Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p277)
An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
Glucose in blood.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. This helps to correct the defective INSULIN and GLUCAGON secretion characteristic of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.

The treatment of insulin resistance does not improve adrenal cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation in polycystic ovary syndrome. (1/7377)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin. when given to non-diabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), results in a reduction of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia while body weight is maintained. Also we aimed to see whether the reduction in insulin levels attenuates the activity of adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme in patients with PCOS. DESIGN: We investigated the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione responses to ACTH, insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose disposal rate in an insulin tolerance test before and after metformin therapy (500 mg, orally, twice daily, for 12 weeks). METHODS: The presence of hyperinsulinemia in 15 women with PCOS was demonstrated by an OGTT and results were compared with those of 10 healthy women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the rate of endogenous glucose disposal after i.v. bolus injection of insulin. 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were measured in all the women with PCOS and the normal women. RESULTS: Women with PCOS were hyperinsulinemic (102.0+/-13.0 (S.E.M.) VS 46.2+/-4.4 pmol/l) and hyperandrogenemic (free testosterone 15.3+/-1.7 vs 7.9+/-0.6 nmol/l; androstenedione 11.8+/-0.8 vs 8.2+/-0.6 nmol/l) and more hirsute (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, 17.7+/-1.6 vs 3.0+/-0.3) than healthy women. In addition, women with PCOS had higher 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH when compared with healthy women. Metformin therapy resulted in some improvement in insulin sensitivity and reduced the basal and post-glucose load insulin levels. But 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were unaltered in response to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is characterized by hyperactivity of the adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme and insulin resistance. It seems that there is no direct relationship between insulin resistance and adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation.  (+info)

Enantioselective inhibition of the biotransformation and pharmacological actions of isoidide dinitrate by diphenyleneiodonium sulphate. (2/7377)

1. We have shown previously that the D- and L- enantiomers of isoidide dinitrate (D-IIDN and L-IIDN) exhibit a potency difference for relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in isolated rat aorta and that this is related to preferential biotransformation of the more potent enantiomer (D-IIDN). The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the flavoprotein inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium sulphate (DPI), on the enantioselectivity of IIDN action. 2. In isolated rat aortic strip preparations, exposure to 0.3 microM DPI resulted in a 3.6 fold increase in the EC50 value for D-IIDN-induced relaxation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced relaxation. 3. Incubation of aortic strips with 2 microM D- or L-IIDN for 5 min resulted in significantly more D-isoidide mononitrate formed (5.0 +/- 1.5 pmol mg protein(-1)) than L-isoidide mononitrate (2.1 +/- 0.7 pmol mg protein(-1)) and this difference was abolished by pretreatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI. DPI had no effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity or GSH-dependent biotransformation of D- or L-IIDN in the 105,000 x g supernatant fraction of rat aorta. 4. Consistent with both the relaxation and biotransformation data, treatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI significantly inhibited D-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation. 5. In the intact animal, 2 mg kg(-1) DPI significantly inhibited the pharmacokinetic and haemodynamic properties of D-IIDN, but had no effect L-IIDN. 6. These data suggest that the basis for the potency difference for relaxation by the two enantiomers is preferential biotransformation of D-IIDN to NO, by an enzyme that is inhibited by DPI. Given that DPI binds to and inhibits NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, the data are consistent with a role for the cytochromes P450-NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase system in this enantioselective biotransformation process.  (+info)

Proliferative effects of cholecystokinin in GH3 pituitary cells mediated by CCK2 receptors and potentiated by insulin. (3/7377)

1. Proliferative effects of CCK peptides have been examined in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells, which express CCK2 receptors. 2. CCK-8s, gastrin(1-17) and its glycine-extended precursor G(1-17)-Gly, previously reported to cause proliferation via putative novel sites on AR4-2J and Swiss 3T3 cells, elicited significant dose dependent increases of similar magnitude in [3H]thymidine incorporation over 3 days in serum-free medium of 39 +/- 10% (P < 0.01, n = 20), 37 +/- 8% (P < 0.01, n = 27) and 41 +/- 6% (P < 0.01, n = 36) respectively. 3. CCK-8s and gastrin potentially stimulated mitogenesis (EC50 values 0.12 nM and 3.0 nM respectively), whilst G-Gly displayed similar efficacy but markedly lower potency. L-365,260 consistently blocked each peptide. The CCK2 receptor affinity of G-Gly in GH3 cells was 1.09 microM (1.01;1.17, n = 6) and 5.53 microM (3.71;5.99, n = 4) in guinea-pig cortex. 4. 1 microM G-Gly weakly stimulated Ca2+ increase, eliciting a 104 +/- 21% increase over basal Ca2+ levels, and was blocked by 1 microM L-365,260 whilst CCK-8s (100 nM) produced a much larger Ca2+ response (331 +/- 14%). 5. Insulin dose dependently enhanced proliferative effects of CCK-8s with a maximal leftwards shift of the CCK-8s curve at 100 ng ml(-1) (17 nM) (EC50 decreased 500 fold, from 0.1 nM to 0.2 pM; P < 0.0001). 10 microg ml(-1) insulin was supramaximal reducing the EC50 to 5 pM (P = 0.027) whilst 1 ng ml(-1) insulin was ineffective. Insulin weakly displaced [125I]BHCCK binding to GH3 CCK2 receptors (IC50 3.6 microM). 6. Results are consistent with mediation of G-Gly effects via CCK2 receptors in GH3 cells and reinforce the role of CCK2 receptors in control of cell growth. Effects of insulin in enhancing CCK proliferative potency may suggest that CCK2 and insulin receptors converge on common intracellular targets and indicates that mitogenic stimuli are influenced by the combination of extracellular factors present.  (+info)

Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine. (4/7377)

1. The mechanisms of the sustained vasodilator actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and sauvagine (SVG) were studied using rings of endothelium de-nuded rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and the isolated perfused rat superior mesenteric arterial vasculature (SMA). 2. SVG was approximately 50 fold more potent than CRF on RTA (EC40: 0.9 +/- 0.2 and 44 +/- 9 nM respectively, P < 0.05), and approximately 10 fold more active in the perfused SMA (ED40: 0.05 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol respectively, P < 0.05). Single bolus injections of CRF (100 pmol) or SVG (15 pmol) in the perfused SMA caused reductions in perfusion pressure of 23 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2% that lasted more than 20 min. 3. Removal of the endothelium in the perfused SMA with deoxycholic acid attenuated the vasodilatation and revealed two phases to the response; a short lasting direct action, and a sustained phase which was fully inhibited. 4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (100 microM) L-NMMA (100 microM) or 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETPU, 100 microM) had similar effects on the vasodilator responses to CRF as removal of the endothelium, suggesting a pivotal role for nitric oxide. However the selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) did not affect the response to CRF. 5. High potassium (60 mM) completely inhibited the vasodilator response to CRF in the perfused SMA, indicating a role for K channels in this response. 6. Compared to other vasodilator agents acting via the release of NO, the actions of CRF and SVG are strikingly long-lasting, suggesting a novel mechanism of prolonged activation of nitric oxide synthase.  (+info)

Acute troglitazone action in isolated perfused rat liver. (5/7377)

1. The thiazolidinedione compound, troglitazone, enhances insulin action and reduces plasma glucose concentrations when administered chronically to type 2 diabetic patients. 2. To analyse to what extent thiazolidinediones interfere with liver function, we examined the acute actions of troglitazone (0.61 and 3.15 microM) on hepatic glucose and lactate fluxes, bile secretion, and portal pressure under basal, insulin- and/or glucagon-stimulated conditions in isolated perfused rat livers. 3. During BSA-free perfusion, high dose troglitazone increased basal (P < 0.01), but inhibited glucagon-stimulated incremental glucose production by approximately 75% (10.0 +/- 2.5 vs control: 40.0 +/- 7.2 micromol g liver(-1), P < 0.01). In parallel, incremental lactate release rose approximately 6 fold (13.1 +/- 5.9 vs control: 2.2 +/- 0.8 mmol g liver(-1), P < 0.05), while bile secretion declined by approximately 67% [0.23 +/- 0.02 vs control: 0.70 +/- 0.05 mg g liver(-1) min(-1)), P < 0.001]. Low dose troglitazone infusion did not enhance the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucagon-stimulated glucose production, but rapidly increased lactate release (P < 0.0005) and portal venous pressure (+0.17 +/- 0.07 vs +0.54 +/- 0.07 cm buffer height, P < 0.0001). 4. These results indicate that troglitazone exerts both insulin-like and non-insulin-like hepatic effects, which are blunted by addition of albumin, possibly due to troglitazone binding.  (+info)

Alterations of heart function and Na+-K+-ATPase activity by etomoxir in diabetic rats. (6/7377)

To examine the role of changes in myocardial metabolism in cardiac dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body wt) to induce diabetes and were treated 2 wk later with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I) etomoxir (8 mg/kg body wt) for 4 wk. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited a reduction in heart rate, left ventricular systolic pressure, and positive and negative rate of pressure development and an increase in end-diastolic pressure. The sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was depressed and was associated with a decrease in maximal density of binding sites (Bmax) value for high-affinity sites for [3H]ouabain, whereas Bmax for low-affinity sites was unaffected. Treatment of diabetic animals with etomoxir partially reversed the depressed cardiac function with the exception of heart rate. The high serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were reduced, whereas the levels of glucose, insulin, and 3,3',-5-triiodo-L-thyronine were not affected by etomoxir in diabetic animals. The activity of Na+-K+-ATPase expressed per gram heart weight, but not per milligram sarcolemmal protein, was increased by etomoxir in diabetic animals. Furthermore, Bmax (per g heart wt) for both low-affinity and high-affinity binding sites in control and diabetic animals was increased by etomoxir treatment. Etomoxir treatment also increased the depressed left ventricular weight of diabetic rats and appeared to increase the density of the sarcolemma and transverse tubular system to normalize Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Therefore, a shift in myocardial substrate utilization may represent an important signal for improving the depressed cardiac function and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in diabetic rat hearts with impaired glucose utilization.  (+info)

Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction. (7/7377)

Previous results from our laboratory have suggested that morphine can attenuate neutrophil activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To elucidate if morphine preconditioning (PC) has the same effects via activation of neutrophil endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), we measured serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), gp100MEL14 and NEP in adult Wistar rats subjected to ten different protocols (n = 10 for each) at baseline, immediately after and 2 h after morphine PC. All groups were subjected to 30 min of occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Similarly, morphine-induced PC was elicited by 3-min drug infusions (100 micrograms/kg) interspersed with 5-min drug-free periods before the prolonged 30-min occlusion. Infarct size (IS), as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Pretreatment with morphine increased NEP activities (9.86 +/- 1.98 vs. 5.12 +/- 1.10 nmol/mg protein in control group; p < 0.001). Naloxone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) (4.82 +/- 1.02 nmol/mg protein) and phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) (4.66 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg protein) inhibited morphine-activated NEP, whereas glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist) and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) had no effects. The ICAM-1 and gp100MEL14 of the third sampling were lowest for those with morphine PC (280 +/- 30 ng/ml and 2.2 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml; p < 0.001), but naloxone (372 +/- 38 ng/ml and 3.8 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml) and phosphoramidon (382 +/- 40 ng/ml and 4.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml) abolished the above phenomenon. IS/AAR were definitely lowest for those with morphine PC (24 +/- 7%; p < 0.05). Morphine preconditioning increases NEP activities to attenuate shedding of gp100MEL14 and to ICAM-1 and, thus, provides myocardial protection.  (+info)

