The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The absence of light.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Physical changes in the growth patterns of a plant brought on by sustained absence of light. These changes are characterized by lengthened internodes which produce long weak stems, fewer leaves, and pale yellow color (chlorosis). The physiological basis for etiolation is induction of the phytohormone, AUXIN.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
Basic functional unit of plants.

Light-dependent translocation of a phytochrome B-GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in transgenic Arabidopsis. (1/551)

Phytochrome is a ubiquitous photoreceptor of plants and is encoded by a small multigene family. We have shown recently that a functional nuclear localization signal may reside within the COOH-terminal region of a major member of the family, phytochrome B (phyB) (Sakamoto, K., and A. Nagatani. 1996. Plant J. 10:859-868). In the present study, a fusion protein consisting of full-length phyB and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was overexpressed in the phyB mutant of Arabidopsis to examine subcellular localization of phyB in intact tissues. The resulting transgenic lines exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes reported previously for phyB overexpressing plants, suggesting that the fusion protein is biologically active. Immunoblot analysis with anti-phyB and anti-GFP monoclonal antibodies confirmed that the fusion protein accumulated to high levels in these lines. Fluorescence microscopy of the seedlings revealed that the phyB-GFP fusion protein was localized to the nucleus in light grown tissues. Interestingly, the fusion protein formed speckles in the nucleus. Analysis of confocal optical sections confirmed that the speckles were distributed within the nucleus. In contrast, phyB-GFP fluorescence was observed throughout the cell in dark-grown seedlings. Therefore, phyB translocates to specific sites within the nucleus upon photoreceptor activation.  (+info)

poc1: an Arabidopsis mutant perturbed in phytochrome signaling because of a T DNA insertion in the promoter of PIF3, a gene encoding a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein. (2/551)

The phytochrome family of informational photoreceptors has a central role in regulating light-responsive gene expression, but the mechanism of intracellular signal transduction has remained elusive. In a genetic screen for T DNA-tagged Arabidopsis mutants affected in early signaling intermediates, we identified poc1 (photocurrent 1), which exhibits enhanced responsiveness to red light. This phenotype is absent in a phyB (phytochrome B) null mutant background, indicating that the poc1 mutation enhances phyB signal transduction. The T DNA insertion in poc1 was found to be located in the promoter region of PIF3, a gene encoding a basic helix-loop-helix protein. The mutant phenotype seems to result from insertion-induced overexpression of this gene in red-light-grown seedlings, consistent with PIF3 functioning as a positively acting signaling intermediate. These findings, combined with data from a separate yeast two-hybrid screen that identified PIF3 as a phytochrome-interacting factor necessary for normal signaling, provide evidence that phytochrome signal transduction may include a direct pathway to photoresponsive nuclear genes via physical interaction of the photoreceptor molecules with the potential transcriptional regulator PIF3.  (+info)

Expansins are conserved in conifers and expressed in hypocotyls in response to exogenous auxin. (3/551)

Differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the induction of gene expression during adventitious root formation in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) after treatment with the exogenous auxin indole-3-butyric acid. A BLAST search of the GenBank database using one of the clones obtained revealed very strong similarity to the alpha-expansin gene family in angiosperms. A near-full-length loblolly pine alpha-expansin sequence was obtained using 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA end cloning, and the deduced amino acid sequence was highly conserved relative to those of angiosperm expansins. Northern analysis indicates that alpha-expansin mRNA expression increases 50- to 100-fold in the base of hypocotyl stem cuttings from loblolly pine seedlings in response to indole-3-butyric acid, with peak expression occurring 24 to 48 h after induction.  (+info)

Ethylene plays multiple nonprimary roles in modulating the gravitropic response in tomato. (4/551)

Ethylene is known to interact with auxin in regulating stem growth, and yet evidence for the role of ethylene in tropic responses is contradictory. Our analysis of four mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) altered in their response to gravity, auxin, and/or ethylene revealed concentration-dependent modulation of shoot gravitropism by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors reduce wild-type gravicurvature, and extremely low (0.0005-0.001 microliter L-1) ethylene concentrations can restore the reduced gravitropic response of the auxin-resistant dgt (diageotropica) mutant to wild-type levels. Slightly higher concentrations of ethylene inhibit the gravitropic response of all but the ethylene-insensitive nr (never-ripe) mutant. The gravitropic responses of nr and the constitutive-response mutant epi (epinastic) are slightly and significantly delayed, respectively, but otherwise normal. The reversal of shoot gravicurvature by red light in the lz-2 (lazy-2) mutant is not affected by ethylene. Taken together, these data indicate that, although ethylene does not play a primary role in the gravitropic response of tomato, low levels of ethylene are necessary for a full gravitropic response, and moderate levels of the hormone specifically inhibit gravicurvature in a manner different from ethylene inhibition of overall growth.  (+info)

Regulation of differential growth in the apical hook of Arabidopsis. (5/551)

Arabidopsis seedlings develop a hook-like structure at the apical part of the hypocotyl when grown in darkness. Differential cell growth processes result in the curved hypocotyl hook. Time-dependent analyses of the hypocotyl showed that the apical hook is formed during an early phase of seedling growth and is maintained in a sequential phase by a distinct process. Based on developmental genetic analyses of hook-affected mutants, we show that the hookless mutants (hls1, cop2) are involved in an early aspect of hook development. From time-dependent analyses of ethylene-insensitive mutants, later steps in hook maintenance were found to be ethylene sensitive. Regulation of differential growth was further studied through examination of the spatial pattern of expression of two hormone-regulated genes: an ethylene biosynthetic enzyme and the ethylene receptor ETR1. Accumulation of mRNA for AtACO2, a novel ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) oxidase gene, occurred within cells predominantly located on the outer-side of the hook and was tightly correlated with ethylene-induced exaggeration in the curvature of the hook. ETR1 expression in the apical hook, however, was reduced by ethylene treatment. Based on the expression pattern of ETR1 and AtACO2 in the hook-affected mutants, a model for hook development and maintenance is proposed.  (+info)

