Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
A condition of markedly elevated BLOOD PRESSURE with DIASTOLIC PRESSURE usually greater than 120 mm Hg. Malignant hypertension is characterized by widespread vascular damage, PAPILLEDEMA, retinopathy, HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY, and renal dysfunction.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Phenomenon where increased BLOOD PRESSURE readings taken in non-clinical settings (e.g., HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING) do not replicate in clinical settings.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
Excision of kidney.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. It has been used in the treatment of familial hyperkalemia, hypertension, edema, and urinary tract disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p810)
Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Pathological elevation of intra-abdominal pressure (>12 mm Hg). It may develop as a result of SEPSIS; PANCREATITIS; capillary leaks, burns, or surgery. When the pressure is higher than 20 mm Hg, often with end-organ dysfunction, it is referred to as abdominal compartment syndrome.
An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A salicylamide derivative that is a non-cardioselective blocker of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and ALPHA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (1/3899)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Nonlinear indicial response of complex nonstationary oscillations as pulmonary hypertension responding to step hypoxia. (2/3899)

This paper is devoted to the quantization of the degree of nonlinearity of the relationship between two biological variables when one of the variables is a complex nonstationary oscillatory signal. An example of the situation is the indicial responses of pulmonary blood pressure (P) to step changes of oxygen tension (DeltapO2) in the breathing gas. For a step change of DeltapO2 beginning at time t1, the pulmonary blood pressure is a nonlinear function of time and DeltapO2, which can be written as P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). An effective method does not exist to examine the nonlinear function P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). A systematic approach is proposed here. The definitions of mean trends and oscillations about the means are the keys. With these keys a practical method of calculation is devised. We fit the mean trends of blood pressure with analytic functions of time, whose nonlinearity with respect to the oxygen level is clarified here. The associated oscillations about the mean can be transformed into Hilbert spectrum. An integration of the square of the Hilbert spectrum over frequency yields a measure of oscillatory energy, which is also a function of time, whose mean trends can be expressed by analytic functions. The degree of nonlinearity of the oscillatory energy with respect to the oxygen level also is clarified here. Theoretical extension of the experimental nonlinear indicial functions to arbitrary history of hypoxia is proposed. Application of the results to tissue remodeling and tissue engineering of blood vessels is discussed.  (+info)

Prediction of life expectancy in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. A retrospective nationwide survey from 1980-1990. (3/3899)

Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease of unknown etiology usually followed by death within 5 years after diagnosis. Although heart-lung or lung transplantation is now offered to patients with advanced PPH, adequate criteria assessing an accurate prediction of life expectancy in PPH has been difficult to establish. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristic features associated with a poor prognosis in patients with PPH, and to attempt to establish an individual prognostic index that predicts with great accuracy survival or death of PPH after one year, thereby helping to define criteria for patient selection for transplantation. In 1991, a retrospective nation-wide survey on PPH was conducted in Japan, and the clinical and cardiorespiratory variables of 223 PPH cases (female; 144, male; 79) in the period from 1980-1990 were obtained. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) was 57.5+/-17.2 mm Hg (mean+/-SD), and the overall median survival time was 32.5 months since the first diagnostic catheterization. The characteristic features of 61 patients who died within one year of catheterization (Nonsurvivors group) were compared to 141 patients who survived one year or more from the time of catheterization (Survivors group). Among several clinical and cardiorespiratory variables, heart rate, PPA, right atrial pressure (PRA), stroke volume index (SI), pulmonary vascular resistance, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were significantly different between the two groups. As the independent factors, PPA, PRA, SI, and PaCO2 were selected for the multiple logistic analysis. Using a 0.7 probability cut-point to separate Nonsurvivors from Survivors, 84.6% of Nonsurvivors and Survivors could be correctly predicted from this logistic regression equation. Predictive equations like the present preliminary one can be used in the future to better assess life expectancy in patients with PPH in whom transplantation will be considered.  (+info)

Reversal of severe pulmonary hypertension with beta blockade in a patient with end stage left ventricular failure. (4/3899)

A 52 year old man with severe chronic left ventricular failure (New York Heart Association class IV) was considered unsuitable for cardiac transplantation because of high and irreversible pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In an attempt to produce symptomatic improvement, metoprolol was cautiously introduced, initially at 6.25 mg twice daily. This was slowly increased to 50 mg twice daily over a two month period and continued thereafter. After four months of treatment the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. His exercise tolerance had increased and diuretic requirements reduced to frusemide 160 mg/day only. Assessment of right heart pressures was repeated and, other than a drop in resting heart rate, there was little change in his pulmonary artery pressure or PVR. His right heart pressures were reassessed showing a pronounced reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and a significant reduction in PVR, which fell further with inhaled oxygen and sublingual nitrates. He was then accepted onto the active waiting list for cardiac transplantation. A possible mechanism of action was investigated by assessing responses to beta agonists during treatment. Not only was there pronounced improvement in PVR but it was also demonstrated that beta receptor subtype cross-regulation may have contributed to the mechanism of benefit.  (+info)

Vasodilator therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension in children. (5/3899)

BACKGROUND: This report presents 13 years of experience with vasodilator therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) in children. Two eras were involved: between 1982 and 1987, oral calcium channel blockers were the only agents available for long-term therapy; after 1987, prostacyclin (PGI2) has been available for long-term intravenous use. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-four children underwent short-term vasodilator testing with intravenous PGI2. Those who manifested pulmonary vasodilation ("acute responders") were treated with oral calcium channel blockers. Until 1987, "acute nonresponders" were treated in the same way as long as they had no serious side effects. When PGI2 became available for long-term administration, all nonresponders, as well as those who failed to improve clinically and hemodynamically on calcium channel blockers, were treated with long-term PGI2. In the 31 responders, calcium channel blockers improved survival compared with the 43 nonresponders (P=0.0002). Survival was also better in 24 PGI2-treated nonresponders compared with 22 nonresponders for whom PGI2 was unavailable (P=0.0005) as well as in all children who failed conventional therapy (n=31; P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term vasodilator therapy improves survival in children with PPH. In acute responders, oral calcium channel blockers generally suffice. In both nonresponders to short-term testing and responders who fail to improve on calcium channel blockers, continuous intravenous infusion of PGI2 improves survival.  (+info)

Pulmonary embolism: one-year follow-up with echocardiography doppler and five-year survival analysis. (6/3899)

BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) is dependent on the underlying disease, degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH), and degree of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. A precise description of the time course of pulmonary artery pressure (PAsP)/RV function is therefore of importance for the early identification of persistent PH/RV dysfunction in patients treated for acute PE. Other objectives were to identify variables associated with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and to analyze the 5-year survival rate for patients alive 1 month after inclusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography Doppler was performed in 78 patients with acute PE at the time of diagnosis and repeatedly during the next year. A 5-year survival analysis was made. The PAsP decreased exponentially until the beginning of a stable phase, which was 50 mm Hg at the time of diagnosis of acute PE was associated with persistent PH after 1 year. The 5-year mortality rate was associated with underlying disease. Only patients with persistent PH in the stable phase required pulmonary thromboendarterectomy within 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: An echocardiography Doppler investigation performed 6 weeks after diagnosis of acute PE can identify patients with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and may be of value in planning the follow-up and care of these patients.  (+info)

Combined effects of nitric oxide and oxygen during acute pulmonary vasodilator testing. (7/3899)

OBJECTIVES: We compared the ability of inhaled nitric oxide (NO), oxygen (O2) and nitric oxide in oxygen (NO+O2) to identify reactive pulmonary vasculature in pulmonary hypertensive patients during acute vasodilator testing at cardiac catheterization. BACKGROUND: In patients with pulmonary hypertension, decisions regarding suitability for corrective surgery, transplantation and assessment of long-term prognosis are based on results obtained during acute pulmonary vasodilator testing. METHODS: In group 1, 46 patients had hemodynamic measurements in room air (RA), 100% O2, return to RA and NO (80 parts per million [ppm] in RA). In group 2, 25 additional patients were studied in RA, 100% O2 and 80 ppm NO in oxygen (NO+O2). RESULTS: In group 1, O2 decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (mean+/-SEM) from 17.2+/-2.1 U.m2 to 11.1+/-1.5 U.m2 (p < 0.05). Nitric oxide caused a comparable decrease from 17.8+/-2.2 U.m2 to 11.7+/-1.7 U.m2 (p < 0.05). In group 2, PVR decreased from 20.1+/-2.6 U.m2 to 14.3+/-1.9 U.m2 in O2 (p < 0.05) and further to 10.5+/-1.7 U.m2 in NO+O2 (p < 0.05). A response of 20% or more reduction in PVR was seen in 22/25 patients with NO+O2 compared with 16/25 in O2 alone (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled NO and O2 produced a similar degree of selective pulmonary vasodilation. Our data suggest that combination testing with NO + O2 provides additional pulmonary vasodilation in patients with a reactive pulmonary vascular bed in a selective, safe and expeditious fashion during cardiac catheterization. The combination of NO+O2 identifies patients with significant pulmonary vasoreactivity who might not be recognized if O2 or NO were used separately.  (+info)

Effective immunosuppressive therapy in a patient with primary pulmonary hypertension. (8/3899)

The case history is described of a young woman who presented with primary pulmonary hypertension and non-specific inflammatory signs. The patient received prolonged immunosuppressive treatment with low dose methotrexate and prednisone without any vasodilator agent. After one year the pulmonary artery pressure fell from a mean value of 47 mm Hg to 30 mm Hg and there was a corresponding clinical response. This case suggests that, in patients with pulmonary hypertension of unknown origin, immunopathogenetic factors should be sought in order to consider the utility of immunosuppressive therapy.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: Data on the effect of initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil on long-term outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension are scarce. METHODS: In this event-driven, double-blind study, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1:1 ratio, participants with World Health Organization functional class II or III symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension who had not previously received treatment to receive initial combination therapy with 10 mg of ambrisentan plus 40 mg of tadalafil (combination-therapy group), 10 mg of ambrisentan plus placebo (ambrisentan-monotherapy group), or 40 mg of tadalafil plus placebo (tadalafil-monotherapy group), all administered once daily. The primary end point in a time-to-event analysis was the first event of clinical failure, which was defined as the first occurrence of a composite of death, hospitalization for worsening pulmonary arterial hypertension, disease progression, or unsatisfactory long-term clinical response.
BACKGROUND Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is associated with proximal pulmonary artery obstruction and vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMC) and endothelial cells (PAEC) may actively contribute to remodeling of the proximal pulmonary vascular wall in CTEPH. Our present objective was to characterize PASMC and PAEC from large arteries of CTEPH patients and investigate their potential involvement in vascular remodeling. METHODS Primary cultures of proximal PAEC and PASMC from patients with CTEPH, with non-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH) and lung donors have been established. PAEC and PASMC have been characterized by immunofluorescence using specific markers. Expression of smooth muscle specific markers within the pulmonary vascular wall has been studied by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Mitogenic activity and migratory capacity of PASMC and PAEC have been investigated in vitro. RESULTS PAEC express CD31 on their
Data describing the natural history of idiopathic and familial pulmonary arterial hypertension were derived from a registry conducted at our institution prior to 2006. Since then, targeted therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension have been introduced in China. It is probably that the prognosis of Chinese patients with WHO group I pulmonary arterial hypertension and WHO group IV pulmonary hypertension due to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension has also been improved as western countries. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe real-world outcome of Chinese patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and identify factors that may predict outcome. Our study will provide an updated picture of the clinical course of a more broadly defined scope of pulmonary hypertension and the effects of current therapy on survival, enabling the collection of data on demographics, clinical course, treatments, and outcomes ...
Of 202 patients enrolled, 41% patients received three PAH therapies, with the remainder on two therapies. Median age was 48 years, 81% were female, >90% were World Health Organization functional class II or III, and 75% had idiopathic or heritable PAH. After 24 weeks, the mean placebo-corrected treatment-effect on 6MWD was 32 m (95% confidence interval, 12-52; p = 0.002), an effect maintained in the extension study in patients remaining on imatinib. PVR decreased by 379 dynes • sec • cm-5 (p < 0.001). Functional class, TTCW, and mortality did not differ between treatments. Serious adverse events and discontinuations were more frequent with imatinib than placebo (44% vs. 30%, 33% vs. 18%, respectively). Subdural hematoma occurred in eight patients (two in the core study, six in the extension) receiving imatinib and anticoagulation.. ...
Editors Note: Commentary based on Hemnes AR, Trammell AW, Archer SL et al.A Peripeheral Blood Signature of Vasodilator-Responsive Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Circulation 2014;.114.013317. [Epub ahead of print].. It has long been noted that there is a small group of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension who have a marked improvement in their hemodynamics when given vasodilators acutely such as nitric oxide. These so-called vasodilator responders can often be successfully treated with calcium channel blocker therapy, as opposed to the great majority of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients who do not have such an improvement and are generally treated with standard pulmonary arterial hypertension medications, e.g. phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists and prostaglandins. We hypothesized that there is a different molecular etiology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients who have this vasodilator response compared ...
Chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease is an important cause of severe pulmonary hypertension, and as such is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of this condition reflects the degree of associated right ventricular dysfunction, with predictable mortality related to the severity of the underlying pulmonary hypertension.1 In recent years the epidemiology of this condition has been revised considerably. Once considered a rare condition, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) was recently documented to complicate 3.8% of acute pulmonary embolic events.2. CTEPH is the only cause of severe pulmonary hypertension which is potentially curable without the need to resort to lung transplantation. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the surgical procedure which removes the obstructing thromboembolic material, resulting in significant improvements (and in many cases normalisation) in right ventricular haemodynamics and function. This procedure requires a high ...
Scleroderma (especially CREST syndrome). Mixed connective tissue disease Systemic lupus erythematosus Rheumatoid arthritis Dermatomyositis. Which occurs more frequently, primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension?. Primary (unexplained) pulmonary hypertension is a rare disorder. Secondary pulmonary hypertension is seen considerably more often in practice.. What population group is most frequently affected by primary pulmonary hypertension?. Although primary pulmonary hypertension occurs in both sexes and virtually all age groups, it has a tendency to affect young females. The female-to-male predominance is 1.7:1, and the mean age is 36 years.. Is surgical therapy now an option for patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic recurrent thromboembolism?. Appropriate prevention of recurrent thromboembolism continues to be extremely important. In addition to this prevention, it is now possible to remove organized thrombus surgically from the proximal pulmonary arteries of patients with ...
Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and more recently for pulmonary arterial hypertension (World Health Organization functional class I). PDE5 inhibitors can induce vasodilation; in addition, through a complex pathway involving nitric oxide, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and protein kinase G, it can reduce apoptosis and suppress cell proliferation. The presence of PDE5 inhibitors in various tissues and systemic vasculature make them potential targets in a variety of cardiovascular diseases.
To the Editors:. I read with interest the recent review article by Galiè et al. [1] on the use of combination therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The authors raised a number of important points, including the use of a goal-oriented approach to combination therapy and the need for regular monitoring in order to achieve optimal results for an individual patient.. In support of this approach, I would like to present the case of a 40-yr-old female, who had complained of progressive dyspnoea on exertion during a third pregnancy, becoming particularly noticeable after delivery in March 2005. Her two previous pregnancies had been uneventful and she had no relevant previous medical history. She was initially diagnosed as suffering from fatigue and post-partum depression in August 2005.. The patient was eventually referred to a cardiologist in October 2005, where she was classified as being in New York Heart Association/World Health Organization Functional Class (NYHA/WHO FC) III, with a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Weaning and discontinuation of epoprostenol in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension receiving concomitant bosentan. AU - Ivy, D. Dunbar. AU - Doran, Aimee. AU - Claussen, Lori. AU - Bingaman, Deborah. AU - Yetman, Anji. PY - 2004/4/1. Y1 - 2004/4/1. N2 - In 7 of 8 children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension treated with intravenous epoprostenol for ,1 year, concomitant use of bosentan allowed a reduction of epoprostenol and decreased its associated side effects without deterioration of clinical and hemodynamic parameters. In 3 children with normal or near-normal pulmonary artery pressure on epoprostenol, the addition of bosentan allowed discontinuation of epoprostenol and stabilization of hemodynamics for up to 1 year.. AB - In 7 of 8 children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension treated with intravenous epoprostenol for ,1 year, concomitant use of bosentan allowed a reduction of epoprostenol and decreased its associated side effects ...
There are a variety of treatments available for pulmonary hypertension. Treatment is specific to each patient, and is based on the information obtained during the heart catheterization. When secondary pulmonary hypertension is present, it is important to identify and treat the underlying cause, whenever possible. Sometimes, despite treatment of the cause, the pulmonary hypertension may continue. At times, treatment of the condition may cause an improvement in the pulmonary hypertension.. Medical treatment options include a variety of medications taken by mouth. Drugs may be used to remove the extra fluid that sometimes is retained with pulmonary hypertension. Such medications are called diuretics, and include lasix or aldacatone. To help the right heart squeeze better, a medicine called digoxin may be used. Patients with pulmonary hypertension are at risk for clot formation in the small vessels of their lungs. Warfarin is used in patients with pulmonary hypertension to help keep their blood thin ...
There are a variety of treatments available for pulmonary hypertension. Treatment is specific to each patient, and is based on the information obtained during the heart catheterization. When secondary pulmonary hypertension is present, it is important to identify and treat the underlying cause, whenever possible. Sometimes, despite treatment of the cause, the pulmonary hypertension may continue. At times, treatment of the condition may cause an improvement in the pulmonary hypertension.. Medical treatment options include a variety of medications taken by mouth. Drugs may be used to remove the extra fluid that sometimes is retained with pulmonary hypertension. Such medications are called diuretics, and include lasix or aldacatone. To help the right heart squeeze better, a medicine called digoxin may be used. Patients with pulmonary hypertension are at risk for clot formation in the small vessels of their lungs. Warfarin is used in patients with pulmonary hypertension to help keep their blood thin ...
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF) is chronic progressive fibrosing lung disease of unknown cause. There is no effective therapy yet for this disease and the mean survival in most reports is about 3 years after the diagnosis. Because of the stiff fibrosis of the lung, pulmonary hypertension is the late complication of IPF and its development heralds a very poor outcome of the patients. For the primary pulmonary hypertension, recently the effective drugs have been available. However, there is no study about the efficacy of these drugs in the patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmnary fibrosis, and the aim of this trial is to study the safty and efficacy of Iloprost, one of the safe and effective drugs in primary pulmonary hypertension ...
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare but life-threatening disease resulting from unresolved thromboembolic obstructions. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) surgery is the gold-standard treatment as it is potentially curative; however, not all patients are deemed operable and up to one-third have persistent or recurrent CTEPH after the procedure. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and CTEPH have similar clinical presentations and histopathological features, so agents shown to be effective in PAH have often been prescribed to patients with CTEPH in the absence of proven therapies. However, clinical evidence for this strategy is not compelling. A number of small uncontrolled trials have investigated endothelin receptor antagonists, prostacyclin analogues and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in CTEPH with mixed results, and a phase III study of the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan met only one of its two co-primary end-points. Recently, however, the soluble ...
In preclinical studies pulmonary dysfunction after irradiation of large lung volumes seems to be caused by vascular damage. Since vascular remodelling is a hallmark of PAH, we investigated whether irradiation could induce pulmonary hypertension with the related pulmonary vascular changes.. We show the proof of principle that irradiation of the lung leads to pulmonary vascular remodelling with subsequent pulmonary hypertension and RVH. The pulmonary vascular remodelling induced by irradiation showed striking similarities with the characteristic histopathology of PAH, including EC damage, vascular cell proliferation and neointimal lesions.30 The first signs of vascular changes such as EC loss and perivascular oedema were observed in the irradiated and shielded parts of the lung before any apparent parenchymal or BR changes. Subsequent to global pulmonary vascular remodelling accompanied by PAP elevation, RVH was observed, which is indicative of pulmonary hypertension. This cascade of events was ...
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Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) can reverse pulmonary hypertension secondary to left heart disease (WHO group 2) regardless of baseline pulmon...
Pulmonary hypertension may occur without an identifiable underlying cause or can be associated with a variety of conditions cirrhosis, AIDS, connective tissue diseases, weight-reducing drugs and certain toxins. Other conditions such as lung disease, heart disease, and low oxygen in the blood (hypoxia) and obstruction of the pulmonary vessels (from clots, foreign body, parasites and certain blood disorders).. The evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension in order to determine the cause and optimal treatment is a meticulous process requires a series of test and detailed assessment.. The Clinics for Pulmonary Hypertension & Pulmonary Vascular Disease. At the Pulmonary Hypertension Clinic, we are committed to improving the lives of our patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and other pulmonary vascular diseases, including pulmonary emboli and blood clots in the lungs. Our priorities are to alleviate symptoms and improve the function of our patients everyday lives.. As part of an ...
Successful curative treatment of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with luminal obliteration will require a thorough understanding of the mechanism underlying the development and progression of pulmonary vascular lesions. But the cells that obliterate the pulmonary arterial lumen in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension are incompletely characterized. The goal of our study was to evaluate whether inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 will prevent the accumulation of c-kit+ cells and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. We detected c-kit+- cells expressing endothelial (von Willebrand Factor) or smooth muscle cell/myofibroblast (α-smooth muscle actin) markers in pulmonary arterial lesions of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. We found increased expression of CXC chemokine ligand 12 in the lung tissue of SU5416/chronic hypoxia rats. In our prevention study, AMD3100, an inhibitor of the CXC chemokine ligand 12 receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4, only moderately decreased pulmonary arterial obliteration
In the 2009 European Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PH), one section covers aspects of pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The practical implementation of the guidelines for this disease is of crucia …
This trial compared treprostinil with other FDA approved therapies (including: epoprostenol; treprostinil; type-5 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase
1Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, 5United Therapeutics Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC, and, 6University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA, 2Institute of Cardiology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 3Erasmus University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium, and 4Hospital Antoine Beclere, Clamart, France ...
Canadian Respiratory Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that aims to provide a multidisciplinary forum for research in all areas of respiratory medicine. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to asthma, allergy, COPD, non-invasive ventilation, therapeutic intervention, lung cancer, airway and lung infections, as well as any other respiratory diseases.
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Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare and potentially fatal form of elevated blood pressure in the lungs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-Term Outcomes after Percutaneous Transluminal Pulmonary Angioplasty for Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension. AU - Inami, Takumi. AU - Kataoka, Masaharu. AU - Yanagisawa, Ryoji. AU - Ishiguro, Haruhisa. AU - Shimura, Nobuhiko. AU - Fukuda, Keiichi. AU - Yoshino, Hideaki. AU - Satoh, Toru. PY - 2016/12/13. Y1 - 2016/12/13. KW - angioplasty. KW - angioplasty, balloon. KW - hypertension, pulmonary. KW - thromboembolism. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.024201. DO - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.024201. M3 - Letter. C2 - 27956405. AN - SCOPUS:85006052065. VL - 134. SP - 2030. EP - 2032. JO - Circulation. JF - Circulation. SN - 0009-7322. IS - 24. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pulmonary artery rupture as a complication of pulmonary hypertension. T2 - Report of a case and review of the literature. AU - Reagin, K. B.. AU - Tazelaar, Henry D.. AU - Edwards, William D.. PY - 1997/5. Y1 - 1997/5. N2 - A 57-year-old woman with severe thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension died suddenly, approximately 3 hours after pulmonary angiography. Autopsy revealed a hemopericardium (350 mL) due to rupture of the pulmonary artery. Three acute partial intimal-medial tears also were observed. Fatal rupture of the mediastinal pulmonary arteries is a rare complication of severe pulmonary hypertension. A review of eight similar cases indicates that rupture tends to occur in patients with systemic levels of pressure, thrombotic (rather than plexogenic) forms of pulmonary hypertension, and survival longer than two years (mean, 4.5 years) from diagnosis.. AB - A 57-year-old woman with severe thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension died suddenly, approximately 3 hours after ...
In this study we showed first, that baseline peak V̇o2 was decreased and the V̇e-V̇co2 slope increased-with an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance-in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension; second, that oral administration of beraprost resulted in an increase in peak workload and peak V̇o2, and a decrease in the V̇e-V̇co2 slope; and third, that there was no significant difference in responses of these variables to beraprost treatment between patients with primary pulmonary hypertension and those with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. These results suggest that oral administration of beraprost may improve exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in both groups of patients.. Recently, the continuous intravenous administration of epoprostenol (prostacyclin) has been shown to cause pronounced lowering of pulmonary vascular resistance and improved exercise capacity in patients with either primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension.5-8,22 However, epoprostenol ...
Monroe Carell Jr. Childrens Hospital at Vanderbilts Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) program has earned the top level of accreditation from the national Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA).. Childrens Hospitals PH program is now designated a Pulmonary Hypertension Comprehensive Care Center, making it one of only seven pediatric programs in the country to hold this distinction and the only program in the Southeastern United States.. This designation recognizes centers with expertise in pulmonary hypertension that have demonstrated an ability to properly diagnose the disease and have the capability to manage these complex patients using a multidisciplinary approach that also incorporates teaching and research. Each accredited center has undergone a rigorous review process, including a site review conducted by a PH physician and PH coordinator selected for their expertise in the field.. This achievement is the result of a tremendous amount of hard work by individuals at Childrens ...
Title: Current Treatment of the Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Juan C. Gallego-Page. Affiliation:Unidad de Insuficiencia Cardiaca e Hipertension pulmonar, Servicio de Cardiologia, Complejo Hospitalario de Albacete, C/ Hermanos Falco s/n, 02006 Albacete, Spain.. Keywords:Pulmonary arterial hypertension, treatment. Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a feature of a spectrum of diseases that includes elevated pulmonary vascular resistance, induces right ventricular insufficiency and heart failure, and threatens the life. The aetiology and pathogenesis is diverse and associated with elevated morbidity and mortality. Treatment is frequently deficient and empirical. Fortunately, in recent years, randomized clinical trials have shown useful effects of various drugs on pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article reviews the pharmacological and not pharmacological therapeutic options to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension and attempts to provide a proposal of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rescue treatment with L-citrulline inhibits hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs. AU - Fike, Candice D.. AU - Dikalova, Anna. AU - Kaplowitz, Mark R.. AU - Cunningham, Gary. AU - Summar, Marshall. AU - Aschner, Judy L.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society.. PY - 2015/8/1. Y1 - 2015/8/1. N2 - Infants with cardiopulmonary disorders associated with hypoxia develop pulmonary hypertension. We previously showed that initiation of oral L-citrulline before and continued throughout hypoxic exposure improves nitric oxide (NO) production and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. Rescue treatments, initiated after the onset of pulmonary hypertension, better approximate clinical strategies. Mechanisms by which Lcitrulline improves NO production merit elucidation. The objective of this study was to determine whether starting L-citrulline after the onset of pulmonary hypertension inhibits disease progression and improves NO ...
