The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The absence of light.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
Physical changes in the growth patterns of a plant brought on by sustained absence of light. These changes are characterized by lengthened internodes which produce long weak stems, fewer leaves, and pale yellow color (chlorosis). The physiological basis for etiolation is induction of the phytohormone, AUXIN.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
Basic functional unit of plants.

Light-dependent translocation of a phytochrome B-GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in transgenic Arabidopsis. (1/551)

Phytochrome is a ubiquitous photoreceptor of plants and is encoded by a small multigene family. We have shown recently that a functional nuclear localization signal may reside within the COOH-terminal region of a major member of the family, phytochrome B (phyB) (Sakamoto, K., and A. Nagatani. 1996. Plant J. 10:859-868). In the present study, a fusion protein consisting of full-length phyB and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was overexpressed in the phyB mutant of Arabidopsis to examine subcellular localization of phyB in intact tissues. The resulting transgenic lines exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes reported previously for phyB overexpressing plants, suggesting that the fusion protein is biologically active. Immunoblot analysis with anti-phyB and anti-GFP monoclonal antibodies confirmed that the fusion protein accumulated to high levels in these lines. Fluorescence microscopy of the seedlings revealed that the phyB-GFP fusion protein was localized to the nucleus in light grown tissues. Interestingly, the fusion protein formed speckles in the nucleus. Analysis of confocal optical sections confirmed that the speckles were distributed within the nucleus. In contrast, phyB-GFP fluorescence was observed throughout the cell in dark-grown seedlings. Therefore, phyB translocates to specific sites within the nucleus upon photoreceptor activation.  (+info)

poc1: an Arabidopsis mutant perturbed in phytochrome signaling because of a T DNA insertion in the promoter of PIF3, a gene encoding a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein. (2/551)

The phytochrome family of informational photoreceptors has a central role in regulating light-responsive gene expression, but the mechanism of intracellular signal transduction has remained elusive. In a genetic screen for T DNA-tagged Arabidopsis mutants affected in early signaling intermediates, we identified poc1 (photocurrent 1), which exhibits enhanced responsiveness to red light. This phenotype is absent in a phyB (phytochrome B) null mutant background, indicating that the poc1 mutation enhances phyB signal transduction. The T DNA insertion in poc1 was found to be located in the promoter region of PIF3, a gene encoding a basic helix-loop-helix protein. The mutant phenotype seems to result from insertion-induced overexpression of this gene in red-light-grown seedlings, consistent with PIF3 functioning as a positively acting signaling intermediate. These findings, combined with data from a separate yeast two-hybrid screen that identified PIF3 as a phytochrome-interacting factor necessary for normal signaling, provide evidence that phytochrome signal transduction may include a direct pathway to photoresponsive nuclear genes via physical interaction of the photoreceptor molecules with the potential transcriptional regulator PIF3.  (+info)

Expansins are conserved in conifers and expressed in hypocotyls in response to exogenous auxin. (3/551)

Differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the induction of gene expression during adventitious root formation in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) after treatment with the exogenous auxin indole-3-butyric acid. A BLAST search of the GenBank database using one of the clones obtained revealed very strong similarity to the alpha-expansin gene family in angiosperms. A near-full-length loblolly pine alpha-expansin sequence was obtained using 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA end cloning, and the deduced amino acid sequence was highly conserved relative to those of angiosperm expansins. Northern analysis indicates that alpha-expansin mRNA expression increases 50- to 100-fold in the base of hypocotyl stem cuttings from loblolly pine seedlings in response to indole-3-butyric acid, with peak expression occurring 24 to 48 h after induction.  (+info)

Ethylene plays multiple nonprimary roles in modulating the gravitropic response in tomato. (4/551)

Ethylene is known to interact with auxin in regulating stem growth, and yet evidence for the role of ethylene in tropic responses is contradictory. Our analysis of four mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) altered in their response to gravity, auxin, and/or ethylene revealed concentration-dependent modulation of shoot gravitropism by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors reduce wild-type gravicurvature, and extremely low (0.0005-0.001 microliter L-1) ethylene concentrations can restore the reduced gravitropic response of the auxin-resistant dgt (diageotropica) mutant to wild-type levels. Slightly higher concentrations of ethylene inhibit the gravitropic response of all but the ethylene-insensitive nr (never-ripe) mutant. The gravitropic responses of nr and the constitutive-response mutant epi (epinastic) are slightly and significantly delayed, respectively, but otherwise normal. The reversal of shoot gravicurvature by red light in the lz-2 (lazy-2) mutant is not affected by ethylene. Taken together, these data indicate that, although ethylene does not play a primary role in the gravitropic response of tomato, low levels of ethylene are necessary for a full gravitropic response, and moderate levels of the hormone specifically inhibit gravicurvature in a manner different from ethylene inhibition of overall growth.  (+info)

Regulation of differential growth in the apical hook of Arabidopsis. (5/551)

Arabidopsis seedlings develop a hook-like structure at the apical part of the hypocotyl when grown in darkness. Differential cell growth processes result in the curved hypocotyl hook. Time-dependent analyses of the hypocotyl showed that the apical hook is formed during an early phase of seedling growth and is maintained in a sequential phase by a distinct process. Based on developmental genetic analyses of hook-affected mutants, we show that the hookless mutants (hls1, cop2) are involved in an early aspect of hook development. From time-dependent analyses of ethylene-insensitive mutants, later steps in hook maintenance were found to be ethylene sensitive. Regulation of differential growth was further studied through examination of the spatial pattern of expression of two hormone-regulated genes: an ethylene biosynthetic enzyme and the ethylene receptor ETR1. Accumulation of mRNA for AtACO2, a novel ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) oxidase gene, occurred within cells predominantly located on the outer-side of the hook and was tightly correlated with ethylene-induced exaggeration in the curvature of the hook. ETR1 expression in the apical hook, however, was reduced by ethylene treatment. Based on the expression pattern of ETR1 and AtACO2 in the hook-affected mutants, a model for hook development and maintenance is proposed.  (+info)

Sulfate is both a substrate and an activator of the voltage-dependent anion channel of Arabidopsis hypocotyl cells. (6/551)

On the basis of the anion content of in vitro-cultured Arabidopsis plantlets, we explored the selectivity of the voltage-dependent anion channel of the plasma membrane of hypocotyl cells. In the whole-cell configuration, substitution of cytosolic Cl(-) by different anions led to the following sequence of relative permeabilities: NO(3)(-) (2.6) >/= SO(4)(2-) (2.0) > Cl(-) (1.0) > HCO(3)(-) (0.8) >> malate(2-) (0.03). Large whole-cell currents were measured for NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-), about five to six times higher than the equivalent Cl(-) currents. Since SO(4)(2-) is usually considered to be a weakly permeant or non-permeant ion, the components of the large whole-cell current were explored in more detail. Aside from its permeation through the channel with a unitary conductance, about two-thirds that of Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) had a regulatory effect on channel activity by preventing the run-down of the anion current both in the whole-cell and the outside-out configuration, increasing markedly the whole-cell current. The fact that the voltage-dependent plasma membrane anion channel of hypocotyl cells can mediate large NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) currents and is regulated by nucleotides favors the idea that this anion channel can contribute to the cellular homeostasis of important metabolized anions.  (+info)

The relationship between ethylene binding and dominant insensitivity conferred by mutant forms of the ETR1 ethylene receptor. (7/551)

Ethylene responses in Arabidopsis are mediated by a small family of receptors, including the ETR1 gene product. Specific mutations in the N-terminal ethylene-binding domain of any family member lead to dominant ethylene insensitivity. To investigate the mechanism of ethylene insensitivity, we examined the effects of mutations on the ethylene-binding activity of the ETR1 protein expressed in yeast. The etr1-1 and etr1-4 mutations completely eliminated ethylene binding, while the etr1-3 mutation severely reduced binding. Additional site-directed mutations that disrupted ethylene binding in yeast also conferred dominant ethylene insensitivity when the mutated genes were transferred into wild-type Arabidopsis plants. By contrast, the etr1-2 mutation did not disrupt ethylene binding in yeast. These results indicate that dominant ethylene insensitivity may be conferred by mutations that disrupt ethylene binding or that uncouple ethylene binding from signal output by the receptor. Increased dosage of wild-type alleles in triploid lines led to the partial recovery of ethylene sensitivity, indicating that dominant ethylene insensitivity may involve either interactions between wild-type and mutant receptors or competition between mutant and wild-type receptors for downstream effectors.  (+info)

Modification of distinct aspects of photomorphogenesis via targeted expression of mammalian biliverdin reductase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. (8/551)

The phenotypic consequences of targeted expression of mammalian biliverdin IXalpha reductase (BVR), an enzyme that metabolically inactivates the linear tetrapyrrole precursors of the phytochrome chromophore, are addressed in this investigation. Through comparative phenotypic analyses of multiple plastid-targeted and cytosolic BVR transgenic Arabidopsis plant lines, we show that the subcellular localization of BVR affects distinct subsets of light-mediated and light-independent processes in plant growth and development. Regardless of its cellular localization, BVR suppresses the phytochrome-modulated responses of hypocotyl growth inhibition, sucrose-stimulated anthocyanin accumulation, and inhibition of floral initiation. By contrast, reduced protochlorophyll levels in dark-grown seedlings and fluence-rate-dependent reduction of chlorophyll occur only in transgenic plants in which BVR is targeted to plastids. Together with companion analyses of the phytochrome chromophore-deficient hy1 mutant, our results suggest a regulatory role for linear tetrapyrroles within the plastid compartment distinct from their assembly with apophytochromes in the cytosol.  (+info)

