Hypoalbuminemia: A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Protein-Losing Enteropathies: Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE'S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Primidone: An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Capillary Leak Syndrome: A condition characterized by recurring episodes of fluid leaking from capillaries into extra-vascular compartments causing hematocrit to rise precipitously. If not treated, generalized vascular leak can lead to generalized EDEMA; SHOCK; cardiovascular collapse; and MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE.Hypoproteinemia: A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Puromycin Aminonucleoside: PUROMYCIN derivative that lacks the methoxyphenylalanyl group on the amine of the sugar ring. It is an antibiotic with antineoplastic properties and can cause nephrosis.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Anastomotic Leak: Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Preoperative Period: The period before a surgical operation.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Glomerulonephritis, Membranous: A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.RomaniaRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Ethosuximide: An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.LaosUser-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Capsule Endoscopy: Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.
Cohn process (human serum albumin purification method) Serum albumin Bovine serum albumin Human serum albumin This article ... Low albumin (hypoalbuminemia) may be caused by liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, burns, protein-losing enteropathy, ... phenytoin. For this reason, it is sometimes referred as a molecular "taxi". Competition between drugs for albumin binding sites ... Specific types include: human serum albumin bovine serum albumin (cattle serum albumin) or BSA, often used in medical and ...
Serum albumin[edit]. Main article: Serum albumin. Serum albumin is the most abundant blood plasma protein and is produced in ... Low albumin (hypoalbuminemia) may be caused by liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, burns, protein-losing enteropathy, ... phenytoin. For this reason, it is sometimes referred as a molecular "taxi". Competition between drugs for albumin binding sites ... Serum albumin levels[edit]. Normal range of human serum albumin in adults (, 3 y.o.) is 3.5 to 5 g/dL. For children less than ...
... between measured and calculated free phenytoin serum concentration in neurointensive care patients with hypoalbuminemia Javadi ...
Renal Failure corrects serum phenytoin level for renal failure and/or hypoalbuminemia. ... Phenytoin (Dilantin) Correction for Albumin / Renal Failure. Corrects serum phenytoin level for renal failure and/or ... Phenytoin is highly protein bound, but generally it is the free, unbound portion in the serum that correlates with ... The protein-bound phenytoin is what is typically measured by the lab. However, unbound phenytoin is the active portion (it ...
Monitor phenytoin serum concentrations and adjust phenytoin doses as needed. Enzalutamide is a CYP3A4 substrate and phenytoin ... Bilirubin displaces phenytoin from protein-binding sites, resulting in increased free phenytoin concentrations. Hypoalbuminemia ... Phenytoin serum level determinations may be necessary to achieve optimal dosage adjustments. Phenytoin serum levels sustained ... Dilantin/Phenytoin Oral Susp: 5mL, 125mg. Dilantin/Phenytoin Oral Tab Chew: 50mg. Phenytoin/Phenytoin Sodium Intramuscular Inj ...
Phenytoin) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient ... Monitor serum levels when switching between sodium salt of phenytoin (caps) and free acid form (suspension, Infatabs). Use ... Hypoalbuminemia. Elderly. Debilitated. Pregnancy: avoid. Nursing mothers: not recommended.. Interactions:. Potentiated by acute ... History of prior acute hepatotoxicity due to phenytoin. Concomitant delavirdine.. Warnings/Precautions:. Suicidal tendencies ( ...
Detailed dosage guidelines and administration information for Phenytoin Sodium. Includes dose adjustments, warnings and ... or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on the unbound fraction in those ... For this reason, serum phenytoin concentrations may increase modestly when IV phenytoin is substituted for oral phenytoin ... kg of phenytoin sodium intravenously will usually produce serum concentrations of phenytoin within the generally accepted serum ...
... or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on the unbound fraction in those ... or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on the unbound fraction in those ... Laboratory Test Abnormality: Phenytoin may decrease serum concentrations of thyroid hormone (T4 and T3), sometimes with an ... Serum levels of phenytoin sustained above the optimal range may produce confusional states referred to as "delirium," " ...
... or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on the unbound fraction in those ... 5.18 Serum Phenytoin Levels above Therapeutic Range. Serum levels of phenytoin (the active metabolite of CEREBYX) sustained ... 5.16 Slow Metabolizers of Phenytoin 5.17 Hyperglycemia 5.18 Serum Phenytoin Levels above Therapeutic Range 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS ... For this reason, serum phenytoin concentrations may increase modestly when IM or IV CEREBYX is substituted for oral phenytoin ...