Sulfate is both a substrate and an activator of the voltage-dependent anion channel of Arabidopsis hypocotyl cells. (6/551)

On the basis of the anion content of in vitro-cultured Arabidopsis plantlets, we explored the selectivity of the voltage-dependent anion channel of the plasma membrane of hypocotyl cells. In the whole-cell configuration, substitution of cytosolic Cl(-) by different anions led to the following sequence of relative permeabilities: NO(3)(-) (2.6) >/= SO(4)(2-) (2.0) > Cl(-) (1.0) > HCO(3)(-) (0.8) >> malate(2-) (0.03). Large whole-cell currents were measured for NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-), about five to six times higher than the equivalent Cl(-) currents. Since SO(4)(2-) is usually considered to be a weakly permeant or non-permeant ion, the components of the large whole-cell current were explored in more detail. Aside from its permeation through the channel with a unitary conductance, about two-thirds that of Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) had a regulatory effect on channel activity by preventing the run-down of the anion current both in the whole-cell and the outside-out configuration, increasing markedly the whole-cell current. The fact that the voltage-dependent plasma membrane anion channel of hypocotyl cells can mediate large NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) currents and is regulated by nucleotides favors the idea that this anion channel can contribute to the cellular homeostasis of important metabolized anions.  (+info)

The relationship between ethylene binding and dominant insensitivity conferred by mutant forms of the ETR1 ethylene receptor. (7/551)

Ethylene responses in Arabidopsis are mediated by a small family of receptors, including the ETR1 gene product. Specific mutations in the N-terminal ethylene-binding domain of any family member lead to dominant ethylene insensitivity. To investigate the mechanism of ethylene insensitivity, we examined the effects of mutations on the ethylene-binding activity of the ETR1 protein expressed in yeast. The etr1-1 and etr1-4 mutations completely eliminated ethylene binding, while the etr1-3 mutation severely reduced binding. Additional site-directed mutations that disrupted ethylene binding in yeast also conferred dominant ethylene insensitivity when the mutated genes were transferred into wild-type Arabidopsis plants. By contrast, the etr1-2 mutation did not disrupt ethylene binding in yeast. These results indicate that dominant ethylene insensitivity may be conferred by mutations that disrupt ethylene binding or that uncouple ethylene binding from signal output by the receptor. Increased dosage of wild-type alleles in triploid lines led to the partial recovery of ethylene sensitivity, indicating that dominant ethylene insensitivity may involve either interactions between wild-type and mutant receptors or competition between mutant and wild-type receptors for downstream effectors.  (+info)

Modification of distinct aspects of photomorphogenesis via targeted expression of mammalian biliverdin reductase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. (8/551)

The phenotypic consequences of targeted expression of mammalian biliverdin IXalpha reductase (BVR), an enzyme that metabolically inactivates the linear tetrapyrrole precursors of the phytochrome chromophore, are addressed in this investigation. Through comparative phenotypic analyses of multiple plastid-targeted and cytosolic BVR transgenic Arabidopsis plant lines, we show that the subcellular localization of BVR affects distinct subsets of light-mediated and light-independent processes in plant growth and development. Regardless of its cellular localization, BVR suppresses the phytochrome-modulated responses of hypocotyl growth inhibition, sucrose-stimulated anthocyanin accumulation, and inhibition of floral initiation. By contrast, reduced protochlorophyll levels in dark-grown seedlings and fluence-rate-dependent reduction of chlorophyll occur only in transgenic plants in which BVR is targeted to plastids. Together with companion analyses of the phytochrome chromophore-deficient hy1 mutant, our results suggest a regulatory role for linear tetrapyrroles within the plastid compartment distinct from their assembly with apophytochromes in the cytosol.  (+info)

