Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
A genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by hypothalamic GNRH deficiency and OLFACTORY NERVE defects. It is characterized by congenital HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM and ANOSMIA, possibly with additional midline defects. It can be transmitted as an X-linked (GENETIC DISEASES, X-LINKED), an autosomal dominant, or an autosomal recessive trait.
The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
An endocrine state in men, characterized by a significant decline in the production of TESTOSTERONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and other hormones such as HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Andropause symptoms are related to the lack of androgens including DEPRESSION, sexual dysfunction, and OSTEOPOROSIS. Andropause may also result from hormonal ablation therapy for malignant diseases.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.
The state of being a eunuch, a male without TESTES or whose testes failed to develop. It is characterized by the lack of mature male GERM CELLS and TESTICULAR HORMONES.
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
An orphan nuclear receptor that is implicated in regulation of steroidogenic pathways. It is unlike most orphan nuclear receptors in that it appears to lack an essential DNA-binding domain and instead acts as a transcriptional co-repressor. Mutations in the gene Dax-1 cause congenital adrenal hypoplasia.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.
Absence of menstruation.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
Rare disease characterized by COLOBOMA; CHOANAL ATRESIA; and abnormal SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. Mutations in CHD7 protein resulting in disturbed neural crest development are associated with CHARGE Syndrome.
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)
The 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis may be sporadic or familial. Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and its locus was mapped to chromosome 2. Mutation in the gene for the FSH receptor (RECEPTORS, FSH) was detected. Sporadic XX gonadal dysgenesis is heterogeneous and has been associated with trisomy-13 and trisomy-18. These phenotypic females are characterized by a normal stature, sexual infantilism, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea, elevated plasma LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH concentration.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.

Sustained anabolic effects of long-term androgen administration in men with AIDS wasting. (1/683)

Fifty-one human immunodeficiency virus-positive men with hypogonadism and wasting were randomized to receive testosterone enanthate, 300 mg i.m. every 3 weeks, or placebo for 6 months, followed by open-label testosterone administration for 6 months. Subjects initially randomized to placebo gained lean body mass (LBM) only after crossover to testosterone administration (mean change +/- standard error of the mean, -0.6 +/- 0.7 kg [months 0-6] vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7 kg [months 6-12]; P = .03). In contrast, subjects initially randomized to testosterone continued to gain LBM during open-label administration (2.0 +/- 0.7 kg [months 0-6] vs. 1.6 +/- 0.6 kg [months 6-12]; P = .62) and had gained more LBM at 1 year than did subjects receiving testosterone for only the final 6 months of the study (3.7 +/- 0.8 kg vs. 1.0 +/- 1.0 kg; P = .05). Testosterone administration results in sustained increases in LBM during 1 year of therapy in hypogonadal men with AIDS wasting.  (+info)

Intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate for the treatment of male hypogonadism: phase I studies. (2/683)

OBJECTIVE: In the search for long-acting testosterone preparations suited for substitution therapy of hypogonadal men, testosterone undecanoate (TU) dissolved in either tea seed oil or castor oil was investigated. DESIGN: In study I, 1000 mg TU in tea seed oil (125 mg/ml) were injected in equal parts into the gluteal muscles of seven hypogonadal men. In study II, 1000 mg TU in castor oil (250 mg/ml) were injected into one gluteal muscle of 14 patients. RESULTS: In comparison with published data on testosterone enanthate, most widely used for i.m. injections, the kinetic profiles of both TU preparations showed extended half-lives and serum levels not exceeding the upper limit of normal. The castor oil preparation had a longer half-life than TU in tea seed oil (33.9+/-4.9 vs 20.9+/-6.0 days (mean pm S.E.M.)). CONCLUSION: The longer half-life and the smaller injection volume make TU in castor oil a strong candidate for further applications in substitution therapy and in trials for male contraception.  (+info)

A female case of Kallmann's syndrome. (3/683)

A case of 20-year-old woman with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia is reported, since very few female cases of Kallmann's syndrome have been reported so far in Japan. Three uncles on the father's side had no children. Height was 168 cm, and arm span 165 cm. The olfactory test revealed complete anosmia. Bone age was 13 year. Chromosome was 46 XX and normal karyotype. Basal levels of serum FSH, LH and estrogens (E1, E2 and E3) were low. Serum FSH and LH levels rose slightly only after LH-RH administration, and did not increase in clomiphene test. Plasma estrogens did not increase after daily injection of 150 IU of HMG for 3 successive days. The response of serum GH to arginine infusion was normal, while that to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was poor.  (+info)

Anti-nuclear antibodies in patients with premature ovarian failure. (4/683)

We examined the prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 32 consecutive patients with premature ovarian failure with and without chromosomal abnormalities. Blood samples were taken for karyotype determination as well as detection of autoantibodies, X-terminal microdeletions and spontaneous follicular growth. The correlation between ANA positivity and the age at onset of amenorrhoea, as well as the presence of karyotype abnormalities, X-terminal microdeletions and follicular growth was determined. Ten of the 24 patients with normal karyotype and none of the 8 patients with karyotype abnormalities were ANA positive. ANA were found more frequently in patients with premature ovarian failure with normal karyotypes than in control amenorrhoeic patients (42 versus 6, P < 0.01). ANA were found in 77% (10/13) of premature ovarian failure patients with normal karyotypes who developed amenorrhoea at or under the age of 30 years, but not in the patients who developed amenorrhoea later in life. Follicular growth was evident in 50% (5/10) of karyotypically normal patients with ANA, 71% (10/14) of karyotypically normal patients without ANA and 38% (3/8) of patients with karyotype abnormalities. X-terminal microdeletions were not found in any of the patients studied. These results suggest that patients with premature ovarian failure and ANA are an aetiologically and clinically distinct group.  (+info)

Imprinting by neonatal sex steroids on the structure and function of the mature mouse prostate. (5/683)

Perinatal sex-steroid exposure may result in permanent modifications in the structure and function of the prostate gland. The mechanism of such long-range alterations in hormonal sensitivity is not known. This study aimed to define the molecular requirements for neonatal sex-steroid imprinting and to investigate whether combined administration of neonatal androgens and estrogens had synergistic effects upon the mature mouse prostate. Since the interaction between endogenous and exogenous sex steroids in normal mice makes it difficult to dissociate direct from indirect effects, we used the hypogonadal (hpg) mouse, characterized by congenital androgen deficiency yet still fully responsive to exogenous androgens. Newborn mice (Days 1-2) were administered a single s.c. injection of androgens alone or in combination with an estrogen followed by testosterone-induced maximal prostate growth at maturity. The final effects were determined in 7-wk-old mice through study of ductal architecture in microdissected ventral prostates (VP) and quantitation of volume densities and diameters of prostate tissue components. A single neonatal dose of androgens, but not of estrogen, increased branching morphogenesis and VP weights at adulthood. These effects did not differ significantly between various androgens; in addition, combined androgen and estrogen treatment failed to demonstrate any synergistic effects on the prostate. We conclude that neonatal androgens induce long-range effects upon the mature VP structure as well as its secretory function and that this imprinting occurs via the androgen receptor without requiring aromatization of androgens. However, these conclusions, based on a specific treatment protocol, are confined only to the distal segment of VP, and effects of neonatal sex-steroid exposure in other regions or lobes of VP may differ.  (+info)

A concomitant decrease in cortical and trabecular bone mass in isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and gonadal dysgenesis. (6/683)

To assess the impact of hypogonadism on bone mineral density, we performed a cross-sectional study of 70 amenorrheic women, comprising 22 cases of gonadal dysgenesis and 48 cases of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Bone mineral density was measured by DEXA at four sites: the femur neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, and lumbar spine (L2-4). The results were compared to those of a control group consisting of 60 age-matched, normal-cycling women. Bone mineral densities around age 20 were already significantly lower at all four sites in patients with IHH and gonadal dysgenesis when compared with controls, suggesting that these patients failed to achieve peak bone mass during pubertal development. In patients with IHH, the initial BMD around age 18-20 were significantly lower at all four sites and the decrease in bone density continued rapidly during the early twenties up to age 25, and then it slowed markedly thereafter. Bone biochemical marker, ICTP and osteocalcin were significantly negatively correlated with age and remained increased until age 40, which was reminiscent of menopausal bone loss pattern such as high bone turn-over in the early twenties, followed by slow bone loss in the late twenties. In patients with gonadal dysgenesis, bone biochemical marker, ICTP and osteocalcin were also significantly negative correlated with age and remained increased until age 40, but no significant changes in BMD were noted as a function of age, which may be attributed to the small sample size and slow bone loss. These findings suggest that the initiation of prompt and timely therapeutic intervention as early as possible in the menarchal period and throughout the remainder of life, particularly during the period associated with rapid bone loss.  (+info)