Heart failure (HF) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are two major healthcare burdens in the United States. A third of the adult population has 3 or more of the risk factors for MS which include obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and high HDL cholesterol. Abnormal LV diastolic function is prevalent in 29-35% of those with MS. HF patients with diastolic dysfunction (DD) who develop pulmonary hypertension (PH) have an increased rate of mortality that correlates with increased systolic right ventricular (RV) pressure. Post-capillary PH is most frequently due to elevated left atrial pressure (WHO group II PH) but some patients develop combined pre- and post-capillary PH due to an element of pulmonary vascular remodeling occurring in the setting of longstanding elevated left atrial pressure. We hypothesized that patients with DD and MS are pre-disposed to pulmonary vascular remodeling and the development of pre-capillary PH. DD patients with PH were identified from a right heart ...
We read with great interest the nice article by Etemadi and colleagues, in your journal, Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia, entitled Unexplained pulmonary hypertension in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients.1 In a retrospective study of chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, pulmonary hypertension was found in 14 (41.1%) patients of the hemodialysis group and in 6 (18.7%) patients of the peritoneal dialysis group, where pulmonary hypertension was defined as a systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP)≥35mmHg. They concluded that unexplained pulmonary hypertension seems to be more frequent in patients undergoing hemodialysis than with patients in the peritoneal dialysis group. In this context, I would like to make a few points about pulmonary hypertension in dialysis patients. In a study of 102 maintenance hemodialysis patients, we found pulmonary artery pressure of 41.5±12.6mmHg. In our study, 76.5% of hemodialysis patients had SPAP=35mmHg. In this study we can also ...
Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by the obstruction and obliteration of small pulmonary arteries, leading to pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and right sided heart failure. Symptoms include syncope, dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain and edema. Pulmonary hypertension can also be a finding in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia or alveolar capillary dysplasias. The pulmonary hypertension NGS panel consists of twelve genes: ACVRL1, BMPR1B, BMPR2, CAV1, EIF2AK4, ENG, FOXF1, GDF2, KCNA5, KCNK3, SMAD4 and SMAD9.. Copy number variation (CNV) analysis of the Pulmonary hypertension genes is also offered as a panel. Additionally, CTGT offers a comprehensive test (both NGS and CNV panels) for these genes. Panel genes are also offered as individual sequencing and deletion/duplication tests unless otherwise indicated.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The evolving classification of pulmonary hypertension. AU - Foshat, Michelle. AU - Boroumand, Nahal. PY - 2017/5. Y1 - 2017/5. N2 - Context: An explosion of information on pulmonary hypertension has occurred during the past few decades. The perception of this disease has shifted from purely clinical to incorporate new knowledge of the underlying pathology. This transfer has occurred in light of advancements in pathophysiology, histology, and molecular medical diagnostics. Objectives: To update readers about the evolving understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and to demonstrate how pathology has shaped the current classification. Data Sources: Information presented at the 5 World Symposia on pulmonary hypertension held since 1973, with the last meeting occurring in 2013, was used in this review. Conclusions: Pulmonary hypertension represents a heterogeneous group of disorders that are differentiated based on differences in clinical, hemodynamic, ...
There are a variety of treatments available for pulmonary hypertension. Treatment is specific to each patient, and is based on the information obtained during the heart catheterization. When secondary pulmonary hypertension is present, it is important to identify and treat the underlying cause, whenever possible. Sometimes, despite treatment of the cause, the pulmonary hypertension may continue. At times, treatment of the condition may cause an improvement in the pulmonary hypertension.. Medical treatment options include a variety of medications taken by mouth. Drugs may be used to remove the extra fluid that sometimes is retained with pulmonary hypertension. Such medications are called diuretics, and include lasix or aldacatone. To help the right heart squeeze better, a medicine called digoxin may be used. Patients with pulmonary hypertension are at risk for clot formation in the small vessels of their lungs. Warfarin is used in patients with pulmonary hypertension to help keep their blood thin ...
No drugs have been approved for the treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), particularly those with idiopathic honeycomb lung. This study was conducted to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of bosentan for PH based on changes in prognosis and respiratory failure. IPF patients with borderline or less severe PH and completely organized honeycomb lung were randomized (1:1) to bosentan or no treatment for PH for 2 years and assessed at baseline and every 6 months for respiratory failure, activities of daily living (ADL), lung and heart functions by right cardiac catheterization, and other parameters. An interim analysis was performed, however, following detection of a significant survival benefit favoring bosentan therapy. Significant differences were noted for the bosentan-treated (n = 12) vs. untreated (n = 12) groups in hospital-free survival (603.44 ± 50.074 days vs. 358.87 ± 68.65 days; hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; P = 0.017) and
Background: Native T1 may be a sensitive, contrast-free, non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) marker of myocardial tissue changes in patients with pulmonary artery hypertension. However, the diagnostic and prognostic value of native T1 mapping in this patient group has not been fully explored. The aim of this work was to determine whether elevation of native T1 in myocardial tissue in pulmonary hypertension: (a) varies according to pulmonary hypertension subtype; (b) has prognostic value and (c) is associated with ventricular function and interaction. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from a total of 490 consecutive patients during their clinical 1.5 T CMR assessment at a pulmonary hypertension referral centre in 2015. Three hundred sixty-nine patients had pulmonary hypertension [58 ± 15 years; 66% female], an additional 39 had pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease [68 ± 13 years; 60% female], 82 patients did not have pulmonary hypertension [55 ± 18; 68% ...
A deletion/insertion (Del/Ins) polymorphism of 28 base pairs (bp) in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of fibrinogen alpha gene ( FGA) was associated with thromboembolic diseases, but the underlying me
Pulmonary hypertension is an uncommon but. pulmonary hypertension in chronic neonatal lung. al, Sildenafil (Viagra) in Childhood and Neonatal.. Ten consecutive patients with pulmonary hypertension. clinical benefits in childhood PPH.5 cause sustained. Sildenafil. Pulmonary...Mounting evidence suggests that sildenafil is an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension.Her initial capillary blood gas showed a pH of 6.99 with a pCO 2 of 14.9 kPa. After limited improvement following a fluid bolus, antibiotics, and oxygen therapy, she was intubated and ventilated.. Therapeutic Targets in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension PPHN Smooth Muscle Cell ...
BACKGROUND: In a phase 2 trial, selexipag, an oral selective IP prostacyclin-receptor agonist, was shown to be beneficial in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.. METHODS: In this event-driven, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 1156 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to receive placebo or selexipag in individualized doses (maximum dose, 1600 μg twice daily). Patients were eligible for enrollment if they were not receiving treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension or if they were receiving a stable dose of an endothelin-receptor antagonist, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, or both. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause or a complication related to pulmonary arterial hypertension up to the end of the treatment period (defined for each patient as 7 days after the date of the last intake of selexipag or placebo).. RESULTS: A primary end-point event occurred in 397 patients--41.6% of those in the ...
What causes pulmonary hypertension?. The heart consists of four chambers, two upper and two lower. The right side is responsible for pumping blood into the lungs; the left is responsible for pumping blood to the rest of the body. The lower right chamber is responsible for injecting blood into the pulmonary artery.. Typically the blood flows smoothly and effectively, keeping your blood pressure at baseline, or healthy. With pulmonary hypertension, the artery walls become thick with extra tissue and stiffen, making the blood flow restricted and difficult to pump through the artery thereby raising blood pressure. The heart has to work harder to get the blood flow through which causes damage and weakening of the heart muscles over time.. There are five known correlating factors for causing pulmonary hypertension:. 1.Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension - typically known as idiopathic (unknown origin) pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Theorized causes are specific gene mutations, certain drugs or ...
AIMS An important pathogenic mechanism in the development of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is hypothesized to be a cancer-like cellular proliferation independent of haemodynamics. However, because the vascular lesions are inseparably coupled with haemodynamic stress, the fate of the lesions is unknown when haemodynamic stress is eliminated. METHODS AND RESULTS We applied left pulmonary artery banding to a rat model with advanced pulmonary hypertension to investigate the effects of decreased haemodynamic stress on occlusive vascular lesions. Rats were given an injection of the VEGF blocker Sugen5416 and exposed to 3 weeks of hypoxia plus an additional 7 weeks of normoxia (total 10 weeks) (SU/Hx/Nx rats). The banding surgery to reduce haemodynamic stress to the left lung was done at 1 week prior to (preventive) or 5 weeks after (reversal) the SU5416 injection. All SU/Hx/Nx-exposed rats developed severe pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Histological analyses showed
The long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to increase survival in patients with severe resting hypoxemia. The adherence to LTOT may also simultaneously affect the development of concomitant pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to COPD with hypoxemia. We retrospectively reviewed 276 cases of COPD with or without PH assessed by right heart catheterization (RHC) to investigate whether adherence to continuous LTOT had a prophylactic effect on the development of PH in a time interval of two years. In contrast to the patients in the non-compliance group (PH prevalence 64.2%), patients with excellent compliance of adhering to continuous LTOT | 15 h per day in the compliance group (PH prevalence 37.6%) are more liable to postpone the development of PH due to hypoxic COPD for at least two years. Adherence to LTOT ≥ 15 h/day is strongly recommended in order to lower the risk and delay the development of consequent PH in COPD with hypoxemia.
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome is a systemic vascular disease with autosomal dominant inheritance, mucocutaneous telangiectasia, and repeated nasal bleeding due to vascular abnormalities. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia may occasionally lead to complications, including arteriovenous malformations and pulmonary hypertension. We present a case of a 52-year-old female patient with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who was referred to our hospital for treatment of pulmonary hypertension. She had been diagnosed with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia during adolescence and was being followed up. Six months prior to presentation, she had undergone coil embolization for pulmonary haemorrhage due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. She was in World Health Organization functional class IV, with a mean of pulmonary arterial pressure of 38 mmHg, a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 10 mmHg, and a right atrial pressure of 22 mmHg. A ...
1. Augoustides JG, Culp K, Smith S. Rebound pulmonary hypertension and cardiogenic shock after withdrawal of inhaled prostacyclin. Anesthesiology. 2004. 100: 1023-5. 2. Bajsarowicz P, Prakash I, Lamoureux J, Saluja RS, Feyz M, Maleki M. Nonsurgical acute traumatic subdural hematoma: What is the risk?. J Neurosurg. 2015. 123: 1176-83. 3. Barst RJ, Galie N, Naeije R, Simonneau G, Jeffs R, Arneson C. Long-term outcome in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients treated with subcutaneous treprostinil. Eur Respir J. 2006. 28: 1195-203. 4. Barst RJ, Rubin LJ, Long WA, McGoon MD, Rich S, Badesch DB. Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Study Group. A comparison of continuous intravenous epoprostenol (prostacyclin) with conventional therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1996. 334: 296-301. 5. Galiè N, Corris PA, Frost A, Girgis RE, Granton J, Jing ZC. Updated treatment algorithm of pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013. 62: D60-72. 6. Gayat E, Mebazaa A. Pulmonary ...
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a potentially curable condition [1]. The current treatment of choice for CTEPH is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) in patients who are considered candidates for surgical therapy. However, some CTEPH patients have thrombotic disease that affects the distal segmental pulmonary artery branches, while others have major medical co-morbidities which make them less than optimal candidates for surgical PEA. So, what are the alternatives when there is an inadequate response to medical therapy with pulmonary vasodilating agents such as Riociguat? Angioplasty has been performed in most vascular beds with excellent results since Dr. Andreas Gruentzig paved the way for balloon angioplasty. However, experience with angioplasty in the pulmonary vasculature has been mostly limited to pediatric patients with congenital pulmonary artery stenosis.. A group from Boston had explored the possibility of performing pulmonary angioplasty to treat patients with CTEPH ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MicroRNA expression profile of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and the effect of let-7d in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. AU - Wang, Lei. AU - Guo, Li Juan. AU - Liu, Jie. AU - Wang, Wang. AU - Yuan, Jason X.J.. AU - Zhao, Lan. AU - Wang, Jun. AU - Wang, Chen. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by single or recurrent pulmonary thromboemboli, which promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. MicroRNA (miRNA), is a small, noncoding RNA that is involved in multiple cell processes and functions and may participate in the pathogenesis of CTEPH. Our aims were to identify the miRNA expression signature in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) of CTEPH patients and to study the role of let-7d in CTEPH pathogenesis. The miRNA expression profile was analyzed by microarray in PASMCs of CTEPH and control patients. Differentially expressed miRNAs were selectively validated ...