We have examined the biological activity of rice type I phytochrome (PI) in transgenic tobacco seedlings. The progeny of four independent transformants that expressed the rice PI gene segregated 3:1 for shorter hypocotyl length under dim white light (0.04 W/m2). By contrast, this phenotype was not observed either in the dark or under white light at higher intensity (6.0 W/m2). This suggests that the phenotype is dependent not only on light but also on light intensity. The increased light sensitivity cosegregated with the kanamycin-resistance marker as well as with the rice PI polypeptides, indicating that this phenotype is directly related to the expression of the transgene. The transgenic plants showing short hypocotyls exhibited a reduced growth rate throughout the elongation period, and the resulting shorter hypocotyl length was attributable to shorter epidermal cell length but not to reduced cell number. Furthermore, successive pulse irradiations with red light elicited short hypocotyls ...
To gain insight into the role of the SPY-GI interaction in Arabidopsis, several different phenotypes known to be affected in gi were examined in single and double mutants. Consistent with SPY and GI acting in common pathways, loss of SPY function suppresses loss of GI function phenotypes, including the long hypocotyl phenotype of plants grown under red light (Figure 3), late flowering (Figure 6), and reduced CO and FT RNA abundance (Figure 8).. The strongest suppression of gi-2 by spy-4 was observed for hypocotyl length. When grown under red light, gi-2 seedlings have a long hypocotyl (Huq et al., 2000; Figure 3). The hypocotyl length of both spy-4 and spy-4 gi-2 seedlings was indistinguishable from the wild type. By contrast, spy-4 partially suppressed the late flowering and reduced CO and FT RNA levels of gi-2.. GI affects flowering time by acting in the long-day pathway (Araki and Komeda, 1993; Koornneef et al., 1998; Fowler et al., 1999). SPY is believed to delay flowering by inhibiting the ...
Abstract The ability for cut tissues to join and form a chimeric organism is a remarkable property of many plants; however, grafting is poorly characterized at the molecular level. To better understand this process, we monitored genome-wide gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls. We observed a sequential activation of genes associated with cambium, phloem, and xylem formation. Tissues above and below the graft rapidly developed an asymmetry such that many genes were more highly expressed on one side than on the other. This asymmetry correlated with sugar-responsive genes, and we observed an accumulation of starch above the graft junction. This accumulation decreased along with asymmetry once the sugar-transporting vascular tissues reconnected. Despite the initial starvation response below the graft, many genes associated with vascular formation were rapidly activated in grafted tissues but not in cut and separated tissues, indicating that a recognition
Grafting is a technique widely used in horticulture. The processes involved in grafting are diverse, and the technique is commonly employed in studies focusing on the mechanisms that regulate cell differentiation or response of plants to abiotic stress. Information on the changes in the composition of the cell wall that occur during the grafting process is scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out for analyzing the composition of the cell wall using Arabidopsis hypocotyls as an example. During the study, the formation of a layer that covers the surface of the graft union was observed. So, this study also aimed to describe the histological and cellular changes that accompany autografting of Arabidopsis hypocotyls and to perform preliminary chemical and structural analyses of extracellular material that seals the graft union. During grafting, polyphenolic and lipid compounds were detected, along with extracellular deposition of carbohydrate/protein material. The spatiotemporal changes observed in the
We examined the distribution and the immunohistochemical localization of yieldin in etiolated cowpea seedlings with an anti-yieldin antibody. An immunoblotting analysis revealed that the yieldin was located in the aerial organs (plumule, epicotyl and hypocotyl) but not in the roots. The intensity of the yieldin signal in the hypocotyls was highest in the apical pre-elongation region (the hook region) and decreased toward the elongated mature base indicating that the yieldin disappeared with the ceasing of cell elongation. Tissue-print immunoblotting analysis using hypocotyls in different germination stages supports this view because the apical yieldin-rich regions, just beneath the cotyledonary node (the hook and rapidly elongating regions), acropetally migrated together with hypocotyl elongation. Immunohistochemical microscopy demonstrated that yieldin was localized in the cell walls of the cortex and epidermis of the germ axes. The present results are consistent with the view that yieldin ...
Higher plants have to cope with the environmental conditions at the place where they germinate and grow. Light is a key signal required for optimising their adaptation and survival. In the dark, a seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis where it develops long hypocotyl, and apical hook and closed cotyledons. Under light, however, a seedling changes its developmental program to photomorphogenesis, resulting in a short hypocotyl, opened cotyledons, and the build-up of photosynthetic capacity. Plants have evolved multiple specialised photosensory systems to monitor changes in the surrounding light conditions. The photoreceptors Phytochromes regulate all aspects of photomorphogenic development of plants throughout their whole life-cycle including seed germination, seedling development, the shade avoidance response to detect and escape shading by photosynthetically active neighbors, entrainment of the circadian clock and the onset of flowering. Phytochromes have the capacity to steadily and rapidly ...