Osteopenia in young hypogonadal women with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving chronic steroid therapy: a randomized controlled trial comparing calcitriol and hormonal replacement therapy. (7/683)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of calcitriol and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in the treatment of steroid-induced osteoporosis in hypogonadal women. METHODS: We studied 28 young patients (aged 37 +/- 6 yr) with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on chronic steroid therapy for 130 +/- 22 months and requiring more than 10 mg/day prednisone. They were amenorrhoeic for more than 2 yr with proven ovarian failure. All had osteopenia with a T score at L2-4 of less than -1. They were randomized to receive HRT (conjugated oestrogen 0.625 mg daily from day 1 to day 21 plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 5 mg daily days 10-21) or calcitriol 0.5 microg daily. All received calcium carbonate 1 g/day. RESULTS: There were no differences in the baseline demographic, bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical data between the two groups. Lumbar spine BMD increased by 2.0 +/- 0.4% after 2 yr with HRT (P<0.05), but reduced by 1.74 +/- 0.4% (P<0.05) with calcitriol treatment. No change was seen at the distal one-third radius with HRT treatment but significant bone loss (2.3 +/- 1.4%, P<0.02) was observed with calcitriol therapy. BMD at the hip did not change in both groups. Comparing both treatment groups, significant differences in the BMD at the spine (P<0.03) and radius (P<0.05) were seen at the end of 2 yr. The changes in urinary n-telopeptide excretion but not serum osteocalcin at 6 months and 12 months were inversely correlated with the changes in lumbar spine BMD at 24 months. HRT did not cause an adverse effect on SLE disease activity. CONCLUSION: HRT but not calcitriol could prevent bone loss in young hypogonadal women on chronic steroid therapy.  (+info)

A novel mutation of the KAL1 gene in Kallmann syndrome. (8/683)

Kallmann syndrome is defined by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia, for which three modes of transmission have been described: X-linked, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. The KAL1 gene, responsible for the X-linked form of the disease, has been isolated and its intron-exon organization determined. We report sequence analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method of the entire coding region and splice site junctions of the KAL1 gene in three males with Kallmann syndrome. We found a novel mutation in one case and no mutation in the other two cases. The mutation consisted of a C to T substitution in exon 1 converting codon 66 (CAG) encoding glutamine into a termination codon (TAG)/(Q66X). As a consequence of this mutation, the function of the KAL1 protein consisting of 680 amino acids was severely truncated so as to be consistent with Kallmann syndrome. As only this patient had unilateral renal hypoplasia among the three cases, this would suggest the existence of KAL1 gene mutation in this abnormality.  (+info)

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by the inability of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) to produce sufficient amounts of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. This can lead to various symptoms including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction in men, irregular menstrual periods in women, and reduced fertility in both sexes. Hypogonadism may be caused by genetic factors, aging, injury to the gonads, or certain medical conditions such as pituitary disorders. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

Kallmann Syndrome is a genetic condition that is characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (reduced or absent function of the gonads (ovaries or testes) due to deficient secretion of pituitary gonadotropins) and anosmia or hyposmia (reduced or absent sense of smell). It is caused by abnormal migration of neurons that produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during fetal development, which results in decreased production of sex hormones and delayed or absent puberty.

Kallmann Syndrome can also be associated with other symptoms such as color vision deficiency, hearing loss, renal agenesis, and neurological defects. It is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive pattern, and diagnosis usually involves a combination of clinical evaluation, hormonal testing, and genetic analysis. Treatment may include hormone replacement therapy to induce puberty and maintain sexual function, as well as management of associated symptoms.

Delayed puberty is a condition where the typical physical changes of puberty, such as the development of secondary sexual characteristics, growth spurt, and fertility, do not begin to occur during the expected age range. In medical terms, delayed puberty is defined as the absence of signs of puberty by age 13 in girls (such as breast development or menstruation) and by age 14 in boys (such as testicular enlargement or growth of facial hair).

There are various factors that can contribute to delayed puberty, including genetic conditions, chronic illnesses, hormonal imbalances, eating disorders, and excessive exercise. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Delayed puberty can have significant emotional and social consequences for affected individuals, so it is important to seek medical evaluation and treatment if there are concerns about delayed puberty. Treatment options may include hormone replacement therapy or other interventions to support normal pubertal development.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Klinefelter Syndrome: A genetic disorder in males, caused by the presence of one or more extra X chromosomes, typically resulting in XXY karyotype. It is characterized by small testes, infertility, gynecomastia (breast enlargement), tall stature, and often mild to moderate intellectual disability. The symptoms can vary greatly among individuals with Klinefelter Syndrome. Some men may not experience any significant health problems and may never be diagnosed, while others may have serious medical or developmental issues that require treatment. It is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, affecting about 1 in every 500-1,000 newborn males.

Andropause is a term that is sometimes used to describe the gradual decrease in hormone production that occurs in middle-aged men. The term is not widely accepted or used in the medical community, and it is not officially recognized as a medical condition.

The more commonly used medical term for this phenomenon is "testosterone deficiency" or "hypogonadism," which refers to a decrease in the production of the hormone testosterone by the testes. This can lead to various symptoms such as decreased sex drive, fatigue, mood changes, and difficulty with concentration and memory.

It's important to note that while some men may experience these symptoms as they age, not all men will develop a testosterone deficiency. Additionally, other factors such as chronic medical conditions or medications can also contribute to these symptoms. A healthcare provider can evaluate symptoms and perform tests to determine if a testosterone deficiency is present and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Gynecomastia is a medical term that refers to the benign enlargement of the glandular tissue in male breasts, usually caused by an imbalance of the hormones estrogen and testosterone. It's important to note that gynecomastia is not the same as having excess fat in the breast area, which is called pseudogynecomastia.

Gynecomastia can occur during infancy, puberty, or old age due to natural hormonal changes. Certain medications, medical conditions, and recreational drugs can also cause gynecomastia by affecting hormone levels in the body. In some cases, the exact cause of gynecomastia may remain unknown.

Mild cases of gynecomastia may not require treatment, but severe or persistent cases may be treated with medication or surgery to remove excess breast tissue. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment options if you suspect you have gynecomastia.

Eunuchism is a state of being a eunuch, which is a person who has had their gonads (testicles or ovaries) removed or damaged, typically as a castrated male. Historically, eunuchs were often employed in royal households and religious institutions due to their perceived lack of sexual desire and potential for loyalty. In modern medical terms, eunuchism may also refer to a condition where a person is born with underdeveloped or absent gonads, which can result in reduced sex hormone production and infertility.

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions in the body, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Endocrine system diseases or disorders occur when there is a problem with the production or regulation of hormones. This can result from:

1. Overproduction or underproduction of hormones by the endocrine glands.
2. Impaired response of target cells to hormones.
3. Disruption in the feedback mechanisms that regulate hormone production.

Examples of endocrine system diseases include:

1. Diabetes Mellitus - a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin deficiency or resistance.
2. Hypothyroidism - underactive thyroid gland leading to slow metabolism, weight gain, fatigue, and depression.
3. Hyperthyroidism - overactive thyroid gland causing rapid heartbeat, anxiety, weight loss, and heat intolerance.
4. Cushing's Syndrome - excess cortisol production resulting in obesity, high blood pressure, and weak muscles.
5. Addison's Disease - insufficient adrenal hormone production leading to weakness, fatigue, and low blood pressure.
6. Acromegaly - overproduction of growth hormone after puberty causing enlargement of bones, organs, and soft tissues.
7. Gigantism - similar to acromegaly but occurs before puberty resulting in excessive height and body size.
8. Hypopituitarism - underactive pituitary gland leading to deficiencies in various hormones.
9. Hyperparathyroidism - overactivity of the parathyroid glands causing calcium imbalances and kidney stones.
10. Precocious Puberty - early onset of puberty due to premature activation of the pituitary gland.

Treatment for endocrine system diseases varies depending on the specific disorder and may involve medication, surgery, lifestyle changes, or a combination of these approaches.

DAX-1 (Dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) is a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcriptional regulator. It is also known as NR0B1 (Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 0, Group B, Member 1).

DAX-1 plays crucial roles in various developmental processes, including sexual differentiation and adrenal gland development. Mutations in the DAX-1 gene have been associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC), a condition characterized by defective adrenal gland development and primary adrenal insufficiency.

The term "Orphan Nuclear Receptor" refers to a class of nuclear receptors for which no natural ligand has been identified yet. DAX-1 is one such orphan nuclear receptor, as its specific endogenous ligand remains unknown. However, recent studies suggest that steroids and other small molecules might interact with DAX-1 and modulate its activity.