To gain insight into the role of the SPY-GI interaction in Arabidopsis, several different phenotypes known to be affected in gi were examined in single and double mutants. Consistent with SPY and GI acting in common pathways, loss of SPY function suppresses loss of GI function phenotypes, including the long hypocotyl phenotype of plants grown under red light (Figure 3), late flowering (Figure 6), and reduced CO and FT RNA abundance (Figure 8).. The strongest suppression of gi-2 by spy-4 was observed for hypocotyl length. When grown under red light, gi-2 seedlings have a long hypocotyl (Huq et al., 2000; Figure 3). The hypocotyl length of both spy-4 and spy-4 gi-2 seedlings was indistinguishable from the wild type. By contrast, spy-4 partially suppressed the late flowering and reduced CO and FT RNA levels of gi-2.. GI affects flowering time by acting in the long-day pathway (Araki and Komeda, 1993; Koornneef et al., 1998; Fowler et al., 1999). SPY is believed to delay flowering by inhibiting the ...
Abstract The ability for cut tissues to join and form a chimeric organism is a remarkable property of many plants; however, grafting is poorly characterized at the molecular level. To better understand this process, we monitored genome-wide gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls. We observed a sequential activation of genes associated with cambium, phloem, and xylem formation. Tissues above and below the graft rapidly developed an asymmetry such that many genes were more highly expressed on one side than on the other. This asymmetry correlated with sugar-responsive genes, and we observed an accumulation of starch above the graft junction. This accumulation decreased along with asymmetry once the sugar-transporting vascular tissues reconnected. Despite the initial starvation response below the graft, many genes associated with vascular formation were rapidly activated in grafted tissues but not in cut and separated tissues, indicating that a recognition
We examined the distribution and the immunohistochemical localization of yieldin in etiolated cowpea seedlings with an anti-yieldin antibody. An immunoblotting analysis revealed that the yieldin was located in the aerial organs (plumule, epicotyl and hypocotyl) but not in the roots. The intensity of the yieldin signal in the hypocotyls was highest in the apical pre-elongation region (the hook region) and decreased toward the elongated mature base indicating that the yieldin disappeared with the ceasing of cell elongation. Tissue-print immunoblotting analysis using hypocotyls in different germination stages supports this view because the apical yieldin-rich regions, just beneath the cotyledonary node (the hook and rapidly elongating regions), acropetally migrated together with hypocotyl elongation. Immunohistochemical microscopy demonstrated that yieldin was localized in the cell walls of the cortex and epidermis of the germ axes. The present results are consistent with the view that yieldin ...
Higher plants have to cope with the environmental conditions at the place where they germinate and grow. Light is a key signal required for optimising their adaptation and survival. In the dark, a seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis where it develops long hypocotyl, and apical hook and closed cotyledons. Under light, however, a seedling changes its developmental program to photomorphogenesis, resulting in a short hypocotyl, opened cotyledons, and the build-up of photosynthetic capacity. Plants have evolved multiple specialised photosensory systems to monitor changes in the surrounding light conditions. The photoreceptors Phytochromes regulate all aspects of photomorphogenic development of plants throughout their whole life-cycle including seed germination, seedling development, the shade avoidance response to detect and escape shading by photosynthetically active neighbors, entrainment of the circadian clock and the onset of flowering. Phytochromes have the capacity to steadily and rapidly ...
This is a two-day workshop and is by invitation only. For further information please contact; Ari Sadanandom ([email protected]).. Higher plants have to cope with the environmental conditions at the place where they germinate and grow. Light is a key signal required for optimising their adaptation and survival. In the dark, a seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis where it develops long hypocotyl, and apical hook and closed cotyledons. Under light, however, a seedling changes its developmental program to photomorphogenesis, resulting in a short hypocotyl, opened cotyledons, and the build-up of photosynthetic capacity. Plants have evolved multiple specialised photosensory systems to monitor changes in the surrounding light conditions. The photoreceptors Phytochromes regulate all aspects of photomorphogenic development of plants throughout their whole life-cycle including seed germination, seedling development, the shade avoidance response to detect and escape shading by ...
The expression of TTL genes is induced by BRs and TTL3 shows its highest expression at the root elongation zone and at the hypocotyl, areas of high BR activity (González-García et al., 2011; Bernardo-García et al., 2014). Individual ttl1, ttl3, and ttl4, and particularly the triple ttl134 mutants, are hyposensitive to BR in root growth assays and show reduced hypocotyl elongation. Further lines of genetic evidence supporting the function of TTL genes in BR signaling come from phenotypic analyses of the quadruple mutants of ttl genes with either bri1-301 or bes1-D. At the molecular level, ttl134 shows increased expression of BR-repressed genes, whereas BR-induced dephosphorylation of the transcription factor BES1 is strongly reduced. At the cellular level, a functional TTL3-GFP shows a dual localization in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane in untreated seedlings. Treatment with eBL caused TTL3-GFP relocalization from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane, while treatment with a BR biosynthesis ...
In dark-grown hypocotyls of the Arabidopsis procuste mutant, a mutation in the CesA6 gene encoding a cellulose synthase reduces… Expand ...
Prerequisites Must be admitted in one of the following courses: HBES, HBESB, HZESPB and must pass EXS1EFH.. Co-requisitesN/A. Incompatible subjectsN/A. Equivalent subjectsN/A. Special conditionsN/A. ...
Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30 and 0-5 ‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity
No direct correlation was found between salt tolerance and vivipary. Ion (Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Cl-) concentrations on a dry weight basis (mg/g) and on a milli-molar basis per mass of water in fresh tissue (mM) were followed during the development of Kandelia candel hypocotyls and after mature hypocotyls were transplanted under different treatments (salinities of 0, 15 and 30parts per thousand). During hypocotyl development, ion concentrations on a dry weight basis declined especially for Mg2+ and Ca2+. The decrease could not be explained by the decrease in water content. However, the concentrations on a milli-molar basis did not decrease, but increased slightly at a later stage. Mass balance studies showed that the hypocotyl development was a salt accumulation process, especially for Na+, K+ and Cl-. Mangrove propagules adapt themselves to hyposaline environments by accumulating salt, especially before leaving their parent plants. Substrate salinity showed no modification of trends in Ca2+ ...
A hypocotyl rot disease of sugar pine is described that caused severe losses in less than 3-mo-old seedlings of Pinus lambertiana, Abies concolor, and A. magnifica in California forest nurseries. Fusarium oxysporum was found to be the causal organism. Greenhouse-grown seedlings developed resistance to infection by the third week after emergence, and roots were resistant at all ages. Hypocotyl rot strains were not pathogenic when tested against 14 agricultural hosts. Nine strains of F. oxysporum from agricultural hosts were not pathogenic when tested against P. lambertiana. Strains from Oregon ponderosa pine hypocotyl cankers were pathogenic on P. lambertiana hypocotyls. ...
Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) are members of a subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcript factors and have been proposed to act as positive regulators of hypocotyl elongation under normal condition. Here, we show that PIF1, 3, 4, 5 together play a central role in sucrose-induced hypocot …
Cryptochrome 2 is a flavin-type blue light receptor mediating floral induction in response to photoperiod and a blue light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition. cry2 is required for the elevated expression of the flowering-time gene CO in response to long-day photoperiods, but the molecular mechanism …
Conifers show a decline in the ability to form adventitious roots that is associated with maturation, an age-related developmental process that also affects reproductive competence, morphology, and growth rate (Poethig, 1990; Greenwood and Hutchison, 1993). The rate and the extent of the loss of rooting ability are species dependent. For example, in eastern larch we showed that the frequency of cuttings that root declines from 100% to 50% during the course of 20 years (Greenwood et al., 1989). In contrast, loss of rooting ability occurs abruptly and early in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Greenwood and Weir (1995) showed that 20-d-old hypocotyl cuttings from loblolly pine root readily within 3 weeks in the presence of exogenous auxin. However, woody cuttings from 1- to 2-year-old plants root poorly even after 2 to 3 months. In the latter case, exogenous auxin has little effect. We have extended the observations of Greenwood and Weir (1995)and shown that, whereas hypocotyl cuttings made from 20- or ...
The phytohormone auxin regulates diverse aspects of plant development, including tissue elongation, tropic growth, embryogenesis, apical dominance, lateral root initiation, and vascular differentiation (Teale et al., 2006). Proteins in the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX protein (TIR1/AFB) family have recently been demonstrated to function as nuclear receptors for auxin (Dharmasiri et al., 2005a; Kepinski and Leyser, 2005). The auxin signal transduction system operating via the E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex SCFTIR1/AFB (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes TIR1/AFBs, plays a critical role in many auxin-mediated responses through transcriptional regulation (Mockaitis and Estelle, 2008).. Auxin-induced elongation of plant organs, such as hypocotyls, coleoptiles, and roots, has been explained by the acid-growth theory since the 1970s (Rayle and Cleland, 1970; Hager et al., 1971; Moloney et al., 1981). The theory states that auxin enhances proton extrusion via the plasma ...