This is a two-day workshop and is by invitation only. For further information please contact; Ari Sadanandom ([email protected]).. Higher plants have to cope with the environmental conditions at the place where they germinate and grow. Light is a key signal required for optimising their adaptation and survival. In the dark, a seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis where it develops long hypocotyl, and apical hook and closed cotyledons. Under light, however, a seedling changes its developmental program to photomorphogenesis, resulting in a short hypocotyl, opened cotyledons, and the build-up of photosynthetic capacity. Plants have evolved multiple specialised photosensory systems to monitor changes in the surrounding light conditions. The photoreceptors Phytochromes regulate all aspects of photomorphogenic development of plants throughout their whole life-cycle including seed germination, seedling development, the shade avoidance response to detect and escape shading by ...
The expression of TTL genes is induced by BRs and TTL3 shows its highest expression at the root elongation zone and at the hypocotyl, areas of high BR activity (González-García et al., 2011; Bernardo-García et al., 2014). Individual ttl1, ttl3, and ttl4, and particularly the triple ttl134 mutants, are hyposensitive to BR in root growth assays and show reduced hypocotyl elongation. Further lines of genetic evidence supporting the function of TTL genes in BR signaling come from phenotypic analyses of the quadruple mutants of ttl genes with either bri1-301 or bes1-D. At the molecular level, ttl134 shows increased expression of BR-repressed genes, whereas BR-induced dephosphorylation of the transcription factor BES1 is strongly reduced. At the cellular level, a functional TTL3-GFP shows a dual localization in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane in untreated seedlings. Treatment with eBL caused TTL3-GFP relocalization from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane, while treatment with a BR biosynthesis ...
In dark-grown hypocotyls of the Arabidopsis procuste mutant, a mutation in the CesA6 gene encoding a cellulose synthase reduces… Expand ...
CF: At present, we are much interested in a phenomenon that is still poorly understood, namely the fact that different plant organs show a different response to shade. For example, under limiting light conditions for a seedling, the hypocotyl will elongate whereas growth of the cotyledons is decelerated. For this reason, we have performed transcriptome profiling experiments comparing light and shade conditions, not on entire seedlings as we initially did, but on cotyledons and hypocotyls, separately. In this way, we try to explain in molecular terms how the same cue leads to a different growth response in these two organs.. - But somehow these different physiological and developmental processes must be integrated into an all-encompassing response to that particular environmental cue, right?. CF: Absolutely. As a matter of fact in nature multiple photoreceptors sense the environment, and that information has to be integrated. For example, we recently showed how cues from phytochromes informing ...
Prerequisites Must be admitted in one of the following courses: HBES, HBESB, HZESPB and must pass EXS1EFH.. Co-requisitesN/A. Incompatible subjectsN/A. Equivalent subjectsN/A. Special conditionsN/A. ...
Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30 and 0-5 ‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity
No direct correlation was found between salt tolerance and vivipary. Ion (Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Cl-) concentrations on a dry weight basis (mg/g) and on a milli-molar basis per mass of water in fresh tissue (mM) were followed during the development of Kandelia candel hypocotyls and after mature hypocotyls were transplanted under different treatments (salinities of 0, 15 and 30parts per thousand). During hypocotyl development, ion concentrations on a dry weight basis declined especially for Mg2+ and Ca2+. The decrease could not be explained by the decrease in water content. However, the concentrations on a milli-molar basis did not decrease, but increased slightly at a later stage. Mass balance studies showed that the hypocotyl development was a salt accumulation process, especially for Na+, K+ and Cl-. Mangrove propagules adapt themselves to hyposaline environments by accumulating salt, especially before leaving their parent plants. Substrate salinity showed no modification of trends in Ca2+ ...
A hypocotyl rot disease of sugar pine is described that caused severe losses in less than 3-mo-old seedlings of Pinus lambertiana, Abies concolor, and A. magnifica in California forest nurseries. Fusarium oxysporum was found to be the causal organism. Greenhouse-grown seedlings developed resistance to infection by the third week after emergence, and roots were resistant at all ages. Hypocotyl rot strains were not pathogenic when tested against 14 agricultural hosts. Nine strains of F. oxysporum from agricultural hosts were not pathogenic when tested against P. lambertiana. Strains from Oregon ponderosa pine hypocotyl cankers were pathogenic on P. lambertiana hypocotyls. ...
Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) are members of a subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcript factors and have been proposed to act as positive regulators of hypocotyl elongation under normal condition. Here, we show that PIF1, 3, 4, 5 together play a central role in sucrose-induced hypocot …
Cryptochrome 2 is a flavin-type blue light receptor mediating floral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition. cry2 is required for the elevated expression of the flowering-time gene CO in response to long-day photoperiods, but the molecular mechanism …
Conifers show a decline in the ability to form adventitious roots that is associated with maturation, an age-related developmental process that also affects reproductive competence, morphology, and growth rate (Poethig, 1990; Greenwood and Hutchison, 1993). The rate and the extent of the loss of rooting ability are species dependent. For example, in eastern larch we showed that the frequency of cuttings that root declines from 100% to 50% during the course of 20 years (Greenwood et al., 1989). In contrast, loss of rooting ability occurs abruptly and early in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Greenwood and Weir (1995) showed that 20-d-old hypocotyl cuttings from loblolly pine root readily within 3 weeks in the presence of exogenous auxin. However, woody cuttings from 1- to 2-year-old plants root poorly even after 2 to 3 months. In the latter case, exogenous auxin has little effect. We have extended the observations of Greenwood and Weir (1995)and shown that, whereas hypocotyl cuttings made from 20- or ...