LHRH (Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of certain cells in the body, most notably in the anterior pituitary gland. These receptors bind to LHRH, a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus in the brain.

When LHRH binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the release of two other hormones from the anterior pituitary gland: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones play critical roles in regulating reproductive function, including the development and maturation of sex cells (sperm and eggs), the production of sex steroid hormones (such as testosterone and estrogen), and the regulation of the menstrual cycle in females.

Disorders of the LHRH receptor or its signaling pathway can lead to a variety of reproductive disorders, including precocious puberty, delayed puberty, and infertility.

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It can have physical and psychological causes, such as underlying health conditions like diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and mental health issues like stress, anxiety, and depression. ED can also be a side effect of certain medications. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, medication, counseling, and in some cases, surgery.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating the reproductive system. The beta subunit of LH is one of the two non-identical polypeptide chains that make up the LH molecule (the other being the alpha subunit, which is common to several hormones).

The beta subunit of LH is unique to LH and is often used in assays to measure and determine the concentration of LH in blood or urine. It's responsible for the biological specificity and activity of the LH hormone. Any changes in the structure of this subunit can affect the function of LH, which in turn can have implications for reproductive processes such as ovulation and testosterone production.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Leuprolide is a synthetic hormonal analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH). It acts as a potent agonist of GnRH receptors, leading to the suppression of pituitary gland's secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). This, in turn, results in decreased levels of sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

Leuprolide is used clinically for the treatment of various conditions related to hormonal imbalances, including:
- Prostate cancer: Leuprolide can help slow down the growth of prostate cancer cells by reducing testosterone levels in the body.
- Endometriosis: By lowering estrogen levels, leuprolide can alleviate symptoms associated with endometriosis such as pelvic pain and menstrual irregularities.
- Central precocious puberty: Leuprolide is used to delay the onset of puberty in children who experience it prematurely by inhibiting the release of gonadotropins.
- Uterine fibroids: Lowering estrogen levels with leuprolide can help shrink uterine fibroids and reduce symptoms like heavy menstrual bleeding and pelvic pain.

Leuprolide is available in various formulations, such as injectable depots or implants, for long-term hormonal suppression. Common side effects include hot flashes, mood changes, and potential loss of bone density due to prolonged hormone suppression.

CHARGE syndrome is a genetic disorder that is associated with a variety of birth defects and medical issues. The name CHARGE is an acronym that stands for:

* Coloboma of the eye, which is a hole in the structure of the eye that is present at birth.
* Heart defects, which can range from mild to severe.
* Atresia of the choanae, which is the absence or closure of the nasal passages.
* Retardation of growth and/or development.
* Genital and/or urinary abnormalities.
* Ear abnormalities and deafness.

CHARGE syndrome is caused by mutations in the CHD7 gene, which is located on chromosome 8. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in the development of the eyes, ears, and other parts of the body. Mutations in the CHD7 gene can lead to the characteristic features of CHARGE syndrome.

CHARGE syndrome is typically diagnosed based on the presence of certain physical characteristics and medical issues. A genetic test can be done to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific mutation that is causing the disorder.

Treatment for CHARGE syndrome depends on the severity of the symptoms and may include surgery, therapy, and other medical interventions. With appropriate care, many people with CHARGE syndrome are able to lead fulfilling lives.

Olfaction disorders, also known as smell disorders, refer to conditions that affect the ability to detect or interpret odors. These disorders can be categorized into two main types:

1. Anosmia: This is a complete loss of the sense of smell. It can be caused by various factors such as nasal polyps, sinus infections, head injuries, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
2. Hyposmia: This is a reduced ability to detect odors. Like anosmia, it can also be caused by similar factors including aging and exposure to certain chemicals.

Other olfaction disorders include parosmia, which is a distortion of smell where individuals may perceive a smell as being different from its original scent, and phantosmia, which is the perception of a smell that isn't actually present.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Hypopituitarism is a medical condition characterized by deficient secretion of one or more hormones produced by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland controls several other endocrine glands in the body, including the thyroid, adrenals, and sex glands (ovaries and testes).

Hypopituitarism can result from damage to the pituitary gland due to various causes such as tumors, surgery, radiation therapy, trauma, or inflammation. In some cases, hypopituitarism may also be caused by a dysfunction of the hypothalamus, a region in the brain that regulates the pituitary gland's function.

The symptoms and signs of hypopituitarism depend on which hormones are deficient and can include fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, decreased sex drive, infertility, irregular menstrual periods, intolerance to cold, constipation, thinning hair, dry skin, and depression.

Treatment of hypopituitarism typically involves hormone replacement therapy to restore the deficient hormones' normal levels. The type and dosage of hormones used will depend on which hormones are deficient and may require regular monitoring and adjustments over time.

Libido, in medical and psychological terms, refers to a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity. This term was first introduced by Sigmund Freud in his psychoanalytic theory, where he described it as one of the three components of human personality. Libido is influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors, and can vary significantly among individuals. It's important to note that a low or absent libido does not necessarily indicate an underlying medical issue, but could be a result of various factors such as stress, fatigue, relationship issues, mental health disorders, or hormonal imbalances. If you have concerns about your libido, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation and guidance.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced mainly in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating the active forms of the sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in the body. SHBG binds to these hormones in the bloodstream, creating a reservoir of bound hormones. Only the unbound (or "free") fraction of testosterone and estradiol is considered biologically active and can easily enter cells to exert its effects.

By binding to sex hormones, SHBG helps control their availability and transport in the body. Factors such as age, sex, infection with certain viruses (like hepatitis or HIV), liver disease, obesity, and various medications can influence SHBG levels and, consequently, impact the amount of free testosterone and estradiol in circulation.

SHBG is an essential factor in maintaining hormonal balance and has implications for several physiological processes, including sexual development, reproduction, bone health, muscle mass, and overall well-being. Abnormal SHBG levels can contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and certain types of cancer.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain responsible for regulating many vital functions in the body. The hypothalamus helps control:

1. Body temperature
2. Hunger and thirst
3. Sleep cycles
4. Emotions and behavior
5. Release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by genetic factors, infections, tumors, trauma, or other conditions that damage the hypothalamus. Some examples of hypothalamic diseases include:

1. Hypothalamic dysfunction syndrome: A condition characterized by various symptoms such as obesity, sleep disturbances, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic damage.
2. Kallmann syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hypothalamus and results in a lack of sexual maturation and a decreased sense of smell.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes obesity, developmental delays, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic dysfunction.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, often causing visual impairment, hormonal imbalances, and growth problems.
5. Infiltrative diseases: Conditions such as sarcoidosis or histiocytosis can infiltrate the hypothalamus, leading to various symptoms related to hormonal imbalances and neurological dysfunction.
6. Traumatic brain injury: Damage to the hypothalamus due to head trauma can result in various hormonal and neurological issues.
7. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the hypothalamus, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause damage and lead to hypothalamic dysfunction.

Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or other interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, generally occurring between the ages of 10 and 16 in females and between 12 and 18 in males. It is characterized by a series of events including rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. Puberty is initiated by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to the secretion of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone that drive the physical changes associated with this stage of development.

In females, puberty typically begins with the onset of breast development (thelarche) and the appearance of pubic hair (pubarche), followed by the start of menstruation (menarche). In males, puberty usually starts with an increase in testicular size and the growth of pubic hair, followed by the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the development of muscle mass.

It's important to note that the onset and progression of puberty can vary widely among individuals, and may be influenced by genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

Gonadotropins are hormones produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating reproduction and sexual development. There are two main types of gonadotropins:

1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH is essential for the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries (in females) or sperm production in the testes (in males). In females, FSH stimulates the maturation of eggs within the follicles.
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the dominant follicle. In males, LH stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Together, FSH and LH work synergistically to regulate various aspects of reproductive function and sexual development. Their secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus, which releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to stimulate the production and release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland.

Abnormal levels of gonadotropins can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as infertility or menstrual irregularities in females and issues related to sexual development or function in both sexes. In some cases, synthetic forms of gonadotropins may be used clinically to treat these conditions or for assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Kisspeptins are a family of peptides that are derived from the preproprotein kisspeptin. The most well-known member of this family is kisspeptin-54, which is also known as metastin. Kisspeptins play important roles in several physiological processes, including the regulation of growth, inflammation, and energy homeostasis. However, they are perhaps best known for their role in the reproductive system.