Four new cyclohexylideneacetonitrile derivatives 1-4, named menisdaurins B-E, as well as three known cyclohexylideneacetonitrile derivatives--menisdaurin (5), coclauril (6), and menisdaurilide (7)--were isolated from the hypocotyl of a mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). The structures of the isolates were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-7 showed anti-Hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities, with EC50 values ranging from 5.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL to 87.7 ± 5.8 μg/mL.
Abasolo, W.; Eder, M.; Yamauchi, K.; Obel, N.; Reinecke, A.; Neumetzler, L.; Dunlop, J. W. C.; Mouille, G.; Pauly, M.; Hofte, H. et al.; Burgert, I.: Pectin May Hinder the Unfolding of Xyloglucan Chains during Cell Deformation: Implications of the Mechanical Performance of Arabidopsis Hypocotyls with Pectin Alterations. Molecular Plant 2 (5), S. 990 - 999 (2009 ...
Slune nice ro n , Slne nica ro n , Helianthus annuus L. - Nab z me osiva a semena rostlin zeleniny jako raj at, paprik a jin ch plodin, prod v me tak sem nka kv tin a bylinek.
Under dark conditions, the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 is enriched in the nucleus, where it contributes to the degradation of various transcriptional regulators involved in the photomorphogenic response, including HY5 (ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5). Thus, in Arabidopsis, COP1 is a negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. Oravecz et al. report that COP1 has a positive role in plant responses to low-level ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation through a mechanism that includes stimulation of expression of the HY5 gene. Microarray analysis and phenotypic analysis of wild-type and hy5-1 mutant plants indicated that HY5 was necessary for the stimulation of the expression of genes involved in tolerance to UV-B. The nonlethal COP1 mutant cop1-4 also exhibited decreased UV-B-mediated stimulation of several genes, including HY5, and about half of the genes that required COP1 also required HY5. Plants respond to UV-B by stimulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, which produces sunscreen flavonoids. Both ...
Cosgrove Daniel J. , Li Lian Chao , Cho Hyung-Taeg , BENNING Susanne Hoffmann , MOORE Richard C. , BLECKER Douglas Plant and cell physiology 43(12), 1436-1444, 2002-12-01 参考文献77件 被引用文献7件 ...
4. Label the parts of the plant on the sequencing cards and color in the pictures. (Note: My daughter is 4.5 and I wanted her to be able to label the parts herself so we stuck to seed, root, stem, and leaf. If you print out labels, a preschooler or kindergartner who is not yet writing can glue the labels in the proper place. Older children can write out more sophisticated terms, such as: root system, cotyledon, hypocotyl, seed coat, etc.). ...
콩 종실은 형태학적으로 종피(種皮, seed coat), 자엽(子葉, cotyledon), 배아(胚芽, embryo)로 구성되어 있으며 종피에 자엽과 배아가 싸여 있다. 배아는 유아(幼芽, epicotyl), 배축(胚軸, hypocotyl), 유근(幼根, radicle)으로 되어 있으며 외견상 다소 도드라져 있고, 콩의 각 부위별 비율은 자엽 90~92%, 종피 6~8%, 배아 2% 정도에 달한다(Liu, 1997).. 콩은 우리의 다양한 전통식품 및 가공식품으로 이용되고 있는데, 단백질과 지방의 함량이 높고 isoflavone 및 soyasaponin등과 같은 생리활성물질을 다량 함유하고 있다. 콩의 isoflavone은 C15H10O2의 분자식 가지며 12종의 isomer가 알려져 있는데 대부분 당을 포함한 daidzin, genistin 및 glycitin의 배당체로 존재한다. Isoflavone은 여성 호르몬인 estrogen과 구조적으로 유사하여 식물성 에스트로겐(phytoestrogen)이라 불리며, 인체에서 estrogen과 유사활성을 ...
The C++ source code (version 0.3) is available here: Media:hypophen.tar.gz. The latest code is also available on sourceforge The windows executable (along with required dlls) for Windows 7 is here: Media:HypoPhen_win.zip. Note that this executable is for the standard x86 (32 bits) architectures. Let Micha know if you need it for a 64 bits architecture. There is also a dmg file for MacOS. The manual explains how to install and use the software. You can also download a small set of hypocotyl test images to test the software. Those images were kindly provided by Emilie Demarsy. ...
The C++ source code (version 0.3) is available here: Media:hypophen.tar.gz. The latest code is also available on sourceforge The windows executable (along with required dlls) for Windows 7 is here: Media:HypoPhen_win.zip. Note that this executable is for the standard x86 (32 bits) architectures. Let Micha know if you need it for a 64 bits architecture. There is also a dmg file for MacOS. The manual explains how to install and use the software. You can also download a small set of hypocotyl test images to test the software. Those images were kindly provided by Emilie Demarsy. ...
سابقه و هدف: آستنوزوسپرمی به ­عنوان شایع ­ترین اختلال منجر به ناباروری مردان، به­ صورت کمبود شدید حرکت پیش­رونده‌ی اسپرم در هر انزال تعریف می­ شود. این فنوتیپ می­ تواند هم به­صورت غیرسندرومی و هم به ­صورت سندرومی وجود داشته باشد که در حالت دوم به ­عنوان یک عارضه جانبی سندروم مژک ...
سلول­ های بنیادی سلول­ های تمایز نیافته با قابلیت تقسیم و تمایز به انواع مختلف سلول­ ها می باشند. منبع این سلول­ ها از جنین و افراد بالغ تأمین می­ شود که هر کدام ویژگی­ های خاص خود را دارند. برای حدوداً چندین دهه مطالعه­ های تجربی به­ منظور استفاده از این ...
سابقه و هدف: سلول­ های بنیادی اسپرماتوگونی با حفظ تعادل بین خودنوسازی و تمایز سبب تداوم روند اسپرماتوژنز می­ شوند. هدف از انجام مطالعه حاضر بررسی تاثیر غلظت­ های مختلف تستوسترون بر کلونی‌زایی سلول­ های بنیادی اسپرماتوگونی گوسفند می‌باشد. مواد و روش‌ها: سلول­ های اسپرماتوگونی بیضه گوسفند نابالغ با روش هضم آنزیمی دو ...
不動産担保ローンは無担保のローンに比べ金利が安い - 所有している不動産を担保にして借り入れをする不動産担保ローンは 無担保のローンに比べると 不動産の価値にもよりますが 金利が安く 融資額が大きい 長期の借り入れが可能などのメリットがあります》 融資額の内容は所有している […] ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Recovery from water stress in five sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars. II. The development of leaf area.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Chiaranda, F.Q.; D.A.dria, R., 1994: Effect of different irrigation scheduling on yield and water uptake of a spring sunflower crop (Helianthus annuus L.)
University of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission. ...
Cops7a (untagged) - Mouse COP9 (constitutive photomorphogenic) homolog, subunit 7a (Arabidopsis thaliana) (Cops7a), transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
Plants need sunlight to feed and grow. Without light, the photosynthesis, the reaction by which the plant chloroplasts convert atmospheric CO2 and water into sugars and oxygen, cannot take place.
Thermomorphogenesis is defined as the suite of morphological changes that together are likely to contribute to adaptive growth acclimation to usually elevated ambient temperature [ 1, 2 ]. While many details of warmth-induced signal transduction are still elusive, parallels to light signaling recently became obvious (reviewed in [ 3 ]). It involves photoreceptors that can also sense changes in ambient temperature [ 3-5 ] and act, for example, by repressing protein activity of the central integrator of temperature information PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4 [ 6 ]). In addition, PIF4 transcript accumulation is tightly controlled by the evening complex member EARLY FLOWERING 3 [ 7, 8 ]. According to the current understanding, PIF4 activates growth-promoting genes directly but also via inducing auxin biosynthesis and signaling, resulting in cell elongation. Based on a mutagenesis screen in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for mutants with defects in temperature-induced hypocotyl ...
www.MOLUNA.de Photomorphogenesis in Plants and Bacteria [4093510] - InhaltsverzeichnisrnrnPreface Abbreviations Part 1: General Introduction And Historical Overview Of Photomorphogenesis: n1. Historical Overview; Eberhard Schäfer And Ferenc Nagy. 2. Physiological Basis Of Photomorphogenesis; Eberhard Schäfer And Ferenc Nagy. 3. Historical Overview Of Molecular Biology And Genetics In Photomorphogenesis; Eberhard Schäfer And Ferenc Nagy. 4. Genetic Basis And Molecular Mechanisms
peroxidase and IAA oxidase activities. Protein concentration was determined by the method of Bradford (1976) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as protein standard.. IAA oxidase assay IAA oxidase activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method described by Beffa et al. (1990). Reaction mixtures contained 0.76 ml of 50 mM phosphate buffer (KH2PO4/Na2HPO4, pH 6.0), 0.01 ml of 5 mM MnCl2, 0.01 ml of 5 mM 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 0.02 ml of 14.3 mM IAA and 0.2 ml of enzyme extract. The final volume of the reaction mixtures was 1 ml. Assays were conducted at 25.0 0.5 C for 1 h. Salkowski reagent was used to determine IAA destruction at the wavelength of 535 nm after 1 h. One unit of IAA oxidase activity is equivalent to a DA535 of 1.0 for 1 mg of protein in 1 h. Each value represented the mean of three replicates.. Peroxidase assay Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in absorbance at 470 nm after 30 min incubation at 30.0 0.5 C ...
Plastid stromules are stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of plastids in higher plants and allow the exchange of protein molecules between plastids. These structures are highly dynamic; stromules change both their shape and position in the cytoplasm very rapidly. Previous studies with microfilament inhibitors indicated that stromule shape and movement are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. To learn more about the nature of the interactions of stromules and the cytoskeleton, we imaged fluorescently-labeled microfilaments and plastids. We have used Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing green fluorescent protein fused to the human actin-binding protein talin to observe microfilaments and their relationship to stromules in vivo. Microfilaments were observed in close contact with stromules and plastid bodies of hypocotyl epidermis. Time-lapse confocal microscopy revealed that microfilament rearrangements were associated with changes in plastid and stromule morphology and position. We also
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The ADC Adstation 5660E 3.5V Wall Extension Module includes a 3.5V handle, and an included bracket makes it easy to attach to a wall or ADC wallboard system