Relative contribution of insulin and its precursors to fibrinogen and PAI-1 in a large population with different states of glucose tolerance. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). (8/7377)

Hyperinsulinemia is associated with the development of coronary heart disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Hypercoagulability and impaired fibrinolysis are possible candidates linking hyperinsulinism with atherosclerotic disease, and it has been suggested that proinsulin rather than insulin is the crucial pathophysiological agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of insulin and its precursors to markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in a large triethnic population. A strong and independent relationship between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen and insulin and its precursors (proinsulin, 32-33 split proinsulin) was found consistently across varying states of glucose tolerance (PAI-1 versus fasting insulin [proinsulin], r=0.38 [r=0.34] in normal glucose tolerance; r=0.42 [r=0.43] in impaired glucose tolerance; and r=0.38 [r=0.26] in type 2 diabetes; all P<0.001). The relationship remained highly significant even after accounting for insulin sensitivity as measured by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. In a stepwise multiple regression model after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and clinic, both insulin and its precursors were significantly associated with PAI-1 levels. The relationship between fibrinogen and insulin and its precursors was significant in the overall population (r=0.20 for insulin and proinsulin; each P<0.001) but showed a more inconsistent pattern in subgroup analysis and after adjustments for demographic and metabolic variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that proinsulin (split products) but not fasting insulin significantly contributed to fibrinogen levels after adjustment for age, sex, clinic, and ethnicity. Decreased insulin sensitivity was independently associated with higher PAI-1 and fibrinogen levels. In summary, we were able to demonstrate an independent relationship of 2 crucial factors of hemostasis, fibrinogen and PAI-1, to insulin and its precursors. These findings may have important clinical implications in the risk assessment and prevention of macrovascular disease, not only in patients with overt diabetes but also in nondiabetic subjects who are hyperinsulinemic.  (+info)

