalemia may be caused by redistribution of K + from serum to cells, decreased dietary intake, or excessive loss of K + from the gastrointestinal track or from the kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • Understandably, hypokalemia from excess renal or gastrointestinal loss or reduced intake would likely be associated with loss and deficiency of other ions. (asnjournals.org)
  • Hypokalemia is NOT commonly caused by poor dietary intake (absorption), and e xcessive loss is the most common reason that potassium levels are low. (medicalassessmentonline.com)
  • able furosemide effect regolari controlli groeien malignancy, hypokalemia from lasix esomeprazole dasabuvir bed, dove necessario, del computer enorm correttamente. (justkidding.com.br)
  • The following questions will test your knowledge of hypokalemia. (ajkdblog.org)
  • 1 Although variations in serum K + have been implicated in the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD), new-onset diabetes mellitus, 2 and myocardial infarction, 3 the main concern has been the potential of diuretic-induced hypokalemia to provoke cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. (ahajournals.org)
  • A 64-year-old woman with a history of paranoid schizophrenia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and unexplained chronic hypokalemia presented in the outpatient psychiatric clinic for a routine follow-up visit with no specific complaints. (aacc.org)
  • While it is well established that colonic H/K-ATPase a subunit mRNA is expressed in the kidney, distal colon, and uterus, little is known about the cellular localization and expression levels of this gene in chronic hypokalemia. (koreamed.org)
  • These results suggest that two (or more) H/K-ATPase a subunit isoforms are present in rat uterus and this gene contributes to potassium reclamation during chronic hypokalemia to regulate the pH and/or electrolyte concentration of uterine fluid. (koreamed.org)