... or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on the unbound fraction in those ... Phenytoin may also raise the serum glucose concentrations in diabetic patients.. Serum Phenytoin Levels Above Therapeutic Range ... Table 3. Drugs That Affect Phenytoin Concentrations. Interacting Agent. Examples. Drugs that may increase phenytoin serum ... For this reason, serum phenytoin concentrations may increase modestly when IM or IV CEREBYX is substituted for oral phenytoin ...
Phenytoin is used to prevent and control seizures (also called an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug). It works by reducing ... or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on the unbound fraction in those ... Acute alcoholic intake may increase phenytoin serum levels, while chronic alcoholic use may decrease serum levels. ... Sustained serum levels of phenytoin above optimal range may produce confusional states referred to as "delirium", "psychosis", ...
... or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on the unbound fraction in those ... 5.16 Serum Phenytoin Levels above Therapeutic Range. Serum levels of phenytoin sustained above the therapeutic range may ... stable phenytoin serum levels are achieved. There may be wide interpatient variability in phenytoin serum levels with ... 5.16 Serum Phenytoin Levels above Therapeutic Range 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Drugs that Affect Phenytoin ...
Phenytoin Capsules official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse ... Effects of Alcohol Use on Phenytoin Serum Levels. Acute alcoholic intake may increase phenytoin serum levels, while chronic ... Due to an increased fraction of unbound phenytoin in patients with renal or hepatic disease, or in those with hypoalbuminemia, ... stable phenytoin serum levels are achieved. There may be wide interpatient variability in phenytoin serum levels with ...
Hypoalbuminemia defined as serum albumin , 3 g/dL;. *QTcF , 470 msec;. *Complete Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB), atrio- ... Concomitant treatment with phenytoin, warfarin, sulphanylurea hypoglycemics (e.g. tolbutamide, glipizide, glibenclamide/ ...
phenytoin. furosemide in patients with hypoalbuminaemia. When BEZACHOLE SR is used concurrently with cholestyramine, an ... A 7.5 Serum cholesterol reducers.. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION:. Bezafibrate, a fibric acid derivative, lowers triglyceride and low ... It has not been firmly established whether the drug-induced lowering of serum cholesterol or lipid levels has detrimental, ... Patients undergoing dialysis and with impaired renal function (serum creatinine , 1.5 mg/100 mL i.e. , 135 micromols/L or ...
Phenytoin toxicity in a critically ill,hypoalbuminemic patient with normal serum drug concentrations. Crit Care Med. 1988;16: ... Ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics during iatrogenic hydroxyethyl starch-induced hypoalbuminemia: a model to explore the effects of ... Increase in amylase levels: HES infusion is an occasional elevation of the serum amylase levels. But this has no clinical ... As polygeline contains calcium ions it can be lead to increase in serum calcium concentration following large volume ...
Phenytoin Correction for Albumin/Renal Failure. Corrects a Phenytoin serum level for renal failure and/or hypoalbuminemia. ... Serum Osmolality/Osmolarity. Calculates expected serum osmolarity, for comparison to measured osmolarity to detect umeasured ... Calcium Correction for Hypoalbuminemia. Calculates a corrected calcium level for patients with hypoalbuminemia. ... compounds in the serum.. *MDRD GFR Equation. Estimates glomerular filtration rate based on creatinine and patient ...
Corrects a phenytoin serum level for renal failure and/or hypoalbuminemia. Ca Correction for Albumin. Adjust phenytoin dosing ... phenytoin concentration based on a total phenytoin level and a serum albumin level. ...
Phenytoin (Dilantin). Hypoalbuminaemia increases plasma concentrationChronic alcohol use causes reduced serum levels; acute ... Hypoalbuminaemia. Less protein binding (increased serum concentrations). Ascites/oedema. Increased volume of distribution for ... Hypoalbuminaemia. Hypoalbuminaemia must also be taken into consideration, in particular for drugs that have a high binding ... Increased serum concentrations. As a result of modified PKs due to reduced drug clearance, upregulation of drug receptors and ...
... have improved bacteriocidal activity with increased serum concentrations. Therefore, peak serum concentration is more closely ... Other examples of highly protein bound drugs used in the intensive care environment are diazepam, midazolam, phenytoin, and ... Hypoalbuminemia or altered glycoprotein levels can lead to higher levels of active free drug [22]. Medications that are highly ... For example, low serum albumin in older adults can result in increased potency of hepatically cleared medications such as ...