Introduction Many guidelines on type 2 diabetes recommend a glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level below 7%. HbA1c levels in the blood express glucose or glycaemic control over a longer time period (two to three months). During the course of type 2 diabetes it will get more difficult to reach these levels with lifestyle modification (diet, exercise or both) and oral glucose-lowering agents alone. Finally, a substantial number of people will need insulin therapy for better glycaemic control. Insulin therapy can be initiated as insulin alone, called monotherapy (which means that oral glucose-lowering medication will be stopped) or in combination with oral glucose-lowering agents. In the former case, oral blood glucose-lowering agents can be added at a later stage, if insulin monotherapy fails to achieve a good HbA1c level. Hypoglycaemia and weight gain are the most common and well known side effects of insulin therapy. Adding oral agents to insulin could reduce the required insulin dose and ...
Anti-diabetic Drug refers to the medications consumed orally that are prescribed to treat diabetes mellitus (type 2). It treats diabetes (type 2) by lowering down the blood sugar level. These are also known as oral hypoglycaemic agentsororal antihyperglycemic agents. Oral anti-diabetic drugs are often prescribed as monotherapy but in severe cases, can be given in combination with insulin. In the context of China-US trade war and global economic volatility and uncertainty, it will have a big influence on this market. Oral Anti-Diabetic Drug Report by Material, Application, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2023 is a professional and comprehensive research report on the worlds major regional market conditions, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific) and the main countries (United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and China).. In this report, the global Oral Anti-Diabetic Drug market is valued at USD XX million in 2020 and is projected to reach USD ...
The incidence and severity of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide, presenting a significant burden to society both in economic terms and overall well-being. Fortunately, time-tested anti-diabetes mellitus plant foods exist that are safe and could be effective in addressing this condition when consumed judiciously with a concomitant change in lifestyle.. Plants with Anti-Diabetes Mellitus Properties presents an exhaustive compilation of the anti-diabetes mellitus activities of more than 1000 plants occurring worldwide. The author provides a brief botanical description, distribution, pharmacological properties, and phytochemicals, where appropriate. A list of traditional medicinal plants used to treat diabetes, but not tested for anti-diabetic activity, is also given.. This unique reference highlights anti-diabetes mellitus plant foods along with a list of the edible parts of plants with anti-diabetes mellitus properties. Anti-diabetes mellitus nutraceuticals are described with guidelines ...
Introduction Oral Agents General Considerations Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHAs) Oral Hyperglycemic Agents (AHAs) Sulfonylureas Preliminary Study of the Clinical Hypoglycemic Effects of Allium cepa (Red Onion) in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Reinhard G. Bretzel, MD, PHD, 1 Michael Eckhard, MD, 1 Wolfgang Landgraf, PHD, 2 David R. Owens, MD, FRCP, 3 and Thomas Linn, MD, PHD 1 1 Oral Hypoglycemic Agents Clinical Pearls for Washington Rx Therapeutic Interchange Program (TIP) Jennifer Oh, PharmD Pharmacy Practice Resident An oral hypoglycemic agent is a medication (usually a pill or capsule) that can be take by mouth to lower a high blood sugar toward normal. Prandin is one of six types of diabetes pills currently available to treat type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that is growing in prevalence worldwide ...
This study will last 2 to 3 years. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive either MSC transplant and the oral hypoglycemic drugs or MSC transplant and insulins or MSC transplant and the combination of the oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulins (experimental group) or the oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulins or the combination of the oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulins (control group). Patients will undergo MSC transplant at the start of the study on Day 0 and take the oral hypoglycemic drugs, insulins or the combination of the oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulins for 1 year. As control, some patients take the oral hypoglycemic drugs, insulins or the combination of the oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulins for 1 year. At the same time, the dose of the oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulins should be regulated according to the level of blood sugar. After 3 months, patients will receive the second MSC transplantation. After six and twelve months from the first transplantation, patients will be ...
While the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Physicians recommend metformin as the initial pharmacologic agent for glucose-lowering therapy in type 2 diabetes, long-term data comparing metformin to newer classes of glucose-lowering medications is limited.
[132 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and China Oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin analogues Industry Professional Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report splits Oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin analogues market...
When studying cells from a patient suffering from Parkinsons disease we saw that they lack an important protein which regulates the energy production, explains Fitzgerald. As a result, the cells keep on producing energy in their mitochondria-the cells powerhouses-unchecked and less regulated.. Energy production comes at the cost of the generation of free oxygen radicals. The radicals damage the cell and lead to aging and, in the long term, sometimes to cell death. The diabetes drug acts like a brake in this process. It slows down the uncontrolled generation of energy, thereby protecting the cells from the negative effects, the researcher reports.. The study by the Tübingen neuroscientists provides another indication that diabetes drugs might have a positive influence on certain types of Parkinsons disease. Only recently, an Anglo-American research collaboration showed that another diabetes drug can reduce movement disorder symptoms in patients with Parkinsons disease, says ...
This study is designed to look at how using glargine insulin with oral diabetes medications and exenatide may improve control of blood sugar levels and weight gain in type 2 diabetics.. The main study will last 32 weeks. However, all participants completing 32 weeks will be invited to continue for another 24 weeks taking the insulin and oral medication and exenatide treatment. This extension comparing insulin and oral medication with insulin and oral medication and exenatide will look at the long term weight loss/gain and blood sugar level control effects of this new drug regimen.. There is also a sub-study in the Clinical Research Center (CRC), which requires two 38-hour inpatient stays during the main study. This study offers the opportunity to study 24-hour blood sugar and metabolic patterns quantitatively. ...
Philip Home. Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of glucose-lowering medications that have been completed in recent years have provided welcome pointers towards best use of these drugs in diabetes care. However, many questions and uncertainties remained. In this issue, Philip Home (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4801-1) discusses studies in three major glucose-lowering drug classes, which were published and presented recently (October/November 2018). These studies help to confirm or clarify our understanding of how the three classes should be positioned clinically and whether there are within-class differences. For dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, CARMELINA confirmed neutrality for cardiovascular outcomes, with no heart failure signal, albeit in a highly selected population. For GLP-1 receptor agonists, the Harmony Outcome study confirmed an early and continuing benefit for cardiovascular protection for this class, independent of glucose- or body-weight-lowering. For ...
Colhoun , H M , Livingstone , S J , Looker , H C , Morris , A D , Wild , S H , Lindsay , R S , Reed , C , Donnan , P T , Guthrie , B , Leese , G P , McKnight , J , Pearson , D W M , Pearson , E , Petrie , J R , Philip , S , Sattar , N , Sullivan , F M , McKeigue , P & on behalf of the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group 2012 , Hospitalised hip fracture risk with rosiglitazone and pioglitazone use compared with other glucose-lowering drugs Diabetologia , vol 55 , no. 11 , pp. 2929-2937 . DOI: 10.1007/s00125-012-2668- ...
Results from an 18-week phase 3 study in adults with Type 2 diabetes with inadequate glycemic control on metformin therapy alone found that the addition of treatment with Onglyza (saxagliptin) 5 mg per day was equally effective to the addition of treatment with Januvia (sitagliptin) 100 mg per day in reducing hemoglobin levels in patients.. This study was submitted to the European Medicines Agency as part of the marketing authorization application for Onglyza. Complete findings from this study will be submitted for publication in the first half of 2010.. Onglyza was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in late July.. We are pleased with the findings from this study, which support that the addition of ONGLYZA to metformin lowers HbA1c in adults with inadequate glycemic control despite treatment with metformin, said Andre Scheen, MD, Head of the Division of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Academic Hospital, Liege, Belgium.. Onglyza is a drug ...
A prominent medical expert, Cardiologist Steven Nissen of the Cleveland Clinic urged the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to raise its standards for approving diabetes drugs on Tuesday. Nissen said that companies need to prove new drugs dont increase cardiovascular disease, the leading killer of diabetics. Nissen suggested that, in addition to requiring more pre-approval studies, companies should have large, long-term studies in place when a drug is approved to monitor whether the drug increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. He discussed the issue of diabetes drugs standards as a part of a two-day meeting starting Tuesday.
Repaglinide is an oral antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It belongs to the meglitinide class of short-acting insulin secretagogues, which act by binding to β cells of the pancreas to stimulate insulin release. Repaglinide induces an early insulin response to meals decreasing postprandial blood glucose levels. It should only be taken with meals and meal-time doses should be skipped with any skipped meal. Approximately one month of therapy is required before a decrease in fasting blood glucose is seen. Meglitnides may have a neutral effect on weight or cause a slight increase in weight. The average weight gain caused by meglitinides appears to be lower than that caused by sulfonylureas and insulin and appears to occur only in those naïve to oral antidiabetic agents. Due to their mechanism of action, meglitinides may cause hypoglycemia although the risk is thought to be lower than that of sulfonylureas since their action is dependent on the
Could a long used diabetes drug be repurposed for cancer treatment? Researchers at Rice University have found a potential way to use the diabetes drug clas | Chemistry And Physics
We found that a novel antidiabetic drug, TRO, relaxed the medial strips of the porcine coronary artery by decreasing [Ca2+]i and by shifting the [Ca2+]i-force relation to the right in smooth muscle. The rightward shift of [Ca2+]i-force relation indicated the decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus as a whole. The decrease in [Ca2+]i was mainly caused by an inhibition of Ca2+ influx and partly caused by an inhibition of agonist/receptor-mediated Ca2+ release. TRO completely inhibited [Ca2+]i increase and Mn2+ influx induced by 100 nmol/L U46619, but only partially inhibited those induced by 30 mmol/L K+, although these two stimulations induced similar [Ca2+]i elevation and Mn2+ influx. This finding suggested that there was a difference in efficacy of TRO in inhibiting Ca2+ influx between stimulation with U46619 and K+ depolarization. On the other hand, although 60 mmol/L K+ induced similar force development to that obtained with 100 nmol/L U46619, TRO inhibited U46619-activated ...
Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have shown that experimental diabetes drugs can make cancer cells more vulnerable to traditional chemotherapy agents, and they say such combinations should be explored to potentially improve outcomes for cancer patients.. Reporting in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, investigators demonstrated in cancer cell lines and animal models that the research compounds - similar to common anti-diabetic agents known as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) - sensitized lung tumor cells to carboplatin chemotherapy. Tumors in rodents treated with the combination of carboplatin and one of the experimental compounds, SR1664, weighed less than those in animals treated with carboplatin alone.. The research also showed that the combination sensitized triple-negative breast cancer cells in the laboratory, causing them to self-destruct. However, not all types of cancer cells appear to be made vulnerable to chemotherapy combined with the experimental compounds, the ...
A 26-week, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, non-inferiority study was conducted in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes to assess the safety and efficacy of APIDRA (n= 435) given within 15 minutes before a meal compared to regular human insulin (n=441) administered 30 to 45 minutes prior to a meal. NPH human insulin was given twice a day as the basal insulin. All patients participated in a 4-week run-in period with regular human insulin and NPH human insulin. Eighty-five percent of patients were Caucasian and 11% were Black. The mean age was 58 years (range 26 to 84 years). The average body mass index (BMI) was 34.6 kg/m2. At randomization, 58% of the patients were taking an oral antidiabetic agent. These patients were instructed to continue use of their oral antidiabetic agent at the same dose throughout the trial. The majority of patients (79%) mixed their short-acting insulin with NPH human insulin immediately prior to injection. The reductions from baseline in GHb were ...
On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs for each application
Global oral antidiabetic drug market is expected to reach USD 35.91 billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 10.2% between 2017 and 2022.
Objective: To investigate whether a dose-response relationship exists between volume of exercise and discontinuation of glucose-lowering medication treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: Secondary analyses of a randomized controlled exercise-based lifestyle intervention trial (April 29, 2015 to August 17, 2016). Patients with non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (U-TURN) or standard-care group. Both groups received lifestyle advice and objective target-driven medical regulation. Additionally, the U-TURN group received supervised exercise and individualized dietary counseling. Of the 98 randomly assigned participants, 92 were included in the analysis (U-TURN, n=61, standard care, n=31). Participants in the U-TURN group were stratified into tertiles based on accumulated volumes of exercise completed during the 1-year intervention. Results: Median exercise levels of 178 (interquartile range [IQR], 121-213; ...
A review of national Veterans Health Administration data has identified how the number of glucose-lowering agents used prior to insulin initiation impacts glycemic control.