A study was undertaken at West Bengal, India with hybrid sunflower cv. Aditya, during winter season of 2011-12 and 2012-13 in a split-plot design with three levels of irrigation (main-plots) and seven levels of sulphur (sub-plots) with three replications. Among the phenotypic traits evaluated, significant (p ≤ 0.01) and positive correlation were detected between WFSC and SI (r = 0.44), SEY (r = 0.58) and STY (r = 0.41); between SI and SEY (r = 0.49) and STY (r = 0.41); between SEY and STY (r = 0.59, p ≤ 0.01). Seed yield showed highest significant (p ≤ 0.01) positive correlation with TNU (r = 0.670), TBU (r = 0.669) as well as with AN (r = 0.602). The OC had significant (p ≤ 0.01) positive correlations with LA (r = 0.874), OA (r = 0.909) and IV (r = 0.936), while significant negative correlations was observed with PA (r = -0.905), SA (r = -0.828) and SV (r = -0.929). Among the growth and yield components, BG (0.612) followed by NFSC (0.579) and WFSC (0.577) exhibited highly positive direct
Vanderhoef, L. N. Two elongation responses to auxin: Implications for current hypotheses of auxin action, p. 551-559. In L. Bogorad and J. H. Weil (Eds.), Acides Nucleiques et Synthese des Proteines chez les Vegetaux, Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ...
Dr. Machida shows that the 6b protein encoded by oncogene 6b is associatedwith tobacco transcription factor NtSIP1 and translocated into the tobacco nucleus. In addition, recent analysis have shown that the 6b protein also interacted with histon H3, which is supposed to be involved in expression of class1 knox homeobox genes such as KNAT2 and KNAT6. Dr. Tanaka shows that the rolB protein is specifically interacted with a certain member of the 14-3-3 family. Dr. Sugiyama shows that a mutation in the SRD2 gene causes defect of shoot formation from a hypocotyl of Arabidopsis by auxin and cytokinin. He has cloned a SRD2 gene. Dr.Morikami shows that root morphology is affected by high concentrations of sucrose and that the IBA gene is responsible for such alteration in morphology. Dr. Sato demonstrates that the AtC401 gene is responsible for stimulation of Arabidopsis flowering. Dr. Tasaka have cloned the CUC1 gene and demonstrates that it belongs to the NAC family. Dr. Ishiguro shows that the HLR ...
Flax seedlings grown in the absence of environmental stimuli, stresses and injuries do not form epidermal meristems in their hypocotyls. Such meristems do form when the stimuli are combined with a tra
Breuer, D.; Nowak, J.; Ivako, A.; Somssich, M.; Persson, S.; Nikoloski, Z.: System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (28), S. E5741 - E5749 (2017 ...
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Although they are not directly exposed to light in most plant species, light influences the growth characteristics of roots (Feldman, 1984; Halliday et al., 2009). How root growth is controlled by light and integrated with developmental responses in the above-ground organs to shape the overall plant architecture is still largely unknown. Here, we provide strong evidence that light regulates root growth by modulating shoot-to-root PAT and identify auxin as a crucial long-distance signal in the regulation of root growth by light. We show that chemical inhibition of PAT in the hypocotyl, or decreasing shoot-derived auxin by genetic approaches, mimic the effect of darkness on root growth. Our results using the DII-VENUS and DR5 auxin signaling sensors (Brunoud et al., 2012; Ulmasov et al., 1997; Friml et al., 2003), further suggest that dark-induced inhibition of shoot-to-root PAT in the hypocotyl results in auxin accumulation in the shoot apex and in a reduction in auxin levels at the base of the ...
Plant growth and development are coordinated by several groups of small-molecule hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs). Physiological and molecular studies have suggested the existence of crosstalk between BR and GA signaling. We report that BZR1, a key transcription factor activated by BR signaling, interacts in vitro and in vivo with REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), a member of the DELLA family of transcriptional regulators that inhibits the GA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses of plants with mutations in the genes encoding RGA and BZR1 revealed that RGA suppressed root and hypocotyl elongation of the gain-of-function mutant bzr1-1D. Ectopic expression of proteins of the DELLA family reduced the abundance and transcriptional activity of BZR1. Reporter gene analyses further indicated that BZR1 and RGA antagonize each others transcriptional activity. Our data indicated that BZR1 and RGA served as positive and negative regulators, respectively, of ...
BackgroundPlants have evolved complex mechanisms to adapt growth and development to the light environment. The COP1/SPA complex is a key repressor of photomorphogenesis in dark-grown Arabidopsis plants and acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to ubiquitinate transcription factors involved in the light response. In the light, COP1/SPA activity is inhibited by photoreceptors, thereby allowing accumulation of these transcription factors and a subsequent light response. Previous results have shown that the four members of the SPA family exhibit partially divergent functions. In particular, SPA1 and SPA2 strongly differ in their responsiveness to light, while they have indistinguishable activities in darkness. The much higher light-responsiveness of SPA2 is partially explained by the much stronger light-induced degradation of SPA2 when compared to SPA1. Here, we have conducted SPA1/SPA2 domain swap experiments to identify the protein domain(s) responsible for the functional divergence between SPA1 and ...
Herbs annual. Cotyledons persistent. Leaves rosulate, borne on elongated hypocotyl; veins dichotomous. Flowers fascicled in axil of upper leaves, bisexual but number of organs variable. Sepals 2 or 3, persistent. Petals absent. Stamens 1 or 2(or 3), alternating with sepals; anthers 2-loculed, introrse. Carpels 1--3, separate; ovary superior; style absent; stigma terminal, papillate; ovule 1 per ovary, subapical, pendulous. Fruit indehiscent. Seeds with copious endosperm; embryo terete, straight, with short cotyledons.. One genus and two species: China, Japan; one species in China.. Wang Wen-tsai. 1980. Circaeaster. In: Wang Wen-tsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 28: 239-241.. ...
ghenipus at my-deja.com wrote: , , We are attempting to extract total RNA from , soybean roots, epicotyls, hypocotyls, and , cotyledons, with the eventual intent of running , RT-PCR and Northern analysis. Weve tried twice , now with the Chomczynski & Sacchi procedure , (flash-freeze in liquid Nitrogen, GTC, phenol/ , Sent via Deja.com http://www.deja.com/ , Before you buy. The procedure you outline should work very well for plant tissues. In labs where I have worked the SDS-Phenol procedure in Ausubel works great too and Trizol works great. you need to take care to freeze the tissues in liquid N2, pulverize them with mortor and pestle, (keeping frozen, and we always used a tissuemizer to ensure rapid mixing of the denaturing agents. There is no need to RNAse out or DEPC treat any thing. RNases simply dont get into those disposable plastics unless someone contaminates them. Simply use unopened bags of tips, and eppendorf tubes. Also redissolve the total Rna in formamide, not water. You dont need ...
VITAMINS Authentic Organic Premium 4 Root Maca Powder - 250g (Certified Organic) [1H-0JNF-NYFV] - Authentic Vitamins Organic Premium 4 Root Maca Powder - 250g (Certified Organic)Maca is a plant grown in the Peruvian over 4000m above sea level. Its root and hypocotyl the bulbous stem below the leafy growth have for centuries been part of the diet andculture of people in the region. Legend
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Photomorphogenesis.html?id=7IzGyULxZ1oC&utm_source=gb-gplus-sharePhotomorphogenesis ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Photomorphogenesis.html?id=7IzGyULxZ1oC&utm_source=gb-gplus-sharePhotomorphogenesis ...
Geocaching is a treasure hunting game where you use a GPS to hide and seek containers with other participants in the activity. Geocaching.com is the listing service for geocaches around the world.
Ask & ye shall receive Bumblebee! Lets see your HAF case builds people! Water air doesnt mater we want to see them all cause the case is awesome!
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Bu kadar uzun bir s renin ardından hepinizi ok zledim. Bazılarınızın bildiği gibi ge en sene Ekim ayı sonunda beyin felci ge irdim. O zamandan beri, hafıza kaybı ve fiziksel engellerle dolu aylar boyunca hastane ve evde ge en nekahat d nemim devam etmekte. Hafızayla ilgili bir sıkıntım kalmadı. Evin i inde desteksiz olduk a iyi y r yebiliyorum. Şu anda sadece sol kolumu kullanabiliyorum. O y zden bilgisayar kullanmak biraz m cadele gerektiriyor. Ama fotoğraf makinemi tek elimle kullanmak i in kendime g re bir y ntem geliştirdim ...
In dicots, the hypocotyl is what appears to be the base stem under the spent withered cotyledons, and the shoot just above that ... Hypocotyl Radicle Plumule "epicotyl." A Dictionary of Biology. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 3 Dec. 2015. ...
Auxin is transported to the hypocotyl to promote elongation, although the mechanism it uses to do so remains unclear. Shade ... Water-imbibed seeds display hypocotyl elongation; if the shade were caused by excessive soil depth, this would help the ... "Cotyledon-Generated Auxin Is Required for Shade-Induced Hypocotyl Growth in Brassica rapa". 165 (3): 1285-1301. doi:10.1104/pp. ...
Hypocotyl long, wiry and angular, crimson. Cotyledons bisected, green on the back, with sometimes a purple tip. Stem angular, ...
The hypocotyl is smooth and red. The seedling leaves emerge in an opposite arrangement and are deeply serrated into three ...
The hypocotyl is thick, hairy and red. The cotyledons are linear to lance-shaped with the narrow end towards the base, 3.5-10 ...
The hypocotyl is thick, smooth and dark red. The obovate to oblong seedling leaves are 4-9 cm (1 1⁄2-3 1⁄2 in) long by 2.0-2.5 ...
Tanada, T. (1974). "Boron-induced Bioelectric Field Change in Mung Bean Hypocotyl". Light and Plant Growth Laboratory, ...
... hypocotyl (wd , gwp gwe g , in it p) MeSH B06.413.024.875.875 --- meristem (wd , gwp gwe g , in it p) MeSH B06.413.024.937 --- ... plant stems (wd , gwp gwe g , in it p) MeSH B06.413.024.937.249 --- hypocotyl (wd , gwp gwe g , in it p) MeSH B06.413.024.937. ...