There are many drugs that may increase or decrease serum phenytoin levels or that phenytoin may affect. Serum level ... Due to an increased fraction of unbound phenytoin in patients with renal or hepatic disease, or in those with hypoalbuminemia, ... Drugs that may increase phenytoin serum levels Table 1 summarizes the drug classes that may potentially increase phenytoin ... Drugs that may decrease phenytoin serum levels Table 2 summarizes the drug classes that may potentially decrease phenytoin ...
... and comorbidities Dilantin correction calculator for hypoalbuminemia. Adjusted phenytoin concentrations provided superior ... This calculator accounts for renal dysfunction, serum albumin level, age, ... These reasons, monitoring of phenytoin levels may be clinically albumin.. Thus, phenytoin levels must be corrected according to ... Corrected phenytoin level for albumin. 02.07.2017. Corrected Dilantin = measured level, [ (0.2 x albumin) + 0.1] e.g: if ...
This calculator accounts for renal dysfunction, serum albumin level, age, and comorbidities. ... Total phenytoin correction calculator converts a measured total phenytoin level to a corrected total and estimated free level. ... Phenytoin Correction Calculator Dilantin correction calculator for hypoalbuminemia. ClinCalc.com » Neurology » Phenytoin ( ... Corrected\;phenytoin = \frac{(Measured\;phenytoin)}{\frac{Albumin}{4.4}*0.9+0.1} \\ ~ \\ Corrected\;phenytoin = \frac{(Measured ...
... or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on the unbound fraction in those ... 5.16 Serum Phenytoin Levels above Therapeutic Range. Serum levels of phenytoin sustained above the therapeutic range may ... stable phenytoin serum levels are achieved. There may be wide interpatient variability in phenytoin serum levels with ... Phenytoin may also produce lower than normal values for dexamethasone or metyrapone tests. Phenytoin may cause increased serum ...
... or in those with hypoalbuminemia, the monitoring of phenytoin serum levels should be based on the unbound fraction in those ... 5.16 Serum Phenytoin Levels above Therapeutic Range. Serum levels of phenytoin sustained above the therapeutic range may ... Dose reduction of phenytoin therapy is indicated if serum levels are excessive; if symptoms persist, termination is recommended ... 5.11 Renal or Hepatic Impairment, or Hypoalbuminemia. Because the fraction of unbound phenytoin is increased in patients with ...
C. Phenytoin. D. Valproic acid View correct answer for Case 2. Case 3: Progressively increasing serum creatinine. A 75-year-old ... alterations of hepatic enzymatic pathways and hypoalbuminemia can result in unexpected drug toxicity. For these reasons, ... Laboratory studies show a serum creatinine level of 0.6 mg/dL (45.8 µmol/L) and no blood ethanol. Serum electrolyte levels are ... serum osmolality, 248 mosm/kg H2O (248 mmol/kg H2O); serum uric acid, 6.8 mg/dL (0.4 mmol/L); spot urine sodium, 105 mEq/L (105 ...
Caution with drugs that are highly bound to serum albumin. May decrease T4 serum concentrations, or produce low results in ... Fosphenytoin sodium (prodrug of phenytoin) 75mg/mL (equivalent to 50mg/mL phenytoin sodium); soln for IV or IM inj. ... Hypoalbuminemia. Porphyria. Diabetes. Alcoholics. Slow metabolizers. Elderly. Debilitated. Pregnancy: avoid. Nursing mothers: ... Short-term substitution for oral phenytoin. Use only when oral phenytoin administration is not possible. ...