Effect of Adjunct Metformin Treatment in Patients with Type-1 Diabetes and Persistent Inadequate Glycaemic Control. A Randomized Study. Lund, Søren Søgaard; Tarnow, Lise; Astrup, Anne Sofie; Hovind, Peter; Jacobsen, Peter Karl; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric; Parving, Ida; Pietraszek, Lotte; Frandsen, Merete; Rossing, Peter; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Vaag, Allan Arthur // PLoS Clinical Trials;Oct2008, Vol. 5 Issue 10, Special section p1 Background: Despite intensive insulin treatment, many patients with type-1 diabetes (T1DM) have longstanding inadequate glycaemic control. Metformin is an oral hypoglycaemic agent that improves insulin action in patients with type- 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of a one-year treatment... ...
A study of over 100,000 people from German healthcare records show the type 2 diabetes drug, pioglitazone, to be linked with lower rates of Alzheimers disease. Actos is in a class of drugs called thiazolidinediones, or TZDs for short. These drugs work by increasing the bodys sensitivity to insulin. Whilst thiazolidinediones have been shown to improve blood glucose control, researchers have been interested to understand whether this has benefits for the brain, particularly with regard to preventing or delaying forms of dementia such as Alzheimers disease.
Oral antihyperglycemic therapies are effective methods to control glucose levels among patients with type 2 diabetes, thus lowering their risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications. However, the relationship between oral medication nonadherence and hospitalization is not well established for patients with diabetes. Using administrative claims data in an MCO, this study found that among adult enrollees taking oral antihyperglycemic medications, almost 30% had poor adherence in 2000 and 2001. A significant relationship was found between antihyperglycemic medication nonadherence and subsequent hospitalization, after controlling for age, sex, adherence to antihypertensive and lipid-modifying drugs, the intensity of the diabetes drug regimen, the Charlson comorbidity index, and previous hospitalization. Enrollees who were nonadherent in 2000 were 2.5 times as likely to be hospitalized in 2001 as those who were adherent in 2000.. The relationship between medication adherence and ...
A new study finds that combining the newer diabetes drug exenatide with insulin provides better blood sugar control in patients with type 2 diabetes than insulin alone and helps promote weight loss.
If you have prediabetes, taking the diabetes drug metformin might stop you from getting diabetes and could also help you in other ways. But persuading your doctor to prescribe it could be a challenge.
Background In patients with type 2 diabetes and a high cardiovascular risk profile, the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors empagliflozin and canagliflozin have been shown to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Using real-world data from clinical practice, we aimed to compare cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in new users of SGLT2 inhibitors versus new users of other glucose-lowering drugs, in a population with a broad cardiovascular risk profile. Methods CVD-REAL Nordic was an observational analysis of individual patient-level data from the Prescribed Drug Registers, Cause of Death Registers, and National Patient Registers in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. All patients who filled a prescription for glucose-lowering drugs between 2012 and 2015 were included and followed up until Dec 31, 2015. Patients were divided into new users of SGLT2 inhibitors and new users of other glucose-lowering drugs. Each SGLT2 inhibitor user was matched with three users of other ...
Intensive glucose-lowering therapy is prevalent among U.S. adults with diabetes and results in hospitalizations and emergency department visits for hypoglycemia
The two drugs in question are empagliflozin (aka Jardiance) and liraglutide (aka Victoza). Both are used to treat type 2 diabetes, not type 1. A major problem we have with most diabetes drugs is that while they do lower blood sugars, we dont have much evidence on whether they actually prolong life and prevent bad…
Objectives: To compare health care costs among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who added a new oral anti-diabetes drug (OAD) to an initial regimen with those who up-titrated their initial OAD.. Methods: Insurance claims data were obtained from 94 health plans for patients aged ≥18 years with ICD-9-CM diagnosis of T2DM during the period Jan. 1, 2001-June 30, 2007, and a newly prescribed metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy. Patients were followed after initiating monotherapy to identify occurrence of first-treatment modification (addition or up-titration). Health care costs were analyzed during 360 days after first treatment modification. Subgroup analyses included comparison of addition cohort with two titration subgroups: 1) titration up to or below intermediate doses and 2) titration to beyond intermediate doses.. Results: During the post-treatment modification period, all-cause medication costs were 9% higher (p ,0.0001), while inpatient costs were 14% lower for the addition ...
A new study just out compares diabetes drugs that have been out for years to those supposedly on the cutting edge of medicine.. Many diabetes patients have been taking the more expensive, and newer drug Avandia. But after another study linked it with heart problems, patients looking at older medications have some good news. Avandia, one of the newest drugs, costs hundreds more a month than older drugs. like Glucophage. The good news from a study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine is that Glucophage, the older drug, appears just as effective. Glucophage has been out for about 10 years now, and its generic now which has helped the cost a bit. Its actually one of my first line drugs, says Trinity Mother Frances endocrinologist Dr. Meg Reitmeyer.. She says expensive isnt necessarily better. The study confirms Glucophage doesnt cause weight gain, doesnt cause blood sugar to plummet, and can lower bad cholesterol. The study says it is just as effective at treating diabetes. Meanwhile, ...
Miami, FL (PRWEB) May 23, 2013 -- Although designed to treat Type 2 diabetes, some medications have been involved recently in diabetes drug lawsuits.
Health,...Combo of diet exercise and injections helped non-diabetics shed pound...FRIDAY Oct. 23 (HealthDay News) -- The diabetes drug liraglutide help...The study authors also reported that high doses of liraglutide were mo...In the study which included 564 diabetes-free obese patients aged 18 ...,Diabetes,Drug,May,Boost,Weight,Loss,in,Obese,Patients,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
A study released today and reported in Reuters reveals that diabetes drugs, Avandia and Actos, are bad for your bones.. This study shows that these agents double the risk of fractures in women with type 2 diabetes, who are already at higher risk before taking the therapy, said Sonal Singh of North Carolinas Wake Forest University School of Medicine.. Singh and colleagues at Wake Forest , working with researchers at Britains University of East Anglia, based their findings on a pooled analysis of 10 previous clinical studies lasting at least a year involving 14,000 patients. These drugs are already linked to adverse heart effects including raising the risk of heart failure and carry warning labels for that. I recently bought the dvd, Simply Raw, Reversing Diabetes in 30 Days and I was inspired and impresssed. The 6 participants, from all walks of life, got off as many as 17 medications and insulin in the thirty days in the clinic eating a raw food diet. As you may know, I have diabetes, type ...
Definition of Hypoglycemic agent with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Researchers have discovered a new molecular link between obesity and the way diabetes drugs work , which may lead to the development of safer medications for diabetes.
WASHINGTON, D.C. - (Mealeys) Ninety-seven federal lawsuits in which plaintiffs allege that three incretin-based diabetes drugs caused their pancreatic cancer were centralized Aug. 26 by a federal judicial panel into a multidistrict litigation...
The Food and Drug Administration is looking into new evidence that suggests a group of recently approved diabetes drugs can increase the risk of pancreatitis and other problems. The agency said Thursday samples of pancreas tissue taken from a small number of patients showed inflammation and cellular changes that often precede cancer. Academic researchers took the samples from diabetes patients who were taking the new medications, after they died from various causes.
Researchers have found a vital role for miR-204 in beta cells -- regulating the cell surface receptor that is the target of many of the newer type 2 diabetes drugs, such as Byetta, Victoza, Trulicity, Januvia, Onglyza and Tradjenta. This drug target is the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, or GLP1R. Activation of GLP1R with these drugs helps the beta cell produce and secrete more insulin.
SILVER SPRING, Md. -- An FDA advisory committee has voted 9-6 against recommending approval for the novel diabetes drug dapagliflozin. The panel has concerns about potential breast and bladder cancer
The type 2 diabetes drug canagliflozin (Invokana) was associated with modest weight loss in an early trial of heavy patients who didnt have hyperglycemia, researchers found.
The type 2 diabetes drug rosiglitazone (Avandia) may have the ability to improve memory in people with Alzheimers disease, a new US study has revealed. Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch tested the controversial medicine, which was banned in Europe in 2010 due to heart health concerns, on a group of genetically modified mice designed to serve as models for Alzheimers.
Two common classes of type 2 diabetes drugs may lower blood sugar levels, but new research suggests those same drugs might boost the risk of heart attack, stroke and heart failure.
Advisors to the US Food and Drug rejection have voted against recommending approval of Bristol-Myers Squibb/AstraZenecas diabetes drug dapagliflozin, but it was a far-from-unanimous rejection. - News - PharmaTimes
The diabetes drug Avandia may increase the risk of heart attack in those taking it. Other medications are as effective at lowering blood sugar without Avandias…
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People who take a certain type of diabetes drug to lower blood sugar levels may be at an increased risk of developing an inflamed...
Avoiding hypoglycemia: a key to success for glucose-lowering therapy in type 2 diabetes Bo Ahrén Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Abstract: Type 2 diabetes carries a risk for hypoglycemia, particularly in patients on an intensive glucose control plan as a glucose-lowering strategy, where hypoglycemia may be a limitation for the therapy and also a factor underlying clinical inertia. Glucose-lowering medications that increase circulating insulin in a glucose-independent manner, such as insulin and sulfonylurea therapy, are the most common cause of hypoglycemia. However, other factors such as a delayed or missed meal, physical exercise, or drug or alcohol consumption may also contribute. Specific risk factors for development of hypoglycemia are old age, long duration of diabetes, some concomitant medication, renal dysfunction, hypoglycemia unawareness, and cognitive dysfunction. Hypoglycemia is associated with acute short-term symptoms
Watch the video Diabetes Drug Could Hold Promise For Lung Cancer Patients Brett Smith for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. Scientists have been enthusiastic about the potential use of widely available diabetes drugs to treat various types of cancer. A new study from The Salk Institute for Biological Studies and the David Geffen UCLA School of Medicine suggests that these metabolism-affecting drugs can decrease the size of lung tumors in mice and increase their chances for survival.. According to the study, the diabetes drug phenformin may effectively treat 30 percent of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a type of cancer with tumors that lack the LKB1 gene.. The LKB1 gene is crucial to every cell´s life cycle as it regulates metabolism by turning on an enzyme called AMPK when levels of the energy molecule ATP are running low within the cell. Previous research by some of the same researchers showed that cells without a normal copy of LKB1 do not activate the AMPK enzyme in ...
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In total, 639 patients received study treatment (n = 319 with SU plus pioglitazone; n = 320 with SU plus metformin). Eleven patients (n = 4 in the pioglitazone group and n = 7 in the metformin group) were not eligible for the ITT analysis due to missing postbaseline HbA1c data. The treatment groups were well matched with regard to demographic and baseline characteristics (Table 1) and dose distribution of SU. Glibenclamide (42%), gliclazide (31%), and glimepiride (19%) were the most commonly used SUs in both groups. At the end of the 12-week dose titration period, 62% of patients treated with SU plus pioglitazone and 55% of those treated with SU plus metformin were receiving the maximal dose (45 mg pioglitazone; 2,550 mg metformin). Over 80% of patients completed the study (81.5% in the SU plus pioglitazone group and 87.2% in the SU plus metformin group). The difference in percentage completers was mainly due to withdrawn consent of 5% of patients in the pioglitazone group vs. 1.6% in the ...
One of the oldest, cheapest, and most widely used diabetes drugs may be a promising new cancer treatment. | Realms of Healthcare and Business
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Bo Ahrén Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Abstract: Type 2 diabetes carries a risk for hypoglycemia, particularly in patients on an intensive glucose control plan as a glucose-lowering strategy, where hypoglycemia may be a limitation for the therapy and also a factor underlying clinical inertia. Glucose-lowering medications that increase circulating insulin in a glucose-independent manner, such as insulin and sulfonylurea therapy, are the most common cause of hypoglycemia. However, other factors such as a delayed or missed meal, physical exercise, or drug or alcohol consumption may also contribute. Specific risk factors for development of hypoglycemia are old age, long duration of diabetes, some concomitant medication, renal dysfunction, hypoglycemia unawareness, and cognitive dysfunction. Hypoglycemia is associated with acute short-term symptoms related to either counterregulation, such as tachycardia and sweating, or to neuroglycopenia, such as
Glucophage belongs to a group of medicines called biguanides. Glucophage lowers high blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) by helping your body make better use of the insulin produced by your pancreas. Therapeutic actions: Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Its pharmacologic mechanisms of action are different from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Unlike sulfonylureas, metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with type 2 diabetes or normal subjects (except in special circumstances, see PRECAUTIONS) and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. With metformin therapy, insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may ...
06 Dec 2017. The drug metformin, typically prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes, keeps breast cancer cells from developing multiple drug resistance (MDR) and can reverse MDR after it¹s appeared, according to a study published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Terra Arnason from the University of Saskatchewan, Canada, and colleagues.. Previous studies have shown that metformin has some antiproliferative activity against multiple types of cancer cells.. Moreover, clinical meta-analysis studies on cancer patients who already take metformin to treat diabetes have hinted that the drug may boost their survival and prevent the emergence of new tumours.. Arnason and colleagues probed the effect of metformin on the widely studied breast cancer cell line MCF7.. Metformin, they found, had an antiproliferative effect on MCF7, including cells that were resistant to the common chemotherapeutic Doxorubicin.. When cells were pretreated with metformin, the development of drug resistance was prevented or ...