It is a growth promoter of cucumber hypocotyl segments. The auxinic action in terms of embryo formation is even better for ... "Induction of embryogenic callus in Cucurbita pepo hypocotyl explants by indole-3-ethanol and its sugar conjugates". Physiologia ... tryptophol arabinoside on Cucurbita pepo hypocotyl fragments. Tryptophol has been used as the starting material in the ...
The hypocotyl (part of the stem below the cotyledon) elongates while the epicotyl (part of the stem above the cotyledon) stays ... In this way, the hypocotyl pushes the cotyledon upward. Normally, the cotyledon itself contains very little nutrients in plants ...
... hypocotyl, and shoots. It was mentioned in Homer's Odyssey as selinon. Celeriac is a root vegetable with a bulbous hypocotyl. ... Typically, celeriac is harvested when its hypocotyl is 10 to 14 cm (3.9 to 5.5 in) in diameter. However, a growing trend ( ...
In Europe the hypocotyl is used as a root vegetable. The leaves are strongly flavored and are used less often, either as a ... rapaceum, grown because its hypocotyl forms a large bulb, white on the inside. The bulb could be kept for months in winter and ... Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves, or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Celery seed is also ...
Pardha Saradhi (1994). "Organic nitrogen stimulates caulogenesis from hypocotyl callus of Phyllanthus fraternus". Plant Cell ...
Some of the changes that occur include: Inhibition of hypocotyl lengthening. Stimulation of cotyledon expansion. Opening of the ...
The hypocotyl, the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotyledon(s), connecting the epicotyl and the radicle, ... Here the hypocotyl is a rudimentary axis between radicle and plumule. The seeds of corn are constructed with these structures; ... According to Bewley and Black (1978), Brazil nut storage is in hypocotyl, this place of storage is uncommon among seeds. All ... The radicle, the basal tip of the hypocotyl, grows into the primary root. Monocotyledonous plants have two additional ...
5. Diagram of hypocotyl stem rot leading to "damping-off" caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Univ.Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Service ... 3 & 4. Early lesion development in the epidermis of a squash hypocotyl caused by Fusarium solani stained with tetrazolium salt ... Effect of squash mosaic virus infection on microbial populations around the hypocotyl and chloroplast structure and function. ... Association of virus-induced changes in laimosphere microflora and hypocotyl exudation with protection to Fusarium stem rot. ...
Most species develop a tuber from the hypocotyl, sometimes on roots. The cotyledons are simple, entire and have an blunt tip. ...
However, the hypocotyls readily orient towards blue light. This process is may be caused by phytochrome disrupting the ... Statoliths are also found in the endodermic layer of the hypocotyl, stem, and inflorescence stock. The redistribution of auxin ... In seedlings, red and far-red light both inhibit negative gravitropism in seedling hypocotyls (the shoot area below the ... These mutants have alterations in either negative gravitropism in hypocotyls and/or shoots, or positive gravitropism in roots, ...
Stimulation of Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation In pollination, when the pollen reaches the stigma, the precursor of the ethene ... planthormones.inf Debatosh Das,"Ethylene- and shade-induced hypocotyl elongation share transcriptome patterns and functional ... Seedling triple response, thickening and shortening of hypocotyl with pronounced apical hook. ...
The tuber begins its growth with the swelling of the seedling hypocotyl. Later, the cavities are formed when cork-generating ...
It is grown for its fleshy hypocotyl (a fused hypocotyl and taproot), which is used as a root vegetable and a medicinal herb. ... The freshly harvested hypocotyl may be roasted in a pit (called huatia), and is considered a delicacy. Fresh roots usually are ... Maca hypocotyls may be gold or cream, red, purple, blue, black, or green. Each is considered a "genetically unique variety", as ... In the vegetative phase, until May to June, the lower part of the hypocotyl, as well as the upper part of the tap root, grows ...
Tubers may form from the hypocotyl of the young seedling, as in Cyclamen. Since the hypocotyl is a region between the stem and ...
Brown at first, they change colour as they mature and the hypocotyl emerges. The hypocotyl is long and slender, growing to ...
Brown at first, it changes colour as it matures and the hypocotyl emerges. The hypocotyl is long, slender and smooth, reaching ... The difference between the two can be observed when the tree is fruiting, C. tagal having ribbed hypocotyls while those of C. ...
Above the radicle is the embryonic stem or hypocotyl, supporting the cotyledon(s). It is the embryonic root inside the seed. It ...
The cotyledon leaves sit atop the stout hypocotyl, which is green and smooth. The seedling leaves are crowded above the ...
... roots that form from other than the hypocotyl or from other roots. Roots forming on the stem are adventitious. Aerial - roots ... remain joined with mother plant until The radicle and hypocotyl grows, reaches the ground and establish there . (See also: ...
The greenish red hypocotyl is hairy, as are the stems of young plants. The hairy seedling leaves are crowded and oppositely ...
This species shows allelophatic effects on germination and radicle and hypocotyl growth of weeds. Isolated compounds related to ...
The thick, smooth hypocotyl is 1 cm (0.5 in) high and 1.5 mm thick. The seedling leaves are crowded above the cotyledons and ...
... we monitored genome-wide gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls. We observed a sequential ... the etiolated hypocotyls alkalized the media which is consistent with the already shorter hypocotyl of fer-4. No other CrRLK1L ... In contrast hypocotyl elongation of the knock-out mutant, fer-4, was hypersensitive to Ni but exhibited a higher tolerance to ... For example, both HERK genes seem to negatively regulate hypocotyl elongation upon Cd, Ni, Zn, and Pb while they support root ...
The hypocotyl is the primary organ of extension of the young plant and develops into the stem. The early development of a ... The hypocotyl (short for "hypocotyledonous stem", meaning "below seed leaf") is the stem of a germinating seedling, found below ... After emergence of the radicle, the hypocotyl emerges and lifts the growing tip (usually including the seed coat) above the ... The mesocotyl is considered to be partly hypocotyl and partly cotyledon (see seed). Not all monocots develop like the grasses. ...
The hypocotyls of wild-type seedlings grown at 29°C were 4- to 5-fold longer than the hypocotyls of 20°C grown seedlings (Fig. ... Measurement of Hypocotyl and Cell Length.. Hypocotyl lengths of 9-day-old seedlings were measured from shadow projections with ... The Arabidopsis hypocotyl is a useful model for investigating the regulation of plant growth. Hypocotyl elongation in ... Temperature-Induced Hypocotyl Elongation Is Auxin-Dependent.. Several studies have implicated auxin in hypocotyl elongation (4 ...
To understand the transcriptional responses to flooding stress in roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings, genome-wide ... More than 6,000 of flooding-responsive genes in the roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings were identified. The ... Creelman RA, Tierney ML, Mullet JE (1992) Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate ... To understand the transcriptional responses to flooding stress in roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings, genome-wide ...
We demonstrate that the circadian clock controls the elongation of the Arabidopsis hypocotyl immediately upon germination. The ... pattern of hypocotyl elongation in constant light includes a … ... The rhythm of hypocotyl elongation was entrained by light-dark ... Circadian dysfunction causes aberrant hypocotyl elongation patterns in Arabidopsis Plant J. 1999 Jan;17(1):63-71. doi: 10.1046/ ... The pattern of hypocotyl elongation in constant light includes a daily growth arrest spanning subjective dawn and an interval ...
Extracts from leaves, hypocotyls, and roots were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the ... The leaf was abundant in proteins associated with energy production (50.0%), the hypocotyl was rich in defense proteins (31.8 ... Analyses of the Proteomes of the Leaf, Hypocotyl, and Root of Young Soybean Seedlings ...
Hypocotyl elongation is also more strongly inhibited by light in the top half of the hypocotyl and can be rescued by exogenous ... In Columbia wild type, the top third of the hypocotyl contains nearly half of the total cells in the length of the hypocotyl ( ... ACC has a differential effect on adventitious rooting of the upper hypocotyl compared to the lower hypocotyl. a Average number ... g and h The average number of adventitious roots forming in the top 3rd (g) and lower 2/3rds (h) of the hypocotyl for Columbia ...
Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression. R A Creelman, M L ... Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression ... Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression ... Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression ...
Walls from frozen-thawed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls extend for many hours when placed in tension under acidic ... Characterization of long-term extension of isolated cell walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls.. Cosgrove DJ1. ...
Cellular Basis of Hypocotyl Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. E. Gendreau, J. Traas, T. Desnos, O. Grandjean, M. Caboche, H. ... Cellular Basis of Hypocotyl Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. E. Gendreau, J. Traas, T. Desnos, O. Grandjean, M. Caboche, H. ... Cellular Basis of Hypocotyl Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. E. Gendreau, J. Traas, T. Desnos, O. Grandjean, M. Caboche, H. ... Cellular Basis of Hypocotyl Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant ...
IAA and 5-F-IAA induce hypocotyl elongation, and PEO-IAA does not. A to C, Time courses of growth of etiolated hypocotyl ... Hypocotyl Growth Measurements. Hypocotyl growth measurements were carried out as described elsewhere (Schenck et al., 2010; ... We measured either volume changes of single hypocotyl protoplasts or hypocotyl growth, both at high temporal resolution. 5-F- ... GFP reporter gene system in hypocotyls showed the same specificity pattern as the growth response in hypocotyls (Fig. 2, D and ...