The phytohormone auxin regulates diverse aspects of plant development, including tissue elongation, tropic growth, embryogenesis, apical dominance, lateral root initiation, and vascular differentiation (Teale et al., 2006). Proteins in the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX protein (TIR1/AFB) family have recently been demonstrated to function as nuclear receptors for auxin (Dharmasiri et al., 2005a; Kepinski and Leyser, 2005). The auxin signal transduction system operating via the E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex SCFTIR1/AFB (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes TIR1/AFBs, plays a critical role in many auxin-mediated responses through transcriptional regulation (Mockaitis and Estelle, 2008).. Auxin-induced elongation of plant organs, such as hypocotyls, coleoptiles, and roots, has been explained by the acid-growth theory since the 1970s (Rayle and Cleland, 1970; Hager et al., 1971; Moloney et al., 1981). The theory states that auxin enhances proton extrusion via the plasma ...
Four new cyclohexylideneacetonitrile derivatives 1-4, named menisdaurins B-E, as well as three known cyclohexylideneacetonitrile derivatives--menisdaurin (5), coclauril (6), and menisdaurilide (7)--were isolated from the hypocotyl of a mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). The structures of the isolates were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-7 showed anti-Hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities, with EC50 values ranging from 5.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL to 87.7 ± 5.8 μg/mL.
Abasolo, W.; Eder, M.; Yamauchi, K.; Obel, N.; Reinecke, A.; Neumetzler, L.; Dunlop, J. W. C.; Mouille, G.; Pauly, M.; Hofte, H. et al.; Burgert, I.: Pectin May Hinder the Unfolding of Xyloglucan Chains during Cell Deformation: Implications of the Mechanical Performance of Arabidopsis Hypocotyls with Pectin Alterations. Molecular Plant 2 (5), S. 990 - 999 (2009 ...
Slune nice ro n , Slne nica ro n , Helianthus annuus L. - Nab z me osiva a semena rostlin zeleniny jako raj at, paprik a jin ch plodin, prod v me tak sem nka kv tin a bylinek.
Under dark conditions, the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 is enriched in the nucleus, where it contributes to the degradation of various transcriptional regulators involved in the photomorphogenic response, including HY5 (ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5). Thus, in Arabidopsis, COP1 is a negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. Oravecz et al. report that COP1 has a positive role in plant responses to low-level ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation through a mechanism that includes stimulation of expression of the HY5 gene. Microarray analysis and phenotypic analysis of wild-type and hy5-1 mutant plants indicated that HY5 was necessary for the stimulation of the expression of genes involved in tolerance to UV-B. The nonlethal COP1 mutant cop1-4 also exhibited decreased UV-B-mediated stimulation of several genes, including HY5, and about half of the genes that required COP1 also required HY5. Plants respond to UV-B by stimulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, which produces sunscreen flavonoids. Both ...
Cosgrove Daniel J. , Li Lian Chao , Cho Hyung-Taeg , BENNING Susanne Hoffmann , MOORE Richard C. , BLECKER Douglas Plant and cell physiology 43(12), 1436-1444, 2002-12-01 参考文献77件 被引用文献7件 ...
4. Label the parts of the plant on the sequencing cards and color in the pictures. (Note: My daughter is 4.5 and I wanted her to be able to label the parts herself so we stuck to seed, root, stem, and leaf. If you print out labels, a preschooler or kindergartner who is not yet writing can glue the labels in the proper place. Older children can write out more sophisticated terms, such as: root system, cotyledon, hypocotyl, seed coat, etc.). ...
Azure NetApp Files lets you deploy SMB file shares directly onto your private VNET and support FSLogix profile containers and shared files for WVD
콩 종실은 형태학적으로 종피(種皮, seed coat), 자엽(子葉, cotyledon), 배아(胚芽, embryo)로 구성되어 있으며 종피에 자엽과 배아가 싸여 있다. 배아는 유아(幼芽, epicotyl), 배축(胚軸, hypocotyl), 유근(幼根, radicle)으로 되어 있으며 외견상 다소 도드라져 있고, 콩의 각 부위별 비율은 자엽 90~92%, 종피 6~8%, 배아 2% 정도에 달한다(Liu, 1997).. 콩은 우리의 다양한 전통식품 및 가공식품으로 이용되고 있는데, 단백질과 지방의 함량이 높고 isoflavone 및 soyasaponin등과 같은 생리활성물질을 다량 함유하고 있다. 콩의 isoflavone은 C15H10O2의 분자식 가지며 12종의 isomer가 알려져 있는데 대부분 당을 포함한 daidzin, genistin 및 glycitin의 배당체로 존재한다. Isoflavone은 여성 호르몬인 estrogen과 구조적으로 유사하여 식물성 에스트로겐(phytoestrogen)이라 불리며, 인체에서 estrogen과 유사활성을 ...
The C++ source code (version 0.3) is available here: Media:hypophen.tar.gz. The latest code is also available on sourceforge The windows executable (along with required dlls) for Windows 7 is here: Media:HypoPhen_win.zip. Note that this executable is for the standard x86 (32 bits) architectures. Let Micha know if you need it for a 64 bits architecture. There is also a dmg file for MacOS. The manual explains how to install and use the software. You can also download a small set of hypocotyl test images to test the software. Those images were kindly provided by Emilie Demarsy. ...
The C++ source code (version 0.3) is available here: Media:hypophen.tar.gz. The latest code is also available on sourceforge The windows executable (along with required dlls) for Windows 7 is here: Media:HypoPhen_win.zip. Note that this executable is for the standard x86 (32 bits) architectures. Let Micha know if you need it for a 64 bits architecture. There is also a dmg file for MacOS. The manual explains how to install and use the software. You can also download a small set of hypocotyl test images to test the software. Those images were kindly provided by Emilie Demarsy. ...
سابقه و هدف: آستنوزوسپرمی به ­عنوان شایع ­ترین اختلال منجر به ناباروری مردان، به­ صورت کمبود شدید حرکت پیش­رونده‌ی اسپرم در هر انزال تعریف می­ شود. این فنوتیپ می­ تواند هم به­صورت غیرسندرومی و هم به ­صورت سندرومی وجود داشته باشد که در حالت دوم به ­عنوان یک عارضه جانبی سندروم مژک ...
سلول­ های بنیادی سلول­ های تمایز نیافته با قابلیت تقسیم و تمایز به انواع مختلف سلول­ ها می باشند. منبع این سلول­ ها از جنین و افراد بالغ تأمین می­ شود که هر کدام ویژگی­ های خاص خود را دارند. برای حدوداً چندین دهه مطالعه­ های تجربی به­ منظور استفاده از این ...
سابقه و هدف: سلول­ های بنیادی اسپرماتوگونی با حفظ تعادل بین خودنوسازی و تمایز سبب تداوم روند اسپرماتوژنز می­ شوند. هدف از انجام مطالعه حاضر بررسی تاثیر غلظت­ های مختلف تستوسترون بر کلونی‌زایی سلول­ های بنیادی اسپرماتوگونی گوسفند می‌باشد. مواد و روش‌ها: سلول­ های اسپرماتوگونی بیضه گوسفند نابالغ با روش هضم آنزیمی دو ...
