Glucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Dialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Peritoneum: A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Hemodialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.GlycogenGlucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.GlucosephosphatesGlucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)PhlorhizinMethylglucosidesUrea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.PyruvatesCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.TriglyceridesCarbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Deoxy SugarsBicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.CreatinineBuffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hemodiafiltration: The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Renal Replacement Therapy: Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.Kidneys, Artificial: Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Glycogenolysis: The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)XyloseCytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.GluconatesBody Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.PhloretinBlood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Mice, Inbred C57BLGastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Peritoneal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The most commonly used crystalloid fluid is normal saline, a solution of sodium chloride at 0.9% concentration, which is close ... or hypertonic. Hypotonic fluids are not generally recommended in children due to increased risk of adverse effects. The best ... are mildly hypotonic solutions often used in those who have significant burns. Colloids preserve a high colloid osmotic ... but is not a part of routine medical care in the United States where a glucose solution is a prescription drug. Asian ...
The most commonly used crystalloid fluid is normal saline, a solution of sodium chloride at 0.9% concentration, which is close ... Glucose[edit]. Intravenous glucose is used in some Asian countries such as Korea as a pick-me-up, for "energy," but is not a ... Volume expanders may either be isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic. Hypotonic fluids are not generally recommended in children ... Colloids preserve a high colloid osmotic pressure in the blood, while, on the other hand, this parameter is decreased by ...
Dialysis[edit]. Main article: Dialysis. Dialysis is a treatment that substitutes for the function of normal kidneys. Dialysis ... Glucose at normal plasma levels is completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. The mechanism for this is the Na+/glucose ... The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, ... This allows urea to leave the collecting duct into the medulla, creating a hyperosmotic solution that "attracts" water. Urea ...
... of an article is one of the earliest forms of sterilization practiced. Dry heat, as the name indicates, utilizes hot air that is either free from water vapor, or has very little of it, and where this moisture plays a minimal or no role in the process of sterilization. The dry heat sterilization process is accomplished by conduction; that is where heat is absorbed by the exterior surface of an item and then passed inward to the next layer. Eventually, the entire item reaches the proper temperature needed to achieve sterilization. The proper time and temperature for dry heat sterilization is 160 °C (320 °F) for 2 hours or 170 °C (340 °F) for 1 hour. Instruments should be dry before sterilization since water will interfere with the process. Dry heat destroys microorganisms by causing denaturation of proteins. The presence of moisture, such as in steam sterilization, significantly speeds up heat penetration. There are two types of hot air convection (Convection refers to ...
... s are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. Because glucose is a vital source of energy for all life, these transporters are present in all phyla. The GLUT or SLC2A family are a protein family that is found in most mammalian cells. 14 GLUTS are encoded by human genome. GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they lack expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and, thus, are involved only in glucose uptake and catabolism. Usually produced only in hepatocytes, in fasting conditions other tissues such as the intestines, muscles, brain, and kidneys are able to produce glucose following activation of gluconeogenesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
... was extensively studied in Escherichia coli. E. coli grows faster on glucose than on any other carbon source. For example, if E. coli is placed on an agar plate containing only glucose and lactose, the bacteria will use glucose first and lactose second. When glucose is available in the environment, the synthesis of β-galactosidase is under repression due to the effect of catabolite repression caused by glucose. The catabolite repression in this case is achieved through the utilization of phosphotransferase system. An important enzyme from the phosphotransferase system called Enzyme II A (EIIA) plays a central role in this mechanism. There are different catabolite-specific EIIA in a single cell, even though different bacterial groups have specificities to different sets of catabolites. In enteric bacteria one of the EIIA enzymes in their ...
A postprandial glucose test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in the blood after a meal. Glucose is mainly made from carbohydrate foods. It is the main source of energy used by the body. Normally, blood glucose levels increase slightly after eating. This increase causes the pancreas to release insulin, which assists the body in removing glucose from the blood and storing it for energy. People with diabetes may not produce or respond properly to insulin, which causes their blood glucose to remain elevated. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. A 2-hour postprandial blood glucose test ("2 ...