Fusarium Hypocotyl Rot of Sugar Pine in California Forest Nurseries. K. H. Brownell, Department of Plant Pathology, University ... Strains from Oregon ponderosa pine hypocotyl cankers were pathogenic on P. lambertiana hypocotyls. ... A hypocotyl rot disease of sugar pine is described that caused severe losses in less than 3-mo-old seedlings of Pinus ... Hypocotyl rot strains were not pathogenic when tested against 14 agricultural hosts. Nine strains of F. oxysporum from ...
Then the air-dried maca hypocotyls were grounded into fine powder (to 75 μm particle size) using a crusher and freeze-dried. ... The Nutritional Composition of Maca in Hypocotyls (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) Cultivated in Different Regions of China,. Journal ... The Nutritional Composition of Maca in Hypocotyls (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) Cultivated in Different Regions of China. ... The different colours of hypocotyls seem also to correlate with differences in concentrations of secondary metabolites and thus ...
The relationship between xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and in-vitro cell wall extension in cucumber hypocotyls Planta. 1993; ... hypocotyls contained high XET activity but did not induce wall extension. Highly purified wall-protein fractions from the same ... wall proteins capable of inducing the extension of plant cell walls have also recently been identified in cucumber hypocotyls. ... conclude that XET activity alone is neither sufficient nor necessary for extension of isolated walls from cucumber hypocotyls. ...
R. Pan and X. Tian, "Comparative effect of IBA, BSAA and 5,6-Cl2-IAA-Me on the rooting of hypocotyl in mung bean," Plant Growth ... Uniform seedlings with 6-7 cm long hypocotyls were cut 5 cm below the cotyledons and roots were removed. For precise dosing, ... Various plant growth regulators have been tested for rooting of mung bean hypocotyl cuttings [5-7]. Besides growth regulators, ... Growth and Anatomical Parameters of Adventitious Roots Formed on Mung Bean Hypocotyls Are Correlated with Galactoglucomannan ...
In this study, we show that ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5-HOMOLOG (HYH) directly binds to the promoter of MIR169a and negatively ... In this study, we show that ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5-HOMOLOG (HYH) directly binds to the promoter of MIR169a and negatively ... Park, Y. J., Lee, H. J., Ha, J. H., Kim, J. Y., and Park, C. M. (2017). COP1 conveys warm temperature information to hypocotyl ... Elongated Hypocotyl 5 (HY5) and its homolog HY5-Homolog (HYH) are basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors that ...
Hypocotyl elongation is not inhibited in the mutant seedlings by continuous blue light but is inhibited by far red light, ... Arabidopsis Mutants Lacking Blue Light-Dependent Inhibition of Hypocotyl Elongation. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... The genetic separation of the blue and far red sensitivities of light-induced hypocotyl inhibition in the blu and hy mutants ... Arabidopsis Mutants Lacking Blue Light-Dependent Inhibition of Hypocotyl Elongation.. E. Liscum, R. P. Hangarter ...
The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to ... Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid ... The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to ... Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid ...
Click along the first hypocotyl in the first slice. *Press "M" and then "," (you do not need to hold down a modifier key, at ... Adjust the selection (measurement line) to fit the hypocotyl on the next slice by dragging the "handles". ... Retrieved from "https://openwetware.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Maloof_Lab:ImageJ_Time_Lapse_Hypocotyls&oldid=382097" ...
The hy3 Long Hypocotyl Mutant of Arabidopsis Is Deficient in Phytochrome B.. D. E. Somers, R. A. Sharrock, J. M. Tepperman, P. ... The six long hypocotyl (hy) complementation groups of Arabidopsis (hy1, hy2, hy3, hy4, hy5, and hy6) share the common feature ... The hy3 Long Hypocotyl Mutant of Arabidopsis Is Deficient in Phytochrome B. ... The hy3 Long Hypocotyl Mutant of Arabidopsis Is Deficient in Phytochrome B. ...
In hypocotyl tissues infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. s... ... gene expression profile changes in cotton root and hypocotyl ... In hypocotyl tissues infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, increased expression of defense-related genes was ... Gene Expression Profile Changes in Cotton Root and Hypocotyl Tissues in Response to Infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ... The repression of drought-responsive proteins such as aquaporins in both roots and hypocotyls represents a previously ...
Wall-Yielding Properties of Cell Walls from Elongating Cucumber Hypocotyls in Relation to the Action of Expansin * * Takahashi ... The Characteristics of the Adjustment in the pH of the Xylem Exudate of Segments of Vigna Hypocotyls during Xylem Perfusion : ... Auxin Changes Both the Extensibility and the Yield Threshold of the of Cell Wall of Vigna Hypocotyls : Nakahori Kiyoshi , Katou ... The pH-dependent yield threshold of the cell wall in glycerinated hollow cylinder (in vitro system) of cowpea hypocotyls ...
... which correlates with an increased auxin response at the lower hypocotyl side. Both PIN3 polarization and hypocotyl bending ... which correlates with an increased auxin response at the lower hypocotyl side. Both PIN3 polarization and hypocotyl bending ... GNOM ARF GEF, ROOT GRAVITROPISM, PINOID kinase, PIN polarity, auxin transport, hypocotyl gravitropism, SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION, PIN ... Polarization of PIN3-dependent auxin transport for hypocotyl gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Hana Rakusova (UGent ...
... [1980] Ray, S.D. Guruprasad, ... Antagonistic action of phenolic compounds on abscisic acid-induced inhibition of hypocotyl growth [in the seedlings of ... Antagonistic action of phenolic compounds on abscisic acid-induced inhibition of hypocotyl growth [in the seedlings of ... Antagonistic action of phenolic compounds on abscisic acid-induced inhibition of hypocotyl growth [in the seedlings of ...
Cell elongation is regulated through a central circuit of interacting transcription factors in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. ... and developmental controls of cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyl. ...
Abstract: In the present study, callus was successfully obtained from hypocotyl explants of Brassica nigra (L.) in vitro under ... Hypocotyl Explants. International Journal of Pharmacology, 6: 464-471.. DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2010.464.471 URL: https://scialert.net ...
Morrell, Clare Katrina (1987) The role of calcium in auxin-induced cell elongation of Cucumis sativus hypocotyls. University of ... The role of calcium in auxin-induced cell elongation of Cucumis sativus hypocotyls ... The role of calcium in auxin-induced cell elongation of Cucumis sativus hypocotyls ... The role of calcium in auxin-induced cell elongation of Cucumis sativus hypocotyls ...
Anthocyanin accumulation was observed visually in hypocotyls of the young seedlings soon after the hypocotyl exposure started. ... gene is a stress-responsive gene in peanut plant and its up-regulation expression was found in hypocotyl. In overall, hypocotyl ... When the seeds were sown, the cross-section of the ridge looked like the letter "A". The second, the hypocotyls elongated more ... Applications of signal transduction and xerophytophysiology by exposing hypocotyls in organic peanut production ...
... to study changes in cell-wall mechanics associated with growth symmetry breaking within the hypocotyl epidermis. We show that, ... The Control of Growth Symmetry Breaking in the Arabidopsis Hypocotyl. @article{Peaucelle2015TheCO, title={The Control of Growth ... Symmetry Breaking in the Arabidopsis Hypocotyl}, author={Alexis Peaucelle and Raymond Wightman and Herman H{\o}fte}, journal={ ...
In A-D curves correspond to 6 hypocotyl segments, errorbars represent stdev.s. (E) Hypocotyl segments of AHA2δ95start to ... While the heat-shocked control hypocotyls bent upwards, the HS::axr3-1 line was utterly agravitropic (Figure 5D). Hypocotyl ... To measure the bending of hypocotyls after gravistimulation, the angle of the upper part of the hypocotyl was measured 6 hr ... A) A brightfield image of a three-day old etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyl and the corresponding decapitated hypocotyl segment ...
Adventitious root formation in bean hypocotyl cuttings in relation to IAA trannslocation and hypocotyl anatomy. J. Exp. Bot. 30 ... in rooting hypocotyls of Glycine max was studied. The hypocotyls of NAA-treated cuttings grew significantly higher numbers of ... Effect of naphthaleneacetic acid on endogenous indole-3-acetic acid, peroxidase and auxin oxidase in hypocotyl cuttings of ... Changes in Endogenous IAA in Soybean Hypocotyl. HPLC facilitated the separation of IAA from its conjugated forms and other ...
  • To better understand this process, we monitored genome-wide gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls. (scoop.it)
  • The hypocotyl (short for "hypocotyledonous stem", meaning "below seed leaf") is the stem of a germinating seedling, found below the cotyledons (seed leaves) and above the radicle (root). (wikipedia.org)
  • We have investigated the possible role of tyrosine phosphorylation in this process with hypocotyl explants of Arabidopsis thaliana . (oup.com)
  • In the explants without the ability to regenerate roots, the total activity of SOD was low throughout the whole culture period, whereas the POX activity was significantly higher than in hypocotyls with regeneration potential. (edu.pl)
  • Effect of genotype on shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, cotyledons and leaf explants from six cultivars of eggplant (solanum melongena l. (journalcra.com)
  • A combination of BA 0.5 mg L-1 and Kinetin 0.5 was found to be optimum for shoot regeneration from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants while BA with IBA was found to be optimum for leaf explants. (journalcra.com)
  • IVBR-1 was found to be most responsive genotype for regeneration of shoots from hypocotyls and cotyledon among the genotype while Punjab Sadabahar was found to be most responsive for regeneration of shoots from leaf explants. (journalcra.com)