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. Mortality in pregnant patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension related to connective tissue disease is as high as 56%. The authors report the first case of a successful maternal-fetal outcome in a pregnant patient with systemic lupus erythematosus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension treated with sildenafil and inhaled iloprost during pregnancy and until several weeks after caesarean section. CASE PRESENTATION: The case presented is of a 29-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and associated severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Vasodilator therapy with bosentan and sildenafil, immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone, hydroxychloroquine and azathioprine and oral anticoagulation (phenprocoumon) had normalized her right ventricular over right atrial pressure when she was diagnosed in her 5th week of pregnancy. The teratogenic drugs bosentan and phenprocoumon were stopped, the ...
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a disorder which causes progressive pulmonary hypertension, usually presenting with worsening dyspnoea and right heart failure. Pulmonary oedema induced by pulmonary vasodilator therapy to reduce pulmonary arterial pressure has been well described in PVOD, but here we describe a case of PVOD presenting with recurrent episodes of acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, in the absence of significant pulmonary hypertension. Concern over the risk of precipitating pulmonary oedema led us to use inhaled nitric oxide to predict the safety and efficacy of sildenafil.. ...
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Acute venous thromboembolism resolves in most cases. However, an estimated 0.5%-3.8% of pulmonary embolism (PE) survivors develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) resulting from mechanical obstruction of the pulmonary arteries [1-3]. Most patients with CTEPH have experienced a PE in their lifetime; however, up to 25% of patients have never reported a thrombotic event [4].
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an uncommon consequence of acute pulmonary embolism. We report CTEPH in a 58-year-old male who had pleurisy with a small haemorrhagic pleural effusion three months ago. The six-month course of
We thank Dr Asosingh et al for their interest in our study.1 Apparent disparity with their data2 probably reflects, at least in part, differences in defining endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the number of patients studied with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Asosingh et al2 measured only CD34+/CD133+ circulating cells, despite concern about the utility of CD133 as an EPC marker.3 Instead, we focused on CD34+/KDR+ cells, with or without CD133+ coexpression. Indeed, we agree that CD34+/CD133+ cell numbers are not reduced in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients and the capacity of mononuclear cells to form colonies and incorporate in endothelial tubes is higher than healthy controls. Nonetheless, circulating CD34+/KDR+ EPCs were reduced in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension or Eisenmenger syndrome, and a dose-dependent relationship with sildenafil treatment was found,1 suggesting that therapeutic regimens influence these studies.. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging techniques for assessing pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular performance with special reference to COPD. AU - Matthay, Richard A.. AU - Shub, Clarence. PY - 1990/7. Y1 - 1990/7. N2 - Several imaging techniques, both noninvasive and minimally invasive, have now been applied widely for determining cardiovascular performance in patients with chronic respiratory disease, particularly COPD. Moreover, some of these techniques are useful for evaluating response to therapeutic intervention in these patients. The plain chest radiograph is useful primarily for detecting the presence of pulmonary artery hypertension in patients with COPD. Radionuclide angiocardiography, using either first-pass techniques or the gated equilibrium technique, is particularly useful for determining right and left ventricular ejection fraction. Echocardiography has evolved as a technique for assessing right ventricular size and function and, in some cases, the degree of pulmonary artery ...
Looking for online definition of spontaneous pulmonary arteriopathy in the Medical Dictionary? spontaneous pulmonary arteriopathy explanation free. What is spontaneous pulmonary arteriopathy? Meaning of spontaneous pulmonary arteriopathy medical term. What does spontaneous pulmonary arteriopathy mean?
A 14-year-old boy after balloon valvuloplasty of severe aortic valve stenosis in the neonatal period was referred for heart-lung transplantation because of high grade pulmonary hypertension and left heart dysfunction due to endocardial fibroelastosis with severe mitral insufficiency. After heart catheterization, hemodynamic parameters were invasively monitored: a course of levosimendan and initiation of diuretics led to a decrease of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (from maximum 35 to 24 mmHg). Instead of an expected decrease, mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAP) increased up to 80 mmHg with increasing transpulmonary pressure gradient (TPG) up to 55 mmHg. Oral bosentan and intravenous epoprostenol then led to a ~50% decrease of mPAP (TPG between 16 and 22 mmHg). The boy was listed solely for heart transplantation which was successfully accomplished 1 month later.
Background: The majority of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) in functional classes II and III are currently being treated with non-parenteral therapies, including endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA), phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitors, inhaled iloprost or combinations of these substances. If these treatments fail, current guidelines recommend the addition of parenteral prostanoid therapy. There is, however, limited evidence for the efficacy of parenteral prostanoids when added to combinations of non-parenteral therapies. Methods: In this retrospective, multicentre study we collected data from consecutive IPAH patients receiving intravenous iloprost in addition to optimized non-parenteral therapy between Jan 2002 and Dec 2009. Analyses included 6 min walk distance (6MWD), functional class, need for transplantation, and survival. Results: During the observation period, 50 patients were treated with intravenous iloprost in addition to non-parenteral therapy; 44% ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The myocardial architecture changes in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn in an ovine animal model. AU - Agger, Peter. AU - Lakshminrusimha, Satyanarayana. AU - Laustsen, Christoffer. AU - Gugino, Sylvia. AU - Frandsen, Jesper R.. AU - Smerup, Morten. AU - Anderson, Robert H.. AU - Hjortdal, Vibeke. AU - Steinhorn, Robin H. PY - 2016/4/1. Y1 - 2016/4/1. N2 - Background:Persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn remains a syndrome with high mortality. Knowledge of changes in myocardial architecture in the setting of heart failure in persistent pulmonary hypertension is lacking, and could aid in the explanation of the prevailing high mortality.Methods:Persistent pulmonary hypertension was induced by antenatal ligation of the arterial duct in six ovine fetuses. The hearts were compared ex vivo with five matched control hearts, using diffusion tensor imaging to provide the overall anatomical arrangement, and assessment of the angulations and course of the ...
Pulmonary vascular disease is defined as a condition of blood flow to the lungs artery is blocked suddenly due to a blood clot somewhere in the body, including pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, pulmonary edema, etc. Pulmonary arterial hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a subgroup of …. ...
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH)-also known as primary arterial hypertension (PAH)-is a condition that causes high blood pressure in the artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs. If left untreated, PPH can force the heart to have to work harder in order to pump blood. This could eventually lead to heart failure and eventual death.. Because many patients show few or no symptoms from the disease, PPH is often misdiagnosed. This can cause delays in beginning treatment of the condition, which may increase the risk of serious injury or death.. The most commonly reported symptoms of primary pulmonary hypertension are shortness of breath, weakness, and recurrent fainting or passing out. Physical examination by a doctor may also reveal heart problems, including increased heart sounds, heart murmurs, pulmonic regurgitation (in which blood flows the wrong way in the arteries) or other heart symptoms.. If a doctor suspects that a patient may have PPH, they may order blood work to rule out ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prostacyclin synthese promoter regulation and familial pulmonary arterial hypertension. AU - Nana-Sinkam, Patrick. AU - Oyer, Ryan J.. AU - Stearman, R. S.. AU - Sotto-Santiago, Sylk. AU - Moore, Mark D.. AU - Bull, Todd M.. AU - Grady, M. C.. AU - Choudhery, Q.. AU - Nemenoff, Raphael A.. AU - Lane, Kirk. AU - Loyd, James E.. AU - Geraci, Mark W.. PY - 2005/12. Y1 - 2005/12. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1378/chest.128.6_suppl.612S. DO - 10.1378/chest.128.6_suppl.612S. M3 - Article. C2 - 16373865. AN - SCOPUS:30144438031. VL - 128. SP - 612S. JO - Chest. JF - Chest. SN - 0012-3692. IS - 6 SUPPL.. ER - ...
Patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) pose a difficult management problem. There are few effective therapies. The disease is progressive, with increasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pressures, resulting in right heart failure, dyspnea and decreasing functional status. Untreated, the mortality rate is substantial, and life expectancy after the development of congestive heart failure (CHF) can be measured in months. In a group of 90 patients with PPH referred for heart-lung transplantation, the mean survival from diagnosis was 42.9 ± 42.6 months, with a symptom duration of 65.9 ± 47.4 months [1]. In a national registry of 194 patients from 32 centers with PPH, the median survival was 2.8 years [2]. In patients with a cardiac index ,2 liters/min per m2, the median survival was 17 months, and if the right atrial pressure (RAP) was ,20 mm Hg, it was 1 month without therapy. Using this hemodynamic data (RAP, mean pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac index), equations were ...
N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a routinely used prognostic parameter in patients with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). As it accumulates in the presence of impaired renal function, the clinical utility of NT-proBNP in PH patients with concomitant renal insufficiency remains unclear. In a retrospective approach, patients with pre-capillary PH (group I or IV) and concomitant renal insufficiency at time of right heart catheterization (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≤60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were identified out of all prevalent pre-capillary PH patients treated at a single center. Forty patients with renal insufficiency (25.8%) were identified and matched regarding hemodynamic parameters with a control group of 56 PH patients with normal renal function (GFR |60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Correlations of NT-proBNP levels with hemodynamic and prognostic parameters (time to clinical worsening and overall survival) were assessed. Overall, GFR correlated inversely with NT-proBNP and had
A 60-year-old man, who underwent repair of ventricular septal defect iVSD j40 years previously, presented with dyspnea on effort and leg edema. Further examination showed residual VSD, mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency, atrial flutter and pulmonary hypertension. We performed repair of the residual VSD, mitral valve replacement, tricuspid valve annuloplasty, and the Maze procedure. After surgery, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure decreased from 70 to 39mmHg. On the 4th postoperative day, his hemodynamic state was stable and he weaned from ventilator. He showed hypoxia with sticky excretions, and reintubation was done 10 h after extubation. After intubation, pulmonary hypertension continued, nitroglycerine administration was not effective but inhaleted nitric oxide iNO jimproved pulmonary hypertension. On the 15th postoperative day, sildenafil administration from nasogastric tube was started the day before extubation. On postoperative echocardiogram on the 35th postoperative day, the ...
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a threatening condition that can be associated with a great variety of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. In all forms of severe PH the pulmonary vascular bed looses its physiological features of a high flow-low pressure system, putting an increased afterload on the right ventricle (RV). Acute pulmonary hypertension in the intensive care unit often represents a clinical problem secondary to acute respiratory failure, left heart failure, pulmonary embolism, or decompensation of prior PH by concurrent pulmonary or cardiovascular disease. Right ventricular failure (acute cor pulmonale) occurs when relevant increases in pulmonary vascular resistance overwhelm its compensatory mechanisms, both abruptly on a previously normal RV, or gradually on a chronic cor pulmonale. This review addresses the main pathophysiolocal aspects of severe PH, focusing on the hemodynamic derangements occurring in the setting of acute cor pulmonale, and emphasizing the role of ...
Buser, Marc; Felizeter-Kessler, Monika; Lenggenhager, Daniela; Maeder, Micha T (2015). Rapidly progressive pulmonary hypertension in a patient with pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 191(6):711-712. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Portopulmonary hypertension. T2 - An update. AU - Safdar, Zeenat. AU - Bartolome, Sonja. AU - Sussman, Norman. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is a serious complication of cirrhosis that is associated with mortality beyond that predicted by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) may be initiated by pulmonary vasoconstriction, altered levels of circulating mediators, or shear stress, and can eventually lead to the classic vascular remodeling (plexiform lesion) that characterizes POPH. Portal hypertension is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of POPH, although the severity of pulmonary hypertension is unrelated to the severity of portal hypertension or the nature or severity of liver disease. POPH precludes liver transplantation (LT) unless the mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) can be reduced to a safe level. The concept of an acceptable pressure has changed: we now consider both MPAP and ...
The hemodynamic underpinnings of elevated pulmonary artery pressure. Elevated left-sided filling (or distal) pressure is the most common reason for elevated pulmonary artery pressure in the general population, and is a contributor in a significant subset of patients with congenital heart disease. High pulmonary vascular resistance is the hemodynamic cause of elevated pulmonary pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) of various causes. Increased pulmonary flow is seen in patients with left-to-right shunting, and defining the extent of flow is critical in the assessment of shunt lesions. There is important overlap and the findings are flow-dependent and may be dynamic for a given patient depending on the context. That is, distal pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance may vary at different levels of pulmonary flow. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating endothelial cells in pulmonary hypertension. AU - Bull, Todd M.. AU - Golpon, Heiko. AU - Hebbel, Robert P.. AU - Solovey, Anna. AU - Cool, Carlyne D.. AU - Tuder, Rubin M.. AU - Geraci, Mark W.. AU - Voelkel, Norbert F.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - The pulmonary endothelium plays a significant role in the pathobiology of Primary Pulmonary Hypertension. A number of diseases, related by a history of vascular injury, are associated with increased numbers of circulating endothelial cells (CECs). We hypothesized that patients with pulmonary hypertension would also have an increased number of circulating endothelial cells due to the high pressures and increased shear stress present within the pulmonary vasculature. We isolated the CECs from 14 patients with pulmonary hypertension, (5 primary and 11 secondary) and compared them to the cells from 12 normal controls. There was a significant increase ...