The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood. The test is usually used to test for diabetes, insulin resistance, impaired beta cell function, and sometimes reactive hypoglycemia and acromegaly, or rarer disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. In the most commonly performed version of the test, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a standard dose of glucose is ingested by mouth and blood levels are checked two hours later. Many variations of the GTT have been devised over the years for various purposes, with different standard doses of glucose, different routes of administration, different intervals and durations of sampling, and various substances measured in addition to blood glucose. The ...
One of insulin's functions is to regulate delivery of glucose into cells to provide them with energy.[54] Insulin resistant cells cannot take in glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. Thus, glucose, fatty acids and amino acids 'leak' out of the cells. A decrease in insulin/glucagon ratio inhibits glycolysis which in turn decreases energy production. The resulting increase in blood glucose may raise levels outside the normal range and cause adverse health effects, depending on dietary conditions.[55] Certain cell types such as fat and muscle cells require insulin to absorb glucose. When these cells fail to respond adequately to circulating insulin, blood glucose levels rise. The liver helps regulate glucose levels by reducing its secretion of ...
Although a clear consensus has not been reached, a large number of scientists adhere to a substrate-transport model to account for the catalytic properties of glucose 6-phosphatase. In this model, glucose 6-phosphatase has a low degree of selectivity. The transfer of the glucose 6-phosphate is carried out by a transporter protein (T1) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains structures allowing the exit of the phosphate group (T2) and glucose (T3).[6] Glucose 6-phosphatase consists of 357 amino acids, and is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by nine transmembrane helices. Its N-terminal and active site are found on the lumen side of the ER and its C-terminus projects into the cytoplasm. Due to its tight association to the ER, the exact structure of glucose 6-phosphatase remains unknown. However, ...
The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in hepatocytes (liver cells). GKRP binds and moves glucokinase (GK), thereby controlling both activity and intracellular location of this key enzyme of glucose metabolism. GKRP is a 68 kD protein of 626 amino acids. It is coded for by a 19 exon gene, GCKR, on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p23). GKRP was discovered by Emile van Schaftingen and reported in 1989 Glucokinase (GK) in liver cells phosphorylates glucose, preparing it for incorporation into glycogen. During periods of ample glucose supply, most GK activity can be found in the peripheral cytoplasm where glycogen synthesis is occurring. As the glucose supply declines during periods of fasting, GK activity in the cytoplasm diminishes. GKRP participates in this modulation of GK activity and ...
Digestion' is the breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called ATP. The production of ATP is achieved through the oxidation of glucose molecules. In oxidation, the electrons are stripped from a glucose molecule to reduce NAD+ and FAD. NAD+ and FAD possess a high energy potential to drive the production of ATP in the electron transport chain. ATP production occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. There are two methods of producing ATP: aerobic and anaerobic. In aerobic respiration, oxygen is required. Oxygen plays a key role as it increases ATP production from 4 ATP molecules to about 30 ATP molecules. In anaerobic respiration, oxygen is not required. When oxygen is absent, the generation of ATP continues through fermentation.There are two types of fermentation: alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. There are several different types of carbohydrates: polysaccharides (e.g., starch, amylopectin, glycogen, ...
Plasma glucose is said to be maintained when there is an equal rate of glucose appearance (entry into the blood) and glucose disposal (removal from the blood). In the healthy individual, the rates of appearance and disposal are essentially equal during exercise of moderate intensity and duration; however, prolonged exercise or sufficiently intense exercise can result in an imbalance leaning towards a higher rate of disposal than appearance, at which point glucose levels fall producing the onset of fatigue. Rate of glucose appearance is dictated by the amount of glucose being absorbed at the gut as well as liver (hepatic) glucose output. Although glucose absorption from the gut is not typically a source of ...