  • Among the explants hypocotyls yielded the maximum number of adventitious shoots followed by cotyledon and leaf. (journalcra.com)
  • Plant Regeneration from Leaf and Hypocotyl Explants of Glycine wightii (W. and A.) VERDC. (patentgenius.com)
  • 5 Lignan production in R. mucosa tissues was also observed both in in vivo grown seedlings and in in vitro propagated plants derived from hypocotyl explants. (sld.cu)
  • Callus cultures were initiated from organs of two-month-old nursery-grown seedlings and from in vitro propagated plants derived from hypocotyl explants of R. mucosa , cultivated on medium with 2,3 m M KIN + 2,2 m M BA7. (sld.cu)
  • Cuttings were prepared from 6-day old seedlings each consisting of an apical bud, a pair of primary leaves, an epicotyl, and the uppermost 3.0 cm of a hypocotyl. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • In dicots, the hypocotyl is what appears to be the base stem under the spent withered cotyledons, and the shoot just above that is the epicotyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypocotyl Radicle Plumule "epicotyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem below the cotyledons is called the hypocotyl and the stem above the cotyledon is the epicotyl. (umn.edu)
  • Experiments Parameters Hypocotyl Epicotyl 1 QMG 395. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Callus cultures were initiated from hypocotyl, epicotyl, young leaves (2º and 3º nodes) and mature leaves (4º and 5º nodes) from seedlings. (sld.cu)
  • After emergence of the radicle, the hypocotyl emerges and lifts the growing tip (usually including the seed coat) above the ground, bearing the embryonic leaves (called cotyledons), and the plumule that gives rise to the first true leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cotyledons remain closed, an apical hook is formed, and the hypocotyl becomes greatly elongated. (pnas.org)
  • Maximal hypocotyl growth coincides with the phase during which the cotyledons are raised, in the previously described rhythm of cotyledon movement. (nih.gov)
  • In darkness, seedlings are etiolated with long hypocotyls, have unexpanded cotyledons, and do not produce chlorophyll. (genetics.org)
  • In the presence of light, deetiolated seedlings have short hypocotyls, expanded cotyledons, and are green. (genetics.org)
  • The hypocotyl emerges as part of the future stem and is attached to the cotyledons or seed leaves. (gardenguides.com)
  • A plant regeneration protocol was developed for white ash ( Fraxinus americana L.). Hypocotyls and cotyledons excised from embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS)mediumsupplementedwith 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) plus thidiazuron (TDZ), and compared for organogenic potential. (usda.gov)
  • Solvent extraction of saponins from the internodes and leaves were used for the bioassay of Amaranthus hypocotyl growth and expansion of cucumber cotyledons. (springer.com)
  • In the absence of light, the hypocotyl elongates whereas cotyledons remain closed. (biologists.org)
  • Stalk below cotyledons (hypocotyl) often purplish-dotted. (ca.gov)
  • hypocotyl partly included between cotyledons. (efloras.org)
  • The daily groth arrest is abolished by the early flowering 3 (elf3) mutation, suggesting that this defect may cause its long-hypocotyl phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Complementation analysis indicated that recessive nuclear mutations at three genetic loci, designated blu1, blu2, and blu3, can result in the blu mutant phenotype and that these mutants are genetically distinct from other long hypocotyl mutants. (plantcell.org)
  • The hy3 Long Hypocotyl Mutant of Arabidopsis Is Deficient in Phytochrome B. (plantcell.org)
  • The six long hypocotyl (hy) complementation groups of Arabidopsis (hy1, hy2, hy3, hy4, hy5, and hy6) share the common feature of an elongated hypocotyl when grown in white light. (plantcell.org)
  • Thus, three factors contributed to the XTH-OE-stimulated growth in Arabidopsis hypocotyls: their more linear creep, higher values of initial deformation·stress(-1), and lower y values. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • To understand the transcriptional responses to flooding stress in roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings, genome-wide changes in gene expression were analyzed using a soybean microarray chip containing 42,034 60-mer oligonucleotide probes. (springer.com)
  • More than 6,000 of flooding-responsive genes in the roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings were identified. (springer.com)
  • Two days of light irradiance reduced the levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in soybean ( Glycine max ) hypocotyls. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • The lignin content and total phenolic compounds in soybean hypocotyls were enhanced 2_2.5 fold by light treatment. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Light-induced inhibition of soybean hypocotyl growth might be due to the decline of endogenous IAA, which was degraded by IAA oxidases or peroxidases. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Two phenolic compounds, ferulic acid and trans -cinnamic acid, which are precursors for lignin synthesis, greatly increased in light-treated soybean hypocotyls. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • on IAA levels, the effect of irradiance on lignification in soybean hypocotyl is also investigated. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Extraction and partial purification Five grams fresh weight of soybean hypocotyl segments were excised and immediately homogenized in 100 ml extracting solution with chilled motar and pestle (Guinnet et al. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • The hypocotyl ends in the radicle, which is busy forming root shoots. (gardenguides.com)
  • The radicle and the hypocotyl are topped by the plumule, which will become the first true leaves of the plant. (gardenguides.com)
  • So, an attempt was made to study callus induction in chilli genotypes by using hypocotyls as explant to complement conventional breeding and expedite capsicum improvement. (ijcmas.com)
  • Callus was obtained from seedling hypocotyls on an agar solidified Murashige revised tobacco [MS] medium containing 1 mg/L. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [ 2,4-D 1]. (bvsalud.org)
  • The circadian clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL directly regulates the timing of floral scent emission in Petunia. (washington.edu)
  • After measuring seedling hypocotyl lengths in blue, red, far-red, and white light, and in darkness, eight QTL were identified by composite interval mapping and five localized near photoreceptor loci. (genetics.org)
  • Extracts from leaves, hypocotyls, and roots were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and protein sequencing. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Furthermore, the distribution of adventitious roots dramatically changed to the top third of the hypocotyl in a dose-dependent manner with ACC treatments in both wild-type and strigolactone mutants. (springer.com)
  • The repression of drought-responsive proteins such as aquaporins in both roots and hypocotyls represents a previously unreported response of a host to pathogen attack that may be specific to vascular wilt diseases. (apsnet.org)
  • The hypocotyls of NAA-treated cuttings grew significantly higher numbers of adventitious roots with an increase in endogenous IAA levels that corresponded with a decrease in IAA oxidase activity (32 kDa) examined. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • In Arabidopsis secondary growth can occur in roots, hypocotyls and stems. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • The enrichment with antioxidants (glutathione or ascorbate) or prooxidants (alloxan, methylviologen, hydrogen peroxide) of root inducing medium significantly decreased rhizogenesis frequency (alloxan, hydrogen peroxide) or inhibited roots regeneration (ascorbate, methylviologen) during the in vitro culture of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. hypocotyls. (edu.pl)
  • It might be concluded that the increase in hydrogen peroxide during initial stages of rhizogenesis and the induction of MnSODII are prerequisites for adventitious roots formation from hypocotyls of M. crystallinum, independently in the presence of anti- or prooxidant in the culture medium. (edu.pl)
  • If corrected for water content, it was found that when roots formed there was a leakage of ions in K. candel hypocotyl during the zero salinity treatment. (xmu.edu.cn)
  • The effect of exogenous naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on the internal levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in rooting hypocotyls of Glycine max was studied. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Two cell wall proteins capable of inducing the extension of plant cell walls have also recently been identified in cucumber hypocotyls. (nih.gov)
  • We found that the soluble proteins from growing cucumber (cucumis sativum L.) hypocotyls contained high XET activity but did not induce wall extension. (nih.gov)
  • Phytohormone-stimulated cell cycle reactivation in hypocotyls was accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins. (oup.com)
  • Using one-dimensional electrophoresis and fluorography of de novo synthesised proteins, it was possible to follow changes in the pattern of protein synthesis in slash pine hypocotyls. (naver.com)
  • Of the newly-synthesised proteins visualized by fluorography three new proteins (71 kD, 70 kD, 58 kD) showed strong enhancement in hypocotyls exposed to −2.5 MPa and a 46 kD protein was induced in hypocotyls exposed to −1.8 MPa for 24 h. (naver.com)
  • Characterization of long-term extension of isolated cell walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls. (nih.gov)
  • Walls from frozen-thawed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls extend for many hours when placed in tension under acidic conditions. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that XET activity alone is neither sufficient nor necessary for extension of isolated walls from cucumber hypocotyls. (nih.gov)
  • Under normal light conditions, hypocotyl growth is controlled by a process called photomorphogenesis, while shading the seedlings evokes a rapid transcriptional response which negatively regulates photomorphogenesis and results in increased rates of hypocotyl growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Arabidopsis hypocotyl is a useful model for investigating the regulation of plant growth. (pnas.org)