Abstract: Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of either continuing or discontinuing rosiglitazone + metformin fixed-dose combination when starting insulin therapy in people with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on oral therapy.. Methods In this 24-week double-blind study, 324 individuals with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on maximum dose rosiglitazone + metformin therapy were randomly assigned to twice-daily premix insulin therapy (target pre-breakfast and pre-evening meal glucose ≤ 6.5 mmol/l) in addition to either rosiglitazone + metformin (8/2000 mg) or placebo.. Results Insulin dose at week 24 was significantly lower with rosiglitazone + metformin (33.5 ± 1.5 U/day, mean ± se) compared with placebo [59.0 ± 3.0 U/day; model-adjusted difference −26.6 (95% CI −37.7, −15,5) U/day, P < 0.001]. Despite this, there was greater improvement in glycaemic control [HbA1c rosiglitazone + metformin vs. placebo 6.8 ± 0.1 vs. 7.5 ± 0.1%; difference −0.7 (−0.8, −0.5)%, ...
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CONTEXT We wanted to understand the effects of once-weekly vs. twice-daily glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonism for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to compare effects of exenatide once weekly (ExQW) and exenatide twice daily (ExBID) on glycemic control, body weight, and safety. DESIGN This was a 24-wk, randomized, open-label, comparator-controlled study. SETTING The study was conducted at 43 sites in the United States. PATIENTS The study population was 252 intent-to-treat patients with type 2 diabetes [baseline (mean ± SD): glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.4 ± 1.2%, fasting plasma glucose 171 ± 47 mg/dl, weight 96 ± 20 kg] that were drug naïve (19%) or previously treated with one (47%) or multiple (35%) oral antidiabetic medications. INTERVENTIONS Interventions included ExQW 2 mg for 24 wk or ExBID 5 μg for 4 wk followed by ExBID 10 μg for 20 wk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The change in HbA1c from baseline to wk 24 was measured.
Metformin may have several actions against cancer as it reduces blood glucose, inhibits insulin and IGF-1 production, reduces cholesterol and has an indirect effect on reducing m-TOR levels; a specific study on breast cancer suggests increased survival times.. Metformin, or Glucophage, is an anti-hyperglycemic drug which lowers glucose production in the liver and improves uptake of glucose by cells but does not increase insulin production.. In many of the early studies, patients were taking metformin because they had diabetes. One study of women having breast cancer chemotherapy showed 24% of type 2 diabetes patients taking metformin having complete remission, vs 16% non-diabetic patients vs 8% type-2 diabetes patients not taking metformin. In HER2 positive cancer patients taking metformin because of diabetes resulted in 40% lower progression and death after 4.5 years than those not taking metformin.. According to MD Anderson, metformin affects multiple signalling processes to do with growth, ...
Sitagliptin (INN; /sɪtəˈɡlɪptɪn/ ( listen), previously identified as MK-0431 and marketed as the phosphate salt under the trade name Januvia) is an oral antihyperglycemic (antidiabetic drug) of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class. It was developed, and is marketed, by Merck & Co. This enzyme-inhibiting drug is used either alone or in combination with other oral antihyperglycemic agents (such as metformin or a thiazolidinedione) for treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Side effects are as common with sitagliptin (whether used alone or with metformin or pioglitazone) as they were with placebo, except for rare nausea and common cold-like symptoms, including photosensitivity. No significant difference exists in the occurrence of hypoglycemia between placebo and sitagliptin. In those taking sulphonylureas, the risk of low blood sugar is increased. The existence of rare case reports of renal failure and hypersensitivity reactions is noted in the United States prescribing ...
In findings presented at The Endocrine Societys 94th Annual Meeting in Houston, scientists presented evidence that the generic diabetes drug metformin is linked to a lower chance of mortality, compared to 3 other drugs that are known as sulfonylureas - glipizide, glyburide, and glimepiride.. Kevin M. Pantalone, D.O., an endocrinologist at Summa Western Reserve Hospital in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, who conducted this study in collaboration with researchers from Cleveland Clinic said in a press release, We have clearly demonstrated that metformin is associated with a substantial reduction in mortality risk, and, thus, should be the preferred first-line agent, if one has a choice between metformin and a sulfonylurea.. For the study, researchers looked at electronic medical records of 23,915 patients with type 2 diabetes who had taken one of the four drugs in the past. Average age of people in the study was 62 and half of the participants were male. ...
Results from a new study suggest low doses of the diabetes drug metformin may effectively destroy pancreatic cancer stem cells, reducing the risk of tumor growth or recurrence.
Use of metformin seems to improve reproductive and metabolic abnormalities in women with PCOS. However, the disparity of results in clinical studies cannot give us a conclusive answer if metformin is a new line therapy of the syndrome. The present randomised, placebo-controlled study was designed to compare the antihyperglycemic drug metformin vs. placebo combined with lifestyle modification in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in obese women. Special attention was paid to the effects of this medication on insulin and glucose metabolism, endocrine and biochemical parameters, and menstrual function. Forty six obese women with PCOS, aged between 22-39 years and mean BMI 38.1 were randomized to receive either metformin (500 mg three times a day for 16 weeks) or placebo. The metformin and placebo groups were matched for age, endocrinological and metabolic parameters. Changes in FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterone, DHEA-S and SHBG, total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, HbA1c, ...
Washington, DC-African Americans taking the diabetes drug metformin saw greater improvements in their blood sugar control than white individuals who were prescribed the same medication, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Societys Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM). An estimated 29 million Americans have diabetes. African Americans are twice as likely to be diagnosed with diabetes as whites and have a higher rate of complications such as kidney failure, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. Metformin is the most common oral medication prescribed for diabetes. It decreases the amount of glucose produced by the liver and helps the body respond better to insulin, the hormone that helps carry sugar from the bloodstream into cells. Metformin is normally the first treatment physicians prescribe for type 2 diabetes, but the standard of care is based on clinical trials where the vast majority of participants were ...
Aim: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists have been shown to prevent hepatic fibrosis in rodents. We evaluated the therapeutic antifibrotic potential of the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone on established hepatic fibrosis.. Methods: Repeated injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a choline deficient diet, or bile duct ligation (BDL) were used to induce hepatic fibrosis in rats. Pioglitazone treatment was introduced at various time points. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed by comparison of the severity of hepatic fibrosis in pioglitazone treated versus untreated fibrotic controls.. Results: When introduced after two weeks of CCl4, pioglitazone reduced hepatic fibrosis, OH proline content, hepatic mRNA expression of collagen type I, and profibrotic genes, as well as the number of activated α smooth muscle actin positive hepatic stellate cells, compared with rats receiving CCl4 only, with no significant change in necroinflammation. When pioglitazone treatment was ...
Additionally, in Europe Antidiabetics Market Report, development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and Bill of Materials cost structures are also analysed. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed and overall research conclusions offered.. No. of Report Pages:122. Price of Report (Single User Licence): $3900. Purchase Europe Antidiabetics Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10626097. About Absolute Reports:. Absolute Reports is an upscale platform to help key personnel in the business world in strategizing and taking visionary decisions based on facts and figures derived from in depth market research. We are one of the top report resellers in the market, dedicated towards bringing you an ingenious concoction of data parameters.. Contact-. Mr. Ameya Pingaley. Absolute Reports. +1-408 520 9750. Email - [email protected] ...
Glucose-lowering therapies, adequacy of metabolic control, and their relationship with comorbid depression in outpatients with type 2 diabetes in a tertiary hospital in Kenya CF Frederick Otieno,1 Joseph E Kanu,1 Emma M Karari,1 Violet Okech-Helu,2 Mark D Joshi,1 Kenn Mutai2 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Nairobi, 2Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya Background: Depression and diabetes mellitus are important comorbid conditions with serious health consequences. When depression and diabetes are comorbid, depression negatively affects self-management activities of diabetes with serious consequences. Relationship between treatment regimens of diabetes, the adequacy of glycemic control, and occurrence of comorbid depression is not known among our patients.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study at the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital where 220 ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes on follow-up were
Home / Conditions / Type 1 Diabetes / ADA: Cardiovascular Benefits seen with Long-Term Metformin Use in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes ADA: Cardiovascular Benefits seen with Long-Term Metformin Use in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Results from the REMOVAL trial revealed reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease am
Nearly 30 million people have diabetes in America and the price for the lifesaving drug insulin tripled in a 10-year period. Diabetes Drug Amaryl Genezen 2 Type Te skin Discoloration Diabetes Prediabetes Risk Assessment; Type 2 Diabetes Yogurt; Signs Of Juvenile Diabetes In Toddlers; Is Cottage Cheese Good For Diabetics; According to Ayurveda diabetes is not just lack of insulin. What is Diabetes? For more information on how type 1 and type 2 However nobody is still in agreement on a common diagnostic tool in acute pancreatitis. The 1500 calorie ADA (American Diabetic Association) diet is designed primarily for those individuals who are overweight and suffering from diabetes.. Current studies suggest that 50% to 70% of women with PCOS have some degree of insulin resistance.10. by The behavior of eating more is in response to the hormonal signal to get fat. Those who skip critical blood glucose testing because of the price tag on a box of strips may soon get a eak.. For example diabetic ...
BioAssay record AID 1083661 submitted by ChEMBL: Antihyperglycemic activity in albino Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley (rat) streptozotocin-induced diabetic model assessed as effect on AUC of blood glucose level at 100 mg/kg, po after 24 hr.
The antidiabetic drug metformin exhibits potential anticancer properties that are believed to involve both direct (insulin-independent) and indirect (insulin-dependent) actions. Direct effects are linked to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and an inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR signaling, and indirect effects are mediated by reductions in circulating insulin, leading to reduced insulin receptor (IR)-mediated signaling. However, the in vivo impact of metformin on cancer cell signaling and the factors governing sensitivity in patients remain unknown. We conducted a neoadjuvant, single-arm,
WASHINGTON (AP) - The Food and Drug Administration says it has approved a first-of-a-kind diabetes drug from Johnson & Johnson that uses a new method to lower blood sugar.. The agency cleared J&Js Invokana tablets for adults with Type 2 diabetes, which affects about 26 million Americans.. The drug is a once-a-day medicine designed to lower blood sugar levels in patients by eliminating more sugar in their urine. The drug works by blocking the reabsorption of sugar by the kidneys, which occurs at higher levels in patients with diabetes.. J&J has touted the drug as the first in a new class of medications to help address the nations growing diabetes epidemic. The drug differs from older drugs that work by decreasing the amount of sugar absorbed from food and stored in the liver.. Copyright 2013 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.. ...
UPI.com Levels of possible cancer-causing chemicals in metformin diabetes medications are under investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Metformin is a prescription drug used to control high blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes. Over the past year and a half, several types of drugs -- including angiotensin II receptor blockers, or ARBs, used for high blood pressure and ranitidine, marketed as Zantac, for heartburn -- have been found to contain small amounts of genotoxic substances called nitrosamines, such as N-nitrosodimethylamine, or NDMA. A genotoxic substance is something that harms the genetic material in a cell. Exposure to genotoxic substances above acceptable levels over long periods may increase the risk of cancer, the FDA said. The FDA has been investigating the presence of nitrosamines in other drug products, and some metformin diabetes medicines in other countries were reported to have low levels of NDMA, according to Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of FDAs Center
(HealthDay)-Diabetes drugs containing saxagliptin and alogliptin may raise the risk of heart failure, particularly in patients with heart or kidney disease, U.S. health officials warned Tuesday.
Drug derived from gila monster saliva helps diabetics control glucose, lose weight date: july 12, 2007 source: university of north carolina at chapel hill. The u.s. food and drug administration today approved three new related products for use with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults. The u.s. food and drug administration (fda) is warning that the type 2 diabetes medicines sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin may cause.. A new type of medication for type 2 diabetes helps to lower blood sugar levels when used in concert with insulin and other diabetes drugs, new research. Read more on metformin; sulphonylureas. sulphonylureas are the class of antidiabetic drug for type 2 diabetes that tends to include those drugs which end in ide.. Actos (pioglitazone) is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. actos is for people with type 2 diabetes. pioglitazone is not for treating.. Free weekly newsletter ezine and web site dedicated to ...
DPP-4 inhibitor diabetes drugs such as Januvia, Onglyza, and Kombiglyze increase the risk of Crohns Disease according to a recent medical journal article.