Dogs diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension are most commonly small breed and middle aged to older, which is probably reflective of the high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic, degenerative, mitral valve disease. The most common presenting complaints include exercise intolerance, as well as cough, dyspnea, and syncope. Physical examination findings may include a heart murmur, typically of tricuspid regurgitation, as well as a very prominent or split second heart sound (S2). Increased adventitia with lung sounds, ascites, and cyanosis may also be present.. Routine diagnostic hematologic and biochemical diagnostics should be performed. These diagnostic tests should be reviewed with an emphasis on systemic diseases that may predispose dogs to pulmonary thromboembolism. Despite the perceived risk of heartworm infection, a heartworm antigen test should always be obtained. Thoracic radiography is not specific for pulmonary hypertension, but may demonstrate supportive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Whole body arginine metabolism and nitric oxide synthesis in newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension. AU - Castillo, Leticia. AU - De Rojas-Walker, T.. AU - Yu, Y. M.. AU - Sanchez, M.. AU - Chapman, T. E.. AU - Shannon, D.. AU - Tannenbaum, S.. AU - Burke, J. F.. AU - Young, V. R.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Despite the potential relevance of the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, no in vivo studies of the kinetics of arginine and NO have been conducted previously in this population. The terminal gua-nidino N-atom of L-arginine is the precursor for NO, which is oxidized to the stable inorganic nitrogen oxides, nitrite (NO2 −) and nitrate (NO3 −). Thus, synthesized NO is detected in serum or urine as NO2 − and NO3 −. The purpose of this investigation was to compare studies of whole body arginine metabolism twice in nine patients with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), using a primed ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a major cause of mortality in systemic sclerosis. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has emerged as a candidate biomarker that may enable the early detection of systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH). The objective of our study was to incorporate NT-proBNP into a screening algorithm for SSc-PAH that could potentially replace transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as a more convenient and less costly first tier test. NT-proBNP levels were measured in patients from four clinical groups: a group with right heart catheter (RHC)-diagnosed SSc-PAH before commencement of therapy for PAH; a group at high risk of SSc-PAH based on TTE; a group with interstitial lung disease; and systemic sclerosis (SSc) controls with no cardiopulmonary complications. NT-proBNP levels were compared by using ANOVA and correlated with other clinical variables by using simple and multiple linear regression. ROC curve analyses were performed to
Question - What causes severe neck pain inspite of suffering from Pulmonary Artery Hypertension?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Severe neck pain, Ask a Neurologist
TY - JOUR. T1 - Therapies for scleroderma-related pulmonary arterial hypertension. AU - Hassoun, Paul M.. PY - 2009/9/14. Y1 - 2009/9/14. N2 - Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a common complication of systemic sclerosis, carries a very severe prognosis and is one of the leading causes of death in patients who suffer from it. Indeed, response to modern medical therapy has been disappointing in scleroderma-related PAH compared with other forms of PAH from the WHO group 1 classification of diseases, despite similar histological changes involving the pulmonary vasculature. This review discusses specific features of scleroderma-related PAH, currently available and US FDA-approved therapy for this syndrome, as well as potential future therapeutic developments based on newly acquired knowledge of this disorder.. AB - Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a common complication of systemic sclerosis, carries a very severe prognosis and is one of the leading causes of death in patients who suffer ...
Learn more about Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension at Atlanta Outpatient Surgery Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension usually undergo acute vasodilator tests with nitric oxide (NO) for haemodynamic evaluation and therapeutical planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the link between the variation of N-
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension may complicate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and result in right ventricular (RV) failure and premature death. There are limited data of the effects of childhood HIV infection or antiretroviral therapy (ART) on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). OBJECTIVES: To establish if there is an association between childhood ... read more HIV infection or its treatment and pulmonary artery pressure. METHODS: The study conducted a cross-sectional study of 102 HIV-infected (48 ART-naïve, 54 ART-exposed) and 51 HIV-uninfected children in Jakarta, Indonesia, to estimate PAP using echocardiography parameters: tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity (TRV), left ventricular systolic index and diastolic eccentricity index (EI), and RV systolic function, assessed by tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion. The association between either ART-naive or ART-exposed HIV and PAP was explored using general linear modelling adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of leukotriene B4 in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. AU - Tabata, T.. AU - Ono, S.. AU - Song, C.. AU - Noda, M.. AU - Suzuki, S.. AU - Tanita, T.. AU - Fujimura, S.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Monocrotaline (MCT) causes lung inflammation and chronic pulmonary hypertension associated with lung vascular thickening in rats. We hypothesized that leukotrine B4 (LTB4) and LTB4-induced accumulation of leukocytes in the lung play a role in MCT-induced lung disease, and therefore measured LTB4 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in lung tissue of MCT- treated rats. Next, we examined the effect of an orally active LTB4 receptor antagonist (ONO4057) on MPO levels in lung tissue, on pulmonary hypertension, and on pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by MCT. Lung LTB4 and MPO levels had increased by 3 days after MCT injection. In the ONO4057-treated MCT rats, lung MPO levels were significantly lower than in the rats given MCT but not ONO4507. By the third week after ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Echocardiographic patterns of pulmonic valve motion with pulmonary hypertension. AU - Weyman, A. E.. AU - Dillon, J. C.. AU - Feigenbaum, Harvey. AU - Chang, S.. PY - 1974. Y1 - 1974. N2 - Echocardiographic tracings of the pulmonic valve were examined in 2 groups of patients. The first group contained 24 normal patients. The second group consisted of 32 patients with pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥20 mm Hg). Parameters considered included presence or absence and depth of the a wave, amplitude of valve opening (b c separation), diastolic (e f) slope, and presence or absence of mid systolic closure or fluttering of the pulmonic leaflet. An a wave was present in all 24 normal subjects. The a wave varied with respiration and the maximum a wave depth (A Max) averaged 3.7 ± 1.2 mm (mean ± SD, range 2-7 mm). A Max was ≥2 mm in all 24 normal patients. In 19 of 24 patients with pulmonary hypertension and sinus rhythm no a wave was present. In the ...
Macitentan may be the lately approved dual endothelin-receptor antagonist (Period) for the treating symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension. hypertension sufferers with macitentan resulted in statistically significant improvements in useful class, workout tolerance, and hemodynamic variables, and a decrease in morbidity within an event-driven long-term trial. solid course=kwd-title Keywords: endothelin, endothelin receptor antagonists, macitentan, pulmonary arterial hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is normally a intensifying and BRL-15572 supplier lethal disease seen as a remodeling from the pulmonary arterioles with consequent enhance from the pulmonary vascular level of resistance (PVR) with eventual best ventricular failing and ultimately loss of life. Furthermore, despite targeted remedies, the disease continues to be fatal.1 The organic history of PAH as well as the survival prices for patients experiencing this disease had been ...
Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is surgically curable by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). It is unclear whether PEA impacts primarily steady state right ventricular afterload (ie, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR)) or pulsatile right ventricular afterload (ie, pulmonary arterial compliance (CPA)). Our objectives were to (1) quantify PEA specimens and measure the impact of PEA on PVR and CPA in a structure/function study and (2) analyse the effects of haemodynamic changes on long-term survival/freedom of lung transplantation in an outcome study.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The critical role of pulmonary arterial compliance in pulmonary hypertension. AU - Thenappan, Thenappan. AU - Prins, Kurt W.. AU - Pritzker, Marc R.. AU - Scandurra, John. AU - Volmers, Karl. AU - Weir, E. Kenneth. N1 - Funding Information: Supported by American Heart Association Scientist Development Award 15SDG25560048 (T.T.) and National Institutes of Health F32 Grant HL129554 (K.W.P.).. PY - 2016/2. Y1 - 2016/2. N2 - The normal pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, highcompliance system. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases in the presence of pulmonary hypertension because of increased extracellular matrix/collagen deposition in the pulmonary arteries. Loss of pulmonary arterial compliance has been consistently shown to be a predictor of increased mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, even more so than pulmonary vascular resistance in some studies. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance causes premature reflection of waves from the distal pulmonary ...
Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, non-specific presentation and lack of awareness of the disease frequently lead to significant delay in diagnosis, often with the onset of right heart failure, when prognosis is poor and therapy is of limited effectiveness. The classification of pulmonary hypertension is a clinical one grouping diseases into categories with similar patho-physiological mechanism and therapeutic options. Pulmonary biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis but is hazardous in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Imaging has emerged as an invaluable tool in differentiating the aetiology, assessing disease severity and directing further management. One of the most important roles of imaging is to differentiate diseases resulting from obstruction of the large pulmonary arteries from those secondary to diffuse small vessel disease, as these have very different prognosis and are also treated differently. Small vessel diseases ...
Pulmonary hypertension. The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is a disease-specific measure which ... McKenna SP, Doughty N, Meads DM, Doward LC, Pepke-Zaba J (February 2006). "The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review ... August 2008). "Long-term use of sildenafil in inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension". Chest. 134 (2): 229- ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease questionnaire (LCOPD) has 22 yes ...
... pulmonary hypertension; fetal hemoglobin production; and approaches to iron chelation therapy. Published medical research ...
"Pulmonary hypertension". Radiopaedia. Retrieved 2017-05-27. Ali Nawaz Khan (2016-09-22). "Small-Bowel Obstruction Imaging". ... A Non-Contrast Computed Tomography Study in Korean Males with Hypertension". Korean Circulation Journal. 44 (3): 162-9. doi: ...
... for ralinepag in pulmonary hypertension; SAPPHIRE (Registration Study) for gene therapy; and TETON for idiopathic pulmonary ... The company's R&D pipeline also includes more than a dozen new products to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension, end-stage ... The Remunity system is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients older than 22. United ... In 1994, Rothblatt's young daughter was diagnosed with a fatal orphan disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Rothblatt ...
NIH/UW entry on Heritable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension OMIM entries on Heritable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Human BMPR2 ... An inactivating mutation in the BMPR2 gene has been linked to pulmonary arterial hypertension. BMPR2 functions to inhibit the ... It is especially important to screen for BMPR2 mutations in relatives of patients with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, for ... When this gene is inhibited, vascular smooth muscle proliferates and can cause pulmonary hypertension, which, among other ...
Pulmonary hypertension (20%); Cystic fibrosis (2%); A second transplant after the first transplant was rejected or failed to ...
... in pulmonary hypertension. in primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) The production of prostacyclin is inhibited by the action of ... In patients with pulmonary hypertension, inhaled epoprostenol reduces pulmonary pressure, and improves right ventricular stroke ... It is used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. Prostacyclin, which has a half-life of 42 seconds, is broken down into 6- ... and pulmonary hypertension before cardiac surgery". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 125 (3): 642-9. doi: ...
"Japanese Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients Fare Better On PAH Drugs, According To Study". Pulmonary Hypertension News. ... It is where innovations have taken place in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. admin (17 April 2014). " ... A Treatment Option for Inoperable Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension". Frontiers in Cardiovascular ... Ogawa, Aiko; Matsubara, Hiromi (17 February 2015). "Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty: ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension occurs by two mechanisms in cardiac sarcoidosis: reduced left heart function due to granulomas ... At least 5% of cases include pulmonary arterial hypertension. The upper respiratory tract (including the larynx, pharynx, and ... Nunes H, Uzunhan Y, Freynet O, Humbert M, Brillet PY, Kambouchner M, Valeyre D (June 2012). "Pulmonary hypertension ... BHL with pulmonary infiltrates Stage III: pulmonary infiltrates without BHL Stage IV: fibrosis Use of the Scadding scale only ...
Sildenafil and tadalafil are also indicated for the treatment of some subtypes of pulmonary hypertension, while tadalafil is ... Kanthapillai P, Lasserson T, Walters E (October 2004). "Sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension". The Cochrane Database of ... Nevertheless, PDE5 inhibitors already marketed for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension are undergoing ... sildenafil and tadalafil are FDA-approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. As of 2019, the wider cardiovascular ...
"Pulmonary Hypertension Awareness Month". NSFC Admin. "Stomach Cancer Awareness Month". "National Blog Posting Month". "National ... Pulmonary Hypertension Awareness Month Stomach Cancer Awareness Month No Nut November Native American Heritage Month COPD ...
Aminorex and pulmonary hypertension. A review. Cor Vasa. 1985;27(2-3):160-71. PMID 3928246 Davis FT, Brewster ME. A fatality ... Recreational use of aminorex and pulmonary hypertension. Chest. 2000 Nov;118(5):1496-7. PMID 11083709 Meririnne E, Kajos M, ... but withdrawn from sale after it was discovered that extended use produced pulmonary hypertension, often followed by heart ...
Treatment of pulmonary hypertension will depend on the specific cause of the pulmonary hypertension. On top of this, the ... One of the most common causes of RVH is pulmonary hypertension (PH), defined as increased blood pressure in the vessels ... Since the main causes of right ventricular hypertrophy is tricuspid regurgitation or pulmonary hypertension (discussed above), ... Oudiz, Ronald (21 June 2018). "Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension". Medscape. Retrieved 23 March 2019. "Understanding ...