  • Light induces the photomorphogenic developmental program resulting in cotyledon expansion, leaf development, the initiation of photosynthesis, and limited hypocotyl growth. (pnas.org)
  • Brassinosteroids, auxin, and gibberellins (GAs) promote hypocotyl growth, whereas cytokinins and abscisic acid (ABA) have growth inhibitory effects ( 3 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have identified an additional environmental control of hypocotyl growth. (pnas.org)
  • These morphological and physiological differences, in combination with previously reported genetic data (T. Desnos, V. Orbovic, C. Bellini, J. Kronenberger, M. Caboche, J. Traas, H. Hofte [1996] Development 122: 683-693), illustrate that light does not simply inhibit hypocotyl growth in a cell-autonomous fashion, but that the observed growth response to light is a part of an integrated developmental change throughout the elongating organ. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We measured either volume changes of single hypocotyl protoplasts or hypocotyl growth, both at high temporal resolution. (plantphysiol.org)
  • instead, it showed auxin activity in the hypocotyl growth test. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In contrast, PEO-IAA induced an auxin-like swelling response but no hypocotyl growth. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Various plant growth regulators have been tested for rooting of mung bean hypocotyl cuttings [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we provide insights into the mechanism for hypocotyl gravitropic growth. (ugent.be)
  • Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. (elifesciences.org)
  • The apical region of each seedling's hypocotyl (2 cm) was excised after five days of growth for all experiments. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Growth and biomechanics of etiolated hypocotyls from Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase AtXTH18, AtXTH19, AtXTH20, and PttXET16-34 were studied. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Overexpression of AtXTH18, AtXTH19, and AtXTH20 stimulated growth of hypocotyls, while PttXET16-34 overexpression did not show this effect. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, in response to blue light, ZFHD10 acts as a positive regulator of hypocotyl growth through the action of light signaling components. (plantae.org)
  • The main difference between the root and the hypocotyl is that the root represents a developmental series (with newly initiated part at the tip and the thickest/mature part closer to the hypocotyl) whereas the hypocotyl presents a continuous structure as the hypocotyl stops to elongate after few days and then growth only radially. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Additionally, we have determined hypocotyl lengths of plants grown in 50 μT, 1 mT and approximately 100 mT magnetic fields (with zero-field controls), measured gene ( CHS , HY5 and GST ) expression levels, investigated blue-light intensity effects and explored the influence of sucrose in the growth medium. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Seedlings of Arabidopsis α-tubulin 6 mutant (tua6) were cultivated under microgravity conditions in the European Modular Cultivation System on the International Space Station, and growth and cell wall properties of their hypocotyls were analyzed (the Resist Wall experiment). (spacestationresearch.com)
  • Sixty-six percent of hypocotyl segments and 10.4% of cotyledon. (usda.gov)
  • Hypocotyl segments from growing regions of four-week-old slash pine ( Pinus elliottii Engelm) seedlings exhibited reduced protein synthesis when subjected to water stress imposed directly by incubation in solutions of mannitol. (naver.com)
  • Hypocotyl segments recovered full protein synthesis upon return to fully-hydrated conditions following stress up to −0.8 MPa, while slow recovery was observed under greater stresses (−1.3 MPa to −2.5 MPa). (naver.com)
  • Hypocotyl segments of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (scionresearch.com)
  • In vitro extension of frozen/thawed hypocotyls measured by a constant-load extensiometer started from a high-amplitude initial deformation followed by a slow time-dependent creep. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • The genetic separation of the blue and far red sensitivities of light-induced hypocotyl inhibition in the blu and hy mutants demonstrates that two photosensory systems function in this response. (plantcell.org)
  • Importantly, we conducted a detailed mapping of adventitious root initiation along the hypocotyl and measured ethylene production in strigolactone mutants. (springer.com)
  • The hypocotyl is the primary organ of extension of the young plant and develops into the stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recent studies, however, have found a correlation between endogenous auxin levels and stem and/or hypocotyl length ( 4 , 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • This is achieved by exposing young seedlings to fluorescein, for which no specific transporter is assumed to be present in A. thaliana , and assessing the relative concentration of this fluorescent compound in individual cells of the embryonic stem (hypocotyl) using confocal microscopy and quantitative 3D image analysis after a given exposure time. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Xu, Hui-lian and Takano, Tetsuo (2014) Applications of signal transduction and xerophytophysiology by exposing hypocotyls in organic peanut production. (orgprints.org)
  • Third, in the dark epidermal cells elongate along a steep, acropetal spatial and temporal gradient along the hypocotyl. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Moreover, we have isolated a GFP marker line for the hypocotyl epidermal cells which do not differentiate stomata complexes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Anthocyanin accumulation was observed visually in hypocotyls of the young seedlings soon after the hypocotyl exposure started. (orgprints.org)
  • In overall, hypocotyl exposure as a stimulation did induce the up-expression of the drought responsive gene, Gdi-15, and the consequent osmotic adjustment and anthocyanin accumulation but caused no damage to the whole plant. (orgprints.org)
  • inproceedings{Su2016IncreasedSI, title={Increased Sucrose in the Hypocotyls of Radish Sprouts Contributes to Nitrogen Deficiency-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation}, author={Nana Su and Qi Wu and Jin Lei Cui}, booktitle={Front. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Moreover it can even be even misleading i.e Col and Ler two Arabidopsis strains differ in hypocotyl diameter with Col being the bigger but it's Ler that showed more xylem accumulation (Ragni et al. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • With experimental conditions chosen to match those of the original study, we have measured hypocotyl lengths and anthocyanin accumulation for Arabidopsis seedlings grown in a 500 μT magnetic field, with simultaneous control experiments at 50 μT. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Stomata patterning on the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by genes involved in the control of root epidermis patterning. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although stomata complexes are typical of the shoot epidermis, their pattern on the hypocotyl is under the control of genes involved in root epidermis patterning. (ox.ac.uk)
  • When the seeds were sown, the cross-section of the ridge looked like the letter "A". The second, the hypocotyls elongated more than usual were exposed to light and dry air by removing the soil away around the young seedlings just after the emergence. (orgprints.org)
  • Taken together, D6PK and AGC1-12 play functionally important role for maintaining both phototropism and gravitropism in the hypocotyl by regulating PIN-mediated auxin transport. (plantae.org)
  • In this study, we show that Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH) directly binds to the promoter of MIR169a and negatively regulates its expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hormonal controls of adventitious root initiation in hypocotyls of helianthus annus seedlings (Unpublished doctoral thesis). (ucalgary.ca)
  • [1] It is grown for its fleshy hypocotyl that is fused with a taproot , which is typically dried, but may also be freshly cooked as a root vegetable . (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, no prominent differences were detected in the extensibility or the stress-relaxation parameters of the cell wall between space-grown hypocotyls and ground controls, suggesting that tua6 hypocotyls formed the regular cell wall architecture under microgravity conditions. (spacestationresearch.com)
  • The Nutritional Composition of Maca in Hypocotyls (Lepidium meyenii Walp. (hindawi.com)
  • Maca is the only member of the genus Lepidium with a fleshy hypocotyl , which is fused with the taproot to form a rough inverted pear-shaped body. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, certain aspects of T-DNA alleles require caution, as highlighted in this study of an intronic insertion mutant ( ben1-1 ) in the BEN1 ( B RI1-5 EN HANCED 1 ) gene. (g3journal.org)
  • These complications associated with T-DNA-insertion alleles require caution, as highlighted in this study of an intronic insertion mutant ( ben1-1 ) in the BEN1 ( B RI1-5 EN HANCED 1 ) gene. (g3journal.org)
  • Gene Expression Profile Changes in Cotton Root and Hypocotyl Tissues in Response to Infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. (apsnet.org)
  • Microarray analysis of large-scale temporal and tissue-specific plant gene expression changes occurring during a susceptible plant-pathogen interaction revealed different gene expression profile changes in cotton root and hypocotyl tissues. (apsnet.org)
  • To better understand this process, we monitored genome-wide gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls. (scoop.it)
  • In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that in the hypocotyl (the) junction between the shoot and the root), stomata are organized according to a clear pattern reminiscent of the root epidermis pattern. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hypocotyl rot strains were not pathogenic when tested against 14 agricultural hosts. (apsnet.org)
  • Strains from Oregon ponderosa pine hypocotyl cankers were pathogenic on P. lambertiana hypocotyls. (apsnet.org)