In the reproductive system, kisspeptins act as key regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is responsible for controlling reproductive function. Kisspeptins are produced by neurons in the hypothalamus and bind to receptors on other neurons that release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH then stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which act on the gonads to promote the production of sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

Dysregulation of the HPG axis, including abnormal kisspeptin signaling, has been implicated in a number of reproductive disorders, such as precocious puberty, delayed puberty, and infertility. As such, there is significant interest in understanding the role of kisspeptins in reproductive function and developing therapies that target this pathway.

Male infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It is typically defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The causes of male infertility can be varied and include issues with sperm production, such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality, problems with sperm delivery, such as obstructions in the reproductive tract, or hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production. Other factors that may contribute to male infertility include genetic disorders, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions or treatments.

It is important to note that male infertility can often be treated or managed with medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A healthcare provider can help diagnose the underlying cause of male infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a crucial role in various biological processes such as cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. It is a transmembrane protein that binds to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways.

FGFR1 is specifically involved in the regulation of embryonic development, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Mutations in the FGFR1 gene have been associated with several human diseases, including various types of cancer, skeletal dysplasias, and developmental disorders.

In summary, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) is a cell surface receptor that binds to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and activates intracellular signaling pathways involved in various biological processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Gonadal disorders refer to conditions that affect the function or structure of the gonads, which are the primary reproductive organs. In females, the gonads are the ovaries, and in males, they are the testes. These disorders can result in issues related to sexual development, reproduction, and hormone production.

Examples of gonadal disorders include:

1. Ovarian dysfunction: This includes conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and ovarian insufficiency, which can affect menstruation, fertility, and hormone levels.
2. Testicular disorders: These include conditions such as undescended testes, Klinefelter syndrome, and varicocele, which can impact sperm production, male secondary sexual characteristics, and hormone levels.
3. Gonadal dysgenesis: This is a condition where the gonads do not develop properly during fetal development, leading to ambiguous genitalia or sex chromosome abnormalities.
4. Cancer of the gonads: Both ovarian and testicular cancers can affect gonadal function and require prompt medical attention.
5. Gonadal injury or trauma: Injuries to the gonads can impact their function, leading to fertility issues or hormonal imbalances.

Treatment for gonadal disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or assisted reproductive technologies.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder that affects several parts of the body and is characterized by a range of symptoms including:

1. Developmental delays and intellectual disability.
2. Hypotonia (low muscle tone) at birth, which can lead to feeding difficulties in infancy.
3. Excessive appetite and obesity, typically beginning around age 2, due to a persistent hunger drive and decreased satiety.
4. Behavioral problems such as temper tantrums, stubbornness, and compulsive behaviors.
5. Hormonal imbalances leading to short stature, small hands and feet, incomplete sexual development, and decreased bone density.
6. Distinctive facial features including a thin upper lip, almond-shaped eyes, and a narrowed forehead.
7. Sleep disturbances such as sleep apnea or excessive daytime sleepiness.

PWS is caused by the absence of certain genetic material on chromosome 15, which results in abnormal gene function. It affects both males and females equally and has an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000 to 30,000 live births. Early diagnosis and management can help improve outcomes for individuals with PWS.

Gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XX is a medical condition where an individual with a 46,XX karyotype has underdeveloped or absent gonads (ovaries). Normally, individuals with a 46,XX karyotype have ovaries that produce female sex hormones and develop into reproductive organs. However, in cases of gonadal dysgenesis, the gonads do not develop properly and may appear as streak gonads, which lack germ cells and are incapable of producing sex hormones or gametes (eggs).

Individuals with 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis often have female external genitalia but may have primary amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) due to the underdeveloped or absent ovaries. They may also have other features such as short stature, webbed neck, and intellectual disability, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

The underlying causes of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis can vary, including genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, or exposure to environmental factors during fetal development. Some individuals with this condition may have an increased risk of developing gonadal tumors, so regular monitoring and follow-up care are essential.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Hyperprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, this can lead to menstrual irregularities, milk production outside of pregnancy (galactorrhea), and infertility. In men, it can cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and infertility. The condition can be caused by various factors, including pituitary tumors, certain medications, and hypothyroidism. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include medication to lower prolactin levels.

Sex chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical abnormalities in the sex chromosomes, which are typically represented as X and Y chromosomes in humans. These aberrations can result in variations in the number of sex chromosomes, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), and Jacobs/XYY syndrome (47,XYY). They can also include structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of sex chromosome material.

Sex chromosome aberrations may lead to a range of phenotypic effects, including differences in physical characteristics, cognitive development, fertility, and susceptibility to certain health conditions. The manifestation and severity of these impacts can vary widely depending on the specific type and extent of the aberration, as well as individual genetic factors and environmental influences.

It is important to note that while sex chromosome aberrations may pose challenges and require medical management, they do not inherently define or limit a person's potential, identity, or worth. Comprehensive care, support, and education can help individuals with sex chromosome aberrations lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