不動産担保ローンは無担保のローンに比べ金利が安い - 所有している不動産を担保にして借り入れをする不動産担保ローンは 無担保のローンに比べると 不動産の価値にもよりますが 金利が安く 融資額が大きい 長期の借り入れが可能などのメリットがあります》 融資額の内容は所有している […] ...
این آزمایش جهت تعیین احتیاجات ترئونین بلدرچین تخم ­گذار در سنین 17-10 هفتگی انجام شد. از تعداد 240 قطعه بلدرچین ژاپنی ماده از سن 10 تا 17 هفتگی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی (CRD) استفاده شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل جیره پایه (69/0% ترئونین)، جیره پایه+05/0% ال- ترئونین (74/0% ترئونین) و جیره ...
Linear growth of Rhizoctonia solani after 72 hr at 20 C was significantly less on all nutrient concentrations of potato-dextrose agar amended with cycloate (S-ethyl N-ethylthio-cyclohexanecarbamate) from 10 to 100 μg/ml, than in controls without cycloate. Rate of growth of mycelium of R. solani was less in Czapek-Dox broth with 1 g yeast extract/liter amended with 4 or 8 μg/ml cycloate, than in controls. In raw soil amended with 4 and 8 μg/g cycloate, and in steamed soil amended with 4 μg/g cycloate, colonization of 5-mm-long mature bean hypocotyl segments by R. solani was slightly greater than in soil without cycloate. At 16 and 32 μg/g cycloate, colonization of hypocotyl segments was significantly less than in nonamended controls in both steamed and raw soil. Colonization of sterile sugar beet seeds by R. solani also was less with 8, 16, and 32 μg/g cycloate than in controls.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Recovery from water stress in five sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars. II. The development of leaf area.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Chiaranda, F.Q.; D.A.dria, R., 1994: Effect of different irrigation scheduling on yield and water uptake of a spring sunflower crop (Helianthus annuus L.)
University of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission. ...
Cops7a (untagged) - Mouse COP9 (constitutive photomorphogenic) homolog, subunit 7a (Arabidopsis thaliana) (Cops7a), transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
Plants need sunlight to feed and grow. Without light, the photosynthesis, the reaction by which the plant chloroplasts convert atmospheric CO2 and water into sugars and oxygen, cannot take place.
Thermomorphogenesis is defined as the suite of morphological changes that together are likely to contribute to adaptive growth acclimation to usually elevated ambient temperature [ 1, 2 ]. While many details of warmth-induced signal transduction are still elusive, parallels to light signaling recently became obvious (reviewed in [ 3 ]). It involves photoreceptors that can also sense changes in ambient temperature [ 3-5 ] and act, for example, by repressing protein activity of the central integrator of temperature information PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4 [ 6 ]). In addition, PIF4 transcript accumulation is tightly controlled by the evening complex member EARLY FLOWERING 3 [ 7, 8 ]. According to the current understanding, PIF4 activates growth-promoting genes directly but also via inducing auxin biosynthesis and signaling, resulting in cell elongation. Based on a mutagenesis screen in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for mutants with defects in temperature-induced hypocotyl ...
www.MOLUNA.de Photomorphogenesis in Plants and Bacteria [4093510] - InhaltsverzeichnisrnrnPreface Abbreviations Part 1: General Introduction And Historical Overview Of Photomorphogenesis: n1. Historical Overview; Eberhard Schäfer And Ferenc Nagy. 2. Physiological Basis Of Photomorphogenesis; Eberhard Schäfer And Ferenc Nagy. 3. Historical Overview Of Molecular Biology And Genetics In Photomorphogenesis; Eberhard Schäfer And Ferenc Nagy. 4. Genetic Basis And Molecular Mechanisms
peroxidase and IAA oxidase activities. Protein concentration was determined by the method of Bradford (1976) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as protein standard.. IAA oxidase assay IAA oxidase activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method described by Beffa et al. (1990). Reaction mixtures contained 0.76 ml of 50 mM phosphate buffer (KH2PO4/Na2HPO4, pH 6.0), 0.01 ml of 5 mM MnCl2, 0.01 ml of 5 mM 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 0.02 ml of 14.3 mM IAA and 0.2 ml of enzyme extract. The final volume of the reaction mixtures was 1 ml. Assays were conducted at 25.0 0.5 C for 1 h. Salkowski reagent was used to determine IAA destruction at the wavelength of 535 nm after 1 h. One unit of IAA oxidase activity is equivalent to a DA535 of 1.0 for 1 mg of protein in 1 h. Each value represented the mean of three replicates.. Peroxidase assay Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in absorbance at 470 nm after 30 min incubation at 30.0 0.5 C ...
The completion of germination of seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana is marked by the appearance of the radicle through the surrounding endosperm and testa. Using confocal microscopy and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transformed embryos to highlight the epidermal cell walls it has been possible to conduct time-lapse photography of individual embryos during their germination. This reveals that the elongation of embryo cells to effect completion of germination does not occur within the radicle itself, but rather within a discrete region that is immediately proximal to the radicle. This region, identifiable as the lower hypocotyl and hypocotyl-radicle transition zone, is also definable by accumulation of carbohydrate-containing bodies during germination, and distinct GFP expression of GAL4-GFP in enhancer trap lines. Flow cytometric studies show that there is an increase in the proportion of 4C nuclei in the axis which coincides with a considerable increase in length of the hypocotyl, and the ...
Plastid stromules are stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of plastids in higher plants and allow the exchange of protein molecules between plastids. These structures are highly dynamic; stromules change both their shape and position in the cytoplasm very rapidly. Previous studies with microfilament inhibitors indicated that stromule shape and movement are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. To learn more about the nature of the interactions of stromules and the cytoskeleton, we imaged fluorescently-labeled microfilaments and plastids. We have used Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing green fluorescent protein fused to the human actin-binding protein talin to observe microfilaments and their relationship to stromules in vivo. Microfilaments were observed in close contact with stromules and plastid bodies of hypocotyl epidermis. Time-lapse confocal microscopy revealed that microfilament rearrangements were associated with changes in plastid and stromule morphology and position. We also