Pulmonary embolism. Inferior vena cava filter Suction thrombectomy. Renovascular hypertension. Surgical revascularization. ...
... pulmonary hypertension of embolic origin; embolism after insertion of prosthetic cardiac valves; rethrombosis after ... Active pulmonary tuberculosis. Impaired fibrinolysis. Severe liver disease. Manifest or impending shock. I.M.-Injection : ... Renal stones (increased likelihood of significant urological bleeding). Severe and uncontrolled arterial hypertension. ...
Pulmonary hypertension has been gaining recognition as a complication of chronic hereditary and acquired hemolysis. Free ... Machado, Roberto F.; Gladwin, Mark T. (2010). "Pulmonary Hypertension in Hemolytic Disorders". Chest. Elsevier BV. 137 (6): 30S ... systemic release of hemoglobin is associated with pulmonary and systemic hypertension,17,20,53-55 decreased organ perfusion, ... This can lead to esophageal spasm and dysphagia, abdominal pain, erectile dysfunction, systemic hypertension, decreased organ ...
... sodium (TBC-11251) is a medication for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It was marketed as ... "Encysive Pharmaceuticals to Conduct Phase III Study With Thelin (Sitaxsentan Sodium) in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension". ... 2004). "Sitaxsentan therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. ... 2007). "Selective endothelinA receptor antagonism with sitaxsentan for pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with ...
These events lead to hypertension; renal, pulmonary, and hepatic dysfunction; and cerebral edema with cerebral dysfunction and ... American College of Obstetricians Gynecologists; Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy (November 2013). "Hypertension in ... refractory hypertension, pulmonary edema, or poor urine output. The Greek noun ἐκλαμψία, eklampsía, denotes a "light burst"; ... pulmonary edema, cerebral symptoms, or abdominal pain. Typically the pregnant woman develops hypertension and proteinuria ...
Pulmonary hypertension (PAH) is disease of small pulmonary arteries that is usually caused by more than one mechanism. This ... Complications in this response arise in acute coronary syndromes and pulmonary arterial hypertension. These complications lead ... Humbert Marc (2004). "Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension". The New England Journal of Medicine. 351 (14): 1425-1436. ... there are no current cures for pulmonary arterial hypertension, but there are treatment options for patients with the disease ...
Several cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) were found in people treated with dasatinib, possibly due to pulmonary ... "Sprycel (dasatinib) and risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 23 September 2011. ... Yurttaş NO, Eşkazan AE (2018). "Dasatinib-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. ... pulmonary hypertension, PAH). Symptoms of PAH may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling of the body (such as the ...
Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension". Circulation. 100 (8): 869-75. doi:10.1161/01.cir.100.8.869. PMID 10458725. ... to other withdrawn appetite suppressants such as fenfluramine and aminorex which were found to cause pulmonary hypertension and ...
Hypertension, acute renal failure, progressive azotemia, and acute pulmonary edema are also signs of a developing ischemic ... While patients may have other risk factors for having pulmonary edema, volume-dependent renovascular hypertension appears to be ... "Renovascular hypertension: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2020-12-09. "Pulmonary edema - ... Patients with poorly-controlled hypertension and renal insufficiency usually also have recurrent acute pulmonary edema. ...
Pulmonary hypertension eventually causes right ventricular heart failure, the symptoms of which are peripheral edema (fluid ... The continuous release of free hemoglobin has been linked with the development of pulmonary hypertension (increased pressure ... Machado, Roberto F.; Gladwin, Mark T. (2010). "Pulmonary Hypertension in Hemolytic Disorders". Chest. Elsevier BV. 137 (6): 30S ... doi:10.1016/0016-5085(80)90690-3. Schrier, R. W., & Bansal, S. (2008). Pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure, and ...
pulmonary artery hypertension Latanoprost. PGF2α analog. Glaucoma, ocular hypertension. Misoprostol. PGE1 analog. stomach ... Pulmonary hypertension, avoiding reperfusion injury Bimatoprost. PGF2α analog. Glaucoma, ocular hypertension. Carboprost. PGF2α ... PGI2 analogs used to treat vascular disorders like pulmonary hypertension, Raynaud's syndrome, and Buerger's disease[60][61][62 ... "Comparative Safety and Tolerability of Prostacyclins in Pulmonary Hypertension". Drug Safety. 39 (4): 287-94. doi:10.1007/ ...
Fowler, Robin (2012). "Exercise Intolerance in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension". Pulmonary Medicine. June: 359204. doi:10.1155/ ... Cardiac arrhythmia Aortic valve insufficiency Pulmonary artery hypertension: PAH has the following symptoms; dyspnea and ... pulmonary hypertension chronic fatigue syndrome Suspected or known dissecting aortic aneurysm Recent systemic or pulmonary ... Dysfunctions involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular or neuromuscular systems have been frequently found to be associated with ...
... and EP4 receptors to treat diseases involving pathological constriction of blood vessels such as pulmonary hypertension, ... EP2 receptor-deficient mice develop mild systolic and/or systemic hypertension which is worsened by high dietary intake of salt ... EP2 expression in fibroblasts from the lungs of mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and humans with Idiopathic ... pulmonary fibrosis; certain forms of malignant disease such as colon cancer including those that arise from Adenomatous ...
Epigenetic Inheritance Underlying Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, 39(4), ... transgenerational epigenetic inheritance has recently been implicated in the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension ( ... Such maternal risk factors linked to late-onset PAH includes placental dysfunction, hypertension, obesity, and preeclampsia. ...
... her dissertation was on pulmonary hypertension. After graduating from Oxford, Dipp went to work for Wellcome Trust in its ...
She was diagnosed with a rare disorder, pulmonary venoocclusive disease (PVOD), in addition to severe pulmonary hypertension. ... Staff (March 2014). "High Notes: Chloe Temtchine & Pulmonary Hypertension". Caring Voice Coalition. Archived from the original ... After Temtchine was diagnosed with pulmonary venoocclusive disease in 2013, she continued to write music as "an escape from ...
... due to general hypertension) tends to increase the duration of spontaneous epistaxis.[7] Anticoagulant medication and disorders ... "Is epistaxis evidence of end-organ damage in patients with hypertension?". Laryngoscope. 109 (7): 1111-1115. doi:10.1097/ ... pulmonary embolism *Hampton hump. *Westermark sign. *pulmonary edema *Kerley lines. *Hamman's sign ...
... which can lead to difficulty with breathing and/or pulmonary hypertension. Cardiorespiratory complications may arise, which is ...
"Hypertension. 63 (4): 878-85. doi:10.1161/HYP.0000000000000003. PMID 24243703. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013. ...
ARDS · Pulmonary edema · Löffler's syndrome/Eosinophilic pneumonia · Respiratory hypersensitivity (Allergic bronchopulmonary ...
Essential hypertension. *Secondary hypertension *Renovascular hypertension. *Benign hypertension. *Pulmonary hypertension. * ... It is strongly associated with smoking, hypertension, and diabetes.[2] Diagnosis[edit]. Intermittent claudication is a symptom ... Medicines that control lipid profile, diabetes, and hypertension may increase blood flow to the affected muscles and allow for ...
... membranous nephropathy is known to predispose affected individuals to develop blood clots such as pulmonary emboli. Membranous ...
"Chapter 14.1 Pulmonary Function Testing". ACP Medicine. Decker Intellectual Properties. Retrieved 29 April 2011.. ... Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). It measures lung ... George, Ronald B. (2005). Chest medicine: essentials of pulmonary and critical care medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p ... This test will pick up diffusion impairments, for instance in pulmonary fibrosis.[19] This must be corrected for anemia (a low ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. *Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at Curlie ... "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". WHO. Retrieved 5 June 2019. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is not ... pulmonary rehabilitation appears to improve the overall quality of life and the ability to exercise.[109][110] If pulmonary ... Clinical guideline 101: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. London, June 2010. *^ a b Torres M, Moayedi S (May 2007). " ...
Extensive microvascular thrombosis may lead to pulmonary hypertension, myocardial dysfunction and systemic hypotension. ... 2008) Trial of prophylactic inhaled steroids to prevent or reduce pulmonary function decline, pulmonary symptoms, and airway ... 2008) Trial of prophylactic inhaled steroids to prevent or reduce pulmonary function decline, pulmonary symptoms, and airway ... 12 h before symptoms of pulmonary edema develop. Acute lung injury (ALI), also called non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, is ...
When hypertension is caused by OSA, it is distinctive in that, unlike most cases (so-called essential hypertension), the ... increased in pulmonary pressures are transmitted to the right side of the heart. This can result in a severe form of congestive ... Diastolic function of the heart also becomes affected.[53] Elevated arterial pressure (i.e., hypertension) can be a consequence ... Conclusion: Sleep apnoea syndrome is profoundly associated with hypertension independent of all relevant risk factors.. CS1 ...
"Role of extracellular superoxide dismutase in hypertension". Hypertension. 48 (3): 473-81. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000235682.47673. ... or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[42][43][44] ... "Induction of hypertension and peripheral inflammation by ... "Hypertension. 55 (2): 277-83, 6p following 283. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.142646. PMC 2813894. PMID 20008675.. ... In mice, the extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3, ecSOD) contributes to the development of hypertension.[40][41] ...
Essential hypertension. *Secondary hypertension *Renovascular hypertension. *Benign hypertension. *Pulmonary hypertension. * ... It should be distinguished from renovascular hypertension, which is a form of secondary hypertension, and thus has opposite ... Glomerular hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration[edit]. An alternative mechanism of hypertensive nephropathy is prolonged ... In the kidneys, as a result of benign arterial hypertension, hyaline (pink, amorphous, homogeneous material) accumulates in the ...
2009 had as a patient a mother of four who was 11 weeks pregnant and suffering from a severe case of pulmonary hypertension. ...
Possible consequences include hypertension, heart failure, and pulmonary edema. Hypothermia[edit]. The human body is at risk of ...
"BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 13: 10. doi:10.1186/1471-2466-13-10. ISSN 1471-2466. PMC 3585751 . PMID 23433391.. ... Intracranial hypertension *Hydrocephalus/NPH. *Choroid plexus papilloma. *Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. *Cerebral edema ...
Thomas, IT; Smith, DW (June 1974). "Oligohydramnios, cause of the nonrenal features of Potter's syndrome, including pulmonary ... or uteroplacental insufficiency from maternal hypertension. ... pulmonary hypoplasia and cranial anomalies related to the ... These infants will eventually die as either a result of pulmonary hypoplasia or renal failure. ... including the features of Potter's facies and also pulmonary hypoplasia, to have been caused by the prolonged severe lack of ...
Pulmonary edema. *Löffler's syndrome/Eosinophilic pneumonia. *Respiratory hypersensitivity *Allergic bronchopulmonary ...
... (brand name Uptravi) is a drug developed by Actelion for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). ... Sitbon, O.; Morrell, N. (2012). "Pathways in pulmonary arterial hypertension: The future is here". European Respiratory Review ... The adverse effects of selexipag are similar to those of intravenous prostacyclins used for pulmonary arterial hypertension. ... which leads to vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation.[1] ... used in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (B01 ...
Beta-receptor antagonists should be avoided in patients with reactive pulmonary disease to avoid asthma attacks. Also Beta- ... and hypertension. Pharmacological therapies include hypolipidemic agents, thrombolytics and anticoagulants. Pharmacological ...
... the pressure in the pulmonary artery will close the pulmonary valve. The closure of the pulmonary valve contributes the P2 ... Different forms are associated with cardiovascular disease, connective tissue disorders and hypertension. The symptoms of the ... Pulmonary semilunar valve 3 (half-moon shaped) flaps at the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk ... The aortic and pulmonary valves are located at the base of the aorta and the pulmonary trunk respectively. These are also ...
Portal hypertension *Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt [TIPS]. *Distal splenorenal shunt procedure. Gallbladder, ... Pulmonary CT. *Head CT. *Thyroid CT. *Whole body imaging *Full-body CT scan ...
Patlak M (March 2004). "From viper's venom to drug design: treating hypertension". FASEB Journal. 18 (3): 421. doi:10.1096/fj. ... In contrast, Sergio Ferreira[19] found bradykinin disappeared in its passage through the pulmonary circulation. The conversion ... These benefits are most clearly seen in: 1) Hypertension 2) Cardiac conditions such as congestive heart failure and after ... Atkinson AB, Robertson JI (October 1979). "Captopril in the treatment of clinical hypertension and cardiac failure". Lancet. 2 ...
Essential hypertension. *Secondary hypertension *Renovascular hypertension. *Benign hypertension. *Pulmonary hypertension. * ... Although severe hypertension is more common in the elderly, it may occur in children (though very rarely). Also, women have ... Severe hypertension is a serious and potentially life-threatening medical condition. It is estimated that people who do not ... A hypertensive emergency, formerly known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening ...
Acute pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs). Medical uses[change , change source]. Epinephrine is used to treat a few different ... Hypertension (high blood pressure), because epinephrine raises blood pressure. *Cardiac arrhythmia (where the heart beats in a ...
However, when the blood circulates through the lungs a pulmonary capillary endothelial enzyme called angiotensin-converting ... respectively such as hyperthermia and hypothermia and hypertension and hypotension. ... and also why persons with pulmonary insufficiency or right-to-left shunts in the heart (through which venous blood by-passes ...