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Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism Basaria S (2014). " ... Acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (AHH) is a postnatal onset of a GnRH releasing disorder and/or pituitary gonadotroph ... Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), is due to problems with either the hypothalamus or pituitary gland affecting the ... Silveira L, Latronico A (2013). "Approach to the Patient With Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism". The Journal of Clinical ...
... (HH), also known as primary or peripheral/gonadal hypogonadism or primary gonadal failure, is a ... Hypogonadism Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism Hypergonadotropic hypergonadism Delayed puberty and infertility Hypothalamus, ... "Low Sex Drive (Hypogonadism): Symptoms, Treatment". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2022-07-28. Ladjouze A, Donaldson M (June 2019 ... Therapy is lifelong in boys who have permanent hypogonadism. Neonatal testosterone therapy can be given to infants with HH. ...
... (LOH) or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is a condition in older men characterized by measurably ... As of 2016, the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male defines late-onset hypogonadism as a series of symptoms ... If levels are low, conditions that cause primary and secondary hypogonadism need to be ruled out. Due to difficulty and expense ... 8 July 2010). "Identification of late-onset hypogonadism in middle-aged and elderly men" (PDF). The New England Journal of ...
... (IHH), also called idiopathic or congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), as well ... Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism Kallmann syndrome Genetics of GnRH deficiency conditions HPG axis ... Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism presents as hypogonadism, e.g., reduced or absent puberty, low libido, infertility, ... Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism/Kallmann syndrome and effects of different ...
... is a very rare genetic disorder which is characterized ... "OMIM Entry - 254000 - MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL, WITH INFANTILE CATARACT AND HYPOGONADISM". Retrieved 2022-06-09 ... "Congenital muscular dystrophy-infantile cataract-hypogonadism syndrome - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases ... "Orphanet: Congenital muscular dystrophy infantile cataract hypogonadism syndrome". Retrieved 2022-06-09. ( ...
Hypogonadism. Vitiligo. Alopecia. Malabsorption. Pernicious anemia. Cataract. Cerebellar ataxia. APS-1 is caused by a mutation ...
"Hypogonadism". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 26 July 2021. Ishii T, Sasaki G, Hasegawa T, Sato S, Matsuo N, ... such as hypopituitarism or hypogonadism. Regardless of the cause of micropenis, if it is recognized in infancy, a brief course ... and other forms of congenital hypogonadism. Micropenis can also occur as part of many genetic malformation syndromes that do ... Testosterone treatment is resumed in adolescence only for boys with hypogonadism. Penile growth is completed at the end of ...
Hypogonadism signifies a decreased functionality of the gonads. This can result in impotence, infertility, loss of sexual drive ... Kim SM, Yalamanchi S, Dobs AS (2017). "Male Hypogonadism and Liver Disease". In Winters SJ, Huhtaniemi IT (eds.). Male ... Hypogonadism. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 219-234. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-53298-1_11. ISBN 978-3-319-53296-7. ...
Post-pubertal hypogonadism results in progressive muscle mass decrease, increase in visceral fat mass, loss of libido, ... As males age, the testes begin to produce less testosterone, leading to a condition known as post-pubertal hypogonadism. The ... Isidori AM, Giannetta E, Lenzi A (2008). "Male hypogonadism". Pituitary. 11 (2): 171-80. doi:10.1007/s11102-008-0111-9. PMID ... the male mutation of the GnRH coding gene could result in hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. A mutation that cause a gain of ...
... but the gonads are unable to respond to said signals causing hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism can ... Girls with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism are started on the same sex steroid therapy as their counterparts with a ... Male Hypogonadism. Friedrich Jockenhovel. Uni-Med Science. 2004. ISBN 3-89599-748-X. Chapter 3. Diagnostic work up of ... hCG can be used by itself in boys with spontaneous onset of puberty from non-permanent forms of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism ...
Defects in the GnRHR are a cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Normal puberty begins between ages 8 and 14 in girls ... Agonists stimulate the receptor, however prolonged exposure leads to a downregulation effect resulting in hypogonadism, an ... Layman LC (2007). "Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism". Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. 36 (2): 283-96. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2007.03 ... Viswanathan V, Eugster EA (December 2009). "Etiology and treatment of hypogonadism in adolescents". Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. ...
... deficiency due to pituitary disease results in hypogonadism, which can lead to infertility. Treatment includes ... 205-. ISBN 978-0-12-384908-3. Basaria S (April 2014). "Male hypogonadism". Lancet. 383 (9924): 1250-63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736( ... Rothman MS, Wierman ME (2008). "Female hypogonadism: evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis". Pituitary. 11 (2 ...
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ART is often prescribed to counter the effects of male hypogonadism. ART is also prescribed to lessen the effects or delay the ... Androgen replacement is the classic treatment of hypogonadism. It is also used in men who have lost the ability to produce ... However, when given to men with hypogonadism in the short- and medium-term, testosterone replacement therapy does not increase ... The risks of diabetes and of testosterone deficiency in men over 45 (i.e., hypogonadism, specifically hypoandrogenism) are ...
Dabaja, Ali; Wosnitzer, Matthew; Goldstein, Marc (2013-08-01). "Varicocele and hypogonadism". Current Urology Reports. 14 (4): ...
GNRH1 Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; 146110; CHD7 Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; 146110; FGFR1 Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; ... ABCC8 Hypogonadism, hypogonadotropic; 146110; PROK2 Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to GNRH deficiency; 227200; ... NELF Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; 146110; TAC3 Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; 146110; TACR3 Hypokalemic periodic paralysis ... with or without hypogonadism; 157640; POLG Progressive external ophthalmoplegia, autosomal recessive; 258450; POLG Progressive ...
Reddy RG, Aung T, Karavitaki N, Wass JA (August 2010). "Opioid induced hypogonadism". BMJ. 341: c4462. doi:10.1136/bmj.c4462. ...
1947). "Hereditary familial hypogonadism". Proc Am Fed Clin Res. 3: 86. PMID 18909356. Goldberg MB, Maxwell A (May 1948). "Male ...
"What is Male Hypogonadism? Learn's Hypogonadism Definition". Retrieved 2015-10-26. Juberg, R. C.; ... Hypogonadism is a condition in which the gonads have a decrease in function. This condition may result from the lack of sex ... For hypogonadism, testosterone replacement is done. For gynecomastia, weight loss using similar methods for obesity is ... Males also have gynecomastia and hypogonadism. In order to be diagnosed with Wilson-Turner Syndrome, male patients must have ...
"Orphanet: Ataxia hypogonadism choroidal dystrophy syndrome". Retrieved 2022-06-08. "Ataxia-hypogonadism- ... "Ataxia - hypogonadism - choroidal dystrophy - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center". rarediseases. ... Fok, A. C.; Wong, M. C.; Cheah, J. S. (March 1989). "Syndrome of cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism: evidence ... Neuhäuser, G.; Opitz, J. M. (May 1975). "Autosomal recessive syndrome of cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism". ...
Hypogonadism in males 6. Renal abnormalities While the secondary features are stated to be as:[citation needed] 1. Speech ...
Richard-Eaglin, Angela (2018). "Male and Female Hypogonadism". Nursing Clinics of North America. 53 (3): 395-405. doi:10.1016/j ... hypogonadism, and prostate cancer. Sexual medicine often uses a multidisciplinary approach involving physicians, mental health ... or medication induced sexual dysfunction Painful orgasm Chronic pelvic pain Sexually transmitted infection Hypogonadism ...
Hypogonadism (a condition where the gonads - testes for men and ovaries for women - have diminished activity) can decrease ... In secondary hypogonadism (where the cause is hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction) serum levels of gonadotropins may be low. ... In primary hypogonadism, elevated serum gonadotropins are detected on at least two occasions several weeks apart, indicating ... Hypoestrogenism can also occur in men, for instance due to hypogonadism. There are both hormonal and non-hormonal treatments to ...
In contrast, while estrogens at sufficiently high dosages similarly are able to produce hypogonadism and to abolish or severely ... Bach PV, Najari BB, Kashanian JA (2016). "Adjunct Management of Male Hypogonadism". Current Sexual Health Reports. 8 (4): 231- ... produce hypogonadism and high rates of severe or complete infertility (e.g., severe oligospermia or complete azoospermia) in ... of initial values in men with hypogonadism, and a study of clomifene treatment in normal men observed increases in FSH and LH ...
NOWAKOWSKI, H; LENZ, W (1961). "Genetic aspects in male hypogonadism". Recent Progress in Hormone Research. 17: 53-95. PMID ...
... and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism]". Medicina Clínica. 118 (19): 759. doi:10.1016/s0025-7753(02)72522-0. ISSN ... Adductor longus contractures Systemic Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Behr syndrome is autosomal recessive which means the ...
The term "hypogonadism" in XXY symptoms is often misinterpreted to mean "small testicles", when it instead means decreased ... Because of (primary) hypogonadism, individuals often have a low serum testosterone level, but high serum follicle-stimulating ... The rate of Klinefelter syndrome among infertile males is 3.1%. The syndrome is also the main cause of male hypogonadism. The ... Nieschlag E (May 2013). "Klinefelter syndrome: the commonest form of hypogonadism, but often overlooked or untreated". ...
PWS is characterized by hypogonadism. This is manifested as undescended testes in males and benign premature adrenarche in ... More aspects seen in a clinical overview include hypotonia and abnormal neurologic function, hypogonadism, developmental and ... Obesity and Hypogonadism". Hum. Mol. Genet. 18 (17): 3257-65. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp263. PMC 2722987. PMID 19498035. Killeen, ... Hypogonadism Sparse pubic hair Obesity Hypotonia (low muscle tone) Learning disabilities/borderline intellectual functioning ( ...
Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism can be treated with hormone replacement therapy, which consists of taking medications containing ... "Dilated cardiomyopathy-hypergonadotropic hypogonadism syndrome". Retrieved 26 April 2021. "Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, ... symptoms hypergonadotropic hypogonadism cardiomyopathy dilated cardiomyopathy blepharoptosis broad nasal base mild intellectual ... The main symptoms of this disease are hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and cardiomyopathy, whose coexistence is extremely rare. ...
Hypogonadism resulting from defects of the gonads is referred to as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism or primary hypogonadism. ... Hypogonadism can occur in other conditions, like Prader-Willi syndrome.[citation needed] Women with hypogonadism do not begin ... Contrast with a young woman or teen, who would have hypogonadism rather than menopause. This is because hypogonadism is an ... Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), also called idiopathic or congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) as well ...