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The ADC Adstation 5660E 3.5V Wall Extension Module includes a 3.5V handle, and an included bracket makes it easy to attach to a wall or ADC wallboard system
Native Americans used the flexible roots of white spruce for basketry. A mass of adventitious roots along with their branches constitute an adventitious root system. Stem definition: If a condition or problem stems from something, it was caused originally by that thing. Many of them are vines whose stems twine round trees and branches. were able to develop a mechanism for how root detection of Red to Far-red light ratios alter lateral root development.[21]. In 2019, approximately $919 million of craft distiller revenues stemmed from on-site sales. Root definition is - the usually underground part of a seed plant body that originates usually from the hypocotyl, functions as an organ of absorption, aeration, and food storage or as a means of anchorage and support, and differs from a stem especially in lacking nodes, buds, and leaves. These developmental stimuli are categorised as intrinsic, the genetic and nutritional influences, or extrinsic, the environmental influences and are interpreted by ...
A study was undertaken at West Bengal, India with hybrid sunflower cv. Aditya, during winter season of 2011-12 and 2012-13 in a split-plot design with three levels of irrigation (main-plots) and seven levels of sulphur (sub-plots) with three replications. Among the phenotypic traits evaluated, significant (p ≤ 0.01) and positive correlation were detected between WFSC and SI (r = 0.44), SEY (r = 0.58) and STY (r = 0.41); between SI and SEY (r = 0.49) and STY (r = 0.41); between SEY and STY (r = 0.59, p ≤ 0.01). Seed yield showed highest significant (p ≤ 0.01) positive correlation with TNU (r = 0.670), TBU (r = 0.669) as well as with AN (r = 0.602). The OC had significant (p ≤ 0.01) positive correlations with LA (r = 0.874), OA (r = 0.909) and IV (r = 0.936), while significant negative correlations was observed with PA (r = -0.905), SA (r = -0.828) and SV (r = -0.929). Among the growth and yield components, BG (0.612) followed by NFSC (0.579) and WFSC (0.577) exhibited highly positive direct
Vanderhoef, L. N. Two elongation responses to auxin: Implications for current hypotheses of auxin action, p. 551-559. In L. Bogorad and J. H. Weil (Eds.), Acides Nucleiques et Synthese des Proteines chez les Vegetaux, Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ...
Dr. Machida shows that the 6b protein encoded by oncogene 6b is associatedwith tobacco transcription factor NtSIP1 and translocated into the tobacco nucleus. In addition, recent analysis have shown that the 6b protein also interacted with histon H3, which is supposed to be involved in expression of class1 knox homeobox genes such as KNAT2 and KNAT6. Dr. Tanaka shows that the rolB protein is specifically interacted with a certain member of the 14-3-3 family. Dr. Sugiyama shows that a mutation in the SRD2 gene causes defect of shoot formation from a hypocotyl of Arabidopsis by auxin and cytokinin. He has cloned a SRD2 gene. Dr.Morikami shows that root morphology is affected by high concentrations of sucrose and that the IBA gene is responsible for such alteration in morphology. Dr. Sato demonstrates that the AtC401 gene is responsible for stimulation of Arabidopsis flowering. Dr. Tasaka have cloned the CUC1 gene and demonstrates that it belongs to the NAC family. Dr. Ishiguro shows that the HLR ...
Flax seedlings grown in the absence of environmental stimuli, stresses and injuries do not form epidermal meristems in their hypocotyls. Such meristems do form when the stimuli are combined with a tra
Breuer, D.; Nowak, J.; Ivako, A.; Somssich, M.; Persson, S.; Nikoloski, Z.: System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (28), S. E5741 - E5749 (2017 ...
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The HAF XB fills a void, a void created by the need for a system that is easy to access and change but also is suitable to be transported safely.
In dicots, the hypocotyl is what appears to be the base stem under the spent withered cotyledons, and the shoot just above that ... Hypocotyl Radicle Plumule "epicotyl." A Dictionary of Biology. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 3 Dec. 2015. ... the hypocotyl, the region of the stem between the point of attachment of the cotyledons and the root - forms a hook during ...
North of the Brahmaputra river, these peppers are widely called Bhut Jolokia or Bhoot Jolokia, literally translating to 'Ghost Chilli' in Assamese and Bengali ("Bhoot" means ghost in most other Indo-Aryan languages as well). "Bhut" likely does not imply that their origin is Bhutan, as the translation of "from Bhutan" in Assamese is "Bhuitiya" not "Bhut". Furthermore, this pepper has never occurred naturally in the temperate climate of Bhutan. [7] On the southern bank of the river Brahmaputra, this chili is called nôga zôlôkia, believed to be named after the Naga warriors inhabiting the plains and hills of Nagaland. A 2009 paper coined the English term "Naga king chili" which refers to the chili's large pod size.[8][9] It also stated that the most common Indian (Assamese) usage is bhût zôlôkiya and gives the alternate common name as bih zôlôkia, where bih means "poison" in Assamese, denoting the plant's heat. The Assamese word zôlôkia simply means pepper. Other usages on the ...
hypocotyl rot (Pratylenchus coffeae) Radopholus sp. reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus ... parasitica bark rot, fruit rot, hypocotyl rot, patch canker, root rot (Phytophthora palmivora) Phytophthora parasitica root rot ...
Auxin is transported to the hypocotyl to promote elongation, although the mechanism it uses to do so remains unclear. Shade ... Water-imbibed seeds display hypocotyl elongation; if the shade were caused by excessive soil depth, this would help the ... "Cotyledon-Generated Auxin Is Required for Shade-Induced Hypocotyl Growth in Brassica rapa". Plant Physiology. 165 (3): 1285- ...