Rare cases of pulmonary hypertension and cardiac valvular disease have been reported.[12] Tolerance usually occurs; however, ... Serious side effects may include pulmonary hypertension, valvular heart disease, and abuse.[3] Use is not recommended during ...
... including hypertension), related pulmonary diseases, or cardiac abnormalities such as enlargement of the left atrium, and age ... pulmonary hypertension), presence of left atrial thrombus (low sensitivity), presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and ... pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, or another acute pulmonary disease ... In general, a chest X-ray is performed only if a pulmonary ... There are also SNPs associated with loss of function of the Pitx2c gene (involved in cellular development of pulmonary valves ...
Patients requiring intensive care may require support for cardiovascular instability (hypertension/hypotension), potentially ... a primary training in internal medicine sometimes pursue combined fellowship training in another subspecialty such as pulmonary ...
Zhang Z, Hu G, Caballero B, Appel L, Chen L (June 2011). "Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic ... Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 7 (2): 43-61. doi:10.1097/00063198-200103000-00001. ISSN 1070-5287. PMID 11224724.. ... The stimulant effects of MDMA include hypertension, anorexia (appetite loss), euphoria, social disinhibition, insomnia ( ... hypertension, and hyperthermia, and may lead to rhabdomyolysis, stroke, cardiac arrest, or seizures. However, given the ...
These cases are associated with hypertension in the pulmonary arteries.[13]. The bone marrow in a typical case is hypercellular ... 2010). "A 71-Year-Old Woman With Myelofibrosis, Hypoxemia, and Pulmonary Hypertension". Chest. 138 (6): 1506-10. doi:10.1378/ ...
... med/1962 Secondary pulmonary hypertension Pediatric primary pulmonary hypertension Persistent newborn pulmonary hypertension ... pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary venous hypertension). However, in some patients, the raised pressure in the pulmonary ... WHO Group I" - Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn WHO Group II - Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left heart ... "Pulmonary Hypertension. About Pulmonary Hypertension , Patient". Patient. Archived from the original on 2016-01-02. Retrieved ...
Learn about pulmonary hypertension, which happens when the pressure in the blood vessels leading from the heart to the lungs is ... Heart failure is common in pulmonary hypertension.. What are the risk factors for pulmonary hypertension?. *Pulmonary ... How is pulmonary hypertension treated?. There is no cure for pulmonary hypertension. However, there are many different types of ... What is pulmonary hypertension?. Pulmonary hypertension happens when the pressure in the blood vessels leading from the heart ...
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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It makes your heart work harder, which can ... and Pulmonary Hypertension (Pulmonary Hypertension Association) - PDF * HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension (Pulmonary Hypertension ... Methamphetamine Use and Pulmonary Hypertension (Pulmonary Hypertension Association) - PDF * Pulmonary Hypertension in ... Diet and Nutrition (Pulmonary Hypertension Association) * Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) (Pulmonary Hypertension ...
What is pulmonary hypertension?. Pulmonary hypertension is a rare, life-threatening condition that causes high blood pressure ... What causes pulmonary hypertension?. Pulmonary hypertension in children is usually caused by underlying medical or genetic ... If the doctor is not sure of the cause, it is called idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. ...
... hypertension) in the pulmonary artery, the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs. Explore symptoms, ... Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high blood pressure ( ... Pulmonary arterial hypertension is one form of a broader condition known as pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension ... Pulmonary arterial hypertension. ...
In patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema, the lack of oxygen contributes to pulmonary hypertension. The manifestations ... Pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale): …high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery. Cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the ... Other articles where Pulmonary arterial hypertension is discussed: cardiovascular disease: ... In patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema, the lack of oxygen contributes to pulmonary hypertension. The manifestations ...
Primary pulmonary hypertension.. Gaine SP1, Rubin LJ.. Author information. 1. Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine ... Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease characterised by raised pulmonary vascular resistance, which ... Decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance in response to acute vasodilator challenge occurs in about 30% of patients, and ... Defects in ion-channel activity in smooth-muscle cells in the pulmonary artery may contribute to vasoconstriction and vascular ...
What are the symptoms of pulmonary hypertension?. Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension do not always appear right away. Symptoms ... If the doctor is not sure of the cause, it is called idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. ...
For this analysis, pulmonary hypertension included primary pulmonary hypertension (i.e., idiopathic pulmonary arteriosclerosis ... idiopathic or primary pulmonary artery hypertension, and essential or idiopathic pulmonary hypertension); secondary pulmonary ... Primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 1997;336:111--7. * Archer S, Rich S. Primary pulmonary hypertension: a vascular ... Clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43(Suppl):5S--12S. * Gaine S. Pulmonary hypertension ...
This review explores the immunologic basis of pulmonary arterial hypertension, reviewing current trials targeting the immune ... Immunologic Basis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. *Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Clinical Trials Targeting the Immune ... Immunologic Basis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. *Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Clinical Trials Targeting the Immune ... Like asthma, pulmonary arterial hypertension is a clinical syndrome, encompassing a host of causative factors. As such, it is ...
The Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) is a non-profit health organization, serving patients with pulmonary hypertension ... Its mission is to find ways to prevent and cure pulmonary hypertension, and to provide hope for the pulmonary hypertension ... Pulmonary Hypertension is a simplified name for a complex health problem: high blood pressure in the lungs. It is a rare and ... PHA also funds cutting-edge research on pulmonary hypertension in collaboration with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...
The pathobiology of pulmonary artery hypertension is now better understood. A gene for familial pulmonary arterial hypertension ... Reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance with long term epoprostenol (epoprostenol) therapy in primary pulmonary hypertension ... The effects of high doses of calcium channel blockers on survival in primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 76 ... Severe pulmonary hypertension, with a total prevalence of about 30-50/million, can be primary or associated with apparently ...
What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?. Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), or PH, is increased pressure in the ... Other factors also can affect the pulmonary arteries and cause PH. For example, the condition may develop if:. *The walls of ... These changes make it hard for your heart to push blood through your pulmonary arteries and into your lungs. As a result, the ... The pressure in normal pulmonary arteries is 8-20 mmHg at rest. (The mmHg is millimeters of mercury-the units used to measure ...
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe complication of sarcoidosis, with an unknown prevalence. The aetiology is ... Pulmonary artery diameter to predict pulmonary hypertension in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J. 2016;47:673-76.CrossRef ... It is often complicated by pulmonary fibrosis [1].. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure ... Major pulmonary artery stenosis causing pulmonary hypertension in sarcoidosis. Chest. 1980;78:888-91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Elevated levels are a strong clue for suspecting pulmonary hypertension.. PULMONARY HYPERTENSION CANNOT BE DIAGNOSED. WITHOUT ... The University of Michigan Scleroderma Program works closely with the Pulmonary Hypertension Program in identifying pulmonary ... Pulmonary Hypertension. Raynaud Phenomenon. Renal Involvement. Scleroderma in Children. Sexuality & Scleroderma. Treatment ... What causes pulmonary hypertension?. As with many features of scleroderma, the basic issue is progressive scarring of the inner ...
Pulmonary arteries carry blood from the right side of your heart to your lungs. ... Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is a lung disorder characterized by high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery. ... What is idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension?. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a lung disorder ... Note: While many forms of pulmonary hypertension have known triggers, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is different. ...
Pulmonary Hypertension News and Research. RSS Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a condition involving high blood ... PFKFB3 enzyme appears to play a key role in pulmonary hypertension A new and early target for treating pulmonary hypertension ... Protein which plays role in sensing cell damage serves as new target to treat pulmonary hypertension A protein with a role in ... Scientists discover new target in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension In a recent study, scientists found that eliminating ...
Hi Sir, Based from my chest x-ray there is a subtle noducalcific densities that are seen at my left upper lung field. And from my apico-lordotic view it shows and confirms an ovoid opacity at the l...
Children with pulmonary hypertension have lung blood vessels that dont expand well. ... Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in the lungs. ... Treating Pulmonary Hypertension There is no cure for pulmonary ... Pulmonary hypertension in children. The main effect of pulmonary hypertension is that it causes the right ventricle to work ... What is pulmonary hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (pronounced PULL-mun-airy hi-per-TEN-shun) is high blood pressure in the ...
Pulmonary hypertension is a lung condition in which there is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries that travel from the ... inherited pulmonary arterial hypertension, drug-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension ... so called pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).. Whether it is pulmonary venous or pulmonary arterial hypertension, it becomes ... home / lungs health center / lungs a-z list / pulmonary hypertension center / pulmonary hypertension article ...
The Division of Cardiology offers comprehensive service to patients suspected of having or diagnosed with pulmonary ... About Pulmonary Hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension results from increased resistance to blood flow through the pulmonary ... What are the causes of pulmonary hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension may be idiopathic. However, secondary pulmonary ... How is pulmonary hypertension treated? While there is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, there are many treatments that have ...
You can take control of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by making healthy diet choices. Read more on what to eat and how ... Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a condition in which the arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood to your lungs are ...
Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), or PH, is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries. These arteries ... Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), or PH, is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries. These arteries ... My right cardiac cath impression was : Pulmonary Systolic pressure was 25 mm/Hg. Mild pulmonary hypertension. The doctor told ... My right cardiac cath impression was : Pulmonary Systolic pressure was 25 mm/Hg. Mild pulmonary hypertension. The doctor told ...
Hypertension Editors PicksPulmonary Hypertension Hypertension. 2016;68:e47-e53, originally published August 1, 2016 ... 17β-Estradiol Attenuates Conduit Pulmonary Artery Mechanical Property Changes With Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionNovelty and ... Microvessel Mechanobiology in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCause and Effect Nathaniel C. Bloodworth, James D. West and W. ... Models and Molecular Mechanisms of World Health Organization Group 2 to 4 Pulmonary Hypertension Ping Yu Xiong, Francois Potus ...
... caring approach to diagnosing pulmonary hypertension (PH). Patients appreciate that a provider stays with them through the ... Pulmonary hypertension expert M. Patricia George, MD, explains that National Jewish Health provides a personalized, ... Living with Pulmonary Hypertension * Understanding Pulmonary Hypertension * How is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed at National ... Pulmonary hypertension expert M. Patricia George, MD, explains that National Jewish Health provides a personalized, caring ...
... pulmonary hypertension). This is the only pulmonary hypertension clinic for children in the WAMI region (Washington, Alaska, ... Seattle Childrens Pulmonary Hypertension Clinic cares for children with high blood pressure in their lungs ( ... Pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease. So to learn more about it, we try to enroll our patients in disease registries. ... The Pulmonary Hypertension Clinic team evaluates and treats children with high blood pressure in their lungs. We offer the most ...
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Associated Pulmonary Hypertension: Genetics, Pathobiology, Diagnosis, and Management ... Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary Vasculature Scleroderm Scleroderma hypertension ... In Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Interstitial Lung Disease: A Clinical Guide, renowned experts provide a state-of-the-art ... part provides and update on general issues and introduces both interstitial lung disease and associated pulmonary hypertension ...
Oxidative stress in severe pulmonary hypertension.. Bowers R1, Cool C, Murphy RC, Tuder RM, Hopken MW, Flores SC, Voelkel NF. ... Severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) occurs in a primary or "unexplained" form and in a group of secondary forms associated with ... Pulmonary Hypertension Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, ... Pulmonary Hypertension - Genetic Alliance. *Pulmonary Hypertension - MedlinePlus Health Information. Miscellaneous. *L-TYROSINE ...
When pulmonary hypertension occurs in the absence of a known cause, it is referred to as primary pulmonary hypertension. ... Pulmonary hypertension is a pathological condition in which the pulmonary arterial pressure rises above normal levels and may ... Since pulmonary hypertension is caused typically by constriction of the pulmonary blood vessels, vascular resistance is the ... pulmonary. . . artery. . . pressure. -. pulmonary. . . wedge. . . pressure. ). cardiac. . . output. ×. 80. SVR. =. ( ...