... primary hypogonadism) or of the hypothalamus or pituitary glands (secondary hypogonadism). Causes of primary hypogonadism ... Secondary hypogonadism can be due to aging, increasing body mass index, and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. ... Male hypogonadism, or testosterone deficiency, results either from a disorder of the testes ( ...
Hypogonadism occurs when the bodys sex glands (gonads) produce little or no hormones. In men, these glands are the testes. In ... Hypogonadism occurs when the bodys sex glands (gonads) produce little or no hormones. In men, these glands are the testes. In ... In women, hypogonadism may cause infertility. Menopause is a form of hypogonadism that occurs naturally. It can cause hot ... Hypogonadism can affect their breast development and height. If hypogonadism occurs after puberty, symptoms in women include:. ...
Hypogonadism Definition Hypogonadism is the condition in which the production of sex hormones and germ cells (sperm and eggs) ... Hypogonadism. Definition. Hypogonadism is the condition in which the production of sex hormones and germ cells (sperm and eggs ... Hypogonadism. Definition. Hypogonadism is the condition more prevalent in males in which the production of sex hormones and ... If hypogonadism occurs before puberty , puberty does not progress. If hypogonadism occurs after puberty, infertility and sexual ...
Hypogonadism is a medical condition that occurs when the body produces low levels of sex hormones. It can affect both males and ... Hypogonadism Hypogonadism is a medical condition that occurs when the body produces low levels of sex hormones. It can affect ...
hypogonadism (DOID:1924) Alliance: disease page Alt IDs: OMIM:241100, OMIM:312300, MESH:D007006, NCI:C9227, UMLS_CUI:C0020619 ...
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People with hypogonadism experience a reduction in the hormones that are responsible for defining their sex characteristics. ... Hypogonadism (HI-po-go-nad-ism) affects both men and women. ... Condition: Hypogonadism. Also called: Low Testosterone; Low Sex ... Hypogonadism (HI-po-go-nad-ism) affects both men and women. People with hypogonadism experience a reduction in the hormones ... Locations Where Providers Treat Hypogonadism. Note that the treatment of Hypogonadism may not be performed at every location ...
ObjectiveAdult-onset hypogonadism (AOH) is a common disease for males ,40 years old and is closely associated with age-related ... Adult-onset hypogonadism (AOH) is a common disease for males ,40 years old and is closely associated with age-related ... adult-onset hypogonadism (AOH) is usually named late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). In heathy, young eugonadal males (defined as men ... have biochemical hypogonadism (3). According to the biochemical hypogonadism criteria, AOH is a relatively common disease among ...
Learn the myths and truths around what causes low testosterone, why average levels are decreasing, treatments and more.
... Endocr Rev. ... Conversely, DP from hypogonadism requires prompt and specific treatment that we summarize in this review. Hormone therapy ... risk being misapplied to older adolescents likely to have permanent hypogonadism. ...
... is an oral testosterone replacement therapy for the treatment of adult males with conditions associated with hypogonadism. ... FDA approves oral testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism. August 4, 2022. Urology Times staff ... an oral testosterone replacement therapy for the treatment of adult males with conditions associated with hypogonadism.1 ... was approved in March 2022 for the treatment of men with hypogonadism. ...
... are rare genetic conditions that encompass the spectrum of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Most patients have ... Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in a female caused by an X-linked recessive mutation in the DAX1 gene. N Engl J Med. 1999. 340(16 ... Mutations of the DAX1 gene lead to X-linked idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and AHC. [27] The DAX1 gene (present on ... Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism revisited. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013. 68 Suppl 1:81-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ...
Get free answers on any health question about the condition Hypogonadism from top U.S. doctors. Or, video or text chat with a U ... I was wondering how many of the symptoms for hypogonadism should be present for it to be a real concern. I am 32 years old? ... And i was needing to know if my hypogonadism is reversible or not, based on my test results. ? ... What to do if Im 26 and have been diagnosed with hypogonadism now can this be fixed? ...
Synonyms (terms occurring on more labels are shown first): testicular failure, male hypogonadism, Hypogonadism male More ... Hypogonadism male. Definition: Eunuch-like state in which the male individual has non-functional TESTES. ...
Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is rare and can either be associated with normal or defective olfactory ... Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a sporadic genetic disorder. The clinical features are total or partial lack ... The Smell Identification Test was performed to evaluate olfactory function (14). Clinical symptoms and signs of hypogonadism, ... Note: HH: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; rOB, right olfactory bulb; lOB, left olfactory bulb; bOB, bilateral olfactory bulbs. ...
VisualAbstract: Testosterone-replacement therapy for middle-aged and older men with hypogonadism does not increase risk of ...
Hypogonadism is understood to be when the gonads (testicles in men and ovaries in women) produce low amounts of hormones or ... What is hypogonadism?. Hypogonadism is understood to be when the gonads (testicles in men and ovaries in women) produce low ... What types of hypogonadism are there? What are the causes?. There are basically two types of hypogonadism:. Primary ... How can hypogonadism be prevented?. Certain risk factors have to be dealt with to prevent hypogonadism such as doing regular ...
Huang, Cheng-Wei, "Low T? Late Onset Hypogonadism" (2014). Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects. 59. https://scholarworks ...
Male Hypogonadism Market. Male Hypogonadism Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2018 ...
Hypogonadism. Some male patients suffer from hypogonadism. Patients with severe symptoms may undergo therapy with topical ...
Hypogonadism. Some male patients suffer from hypogonadism. Patients with severe symptoms may undergo therapy with topical ...
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (see the image below) is one of several types of hypogonadism. ... Morbidity for men and women with hypogonadism includes infertility and an increased risk of osteoporosis; there is no increase ... Hypogonadism may occur at any age; however, consequences differ according to the age at onset. If hypogonadism occurs ... If hypogonadism occurs before puberty, puberty does not progress. If hypogonadism occurs after puberty, infertility and sexual ...
Effect of Sustanon on Quality of Life Among Male Hypogonadism August 23, 2023 No Comments ... Effect of Sustanon on Quality of Life Among Male Hypogonadism August 23, 2023 No Comments ...
Survivors with hypogonadism were also more likely to report adverse health outcomes. Roughly one third (35%) of those with ... He added that these are young men with many years of life ahead of them, and thus not treating hypogonadism could leave them ... The focus of the findings that were presented was on the incidence of hypogonadism in this population, as well as predisposing ... For example, compared to survivors with normal testosterone levels, those with hypogonadism were about three times more likely ...
Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. In a patient who fails to enter puberty, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (gonadal failure) is ... Eldar-Geva T, Hirsch HJ, Benarroch F, Rubinstein O, Gross-Tsur V. Hypogonadism in females with Prader-Willi syndrome from ... Partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with the Leu266Arg and Gln106Arg mutation of the gonadotropin-releasing ... Evidence is mounting that loss of menstrual regularity, especially if related to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is a risk ...
Hypogonadism - Low testosterone: How to speak to your doctor. Its the hormone that helps turn boys into men. During puberty, ... Hypogonadism - You may be experiencing it.. Posted by Dr G [GNN] on Wednesday, January 6, 2016 Under: Health & Medical ... What is Hypogonadism? This term actually means low levels of testosterone which affects many people but the symptoms start ... Many men have this condition, which is called hypogonadism. Still, you may be too embarrassed to voice your concerns. WebMD ...
Hypogonadism is a condition that causes decreased function of the gonads, which are the testes in males and the ovaries in ... Secondary hypogonadism. Secondary hypogonadism (also called hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) occurs when the brain fails to ... Signs and Symptoms of hypogonadism. Girls who have hypogonadism will not begin menstruating. Hypogonadism can affect their ... Hypogonadism Prevention. *Although most of the known causes of Hypogonadism cannot be prevented, it would still be helpful to ...
Hypogonadism). Get the best treatment for hypogonadism (testosterone deficiency syndrome). We offer the best mens health care ... There are three main types of hypogonadism (Testosterone deficiency syndrome:. 1.) Primary hypogonadism. Primary hypogonadism ... Hypogonadism is also known as Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (TDS) or Andropause.. Hypogonadism is the medical term for ... 3.) Late-onset hypogonadism. Late-onset hypogonadism which is often left undiagnosed tends to develop later in life. ...
  • citation needed] Hypogonadism resulting from hypothalamic or pituitary defects is termed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), secondary hypogonadism, or central hypogonadism (referring to the central nervous system). (
  • Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), also called idiopathic or congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) as well as isolated or congenital gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency (IGD) accounts for a small subset of cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) due to deficiency in or insensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) where the function and anatomy of the anterior pituitary are otherwise normal and secondary causes of HH are not present. (
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome, and Kallmann syndrome, also called hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • Kallman's syndrome (KS) is the most frequent cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and affects approximately one in 10,000 males and one in 50,000 females. (
  • Classic Kallmann syndrome (KS) and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) are rare genetic conditions that encompass the spectrum of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • By definition, either anosmia (lack of sense of smell) or severe hyposmia is present in patients with Kallmann syndrome, in contrast to patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, whose sense of smell is normal. (
  • MRI of the brain in patients with Kallmann syndrome (KS) and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). (
  • Deficient hypothalamic GnRH secretion underlies the markedly abnormal gonadotropin secretion patterns in most patients with Kallmann syndrome or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • Some of the genes involved in the pathogenesis of Kallmann syndrome and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism have been identified. (