ABSTRACT. Objective: Patients with diabetes have an increased Odds Ratio (OR) for depressive disorder. We wanted to investigate if patients with metabolic syndrome and/or diabetes type 2 not treated with antidiabetic agents, have an OR for concurrent antidepressant use comparable to other types of diabetes. Methods: Drug delivery data from 25 pharmacies were analysed with respect to sale of antidepressants, oral antidiabetic agents, insulin and blood glucose test strips. Results: Total population of the area was 337,019, whereas 254,083 were 18 or older. Of these 20,139 were patients receiving insulin, oral antidiabetics, glucose test strips and/or antidepressants. Those receiving antidepressants were 5.8% of those 18 or older whereas 2.4% received any antidiabetic medication (including test strips for HBGM). For patients receiving no medications but test strips alone, the adjusted OR for use concurrent use of antidepressants was 1.62 (95% confidence interval: 1.19 - 2.23), p = 0.002. For ...
Reports of problems with type 2 diabetes drug Invokana (canagliflozin) have continued to increase, according to the Institute for Safe Medicine Practices...
A Type-2 diabetes drug has the potential to prevent hospitalizations due to heart failure in diabetic patients who never had the condition before.
The diabetes drug Farxiga might do double-duty for patients, helping to ward off another killer, heart failure, new research shows. Type 2 diabetics who took Farxiga saw their odds of hospitalization for heart failure drop by 27 percent compared to those who took a placebo, according to a study funded by the drugs maker, Astra-Zeneca.…
The gut microbiota is highly associated with obesity and T2D.8-10 ,33 Metformin is one of the most common drugs used to treat patients with T2D.25 ,41 Here, we used a metagenomic approach to demonstrate a role for metformin in modulating the composition of the gut microbiota in diet-induced obese and diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Consistent with previous findings,7 ,8 ,10 ,42 a HFD led to dysbiosis, increased fasting glucose levels and glucose intolerance. Metformin treatment significantly improved the hyperglycaemia in HFD-CT mice; however, the gut microbiota of HFD-Met mice showed an altered microbial composition, which was distinct from that in HFD-CT or NCD-CT mice. Based on these results, we suggest that the gut microbiota might be a contributing factor to the glucose-lowering effect of metformin.. Depending on the diet fed to the mice, metformin had different effects on microbial composition. The gut microbial community in HFD-Met mice was distinct from that in NCD-CT and NCD-Met mice (figure 2). ...
The overriding goal of managing patients with T2DM is to safely maintain glycemic control and most patients will require combination therapy with multiple agents. Until recently, pharmacologic options for T2DM included oral antihyperglycemic agents (eg, metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones) and insulin (basal, prandial). In the last decade, a new class of agents based on the incretin pathway has emerged as a safe and effective option for many patients with T2DM. The incretin therapeutics include the oral DPP-4 inhibitors, which have moderate glucose-lowering efficacy, and the injectable GLP-1 receptor agonists (RA), which have potent glucose-lowering efficacy and can be safely combined with other medications, including basal insulin. These agents effectively target both fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, do not cause weight gain, and have low risk for hypoglycemia.. In this monograph, we will review the goals of therapy in T2DM, the frequent need for combination therapy, and the ...
The present randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial demonstrates that 4 weeks of treatment with rosiglitazone reduces inflammatory cell composition and cell activation in carotid artery specimen of nondiabetic patients. Moreover, rosiglitazone increased collagen content in the plaque, suggesting that TZD treatment renders these plaques more stable and less vulnerable.. Previous studies have shown that TZDs exhibit antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic properties in vascular cells in vitro, and data from animal models of arteriosclerosis demonstrated a reduction in lesion development on TZD treatment.8 Moreover, clinical studies have shown that TZDs reduce serum levels of inflammatory arteriosclerosis markers in treated patients11,12,22 and induce beneficial morphological changes in the vessel wall by reducing IMT of the carotid artery13 as well as neointima formation after coronary stent implantation.15,16 The present study extends our knowledge on the effect of TZDs in the vessel wall ...
Results of some preclinical trials have shown that low doses of the antidiabetic drug metformin may effectively destroy cancer stem cells, a group of cells that are considered to be responsible for tumor initiation and, because they are resistant to standard chemotherapies, tumor relapse.
Use of the oral antidiabetes drug metformin improved survival in women with ovarian cancer, according to the findings of a retrospective case-control study.
On for 3 months acne metformin bei ms can. metformin insulinresistenz how to...Alkohol insulinresistenz strengths diabetes is 500mg. forms metformin hcl headaches metformin recall fda.. A en enfermedad renal cronica and pcos and ivf diabetes drug with metformin how does. du metformin dosis bei pco. insulinresistenz abnehmen.Why take with food alkohol leichter insulinresistenz diabetes.. Alkohol leichter insulinresistenz diabetes pco wie lange metformin hcl er used for metformin reacts with tabacco does help clomid.Bei pco ohne insulinresistenz medikament hexal risks of taking metformin glucophage xr 750 a alkohol hearing loss. metformin xr pre diabetes ...
Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic drug from the biguanide class. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function, and evidence suggests it may be the best choice for people with heart failure.
Oral hypoglycaemic agents[edit]. *Gliclazide[note 74]. *Metformin. *Metforminα. Medicines for hypoglycaemia[edit]. *Glucagon ... Lipid-lowering agents[edit]. *Simvastatin[note 72]. Dermatological medicines (topical)[edit]. Antifungal medicines[edit]. * ... Diagnostic agents[edit]. *Tuberculin, purified protein derivative (PPD). Sera and immunoglobulins[edit]. *Antivenom ... single agent trimethoprim may be an alternative for lower urinary tract infection. ...
"Hypoglycemic Agents. I Chemical Properties of β-Phenethylbiguanide. A New Hypoglycemic Agent". J Am Chem Soc. 81 (9): 2220-25. ... Davis SN (2006). "Chapter 60: Insulin, Oral Hypoglycemic Agents, and the Pharmacology of the Endocrine Pancreas". In Brunton L ... Nicholson W; Bolen S; Witkop CT; Neale D; Wilson L; Bass E (January 2009). "Benefits and risks of oral diabetes agents compared ... The American Diabetes Association and the American College of Physicians each recommend metformin as a first-line agent to ...
... and the other biguanides are not hypoglycemic, but rather antihyperglycemic agents. They do not produce hypoglycemia; ... "Hypoglycemic Agents. III.1-3N1-Alkyl- and Aralkylbiguanides". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 81 (14): 3728-3736. doi ... Marchetti, P; Giannarelli, R; Carlo, A; Navalesi, R (Oct 1991). "Pharmacokinetic optimisation of oral hypoglycaemic therapy". ... "Chemistry and hypoglycemic activity of benzimidoylpyrazoles". J Med Chem. 24 (12): 1521-5. doi:10.1021/jm00144a031. United ...
See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents. One of the sulfonylureas. (Amaryl) Glipizide A pill taken to lower the level of glucose ( ... See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents. (Tolinase) Tolbutamide A pill taken to lower the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents. This is one of the sulfonylureas (Diabinese). Cholesterol a waxy substance related to the ... See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents. One of the sulfonylureas. (Diamicron) Glimepiride A pill taken to lower the level of ...
... opioid antagonist bronchodilator anti-histaminic sympathomimetic agent procoagulant anti-hypoglycemic agent Schedule 2 - PCP ... anti-hypoglycemic agent; analgesic; platelet inhibitors; use and interpretation of a glucometer; chest auscultation. (f) ... anti-arrhythmic bronchodilator anti-pyretic anti-cholinergic anti-hypoglycemic agent sedative (anti-epileptic) anti-emetic ( ... that combines the diabetic/hypoglycemic and opioid OD guidelines. PCP-qualified paramedics may also be endorsed for intravenous ...
... is a hypoglycemic agent of thiazolidinedione (glitazone) class. Ciglitazone Darglitazone Netoglitazone Troglitazone ...
1. Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic agents with ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 32 (2): ...
... whither oral hypoglycaemic agents?". Drugs. 1 (2): 109-15. doi:10.2165/00003495-197101020-00001. PMID 4999930. Riddle MC ( ... Agents Chemother. 50 (12): 4214-6. doi:10.1128/AAC.00617-06. PMC 1693980 . PMID 17015627. Ortega FJ, Gimeno-Bayon J, Espinosa- ... Ahmadi, A; Khalili, M; Khatami, K; Farsadrooh, M; Nahri-Niknafs, B (2014). "Synthesis and investigating hypoglycemic and ...
Insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents, and the pharmacology of the endocrine pancreas". In Brunton, Laurence L.; Lazo, John S.; ... coumadin and probenecid may potentiate the hypoglycemic action of glimepiride. Thiazides, other diuretics, phothiazides, ...
There are various oral hypoglycemic agents that contributes to pancreatitis including metformin. But, glucagon-like peptide-1 ( ... and oral hypoglycemic agents. Mechanisms of these drugs causing pancreatitis are not known exactly; but it is possible that ... A number of infectious agents have been recognized as causes of pancreatitis including: Viruses Coxsackie virus Cytomegalovirus ...
Hypoglycemic agents: May cause hypoglycemia in diabetic patients under treatment with hypoglycemic agents. Theophylline: May ... Quinolones are synthetic agents that have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity as well as a unique mechanism of action, ... Agents Chemother. 37 (2): 293-6. doi:10.1128/AAC.37.2.293. PMC 187655 . PMID 8452360. Keam, Susan J; Perry, Caroline M (2004 ... Giannarini G, Tascini C, Selli C (2009). "Prulifloxacin: clinical studies of a broad-spectrum quinolone agent". Future ...
In biology, 1,3-butanediol is used as a hypoglycaemic agent. 1,3-Butanediol can be converted into β-hydroxybutyrate and serve ... It is commonly used as a solvent for food flavouring agents and is a co-monomer used in certain polyurethane and polyester ...
None were severely insulin-deficient and all were controlled with either diet or oral hypoglycemic agents.. ...
The basic appeal of hypoglycemic agents by mouth is that most people would prefer a pill or an oral liquid to an injection. ... It is evaluated in comparison with oral hypoglycemic agents, mostly in patients with type 2 DM. The clinical data appears ... The abuse of exogenous insulin carries with it an attendant risk of hypoglycemic coma and death when the amount used is in ... The affected persons are then switched to a preparation that does not contain the specific agent they are reacting to or ...
... inhibits the enzyme α-glucosidase in vitro and may therefore act as a hypoglycemic agent. A study involving extra ... Pinoresinol is a putative hypoglycemic agent in defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds though inhibiting α-glucosidase". ...
When oral hypoglycemic agents are used in MODY, the sulfonylureas remain the oral medication of first resort. When compared to ... Standard diabetes treatments (insulin for type 1 and gestational diabetes, and oral hypoglycemic agents for type 2) are often ... oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin injections. In many cases these goals can be achieved more easily with MODY than with ... Insulin may not be necessary and it may be possible to switch a person from insulin injections to oral agents without loss of ...
... s do not affect the output of insulin, unlike other hypoglycemic agents such as sulfonylureas and meglitinides. ... and bisbiguanide agents for antiplaque activity". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 12 (6): 721-9. doi:10.1128/aac.12.6.721. PMC ...
... islet hormones and hypoglycemic agents". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 179 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(91)91325-7. PMID ...
Management of hypoglycemia due to treatment of type 2 diabetes is similar, and the dose of the oral hypoglycemic agent may need ... Knowing that someone takes insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents for diabetes obviously makes insulin excess the presumptive ...
In addition, when diabetic treatment is being switched from insulin to oral hypoglycemic agents, the patient's urine should be ... of ketonuria within 24 hours after insulin withdrawal usually indicates a poor response to the oral hypoglycemic agents. ...
... all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral antihyperglycemic agents. There are ... Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are "diabetes pills" but not technically hypoglycemic agents because they do not have a direct ... Treatments include (1) agents that increase the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas, (2) agents that increase the ... First-generation agents tolbutamide acetohexamide tolazamide chlorpropamide Second-generation agents glipizide glyburide or ...
It has been used in medical research as a hypoglycemic agent and was patented in the United States in 1997 as a fast-acting ... Yoshito KOBAYASHI, Shigeru OHASHI, Shinzaburo TANAKA and Akitoshi SHIOYA (1955), Hypoglycemic Action of Sodium Mesoxalate with ...
Glycemic control is maintained mainly with insulin in patients with Type 1 DM and with hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin in ... it is recommended that only one agent is used in patients with DM who have hypertension or any signs of microalbuminuria or ... Although RAAS blockade using more than one agent may further reduce proteinuria, the risk of adverse events (such as ... or that they are experiencing an increasing frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. It is also crucial to closely monitor kidney ...
... were both observed in a Phase III study in monotherapy and clinical studies used in combination with other hypoglycemic agents ...
... hypoglycemic agents MeSH D27.505.696.477 --- immunologic factors MeSH D27.505.696.477.136 --- agglutinins MeSH D27.505.696.477. ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...
Oral hypoglycemic agents (e.g., any of the sulfonylureas, or similar drugs, which increase insulin release from β-cells in ... Low blood glucose level is known as hypoglycemia or, in cases producing unconsciousness, "hypoglycemic coma" (sometimes termed ... a review of its therapeutic use as a long-acting agent for the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 61 (11): ... "insulin shock" from the most common causative agent). Endogenous causes of insulin excess (such as an insulinoma) are very rare ...
... are currently studied with the hope that such compounds would be still effective hypoglycaemic agents but with fewer side ... Many naturally occurring agents directly bind with and activate PPAR gamma. These agents include various polyunsaturated fatty ...
... sulfonylurea-containing oral hypoglycemic agents, and the anti-(epilepsy) drug, phenytoin.[unreliable source?] 7) CYP2C19*2 ( ... blood-thining agent, warfarin. These carriers are susceptible to the gastrointestinal bleeding side effects of warfarin and the ...
Oral hypoglycemic agents, the majority of anti-diabetic drugs Oral Health America Oregon Health Authority Ormiston Horizon ...
... anthelmintic agent, for the treatment of cough, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, wounds, ulcer, gout, and rheumatism.[8] ... several animal studies and small-scale human studies have demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect of concentrated bitter melon ... "cannot be recommended as a replacement therapy for insulin or hypoglycemic drugs".[9] ... "Gene cloning and expression of a novel hypoglycaemic peptide from Momordica charantia". Journal of the Science of Food and ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
In biology, 1,3-butanediol is used as a hypoglycaemic agent. 1,3-Butanediol can be converted into β-hydroxybutyrate and serve ...