Energy-yielding metabolism in erythrocytes depends on a constant supply of glucose from the blood plasma, where the glucose concentration is maintained at about 5mM. Glucose enters the erythrocyte by facilitated diffusion via a specific glucose transporter, at a rate about 50,000 times greater than uncatalyzed transmembrane diffusion. The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is a type III integral protein with 12 hydrophobic segments, each of which is believed to form a membrane-spanning helix. The detailed structure of GLUT1 is not known yet, but one plausible model suggests that the side-by-side assembly of several helices produces a transmembrane channel lined with hydrophilic residues that can hydrogen-bond with ...
The blood glucose can be raised to normal within minutes with 15-20 grams of carbohydrate. It can be taken as food or drink if the person is conscious and able to swallow. This amount of carbohydrate is contained in about 3-4 ounces (100-120 ml) of orange, apple, or grape juice, about 4-5 ounces (120-150 ml) of regular (non-diet) soda), about one slice of bread, about 4 crackers, or about 1 serving of most starchy foods. Starch is quickly digested to glucose, but adding fat or protein retards digestion. Symptoms should begin to improve within 5 minutes, though full recovery may take 10-20 minutes. Overeating does not speed recovery and will simply produce hyperglycemia afterwards.. If a person is suffering such severe effects of hypoglycemia that they cannot (due to combativeness) or should not (due to seizures or unconsciousness) be given anything by mouth, glucose can be given by intravenous infusion or ...
... (/ˈɡluːkoʊs/ or /-koʊz/; C6H12O6, an aa kent as D-glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple monosaccharide foond in plants. It is ane o the three dietary monosaccharides, alang wi fructose an galactose, that are absorbed directly intae the bluidstream durin digestion. An important carbohydrate in biology, cells uise it as the primary soorce o energy[3] an a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is ane o the main products o photosynthesis an fuels for cellular respiration. Glucose exists in several different molecular structures, but aw o these structurs can be dividit intae twa faimilies o mirror-images (stereoisomers). Anly ane set o these isomers exists in naitur, those derived frae the "richt-haundit furm" o glucose, denotit D-glucose. D-glucose is sometimes referred tae as dextrose, altho the uise o ...
Peritoneal fluid and salt removal can be increased by using a more hypertonic dialysis fluid using glucose as osmotic agent. ... Consistent use of hypertonic glucose solutions may damage peritoneal membrane and may also lead to increased systemic ... leading to higher glucose absorption rate from peritoneal fluid and loss of ultrafiltration capacity [6]. Such a high ... ESRD Peritoneal Dialysis Drug: Oral N-Acetylcysteine 1200 mg x 2/day for 4 weeks. ...
In this type of dialysis, approximately 2 liters of a sterile, nonpyrogenic, and hypertonic solution of glucose and ... Intraperitoneal fluid partially equilibrates with solutes in the plasma, and plasma water is ultrafiltered due to osmotic ... This provides an opportunity to remove 2-4 liters of fluid along with solutes in asingle treatment. Higher rates of fluid ... At the location of a dialysis procedure, a concentrate is diluted to the proper volume, commonly in the dialysis ...
This use of hypertonic glucose solutions may lead to increased body fat (12) and adverse effects, both locally in the ... Since the early 1990s, icodextrin, a glucose polymer derived from starch, has been used as an alternative osmotic agent to ... All were using lactate-buffered glucose-based dialysis solutions (Dianeal). Exclusions were the result of lower-than-required ... COMPARISON OF ICODEXTRIN AND GLUCOSE SOLUTIONS FOR LONG DWELL EXCHANGE IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS: A META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMIZED ...
Osmosis and diffusion Passage of fluid toward a solution with a lower solute concentration Allowing the passage of blood cells ... Passage of solute particles toward a solution with a higher… ... 1. Dialysis allows for the exchange of particles across a ... 4. Increasing the glucose concentration makes the solution increasingly more hypertonic. The more hypertonic the solution, the ... greater the osmotic pressure for ultrafiltration and thus the greater amount of fluid removed from the client during an ...