  • [ 2 , 3 ] Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the gene encoding FGFR1 have also been described in individuals with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, normal smell sense, and normal MRI of the olfactory system. (
  • [ 3 ] In addition, mutations of the gene encoding chromodomain-helicase DNA-binding protein 7 ( CHD7 ) have been found in some patients with Kallmann syndrome or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, some of whom have features of the CHARGE syndrome (characterized by delayed growth and development, congenital cardiac defects, dysmorphic ears, hearing loss, coloboma of the eyes). (
  • Loss-of-function mutations of critical components of the prokineticin pathway have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Kallmann syndrome and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is rare and can either be associated with normal or defective olfactory sensation, classified as normosmic IHH (nIHH) or Kallmann's syndrome (KS), respectively. (
  • Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a sporadic genetic disorder. (
  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (see the image below) is one of several types of hypogonadism. (
  • Types of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • The simplest and most successful treatment for males and females with either hypergonadotropic or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is replacement of sex steroids, but the therapy does not confer fertility or, in men, stimulate testicular growth. (
  • Evidence is mounting that loss of menstrual regularity, especially if related to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is a risk factor for later development of osteoporosis and hip fractures. (
  • Secondary hypogonadism (also called hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) occurs when the brain fails to signal the testicles properly. (
  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may result from failure of the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator or from inability of the pituitary to respond with secretion of LH and FSH. (
  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is most commonly observed as one aspect of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies resulting from malformations (eg, septooptic dysplasia, other midline defects) or lesions of the pituitary that are acquired postnatally. (
  • Normosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, in which the sense of smell is not disrupted, has been associated with mutations in GNRH1, KISS1R, and GNRHR genes. (
  • Although their exact functions are unclear, the genes TAC3 and TACR3 have also been associated with normosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • Kallmann syndrome (anosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) has been associated with mutations in KAL1, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, and PROKR2 genes. (
  • Mutations of an additional gene, CHD7, which has been associated with CHARGE syndrome, has also been found in patients with normosmic or anosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • Secondary hypogonadism is failure of the hypothalamus to produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), as in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, or of the pituitary gland to produce enough FSH and LH. (
  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, the cause of which is not present from birth. (
  • Treatment of infertility with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: 10-year experience in Auckland, New Zealand. (
  • Male acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment. (
  • Retrospective study on long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and iron chelation therapy on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in female ß- thalassemia major (β-TM) patients with acquired hypogonadotropic- hypogonadism (AHH). (
  • Assessment of glucose homeostasis in young adult female β-thalassemia major patients (β-TM) with acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (AHH) never treated with sex steroids compared to eugonadal β-TM patients with spontaneous menstrual cycles. (
  • Testicular findings, endocrine features and therapeutic responses of men with acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • Reproductive Phenotypes in Men With Acquired or Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: A Comparative Study. (
  • For androgen replacement therapy in males with hypogonadism (primary and hypogonadotropic types). (
  • [ 3 ] In addition, mutations of the gene encoding chromodomain-helicase DNA-binding protein 7 ( CHD7 ) have been found in some patients with Kallmann syndrome or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • Mutations of the DAX1 gene, which encodes a nuclear transcription factor, lead to X-linked idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC). (
  • [ 10 ] Mutations of genes encoding either leptin or the leptin receptor underlie isolated cases of autosomally transmitted idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with early-onset obesity. (
  • [ 11 ] Several loss-of-function mutations of the GnRH receptor gene leading to GnRH resistance and autosomally transmitted hypogonadotropic hypogonadism have been described. (
  • [ 12 ] . In addition, autosomal recessive mutations of the GnRH gene may underlie hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • Rarely, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs as a result of isolated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) deficiency due to homozygous mutations in the FSH beta subunit gene. (
  • This patient presented with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, despite high levels of immunoreactive serum LH. (
  • Secondary causes, also known as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, are more complex and indirect reasons for low testosterone. (
  • This long journey is regulated by many different factors that could be mutated in neuroendocrine syndromes such as congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), Kallmann Syndrome (KS) and CHARGE syndrome. (
  • The role of semaphorin signaling in the etiology of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism / A. Lettieri, R. Oleari, J. Gimmelli, V. André, A. Cariboni. (
  • Functional consequences of AXL sequence variants in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • The objective of the study was to test whether the absence of Axl would alter reproductive function in mice and that mutations in AXL are present in patients with Kallmann syndrome (KS) or normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH). (
  • Comparison of the frequencies of AXL mutations with other putative causes of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism confirmed they are rare variants. (
  • Functional consequences of AXL sequence variants in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism support the importance of AXL and the Tyro3, Axl, Mer (TAM) family in reproductive development. (
  • The overall prevalence of hypogonadism was 35.11%, 18.1% being normogonadotropic, 11.7% being hypogonadotropic and 5.3% being hypergonadotropic. (
  • Arzneimittel, Gesundheits- und Pflegeprodukte mit bis zu 75% Preis-Ersparnis online kaufen clomid dosage male hypogonadism . (
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  • Male hypogonadism is defined as a disorder associated with decreased functional activity of the testes, with decreased production of sexual hormones ( 2 ). (
  • male hypogonadism is one such condition. (
  • Get proper treatment for male hypogonadism. (
  • What is Male Hypogonadism? (
  • Symptoms associated with male hypogonadism of both types depend on the stage of development of the male. (
  • Usage : cernos gel is a medicine used in the treatment of male hypogonadism caused due to low testosterone levels. (
  • Male hypogonadism can delay puberty or cause incomplete development or lack of normal development. (
  • This can help counteract the signs and symptoms of male hypogonadism, such as: decreased sex drive, decreased energy, decreased facial and body hair, and loss of muscle mass and bone density. (
  • Treatment of male hypogonadism varies depending on whether the hypogonadism present is primary or secondary. (
  • Male hypogonadism is the condition in which a man's gonads (testes) no longer produce adequate amounts of testosterone , the primary male sex hormone. (
  • Male hypogonadism is defined as primary when it results from a defect or problem located in the testicles. (
  • Male hypogonadism is said to be secondary when it results from defects in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. (
  • Symptoms and signs of male hypogonadism are numerous and vary with age. (
  • Objective: Male hypogonadism is a common disorder that is associated with low bone density, poor muscle mass, anemia, and sexual dysfunction. (
  • A threshold of weight loss is necessary to improve male reproductive function by reversing male hypogonadism, manifested as increased testosterone levels. (
  • If hypogonadism occurs before puberty , puberty does not progress. (
  • If hypogonadism occurs after puberty, infertility and sexual dysfunction result. (
  • Hypogonadism most often shows up as an abnormality in boys during puberty. (
  • We also highlight persistent shortcomings in clinical practice, wherein strategies directed at "the child with delayed puberty of uncertain etiology" risk being misapplied to older adolescents likely to have permanent hypogonadism. (
  • These symptoms are often tied to puberty, as this is when it may be revealed that a child has hypogonadism. (
  • The use of anabolic steroids has only been approved for delayed puberty in teenage boys, as well as hypogonadism in menopausal women. (
  • Hypogonadism can begin at any stage of life, in fetal development, at puberty, or in adulthood. (
  • Hypogonadism is understood to be when the gonads (testicles in men and ovaries in women) produce low amounts of hormones or none at all or when the hypothalamus is incapable of producing normal levels of the GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone). (
  • Severe damage in the testicles caused by a blunt trauma, for example, could seriously affect them and lead to hypogonadism. (
  • Primary hypogonadism is when there exists a problem within your testicles that is preventing you from releasing testosterone. (
  • Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads-the testes or the ovaries-that may result in diminished production of sex hormones. (
  • The cause of hypogonadism can be primary (testes or ovaries) or secondary (problem with the pituitary or hypothalamus). (
  • In primary hypogonadism, the ovaries or testes themselves do not function properly. (
  • Hypogonadism is a condition that causes decreased function of the gonads, which are the testes in males and the ovaries in females, and decreased production of sex hormones. (
  • Primary hypogonadism is the term used for low testosterone resulting from a problem within the testes. (
  • When the testes fail to produce an adequate level of endogenous testosterone, men develop hypogonadism. (
  • It may result from a disorder of the testes (primary hypogonadism) or of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (secondary hypogonadism). (
  • Primary hypogonadism involves failure of the testes to respond to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). (
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (DCMHH) is a condition that primarily affects the heart and gonads (male testes or female ovaries). (
  • Hypogonadism is the inability of the gonads, the testes in men and the ovaries in women, in the production of testosterone (men) and estrogen (women) that for some reason is inhibited. (
  • Primary causes, also known as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, are related to problems with the testes, where testosterone production occurs. (
  • citation needed] Hypogonadism resulting from defects of the gonads is referred to as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism or primary hypogonadism. (