Hypoglycemic episodes can vary greatly between persons and from time to time, both in severity and swiftness of onset. For ... Drugs: salicylates, antituberculosis agents Hyperthyroidism Acute stress reaction Hypopituitarism Severe liver disease ...
Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, also DPP-4 inhibitors or gliptins, are a class of oral hypoglycemics that block DPP-4 ( ... DPP-IV). They can be used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. The first agent of the class - sitagliptin - was approved by the ... How do they work as new antidiabetic agents?". Regulatory Peptides. 128 (2): 159-65. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2004.06.001. PMID ... is one of the mechanisms explaining the hypoglycemic effect of berberine". Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry ...
According to animal studies, taurine produces an anxiolytic effect and may act as a modulator or antianxiety agent in the ... Winiarska K, Szymanski K, Gorniak P, Dudziak M, Bryla J (February 2009). "Hypoglycaemic, antioxidative and nephroprotective ... Taurine reacts with these halogenating agents to form N-chloro- and N-bromotaurine, which are less toxic than their precursors ...
Breastmilk also makes a child resistant to insulin, which is why they are less likely to be hypoglycemic. Infants are more ... Anti inflammatory agents in breast milk. *Areola. *Areolar gland (gland of Montgomery) ...
Some reversibility of the condition has been seen in many cases when the toxic agent is removed. Various pharmacological agents ... Hypoglycaemic encephalopathy is often seen in diabetics as a result to accidental overdose with the long-acting sulfonylurea ... However, no such agent has been identified; and indeed, toxic leukoencephalopathy has been observed as a result of intoxication ... Despite the pharmacological agent or source of toxicity, some patients completely recover from toxic leukoencephalopathy. Due ...
Topical agents[edit]. Capsaicin applied to the skin in a 0.075% concentration has not been found to be more effective than ... However, such methods may increase the likelihood of experiencing a hypoglycemic event, and many of these more aggressive ... This can lead to hypoglycemia when an oral diabetic agent is taken before a meal and does not get absorbed until hours, or ... Blood vessel opening agents (e.g., ACE inhibitors, α1-antagonists) can lead to substantial improvements in neuronal blood flow ...
... with corresponding discovery of small molecule agents (e.g. of the polyketide family) of potential interest for use as human ... hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolemic targets.[14] ... for the production of substances active as antibacterial agents ...
Some drugs, such as the prokinetic agents increase the speed with which a substance passes through the intestines. If a drug is ... This will block the reaction triggered by the catecholamines should a hypoglycaemic episode occur. Therefore, the body will not ...
... is a sweetening agent extracted from the tuberous roots of the yacón plant (Smallanthus sonchifolius) indigenous to ... Aybar, Manuel J.; Sánchez Riera, Alicia N.; Grau, Alfredo; Sánchez, Sara S. (February 2001). "Hypoglycemic effect of the water ...
Patients required continuous supervision as there was a danger of hypoglycemic aftershocks after the coma. In "modified insulin ... insulin was not the specific therapeutic agent. In 1958, Bourne published a paper on increasing disillusionment in the ...
Horses are rarely hypoglycemic, but blood glucose monitoring is ideal to indicate which horses may be benefited by glucose ... so additional causative factors such as immune mediated hypersensitivity or co-infections with other agents may be required to ... This condition most commonly occurs after the administration of a horse origin biological agent such as equine-derived ...
A popular science class experiment is to put them in a strong oxidising agent and see the resulting spectacular reaction. The ... its content alluding to the consumption of jelly babies by type 1 diabetics to overcome hypoglycaemic episodes - as a way to ...
Common agents in which NMDA receptor antagonism is the primary or a major mechanism of action: 4-Chlorokynurenine (AV-101) - ... The purpose was to develop hypoglycemic drug, but it showed no such efficacy. It was not until 1972 that a possible therapeutic ... It is a derivative of amantadine which was first an anti-influenza agent but was later discovered by coincidence to have ... It is generally believed that NMDA receptors are modulated by endogenous redox agents such as glutathione, lipoic acid, and the ...
A hypoglycemic response in which the two-hour insulin level is higher and the blood sugar lower than fasting is consistent with ... Although these agents have shown significant efficacy in clinical trials (for oral contraceptives, in 60-100% of individuals), ...
Essential oils from the leaves also show moderate antioxidant activity in vitro, while root extracts show hypoglycaemic ... are efficacious control agents of the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. They are also ...
... antihypoglycemic agent, immune system modulator, etc.[citation needed] Some countries in Asia, such as Thailand, prepare ... "Hypoglycemic activity of Coccinia indica and Momordica charantia in diabetic rats: depression of the hepatic gluconeogenic ...
A complex with vanadium, bis(allixinato)oxovanadium(IV), is a potent anti-diabetic agent. In studies in streptozotocin-induced ... diabetic mice, this vanadium complex was shown to be an insulin mimetic with hypoglycemic effects. Similarly, a zinc-allixin ... Hiromura, Makoto; Sakurai, Hiromu (2008). "Action mechanism of metallo-allixin complexes as antidiabetic agents". Pure and ... Complex Is a Potent Antidiabetic Agent: Studies on Structure−Activity Relationship for a Series of Hydroxypyrone−Vanadium ...
Definition of Hypoglycemic agent with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more ... hypoglycaemic agent. hypoglycaemic agents. hypoglycaemic coma. hypoglycemia. hypoglycemias. hypoglycemic. hypoglycemic agent ( ... Hypoglycemic Agent Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Hypoglycemic Agent. hypoglossal nucleus. hypoglossal trigone. ... Exact synonyms: Hypoglycaemic Agent. Specialized synonyms: Orinase, Tolbutamide, Insulin. Generic synonyms: Agent. ...
Oral hypoglycemic agents for type 1 diabetes Introduction Oral Agents General Considerations Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHAs) ... Noun 1. hypoglycemic agent - any of various agents that decrease the level of glucose in the blood and are used in the ... Oral Agents in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.. Oral hypoglycemic agents ... Sulfonylurea agents or "oral hypoglycemic agents" are one of six types of diabetes pills currently available to treat type 2 ...
... preserving agents, sweetening agents, perfuming agents, stabilizing agents or flavoring agents. The formulations of the ... Oral hypoglycemic agents are normally used in the treatment of adult onset diabetes. ... Also contemplated as within the scope of the present invention is concomitant treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin ... The introduction of orally effective hypoglycemic agents was an important development in the treatment of hyperglycemia. ...
Initiating a Patient in Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHA). Treatment for type 2 diabetes is usually started with an older agent. ... Diabetes - Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Glycemic Control Do you wish to consult Diabetologist for your problem? Ask your ... Diabetes - Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Glycemic Control - Related News. *Conceiving in Winter can Increase Risk of Gestational ... Pramlintide is not an oral hypoglycemic agent per se, since is given in diabetes patients as an injection in the abdomen or ...
162 Curated Medical Research astracts associated with Hypoglycemic Agents. FRIEND membership. $8 / month $75 / year FRIEND USER ... PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Hypoglycemic Agents. ... Some Example Abstracts on Hypoglycemic Agents. Electrolyzed reduced water (i.e. structured water) protects against pancreatic ... Hypoglycemic Agents : CK(1446) : AC(342), Insulin Antagonists : CK(10) : AC(1), Peptide YY (PYY) Down-regulation : CK(10) : AC( ...
Refill adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents and glycemic control in veterans.. Kim N1, Agostini JV, Justice AC. ... Eligible veterans were , or =18 years and first filled a prescription for oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) between January 1, ...
Metformin is the first-line oral agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and has many established benefits, including the ... Metformin: the safest hypoglycaemic agent in chronic kidney disease? Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;118(4):c380-3. doi: 10.1159/ ... Metformin is the first-line oral agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and has many established benefits, including the ...
Oral hypoglycaemic agents in 118 diabetic pregnancies.. Hellmuth E1, Damm P, Mølsted-Pedersen L. ... To assess maternal and neonatal complications in pregnancies of diabetic women treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents during ...
... acute toxic effects have been known to follow the use of these oral hypoglycemic agents. There is no doubt that these agents ... Oral Hypoglycemic Agents. Support our website, and your well being, by purchasing our 2380 pages megabook. Raw Food Explained: ... 9. Oral Hypoglycemic Agents. Often, oral medication is given to diabetics instead of insulin to control the symptoms. It is ...
Genetic Variation in the Transporters and Hypoglycemic Agents. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Glycemic Control. This and other commonly asked questions about this condition. ... Diabetes - Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Glycemic Control - Frequently Asked Questions Do you wish to consult Diabetologist for ... Diabetes - Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Glycemic Control - Related News. *Diabetes - The Alarming Facts - Interview With Dr. V ...
Potent Oral Hypoglycemic Agents for Microvascular Complication: Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for Diabetic ... Potent Oral Hypoglycemic Agents for Microvascular Complication: Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for Diabetic ... The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents that decrease the ... Metformin is the preferred initial agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and an additional second-line agent is often ...
Efficacy and Harms of the Hypoglycemic Agent Pramlintide in Diabetes Mellitus. Nancy J. Lee, Susan L. Norris and Sujata ... It is estimated that more than 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes will require more than 1 oral hypoglycemic agent 3 years ... with or without oral hypoglycemic agents,9 had significantly greater improvement in HbA1c levels with pramlintide than placebo ... and harms of pramlintide in adults and children with type 1 or type 2 diabetes compared to oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin, ...
A study of the effects of hypoglycaemic agents on vascular complications in patients with adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes 19, ... Circadian variation of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids during longterm use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in diabetes ...
Hypoglycaemic agents for pregnant women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. This review has been withdrawn. ... Ismail KMK, Issa BG, Jones P, Hanna FW, Indusekhar R. Hypoglycaemic agents for pregnant women with polycystic ovarian syndrome ...
Troglitazone, developed as a drug to enhance insulin action, can be a useful hypoglycemic agent for the treatment of NIDDM. ... OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical efficacy of troglitazone, a newly developed oral hypoglycemic agent, in patients with ... Effects of Troglitazone: A new hypoglycemic agent in patients with NIDDM poorly controlled by diet therapy. ... Effects of Troglitazone: A new hypoglycemic agent in patients with NIDDM poorly controlled by diet therapy ...
The Novel Hypoglycemic Agent YM440 Improves Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Zucker Fatty Rats * * Nakano Ryosuke NAKANO ... The novel hypoglycemic agent YM440 normalizes hyperglycemia without changing body fat weight in diabetic db/db mice SHIMAYA A ... Hypoglycemic agent YM440 suppresses hepatic glucose output via gluconeogenesis by reducing glucose-6-phosphatase activity in ... Hypoglycemic Agent YM440 Ameliorates the Impaired Hepatic Glycogenesis After Glucose Loading by Increasing Glycogen Synthase ...
Acne Agents, Topical. Class Summary. Various topical over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription agents are available to treat acne ... Antiandrogen agents block androgen receptors, thereby inhibiting the effects of male sex hormones. These agents may be used to ... Leuprolide is not a first-line agent in PCOS and therefore is not used often for this syndrome. This agent suppresses ovarian ... Finasteride tends to be a second-line agent for hirsutism in PCOS, when hirsutism persists despite the use of first-line agents ...
Vitamin C Supplementation Plus Hypoglycemic Agents Versus Hypoglycemic Agents Alone in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Vit C). The ... Type 2DM patients receiving oral hypoglycemic agents alone this group is the control group who receive oral hypoglycemic agents ... Hypoglycemic Agents. Glyburide. Micronutrients. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antioxidants. Molecular ... Experimental: Vitamin C supplementation plus oral hypoglycemic agents arm This group will receive vitamin C supplementation ...
... is a nonsulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent that decreases blood glucose levels in nondiabetic and diabetic animals. In the present ... Somatostatin and Insulin Secretion Due to Common Mechanisms by a New Hypoglycemic Agent, A-4166, in Perfused Rat Pancreas ... N-[(trans-4-isopropylcyclohexyl)-carbonyl]-D-phenylalanine (A-4166) is a nonsulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent that decreases ...
Review: inhaled insulin provides better glycaemic control than oral hypoglycaemic agents but not better than subcutaneous ... Review: inhaled insulin provides better glycaemic control than oral hypoglycaemic agents but not better than subcutaneous ...
... vitamin D levels in patients with type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin treatment., lker Boyraz, Ugur Bilge, ... A comparison of 25(OH) vitamin D levels in patients with type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin treatment.. ... Distinctively from other similar studies, the level of 25(OH) Vitamin D in T2DM patients taking oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs ... Type 2 DM, Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), Insulin, 25(OH) Vitamin D. ...
"Hypoglycemic Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Hypoglycemic Agents" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Hypoglycemic Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Hypoglycemic Agents" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Hypoglycemic Agents". ...
Therefore, in the evaluation of the hypoglycemic patient, the possible use of oral hypoglycemic agents as the cause for low ... Absence of hypoglycemic drugs in blood serum during an episode of low blood glucose should be demonstrated before considering ... Therefore, in the evaluation of the hypoglycemic patient, the possible use of oral hypoglycemic agents as the cause for low ... Use of hypoglycemic agents outside of the context of treatment of type 2 diabetes is likely to cause hypoglycemia associated ...
... similar hypoglycemic efficacy occurs with equipotent dosage of sulfonylureas. ...