Prolonged exposure to dialysis solutions, especially when hypertonic glucose is used. *Acute peritonitis, as well as repeat or ... Type II UFF - low osmotic conductance to glucose (OCG), reflected by a low sodium sieving, and suggesting severe peritoneal ... Type III UFF - low EPSA, reflected by a slow transport status, suggesting a small cavity/sequestration of fluid, adherences or ... We have a 36 year old female patient who has been on Automated Peritoneal Dialysis for one year. She reports very irregular ...
The more hypertonic the solution, the greater the osmotic pressure for ultrafiltration and thus the greater amount of fluid ... Increasing the glucose concentration makes the solution increasingly more hypertonic. ... During the clients dialysis, the nurse observes that the solution draining from the abdomen is consistently blood tinged. The ... The client asks the nurse about the purpose of the glucose contained in the solution. The nurse bases the response knowing that ...
Typical CAPD solutions contain 01.5%, 02.5%, or 04.25% by weight of glucose monohydrate, leading to an initial maximum osmotic ... Altered permeability of the peritoneal membrane after using hypertonic peritoneal dialysis fluid. J Clin Invest 48:992. ... FIGURE 131.4 Volume of fluid in the peritoneal cavity versus time during an exchange with 02.5% glucose dialysis fluid. Solid ... The driving force for fluid transfer from the blood to the peritoneal cavity is the osmotic pressure of the glucose in the ...
... osmolarity than body fluid less effective osmolarity than body fluid Cell in a hypertonic solution Cell in a hypotonic solution ... It is fluids capability to create osmotic pressure. • It is concentration of osmotically active substances in solution. ... of body weight Body compartment fluid * 6. Organic Inorganic Glucose Amino acids Proteins Fatty acid Lipid Hormones Enzymes ... Dialysis ... I.V. fluids Based on use Maintenance fluids Replacement fluids ...
Since the body can tolerate hydration now limited, the administration of hypertonic solutions necessary infusion (of fat intake ... adequate caloric intake (Being respected and, in particular glucose), particularly in existing dialysis should too. ... fluid overload by edema and hypertension (high blood pressure) occurs.. In this context, it is particularly dangerous the " ... Drugs that have now removed because it can be dangerous, and the loop of dopamine and osmotic diuretics (permeability of drugs ...
... w/v Solution for Infusion BP - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) by Baxter Healthcare Ltd ... osmotic diuresis and dehydration. Rapid infusion may create a fluid inflation with haemodilution and hypervolaemia and, when ... Potassium Chloride 0.15 % w/v and Glucose 10 % w/v Solution for Infusion is a hypertonic solution of electrolytes and glucose, ... and exchange resins or dialysis. ... w/v and Glucose 10 % w/v Solution for Infusion, the solution ...
... because the dialysis solutions contain glucose as an osmotic agent causing removal of fluid from the circulation by crystalloid ... because the dialysis solutions contain glucose as an osmotic agent causing removal of fluid from the circulation by crystalloid ... The egression of fluid to the tissues and its re-uptake by the colloid osmotic pressure are markedly influenced by peritoneal ... of fluid to the tissues and its re-uptake by the colloid osmotic pressure are markedly influenced by peritoneal dialysis, ...
See how kidney dialysis and kidney transplants treat kidney failure. ... an isotonic solution). If the solution outside the cell is more concentrated than the cell contents (a hypertonic solution), ... The cells of your body are bathed in tissue fluid. This is also a solution of salts, sugars and other chemicals in water. It is ... However many chemicals such as glucose, amino acids and proteins cannot pass through the membrane at all - they are too big. ...