  • Concomitant use of valproic acid and some other drugs displaces phenytoin from plasma proteins and can lead to erratic levels. (mdcalc.com)
  • There have been several reported cases of malignancies, including neuroblastoma, in children whose mothers received phenytoin during pregnancy. (pfizermedicalinformation.co.za)
  • An increase in seizure frequency may occur during pregnancy because of altered phenytoin pharmacokinetics. (pfizermedicalinformation.co.za)
  • Serum calcitriol level doubles or triples and stays elevated in pregnancy despite falling PTH level. (medscape.com)
  • It has been reported in the literature that the plasma clearance of phenytoin generally increased during pregnancy, reached a peak in the third trimester and returned to the level of pre-pregnancy after few weeks or months of delivery. (pfizermedicalinformation.in)
  • Must have had 2 negative urine or serum pregnancy tests with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU per mL before receiving the initial prescription for SORIATANE. (gsksource.com)
  • In fact, and in patients receiving other drugs that mCLcr decreases at the purpose of response to treat scabies include topical crotamiton 10% (Eurax) and no gross evidence of glomerular and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs with hypoalbuminemia (eg, somatostatin analogs, benzothiapines (eg, pregnancy, rather than a 10% estimated prevalence in the electrical signal, 5 to determine the BIS2 equation (11.6%), are advanced through the CYP2D6 polymorphism, and somatosensory). (secureserver.net)
  • Because of the risk of local toxicity, intravenous Phenytoin Sodium Injection should be administered directly into a large peripheral or central vein through a large-gauge catheter. (drugs.com)
  • Administration of phenytoin to pregnant animals resulted in an increased incidence of fetal malformations and other manifestations of developmental toxicity (including embryofetal death, growth impairment, and behavioral abnormalities) in multiple species at clinically relevant doses [see Data ]. (pfizermedicalinformation.co.za)
  • Phenytoin toxicity occurs when serum levels exceed 25 pg/mL in most patients (above 20 pg/mL in some). (barnardhealth.us)
  • The seven currently available for gas exchange, then lung compliance is impaired, but transport team once the patient be managed by controlling inflammation, oxygen toxicity, barotrauma, and inflammation superimposed on a chronic bleeding disorder of osteoclastic activity and antidiuretic hormone secretion is rare at doses mg/d histamine release respiratory depression, are potentiated when benzodiazepines and phenytoin. (raseproject.org)
  • 6 AEDs: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms  phenytoin, carbamazepine Block voltage-dependent sodium channels at high firing frequencies Chemical formulas of commonly used antiepileptic drugs Adapted from Rogawski and Porter, 1993, and Engel, 1989 Slides 6 through 14 show chemical structures of several AEDs and their postulated molecular and cellular mechanisms of action. (slideplayer.com)
  • Trough levels provide information about clinically effective serum level range and confirm patient compliance and are obtained just prior to the patient's next scheduled dose. (drugs.com)
  • Chronic phenytoin use can result in folate deficiency with macrocytic anemia, acquired osteomalacia (increased vitamin D turnover), neutropenia (often transient), peripheral neuropathy, lupus-like syndromes, and myasthenic weakness. (barnardhealth.us)
  • He was also on phenytoin therapy for control of his chronic seizures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is no need to perform molecular weight-based adjustments when converting between fosphenytoin and phenytoin sodium doses. (rxlist.com)
  • The patient with large variations in phenytoin plasma levels, despite standard doses, presents a difficult clinical problem. (drugs.com)
  • Because phenytoin is hydroxylated in the liver by an enzyme system which is saturable at high plasma levels, small incremental doses may increase the half-life and produce very substantial increases in serum levels, when these are in the upper range. (drugs.com)
  • Do not make adjustments in recommended doses when substituting fosphenytoin sodium injection for phenytoin sodium or vice versa. (empr.com)
  • Phenytoin should be introduced in small doses with gradual increments until control is achieved or until toxic effects appear. (sgpharma.com)
  • In addition, FDA-approved labeling for parenteral phenytoin contains a boxed warning that highlights the cardiovascular risks associated with rapid intravenous administration rates. (pdr.net)
  • Reactions to parenteral phenytoin occur more often in elderly or debilitated patients, children (particularly infants), those who are critically ill, or those with pre-existing hypotension or severe myocardial insufficiency. (pdr.net)
  • Intravenous phenytoin should not be used in patients with other cardiac conduction abnormalities (e.g., bundle-branch block) and should be used with caution in any patient with cardiac disease, such as cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, or coronary artery disease, because symptoms may be potentiated or exacerbated. (pdr.net)
  • Careful cardiac and respiratory monitoring is required during and after intravenous phenytoin administration. (pdr.net)
  • Phenytoin undergoes enterohepatic recycling and is excreted in the urine, mainly as its hydroxylated metabolite, in either free or conjugated form. (sgpharma.com)
  • Serum bilirubin is normally mainly in an unconjugated form reflecting a balance between production and hepatobiliary excretion. (bmj.com)
  • pm page unit ii effective and well total serum bilirubin mg/dl infants at higher risk of long-term prognosis has improved in some cases removing bedroom carpeting. (raseproject.org)