The hypocotyl is smooth and red. The seedling leaves emerge in an opposite arrangement and are deeply serrated into three ...
The hypocotyl is thick, hairy and red. The cotyledons are linear to lance-shaped with the narrow end towards the base, 3.5-10 ...
The freshly harvested hypocotyl may be roasted in a pit (called huatia), and is considered a delicacy. Fresh roots usually are ... Maca is the only member of the genus Lepidium with a fleshy hypocotyl, which is fused with the taproot to form a rough inverted ... In this form, the hypocotyls can be stored for several years.[1][16] In Peru, maca is prepared and consumed in various ways, ... In the vegetative phase, until May to June, the lower part of the hypocotyl, as well as the upper part of the tap root, grows ...
Hartman, Sjon (November 2020). "MED25 Mediates Shade-Induced Hypocotyl Elongation in Tomato". Plant Physiology. 184 (3): 1217- ... "Mediator Subunit MED25 Physically Interacts with PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 to Regulate Shade-Induced Hypocotyl Elongation ...
The cotyledons sit on a short thick hypocotyl. Victorian state botanist Ferdinand von Mueller first recounted Banksia ...
The hypocotyl is thick, smooth and dark red. The obovate to oblong seedling leaves are 4-9 cm (1 1⁄2-3 1⁄2 in) long by 2.0-2.5 ...
Tanada, T. (1974). "Boron-induced Bioelectric Field Change in Mung Bean Hypocotyl". Plant Physiology. 53 (5): 775-776. doi: ...
It is a growth promoter of cucumber hypocotyl segments. The auxinic action in terms of embryo formation is even better for ... "Induction of embryogenic callus in Cucurbita pepo hypocotyl explants by indole-3-ethanol and its sugar conjugates". Physiologia ... tryptophol arabinoside on Cucurbita pepo hypocotyl fragments. Wine chemistry Indole-3-carbinol Indole-3-butyric acid Cornford, ...
Kohlrabi The edible portion is an enlarged (swollen) hypocotyl. It is a member of the cabbage family and is white, green, or ...
The hypocotyl elongates while the epicotyl remains the same in length. In this way, the hypocotyl pushes the cotyledon upward. ...
Their hypocotyl grows out into an ant-inhabited tuber. Some shrubs or trees have ant holes in their stems (e.g. Globulostylis ...
In Europe the hypocotyl is used as a root vegetable. The leaves are strongly flavored and are used less often, either as a ... rapaceum, grown because its hypocotyl forms a large bulb, white on the inside. The bulb can be kept for months in winter and ... Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Celery seed is also ... Modern cultivars have been selected for either solid petioles, leaf stalks, or a large hypocotyl. A celery stalk readily ...
Pardha Saradhi (1994). "Organic nitrogen stimulates caulogenesis from hypocotyl callus of Phyllanthus fraternus". Plant Cell ...
Stevens, Micah E.; Pijut, Paula M. (2012-01-01). "Hypocotyl derived in vitro regeneration of pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda)". ...
Some of the changes that occur include Inhibition of hypocotyl lengthening. Stimulation of cotyledon expansion. Opening of the ...
The morning loop serves to inhibit hypocotyl elongation, in contrast with the evening-phase loop which promotes hypocotyl ... As a result, hypocotyl elongation is repressed in the early-evening. When the inhibition is alleviated late at night, the ... Two transcription factors, Circadian Clock Associated 1 (CCA1) and Late Elongated Hypocotyl (LHY), repress genes associated ... hypocotyl elongates. Photoperiod flowering is controlled by output gene Gigantea (GI). GI is activated at night and activates ...
The hypocotyl, the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotyledon(s), connecting the epicotyl and the radicle, ... Here the hypocotyl is a rudimentary axis between radicle and plumule. The seeds of corn are constructed with these structures; ... According to Bewley and Black (1978), Brazil nut storage is in hypocotyl, this place of storage is uncommon among seeds. All ... The radicle, the basal tip of the hypocotyl, grows into the primary root. Monocotyledonous plants have two additional ...
It gives rise to the hypocotyl, shoot apical meristem, and cotyledons. basal cell The large basal cell is on the bottom and ... Research has shown that the hypocotyl from both gymnosperms and angiosperms show auxin transport to the root end of the embryo ... The second domain, the central embryo domain, gives rise to the hypocotyl, root apical meristem, and parts of the cotyledons. ... An end stage embryo has five major components including the shoot apical meristem, hypocotyl, root meristem, root cap, and ...
Most species develop a tuber from the hypocotyl, sometimes on roots. The cotyledons are simple, entire and have an blunt tip. ...
As a storage and persistence organ it forms a perennial hypocotyl tuber. It arises solely through a thickening of the hypocotyl ...
Stimulation of Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation In pollination, when the pollen reaches the stigma, the precursor of the ... Debatosh Das,"Ethylene- and shade-induced hypocotyl elongation share transcriptome patterns and functional regulators", "Plant ... Seedling triple response, thickening and shortening of hypocotyl with pronounced apical hook. ...
The tuber begins its growth with the swelling of the seedling hypocotyl. Later, the cavities are formed when cork-generating ...
The ubiquination of KAI2, therefore stimulate seed germination and inhibits hypocotyl elongation. Karrikins could be used as ... In Arabidopsis, karrikins influence seedling photomorphogenesis, resulting in shorter hypocotyls and larger cotyledons. Such ... in order to be able to interact with KARRIKIN-INSENSITIVE2 which is responsible for hypocotyl elongation and the inhibition of ...
Effect of squash mosaic virus infection on microbial populations around the hypocotyl and chloroplast structure and function. ... Association of virus-induced changes in laimosphere microflora and hypocotyl exudation with protection to Fusarium stem rot. ... Soluble metabolites in intercellular regions of squash hypocotyl tissues: implications for exudation. Plant and Soil 47:103-112 ... Subterranean plant organs with a laimosphere include hypocotyls, epicotyls, stems, stolons, corms, bulbs, and leaves. ...
Tubers may form from the hypocotyl of the young seedling, as in Cyclamen. Since the hypocotyl is a region between the stem and ...
1.02 Hypocotyl (ATGE_2) 503.2 44.47. 572.9 585.8 1.02 Cotyledon (ATGE_1). 1387.6 9.48. ...

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