For refractory hypernatremia with fluid overload and acute kidney injury, dialysis may be required. ... Use of isotonic solutions may not correct serum na and may require hypotonic solutions. ... For hyponatremia: When serum Na is under 125 or for symptomatic seizures, use 5cc/Kg of 3% hypertonic saline over 5-10 minutes. ... Glucose and mannitol can cause factitious hyponatremia (plasma Osm above 295mOsm/kg). This is a true hyponatremia caused by ...
When blood glucose concentration reaches -300 mg/dl (16.7 mmol/L), fluid infusion is switched to 5% dextrose to allow continued ... since the addition of potassium to isotonic saline will result in a hypertonic solution that will delay correction of the serum ... The increase in renal potassium excretion is primarily related to the glucose osmotic diuresis and to hypovolemia-induced ... Extreme hyperglycemia in dialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 1982; 17: 228-31.. *Katz, MA. Hyperglycemia-induced hyponatremia: ...
Rehydration using 0.18% saline + 4% glucose is recommended at 20-40 ml/kg/d i.v. Or i.o. Hartmanns solution may be less ... Balanced electrolyte and hypertonic 5% dextrose solutions are recommended, however due the relative insolubility of uric acid ... HypercaIcemia; advice fluids for 50 lU/kg i.m. once, repeat in 2 wk diuresis; recent studies indicated more frequent dosing ... This means that bladder urine is not sterile and may not be a true osmotic/electrolyte representation of renal urine. A renal ...
Administer strongly hypertonic nutrient solutions through an indwelling IV catheter with the tip located in the superior vena ... Guide dosage by fluid, glucose, and nitrogen tolerances, as well as the patients metabolic and clinical response. ... Amino acid injection does not replace dialysis and conventional supportive therapy in patients with renal failure. Monitor ... These have included metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, alkalosis, hyperglycemia and glycosuria, osmotic diuresis and ...
Hospitalized patients are also at risk due to administration of hypertonic fluids (hypertonic saline, sodium bicarbonate) or ... Osmotic diuresis: sodium linked glucose transporter (SGLT1) inhibitors. Table II.. Drugs and Ingestions Predisposing to ... In severe cases, dialysis against a hypotonic dialysate has been used, but the dialysis prescription needs to be adjusted to ... Use of hypertonic saline or sodium bicarbonate solutions. *. Administration of large volumes of isotonic sodium chloride for ...
Hypertonic sodium phosphate solution draws fluid into interstitial lumen. Contraindicated in diabetics, patients are ... osmotic agent that draws fluid into bowel lumen. patients with renal failure (unable to clear magnesium from bloodstream). ... 2. If peaked T waves, give calcium gluconate followed by IV insulin and glucose. 3. Likely will need hemodialysis ... Delay hip repair until transplant function has stabilized or dialysis is begun ...
... which do not require dialysis (Lassnigg et al., 2004; Loef et al., 2005). Despite advances in medications, dialysis techniques ... Bicarbonate solution was prepared by a central pharmacy at each site. Blinding of clinical staff to treatment arm was not ... Any other IV fluid that the respective surgeons or anesthesiologists deemed necessary was allowed as part of routine patient ... 2008). Tight perioperative glucose control is associated with a reduction in renal impairment and renal failure in non-diabetic ...
What does hypertonic mean? Having a higher osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular ... What is an isotonic solution? It refers to 2 solutions having the same osmotic pressure across a semi permeable membrane. This ... Glucose carrier proteins to uptake glucose/ Lots of glucose channel proteins for facilitated diffusion of glucose ... The blood and the dialysis fluid flow in opposite directions in the dialysis machine. Explain the advantage of this? ...
Glucose, the osmotic agent in standard PD solutions, causes changes in the membrane over time which eventually leads to ... J. Witowski, A. Jörres, K. Korybalska et al., "Glucose degradation products in peritoneal dialysis fluids: do they harm?" ... Long-term exposure to hypertonic glucose solutions changes the transport characteristics of peritoneal membrane. Low or average ... "Clinical biocompatibility of a neutral peritoneal dialysis solution with minimal glucose-degradation products-a 1-year ...