  • For this reason, this condition is also referred to as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. (
  • Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (primary hypogonadism) results if the gonad does not produce the amount of sex steroid sufficient to suppress secretion of LH and FSH at normal levels. (
  • Connect with other caregivers and patients with Dilated cardiomyopathy with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and get the support you need. (
  • It is characterized by a disease of the heart muscle ( dilated cardiomyopathy ) and little or no production of sex hormones due to a problem with the pituitary gland or hypothalamus ( hypergonadotropic hypogonadism ). (
  • How is dilated cardiomyopathy with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (DCMHH) diagnosed? (
  • Sperm development (spermatogenesis) and release of the egg from the ovaries (ovulation) may be impaired by hypogonadism, which, depending on the degree of severity, may result in partial or complete infertility. (
  • In women, hypogonadism may cause infertility . (
  • Our findings underscore the need for clinicians to assess testicular cancer for physical signs or symptoms of hypogonadism and to measure testosterone in those who do," he concluded. (
  • Males who are still growing in their early years can experience symptoms of hypogonadism that vary from minor to extreme. (
  • To receive exogenous testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), patients should meet criteria for hypogonadism, which is defined as a low testosterone level and signs or symptoms of hypogonadism. (
  • Physicians measure gonadotropins (LH and FSH) to distinguish primary from secondary hypogonadism. (
  • whereas in secondary hypogonadism, both are normal or low, suggesting the problem is in the brain (hypo-gonatropic hypogonadism). (
  • These hormones are in charge of controlling the development of the secondary sex characteristics, such as the breast, testicle or pubic hair development, so in patients that have hypogonadism, these types of characteristics will not be developed. (
  • It is a type of secondary hypogonadism that affects both men and women, which involves the abnormal development of the area of the brain that is in charge of controlling the secretion of the pituitary gland hormones. (
  • In men who have secondary hypogonadism, the testosterone levels may be very low, and sperm are usually missing from the semen. (
  • Secondary hypogonadism is when the complex hormonal system responsible for producing male sex hormones goes out of balance or breaks down. (
  • This will determine whether your symptoms are due to primary or secondary hypogonadism. (
  • Secondary hypogonadism involves the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which are both located in the human brain. (
  • Primary hypogonadism results from pathology within the testis, and secondary hypogonadism occurs due to dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (
  • Primary and secondary hypogonadism can be subdivided further by congenital and acquired etiologies ( Table 1 ). (
  • In secondary hypogonadism, testosterone levels are low and levels of FSH and LH are low or borderline normal. (
  • Any acute systemic illness can cause temporary secondary hypogonadism. (
  • Some syndromes of hypogonadism have both primary and secondary causes (mixed hypogonadism). (
  • This article will explore the primary and secondary causes of hypogonadism and shed light on when this condition can occur throughout a man's life. (
  • The term hypogonadism usually means permanent rather than transient or reversible defects, and usually implies deficiency of reproductive hormones, with or without fertility defects. (
  • Hypogonadism is also known as Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (TDS) or Andropause . (
  • What are the causes of Testosterone Deficiency syndrome (Hypogonadism)? (
  • Hypogonadism is defined as testosterone deficiency with associated symptoms or signs, deficiency of spermatozoa production, or both. (
  • Age at onset of testosterone deficiency (congenital, childhood-onset, or adult-onset hypogonadism) dictates the clinical presentation. (
  • Its deficiency causes pathological diseases (hypogonadism). (
  • Androgen deficiency such as hypogonadism is associated with a range of chronic diseases. (
  • Hypogonadism, commonly referred to by the symptom "low testosterone" or "Low T", can also decrease other hormones secreted by the gonads including progesterone, DHEA, anti-Müllerian hormone, activin, and inhibin. (
  • Hypogonadism occurs when the body's sex glands (gonads) produce little or no hormones. (
  • In central hypogonadism, the centers in the brain that control the gonads (hypothalamus and pituitary) do not function properly. (
  • AIDS might cause hypogonadism as it directly affects the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus, which decreases certain hormone levels such as the testosterone levels. (
  • Hypogonadism can result from testicular causes or pituitary/hypothalamus causes. (
  • If hypogonadism occurs prenatally (even if incomplete), sexual ambiguity may result. (
  • Hypogonadism is a medical condition that occurs when the body produces low levels of sex hormones. (
  • Menopause is a form of hypogonadism that occurs naturally. (
  • When hypogonadism is specifically associated with aging among adult males, adult-onset hypogonadism (AOH) is usually named late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). (
  • A genetic cause of central hypogonadism is Kallmann syndrome . (
  • Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH) Childhood mumps Children born to mothers who had ingested the endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol for potential miscarriage Traumatic brain injury, even in childhood In males, normal aging causes a decrease in androgens, which is sometimes called "male menopause" (also known by the coinage "manopause"), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), and "andropause" or androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM), among other names. (
  • An example of a hypogonadism resulting from the lack of hormone response is androgen insensitivity syndrome, where there are inadequate receptors to bind the testosterone, resulting in varying clinical phenotypes of sexual characteristics despite XY chromosomes. (
  • Examples of congenital causes of hypogonadism, that is, causes that are present at birth:[citation needed] Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. (
  • The most common genetic disorders that cause primary hypogonadism are Turner syndrome (in women) and Klinefelter syndrome (in men). (
  • Any congenital or acquired disturbances of the HPG axis could lead to the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism. (
  • Often it is not diagnosed until adulthood and it is considered to be a type of hypogonadism that affects testicle growth, lower levels of testosterone are produced, which is why the majority of men who have Klinefelter syndrome produce little or no sperm. (
  • Hypogonadism can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, premature death in older men, and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Testosterone is determined in men when reduced testosterone production is suspected, e.g. in hypogonadism, estrogen therapy, chromosome aberrations (as in the Klinefelter's syndrome) and liver cirrhosis. (
  • Late Onset Hypogonadism" (2014). (
  • Late-onset hypogonadism which is often left undiagnosed tends to develop later in life. (
  • And this is happening despite the fact that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says testosterone levels begin to rise within five years of beginning hormone treatment for men and women, anabolic steroids hypogonadism. (
  • I hope it will raise a lot of awareness that this isn't just something kids do, that it's a disease,' said Dr, anabolic steroids hypogonadism. (
  • William Cohan, a psychiatrist at the University of Miami who has studied the connection between testosterone treatments and cancer, anabolic steroids hypogonadism. (
  • But Porges argues the link between testosterone levels and social relationships is very weak and he believes the hormonal effects may contribute to a range of other behaviors like aggression and even aggressive behavior directed toward parents, including a tendency to become more aggressive toward them as they become older, steroids hypogonadism anabolic. (
  • There are a number of causes of hypogonadism, including stress, elevated prolactin levels, and several genetic disorders. (
  • Clinical and genetic factors can increase the risk for hypogonadism, and providers should screen testicular cancer survivors for hypogonadism and treat those with symptoms," he said. (
  • Research has also been limited, Dr Zaid noted, as far as taking into account genetic variations when evaluating the relationship between hypogonadism and adverse health outcomes. (
  • Aside from the genetic profile, the authors identified other risk factors for developing hypogonadism. (
  • Men with hypogonadal conditions, such as "age-related hypogonadism", that are not associated with structural or genetic etiologies. (
  • Testosterone undecanoate (Tlando), an oral testosterone replacement therapy, was approved in March 2022 for the treatment of men with hypogonadism. (
  • The FDA has approved Kyzatrex, an oral testosterone replacement therapy for the treatment of adult males with conditions associated with hypogonadism. (
  • Hypogonadism in males is when the body is not producing the proper amount of testosterone. (
  • Hypogonadism is one of the most frequent complications in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients and early recognition and treatment is the core element in restoring impaired gonadal function. (
  • Therefore, the serum ferritin level and gonadal hormone analysis of transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients can be considered a screening tool for assessing gonadal function and early detection and prevention of hypogonadism . (
  • Management of testosterone therapy in adolescents and young men with hypogonadism: Are we following adult clinical practice guidelines? (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Management of testosterone therapy in adolescents and young men with hypogonadism: Are we following adult clinical practice guidelines? (
  • Hypogonadism is the condition in which the production of sex hormones and germ cells (sperm and eggs) is inadequate. (
  • People with hypogonadism experience a reduction in the hormones that are responsible for defining their sex characteristics. (
  • Hypogonadism, a condition in which the body produces little or no sex hormones , has been linked to urethral stricture (US). (
  • Hypogonadism (HI-po-go-nad-ism) affects both men and women. (
  • [ 2 ] require that the diagnosis of hypogonadism be based on symptoms and signs of hypogonadism plus the presence of a low testosterone level measured on at least 2 occasions. (
  • 4) Overall, better understanding of the correlation between hypogonadism and US can lead to improved management and outcomes for patients with US. (
  • Moreover, since iron overload is a key reason behind hypogonadism in thalassemia patients , investigating the role of serum ferritin level as a diagnostic tool for hypongadism was also an aim of this study. (
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism could potentially prevent or reduce the severity of US. (
  • Note that the treatment of Hypogonadism may not be performed at every location listed below. (
  • Conversely, DP from hypogonadism requires prompt and specific treatment that we summarize in this review. (
  • Although these seem like a lot of tests to perform, these steps are very important in making an accurate diagnosis of hypogonadism and may influence the management and treatment you receive. (
  • Hypogonadism may occur if the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is interrupted at any level. (
  • Damage to only one testicle usually doesn't cause complete hypogonadism. (
  • Some syndromes of hypogonadism (eg, cryptorchidism, some systemic disorders) affect spermatozoon production more than testosterone levels. (