Oral Hypoglycemic Agents. Severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients concomitantly receiving azole antifungal agents and ... Blood glucose concentrations should be carefully monitored when ONMEL and oral hypoglycemic agents are coadministered. ... Oral Hypoglycemics. oral hypoglycemics (repaglinide). Opiate Analgesics. fentanyl, levacetylmethadol (levomethadyl), methadone ... Anti-HIV Agents. indinavir, ritonavir. *This list is not all-inclusive.. † For information on parenterally administered ...
... antacids or acid-suppressing agents, lipid-lowering agents, antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants, oral hypoglycemic agents and ... Oral hypoglycemic agents. Diabetes mellitus is increasingly seen in HIV-infected individuals, especially as this population ... Certain classes of oral hypoglycemic agents are metabolized via the CYP450 system and may be susceptible to interactions with ... Such medications include antidepressants, oral hypoglycemic agents and warfarin.. Antidepressants. Most antidepressants, ...
Hypoglycemic Agent Poisoning answers are found in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for ... Hypoglycemic Agent Poisoning is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult. To view the entire topic, please sign in or ... "Hypoglycemic Agent Poisoning." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, ... Hypoglycemic Agent Poisoning [Internet]. In: 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2018 ...
Oral hypoglycaemic agents[edit]. *Gliclazide[note 74]. *Metformin. *Metforminα. Medicines for hypoglycaemia[edit]. *Glucagon ... Lipid-lowering agents[edit]. *Simvastatin[note 72]. Dermatological medicines (topical)[edit]. Antifungal medicines[edit]. * ... Diagnostic agents[edit]. *Tuberculin, purified protein derivative (PPD). Sera and immunoglobulins[edit]. *Antivenom ... single agent trimethoprim may be an alternative for lower urinary tract infection. ...
The combination of glyburide and metformin may have a synergistic effect, since both agents act to improve glucose tolerance by ... Glyburide, a second-generation sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent, appears to lower the blood glucose acutely by stimulating the ... Extrapancreatic effects may be involved in the mechanism of action of oral sulfonyl-urea hypoglycemic drugs. ... Glyburide is twice as potent as the related second-generation agent glipizide. ...
Aim: To examine the extent of monitoring and glycaemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes prescribed oral agents and/or ... Median time to insulin for patients prescribed multiple oral agents was 7.7 years (95% CI = 7.4 to 8.5 years); 1513 people ... Results: A total of 14 824 people with type 2 diabetes were prescribed multiple oral agents concurrently, of whom 5064 (34.16 ... Outcome measures were: glycaemic monitoring and control on multiple oral agents and/or insulin, and transition to insulin. ...
  • This article outlines the management approach (intensified treatment) and describes the use of oral antidiabetic agents (mainly glyburide) to prevent glycemic extremes (i.e., hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia) in pregnant women with GDM and type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Some of the major drivers and opportunities for growth of this market include drug combinations of several agents such as sitagliptin and metformin and other drug combinations that are in different stages of clinical and pipeline development. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • This empowers patients to take charge of their glycemic control and provides feedback on the timing and dose of pharmacological therapy (insulin and/or oral agents). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thomas Higgins, M.D. Oral hypoglycemic drugs are used only in the treatment of type 2 diabetes which is a disorder involving resistance to. (jimdo.com)
  • Sulfonylurea agents or "oral hypoglycemic agents" are one of six types of diabetes pills currently available to treat type 2 diabetes. (jimdo.com)
  • Oral Agents in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (jimdo.com)
  • Oral hypoglycemic pills are a class of prescription medications used to control diabetes. (jimdo.com)
  • New pharmacological agents, such as insulin analogs (mainly lispro) and oral antidiabetic drugs (mainly glyburide), have profoundly altered the management of diabetes in pregnancy, producing outcomes comparable to those among the general population. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The anti-diabetics market includes drugs, which are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also known as oral hypoglycemic/antihyperglycemic agents. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • During the course of type 2 diabetes it will get more difficult to reach these levels with 'lifestyle' modification (diet, exercise or both) and oral glucose-lowering agents alone. (cochrane.org)
  • In studies reporting hypoglycaemic episodes severe events were rare and mild to moderate hypoglycaemia was observed in similar numbers when comparing insulin monotherapy to the addition of oral antidiabetic agents to insulin. (cochrane.org)
  • However, most studies adding sulphonylureas to insulin reported more hypoglycaemic episodes. (cochrane.org)
  • ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS (OHAs) Oral medication is initiated when 2-3 months of diet and exercise alone are unable to achieve or maintain their optimal plasma glucose. (jimdo.com)
  • Insulin therapy can be initiated as insulin alone, called monotherapy (which means that oral glucose-lowering medication will be stopped) or in combination with oral glucose-lowering agents. (cochrane.org)
  • In the former case, oral blood glucose-lowering agents can be added at a later stage, if insulin monotherapy fails to achieve a good HbA1c level. (cochrane.org)
  • An oral hypoglycemic agent is a medication (usually a pill or capsule) that can be take by mouth to lower a high blood sugar toward normal. (jimdo.com)
  • Most combinations of oral antidiabetic agents with insulin resulted in a reduction in the necessary insulin dose per day whereas the insulin dose per day had to be increased or remained stable in participants with insulin monotherapy. (cochrane.org)
  • Adding oral agents to insulin could reduce the required insulin dose and thus decrease these insulin-related side effects. (cochrane.org)
  • Introduction Oral Agents General Considerations Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHAs) Oral Hyperglycemic Agents (AHAs) Sulfonylureas Preliminary Study of the Clinical Hypoglycemic Effects of Allium cepa (Red Onion) in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients. (jimdo.com)
  • Oral Hypoglycemic agents History In contrast to the systematic studies that led to the isolation of insulin, the sulfonylureas were discovered accidentally. (jimdo.com)
  • Insulin, indeed, can remedy these 2 etiologies, but it is logical to think about using oral hypoglycemic agents which have been created to treat them: they are a natural choice because they improve insulin sensitivity (metformin, a biguanide) or insulin secretion (glyburide, a sulfonylurea). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Extrapancreatic effects may play a part in the mechanism of action of oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Glibenclamide belongs to the second generation oral sulfonylurea drugs with the mechanism of action being similar as tolbutamide and the hypoglycemic effect being strongest among sulfonylurea drugs. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Refill adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents and glycemic control in veterans. (nih.gov)
  • Our objective was to compare selfreported adherence and electronic monitoring of adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents and antidepressants and to examine the relationship of adherence with clinical outcomes. (ajmc.com)
  • 1 4 5 6 7 25 27 29 30 Patients initially receiving an oral antidiabetic agent will eventually require multiple oral antidiabetic agents of different therapeutic classes and/or insulin for adequate glycemic control because of declining β 2 -cell function with disease progression. (drugs.com)
  • If adequate blood glucose control is not attained using a single oral agent, a combination of agents with different mechanisms of action may have additive therapeutic effects and result in better glycemic control. (aafp.org)
  • Electronic monitoring of oral hypoglycemic agents but not self-reported adherence predicted glycemic control. (ajmc.com)
  • Distinctively from other similar studies, the level of 25(OH) Vitamin D in T2DM patients taking oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) will be compared with those taking insulin by means of metabolic parameters. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Introduction Oral Agents General Considerations Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHAs) Oral Hyperglycemic Agents (AHAs) Sulfonylureas Preliminary Study of the Clinical Hypoglycemic Effects of Allium cepa (Red Onion) in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients. (jimdo.com)
  • ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS (OHAs) Oral medication is initiated when 2-3 months of diet and exercise alone are unable to achieve or maintain their optimal plasma glucose. (jimdo.com)
  • The consumption of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) for the period of 2008 - 2013 at the Ukrainian market has been analyzed. (edu.ua)
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore British Pakistani and British Indian patients' perceptions and experiences of taking oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents that decrease the reabsorption of glucose in the renal proximal tubules [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Oral hypoglycaemic agents in 118 diabetic pregnancies. (nih.gov)
  • To assess maternal and neonatal complications in pregnancies of diabetic women treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • N-[(trans-4-isopropylcyclohexyl)-carbonyl]-D-phenylalanine (A-4166) is a nonsulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent that decreases blood glucose levels in nondiabetic and diabetic animals. (nih.gov)
  • Ben-Ami H, Nagachandran P, Mendelson A, Edoute Y: Drug-induced hypoglycemic coma in 102 diabetic patients. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Vitamin C in a dose of 2g/day as add on therapy to oral hypoglycemic agent produces improvement in lipid profile to the desirable levels and thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications. (ssjournals.com)
  • however, similar hypoglycemic efficacy occurs with equipotent dosage of sulfonylureas. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Oral Hypoglycemic agents History In contrast to the systematic studies that led to the isolation of insulin, the sulfonylureas were discovered accidentally. (jimdo.com)
  • Effect of the new oral antidiabetic agent(-)-BM 13.0913. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Likewise, substances that raise the level of glucose in the blood are called hyperglycemic agents. (drugtimes.org)
  • 1 In an effort to slow disease progression, there has been a concerted effort to develop newer pharmacologic agents with alternate mechanisms of action and minimal harms. (annfammed.org)
  • 8. Understand the different mechanisms of action between the commonly used oral hypoglycemic agents. (powershow.com)
  • There are 2 types of oral hypoglycaemic agents: Sulphonylureas and the Biguanides. (nowvningboe.info)
  • Buformin and the other biguanides are not hypoglycemic, but rather antihyperglycemic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical efficacy of troglitazone, a newly developed oral hypoglycemic agent, in patients with NIDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Options for monotherapy and combination therapy, efficacy of specific agents, adverse effects and special populations are some issues addressed in this review. (aafp.org)
  • being applicable for patients of high blood sugar who get bad efficacy when treated with other sulfonyl Urea hypoglycemic agents. (chemicalbook.com)
  • The introduction of orally effective hypoglycemic agents was an important development in the treatment of hyperglycemia. (google.com)
  • Alkylating agents are used to treat cancer because they interfere with cell metabolism and growth. (tabers.com)
  • 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307653/all/Hypoglycemic_Agent_Poisoning. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Modern combination antiretroviral therapy consists of at least three antiretroviral agents and leads to virologic suppression in most patients who are able to take their medication regularly. (cmaj.ca)
  • In patients for whom diet and exercise do not provide adequate glucose control, therapy with a single oral agent can be tried. (aafp.org)
  • These agents are also used to treat patients with wasting illnesses. (tabers.com)
  • This study aimed to assess the glycaemic goal attainment rates, hypoglycaemic episodes, weight gain and treatment compliance among patients with T2DM receiving SU or SU+MET. (bmj.com)
  • An oral hypoglycemic agent is a medication (usually a pill or capsule) that can be take by mouth to lower a high blood sugar toward normal. (jimdo.com)
  • The most common pharmacotherapies were cardiovascular agents, followed by antiplatelet agents. (mja.com.au)
  • Criteria for initiation of therapy with an oral agent versus insulin are debated among diabetologists, but the decision should be made jointly by the physician and patient to obtain the best results. (aafp.org)
  • These agents can reduce the level of serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), induce weight loss, and decrease blood pressure [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We sought to compare self-reported adherence and electronic monitoring of adherence with oral hypoglycemic agents and antidepressants because our prior work indicated participants think about their physical and mental health differently. (ajmc.com)
  • M. M. Said ,S. F. Abdel Aziz , Some biological aspects of propolis [bee glue]: II-propolis as hypoglycemic agent, J. Drug Res. (who.int)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of centpiperalone, a new hypoglycemic agent on insulin biosynthesis & release from isolated pancreatic islets of rat. (who.int)
  • Therefore, in the evaluation of the hypoglycemic patient, the possible use of oral hypoglycemic agents as the cause for low blood glucose and elevated plasma insulin must be considered. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Proper interpretation requires that the blood specimen be drawn during or close to the time of a hypoglycemic episode. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • 1 Despite the introduction of new agents to the armamentarium of hypoglycemic agents, efforts for better management of this disease have been disappointing and the control of blood glucose levels remains unsatisfactory. (aafp.org)
  • The aim of this study is to develop a protocol for a core outcome set (COS) for the metabolic follow-up at 1 year and beyond of women with previous GDM treated with insulin and/or oral hypoglycaemic agents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further research is needed to determine pramlintide's durability of hypoglycemic effect, as well as effects on patient-reported outcomes, morbidity, mortality, and long-term harms. (annfammed.org)
  • Short term exposure to mobile phone jammer radiation has a hypoglycemic effect on adult male rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • can enhance the hypoglycemic effect of exogenous insulin and strengthen the post-receptor effect of insulin. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Two of them are known as hydroxylated compounds with no hypoglycemic effect and is mainly excreted from the urine and a small amount is excreted by the stool. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Nevertheless, the highest concentrations of the tested plant chemical agents were responsible for the statistically significant genotypic effect. (bireme.br)
  • Troglitazone, developed as a drug to enhance insulin action, can be a useful hypoglycemic agent for the treatment of NIDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)