Aspirated nasogastric feeding solution detected by glucose strips. Ann Intern Med1981;95:67-8. ... The risk of aspiration may be reduced by elevating the head of the bed to around 30 degrees, and by using iso-osmotic feeds (as ... We generally define it as an increase in bowel frequency and/or fluid content of the stool compared with the normal bowel habit ... Common problems include overhydration, which may develop in up to 25% of tube fed patients and hypertonic dehydration in up to ...
... when residual renal function is ended and mantaining body fluid equilibrium is difficult with more hypertonic glucose solutions ... Glucose polymer as an osmotic agent in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. MD Thesis. University of London, 1988. ... Goldsmith D, Jayawardene S, Sabharwal N, Cooney S. Allergic reactions to the polymeric glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid ... Comparison of icodextrin and glucose solutions for the daytime dwell in automated peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant ...
Prepare the client for dialysis if potassium levels are critically high Prepare for the IV administration of hypertonic ... If hyponatremia is accompanied by a fluid excess, osmotic diuretics are administered ... After adding potassium to an IV solution, rotate and invert the bag to ensure that the potassium is distributed evenly Label ... glucose with regular insulin to move excess potassium into the cells * 23.  Monitor renal function When blood transfusions ...
Administration rate is governed by the patients nitrogen, fluid, and glucose tolerance. Uremic patients are frequently glucose ... Strongly hypertonic nutrient solutions should be administered through an indwelling intravenous catheter with the tip located ... Although nitrogen requirements may be higher in stressed or acutely uremic patients, or those on dialysis, provision of ... osmotic diuresis and dehydration, rebound hypoglycemia, elevated liver enzymes, hypo- and hypervitaminosis, electrolyte ...
  • Niernversagen acute dialysis with a frequency of approximately 30 patients / million inhabitants / year occurs, acute renal failure not on dialysis also occurs frequently. (besthealthplace.com)
  • If an existing acute renal failure have assured the diagnosis, the most urgent measure is the immediate enlargement of the cause of loss is (bleeding, fluid loss through the gastrointestinal tract, burns, etc. (besthealthplace.com)
  • The accelerated decrease in serum creatinine levels seen in patients with limited extra-renal complications suggests that treatment with NephrAmine® and hypertonic dextrose leads to earlier return of renal function in patients with potentially reversible acute renal failure. (nih.gov)
  • By providing nutritional support and promoting biochemical improvement as well as earlier return of renal function, NephrAmine® and hypertonic dextrose decrease morbidity associated with acute renal failure. (nih.gov)
  • For refractory hypernatremia with fluid overload and acute kidney injury, dialysis may be required. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Urine Specific Gravity  Normal   values: Neonate: 1.001 to 1.020 Infant / child: 1.010 to 1.020 (infant) 1.010 to 1.030 in older child / adult  Low specific gravity = fluid excess or kidney disease  High specific gravity = fluid deficit (hypovolemia). (slidegur.com)
  • T. Y. H. Wong, A. O. Phillips, J. Witowski, and N. Topley, "Glucose-mediated induction of TGF- β 1 and MCP-1 in mesothelial cells in vitro is osmolality and polyol pathway dependent," Kidney International , vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1404-1416, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Someone suffering from kidney failure needs dialysis three times a week. (kidneytreatment.site)
  • The net result is likely to react to the most common form of stool, in sweat, and fluid passive non selective sympathetic effect repeated administration will deplete presynaptic noradrenaline norepinephrine dopamine dobutamine and dopexamine in the developing kidney development interestingly functional equivalence of pax and pax is required by all means follow them. (junoon.com)
  • These guidelines cover the organisation and performance of peritoneal dialysis as a treatment for kidney patients, including infants and children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It does not include factors involved in the choice of peritoneal dialysis compared to other options for patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NICE Clinical Guideline 125 (2011) recommends PD as the initial dialysis treatment of choice of chronic kidney disease stage 5 for children aged 2 years or older, people with residual renal function and adults without significant associated comorbidities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This article discusses the pathophysiology, techniques, and principles of organ preservation, and idescribes various preservation solutions currently used for kidney , liver , pancreas , small-bowel , lung , and heart transplantations. (medscape.com)
  • The point being that the body has mechanisms to regulate its fluid volume, and that the primary function of fluid resuscitation was to restore normal kidney function, and then let them do the rest. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Management of CE consists of general principles of stabilization of airway, breathing and circulation, as well as specific measures to reduce CE and preserve cerebral perfusion with corticosteroids, hyperosmolar therapy, management of underlying disorders and in certain instances, neurosurgical interventions such as drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and decompressive craniectomy. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • It is recommended to discard the first mL of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (i.e. collect a mid-stream sample for analysis), reducing the chance of sample contamination by epidural blood which can give a false positive result. (leedsth.nhs.uk)
  • The hypertonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) causes a fluid shift into the brain, resulting in cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. (scribd.com)
  • Ultrafiltration (UF) failure is a common and important complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), especially in long-term patients without residual urine production, because it often causes overhydration, which is an important cause of death in this population. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is also a section on diagnosis and treatment of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis, a rare but serious complication of peritoneal dialysis where fibrotic (scar) tissue forms around the intestine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prolonged NMDA perfusion produced a 34% decrease in phosphatidylcholine content in the lipid fraction of the tissue surrounding the dialysis probe. (jneurosci.org)
  • Or do we really know bba a reddy j c influence of normal negative feedback to decrease the chance of your dialysis treatment, and most widely used in the development of rcc the oncocytoma variant is considered amenable to both patient and the child is early mobilisation to reduce the chance. (qhrtechnologies.com)
  • Blood flow to the kidneys is regulated by intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms, which help maintain volume and composition of body fluids and aid in excretion of metabolites and toxins and retention of nutrients. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This is a complex issue, since individual variations are difficult to explain without full understanding of how the individual response is effecting excretion versus re-absorption of sodium, fluids, and other substances. (hammernutrition.com)
  • 10. 13 Daily fluid replacement = 700 + urine output Excess water loss 1. (slideshare.net)
  • Regulatory Mechanisms  Kidneys  Gastrointestinal tract  Thermoregulatory mechanism  Thirst mechanism Kidneys  Regulate fluid by their ability to concentrate and dilute urine. (slidegur.com)
  • The primary function is to chemically maintain osmotic pressure and acid-base balance and to transmit nerve impulses. (slidegur.com)
  • Despite advances in medications, dialysis techniques and treatment strategies, the incidence, morbidity and mortality associated CSA-AKI has not improved significantly in 40 years. (frontiersin.org)
  • For instance, early aggressive fluid resuscitation guided to certain end goals decreases morbidity and mortality and has been supported by recent trials. (reliasmedia.com)
  • Studies and results are variable, depending on reason for dialysis (e.g., removal of excess fluid or toxins/drugs), degree of renal involvement, and patient considerations (e.g., distance from treatment center, cognition, available support). (blogspot.com)
  • C. Küper, D. Steinert, M. L. Fraek, F. X. Beck, and W. Neuhofer, "EGF receptor signaling is involved in expression of osmoprotective TonEBP target gene aldose reductase under hypertonic conditions," American Journal of Physiology , vol. 296, no. 5, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • This article will review physiology, goals of fluid therapy, and the differences between crystalloid and artificial colloid. (reliasmedia.com)
  • hypersensitivity to 1 or more amino acids in the solution ( NephrAmine only). (drugs.com)
  • Amino acid injection does not replace dialysis and conventional supportive therapy in patients with renal failure. (drugs.com)
  • 5.4% NephrAmine® (Essential Amino Acid Injection) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution containing crystalline essential amino acids plus histidine. (nih.gov)