  • If the doctor is not sure of the cause, it is called idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. (
  • These non-familial cases are described as idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension, which is listed on hospital records and death certificates as either primary (i.e., idiopathic) pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary hypertension secondary to another underlying condition or disease, is considered rare amongst the U.S. population. (
  • results from a national registry of patients with primary (i.e., idiopathic) pulmonary hypertension indicated that the duration from onset of symptoms to death was an average of 2.8 years ( 5 ). (
  • Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a lung disorder characterized by high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries. (
  • In this instance, "idiopathic" means that the cause of the pulmonary artery hypertension is unknown. (
  • While many forms of pulmonary hypertension have known triggers, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is different. (
  • Rarely, the cause of pulmonary hypertension is not known, and then we call it idiopathic. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension can have no identifiable cause and is then referred to as idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (formerly called primary pulmonary hypertension). (
  • When the cause is not known, it is called idiopathic (id-ee-oh-PATH-ik) pulmonary hypertension (IPH). (
  • Incidence data from the Netherlands has revealed an annual incidence and point prevalence of 0.7 and 4.4 for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and 2.2 and 15.6 for pulmonary arterial hypertension, respectively, associated with congenital heart disease (CHD) cases per million children. (
  • Hence, this form is known as idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, or iPAH. (
  • A current diagnosis or Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension according to the Dana Point 2008 Meeting: WHO Diagnostic Group I, idiopathic or heritable (familial or sporadic) PAH, PAH associated with collagen vascular disease including systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective tissue diseases, and overlap syndrome. (
  • Approximately 40% of PAH cases are from unknown causes, also referred to as "Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension" or "Primary Pulmonary Hypertension (an older term). (
  • For nearly 20 years, we have been caring for patients with all forms of pulmonary hypertension, including idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, portopulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension can be idiopathic or secondary to an identifiable underlying pulmonary, cardiac or systemic disease. (
  • Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), previously known as primary pulmonary hypertension, is a progressive disease that affects predominantly young individuals, is more common in females, and traditionally had an average survival rate of two to three years from the time of diagnosis. (
  • Some cases of PH have no identifiable cause (idiopathic pulmonary hypertension). (
  • PH in ILD is also a different disease than primary pulmonary hypertension - also called idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension - a rare condition in which PH develops in the absence of lung disease or any other known cause. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension ( PH or PHTN ) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs . (
  • [1] Risk factors include a family history, prior blood clots in the lungs , HIV/AIDS , sickle cell disease , cocaine use, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , sleep apnea , living at high altitudes , and problems with the mitral valve . (
  • Pulmonary hypertension happens when the pressure in the blood vessels leading from the heart to the lungs is too high. (
  • With pulmonary hypertension, the blood vessels to the lungs develop an increased amount of muscle in the wall of the blood vessels. (
  • During pulmonary hypertension, the arteries in the lungs can narrow and then the blood does not flow as well as it should, resulting in less oxygen in the blood. (
  • Some common underlying causes of pulmonary hypertension include high blood pressure in the lungs' arteries due to some types of congenital heart disease, connective tissue disease, coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, liver disease (cirrhosis), blood clots to the lungs, and chronic lung diseases like emphysema. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is a rare, life-threatening condition that causes high blood pressure in the lungs and right side of the heart. (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high blood pressure (hypertension) in the pulmonary artery, the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension occurs when most of the very small arteries throughout the lungs narrow in diameter, which increases the resistance to blood flow through the lungs. (
  • Pulmonary Hypertension is a simplified name for a complex health problem: high blood pressure in the lungs. (
  • These changes make it hard for your heart to push blood through your pulmonary arteries and into your lungs. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension means high blood pressure in the lungs. (
  • The primary job of your pulmonary arteries is to carry blood from the right side of your heart to your lungs. (
  • If you have pulmonary hypertension, increased blood pressure occurs in thickened and narrowed arterial blood vessels in your lungs and reduces blood flow. (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a condition involving high blood pressure and structural changes in the walls of the pulmonary arteries, which are the blood vessels that connect the right side of the heart to the lungs. (
  • A protein with a role in sensing cell damage and viral infections is a new target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, or increased blood pressure in the lungs, according to research led by Virginia Commonwealth University and the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (pronounced PULL-mun-airy hi-per-TEN-shun) is high blood pressure in the lungs. (
  • The pulmonary artery branches out and becomes smaller blood vessels in the lungs. (
  • The pulmonary arteries and the smaller blood vessels in the lungs (capillaries) have muscle in their walls. (
  • The main effect of pulmonary hypertension is that it causes the right ventricle to work harder to pump blood to the lungs. (
  • The portion of the circulation that distributes the blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart is referred to as the pulmonary (lung) circulation. (
  • The right ventricle pumps blood returning from the body into the pulmonary arteries to the lungs to receive oxygen. (
  • Less commonly, pulmonary hypertension results from constriction, or stiffening, of the pulmonary arteries that supply blood to the lungs, so called pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). (
  • Pulmonary hypertension results from increased resistance to blood flow through the pulmonary vasculature (due to progressive muscular thickening and fibrosis of the blood vessels in the lungs). (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a condition in which the arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood to your lungs are constricted. (
  • Seattle Children's has a special clinic to care just for children with high blood pressure in their lungs ( pulmonary hypertension ). (
  • The Pulmonary Hypertension Clinic team evaluates and treats children with high blood pressure in their lungs. (
  • High pressure in the lungs, or pulmonary hypertension, is most commonly due to smoking-related lung disease and conditions affecting the left heart, for example, high blood pressure in the arteries, faulty heart valves, and a weakened heart muscle. (
  • It's a rare lung disorder in which the blood vessels in the lungs narrow and the pressure in the pulmonary artery rises far above normal levels. (
  • The pulmonary arteries carry blood from your body to the lungs where carbon dioxide is traded for oxygen. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is a rare, chronic and life-threatening disease of the lungs for which no cure currently exists. (
  • Pediatric pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure that builds up in the blood vessels that exchange oxygen between the heart and lungs. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension occurs when high blood pressure builds up in arteries in the lungs, preventing the heart and lungs from working properly together. (
  • When blood returns to the heart to get more oxygen, the right side pumps the blood through the pulmonary arteries into the lungs where blood picks up oxygen again. (
  • When a child has pulmonary hypertension, the right side of the heart becomes enlarged, due to working overtime to pump blood back into the lungs. (
  • Pulmonary refers to the lungs. (
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension from thickening and narrowing of the arteries that carry blood from the heart's right side to the lungs. (
  • Whether it is pulmonary venous or pulmonary arterial hypertension, it becomes more difficult for the heart to pump blood forward through the lungs. (
  • CTEPH - or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension - is a rare, life-threatening medical condition typically caused by old blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary emboli). (
  • A blood clot in the lungs is known as a pulmonary embolism (PE), which can become lodged there andulate other clots. (
  • When this happens, blood backs up in the lungs and causes increased pressures, and a rare but often treatable type of severe pulmonary hypertension known as CTEPH can develop. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a kind of high blood pressure that affects the arteries in your lungs and heart. (
  • Healthy pulmonary arteries of the lungs are elastic, whereas when PH is present, arteries stiffen and thicken leading to resistance when blood passes through vessels. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) refers to elevated pressure in the vessels of the lungs. (
  • This narrowing of the pulmonary arteries restricts the blood flow to the lungs, which makes it harder for the heart to pump blood through the arteries. (
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a rare and chronic, rapidly progressing disorder characterized by the constriction of small pulmonary arteries transporting high pressure blood from the heart to the lungs. (
  • Since the left ventricle is downstream of the lungs, any disease significantly affecting left ventricular filling pressure has the potential to lead to secondary pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Diseases that affect the lungs or cause low oxygen levels can also result in secondary pulmonary hypertension, WHO Group 3. (
  • A groundbreaking new study led by researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and UPMC has identified a new group of compounds that could have robust effects in treating pulmonary hypertension (PH), an enigmatic but sometimes fatal disease of the blood vessels of the lungs that currently has no cure. (
  • In persistent pulmonary hypertension, also known as persistent fetal circulation, a newborn's circulation reverts back to the circulation of a fetus, where much of the blood flow bypasses the lungs. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension occurs when the lungs' arteries tighten up and the heart's right chamber has to work harder, causing it to increase in size. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension , also known as Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension ( PAH ), is a condition characterised by a hardening and narrowing of the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs. (
  • However, in patients with pulmonary hypertension, endothelin levels are elevated, causing too much constriction in the blood vessels of the lungs. (
  • Other causes of PH include left-heart dysfunction, vasculitis (an inflammation or irrita- tion of small blood vessels in the lung), pulmonary embolism (blood clots in the lungs) or pulmonary parenchymal disease (scarring or irritation of the area surrounding the air sacs and blood vessels in the lungs). (
  • Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) refers to high blood pressure in the lungs' arteries. (
  • CTEPH is high blood pressure in the arteries in the pulmonary system (lungs). (
  • Although CTEPH does develop from pulmonary embolisms (blood clots in the lungs, or PEs), a percentage of people with CTEPH have not had earlier PEs. (
  • Blocking that protein, called calpain, in the lungs may prove an effective way to avoid narrow, scarred blood vessels and pulmonary hypertension, said Dr. Yunchao Su, pharmacologist at Georgia Health Sciences University. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is an often progressive and deadly condition in which tiny blood vessels that permeate the lungs narrow, raising blood pressure and eventually enlarging the pumping chamber of the heart as it struggles to get blood inside the lungs. (
  • Additionally, in animal models of pulmonary hypertension as well as lungs removed from patients getting a transplant, the researchers found elevated levels of calpain. (
  • The goal of PHA's accreditation program is to improve outcomes in patients with pulmonary hypertension, a debilitating disease of the lungs that affects the functioning of the heart and can lead to right heart failure. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is abnormally high blood pressure that occurs in the arteries of the lungs (the pulmonary arteries). (
  • Another type of PH, called secondary pulmonary hypertension, occurs when the arteries in the lungs become too narrow for blood to flow through the vessels normally or because there are too few vessels to begin with. (
  • As a result, the heart works harder to pump blood through the lungs, causing pressure in the pulmonary artery to rise. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious and incurable condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is high blood pressure in the arteries of your lungs. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension, or PH, occurs when blood pressure within the lungs becomes abnormally elevated. (
  • It can be caused by a thickening of the pulmonary artery walls, heart failure , lung disease (such as interstitial lung disease ), and clots within the lungs' blood vessels. (
  • It's the result of pulmonary embolisms - or blockages in arteries of the lungs - that harden over time instead of resolving normally. (
  • The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (WHO Group I) involves the narrowing of blood vessels connected to and within the lungs. (
  • IPAH and other forms of pulmonary hypertension are dangerous because high blood pressure in your pulmonary arteries strains your heart and causes serious heart and lung problems. (
  • Some forms of pulmonary hypertension are linked to a gene defect that can run in families. (
  • The clinical presentation of HIV-related PAH and diagnosis is similar to other forms of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Our program has long been recognized for its research of different forms of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • In the WHO Group 2 category of hypertension, patients suffer from forms of pulmonary hypertension that are secondary to other disease processes, including those leading to malfunction of the left ventricle. (
  • [11] Coughing up of blood may occur in some patients, particularly those with specific subtypes of pulmonary hypertension such as heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension, Eisenmenger syndrome and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension . (
  • Referral of patients with pulmonary hypertension diagnoses to tertiary pulmonary hypertension centers. (
  • In patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema, the lack of oxygen contributes to pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance in response to acute vasodilator challenge occurs in about 30% of patients, and predicts a good response to chronic therapy with oral calcium-channel blockers. (
  • The Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) is a non-profit health organization, serving patients with pulmonary hypertension, their family members and the medical professionals who treat them. (
  • Consequently, the delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis is two years, and the mean survival from the time of diagnosis is only another two years in untreated patients with severe hypertension of the pulmonary artery. (
  • 1 2 This gene is also found in up to 26% of patients with so called sporadic pulmonary hypertension. (
  • In the past pulmonary artery hypertension was considered untreatable unless the underlying cause could be treated (for example, HIV infection), and patients could be offered only oxygen and transplantation. (
  • An improvement in the six minute walk test occurred in all patients, but, patients with primary pulmonary hypertension improved more. (
  • Patients in whom the diffusing capacity is reduced either as an isolated finding or out of proportion to changes in their forced vital capacity are more likely to have pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Part of Cincinnati Children's Heart Institute , the Pulmonary Hypertension Clinic provides comprehensive diagnostic and long-term treatment and follow-up for patients with pulmonary hypertension. (
  • We work closely with other programs at Cincinnati Children's in an integrated manner to bring the best care possible to our patients whose disease process may be complicated by pulmonary hypertension. (
  • PHA established the Pulmonary Hypertension Care Center (PHCC) Program to identify centers with expertise in pulmonary hypertension that have demonstrated an ability to properly diagnose the disease and have the capability to manage these complex patients. (
  • The PHA PHCC Accreditation Program is a critical landmark, as patients now have a means to find high-quality pulmonary hypertension programs throughout the U.S. (
  • As a PHCC, we participate in the PHA Registry (PHAR), a multi-center, prospective, observational registry of newly evaluated patients diagnosed at accredited U.S. centers with either pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). (
  • Some patients come to us because they have an illness that may cause pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Most patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension do not require right-heart catheterization before beginning a trial with vasodilators. (
  • The Pulmonary Hypertension Program at Inova Fairfax Hospital provides the highly specialized multi-disciplinary care required by patients dealing with various types of PH. (
  • Inova Fairfax Hospital is the only hospital in Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, DC, to offer a groundbreaking new procedure - balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) - for select patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). (
  • While many therapies are approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, these therapies all focus on a mechanism of vasodilation and the prognosis for patients remains poor," said Eric Austin, M.D., Director, Vanderbilt Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Program. (
  • Many patients who suffer from World Health Organization Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, or Group 1 PAH, harbor a gene mutation placing them at high risk for developing the disease. (
  • We started with creating a unique genetically modified mouse model that is the first to mimic how pulmonary arterial hypertension develops in patients. (
  • Specialists in a number of disciplines, including pulmonary medicine, cardiology, radiology, physical therapy, and nursing collaborate to provide comprehensive services for patients with pulmonary hypertension and their families. (
  • At the Cleveland Clinic Respiratory Institute, our Pulmonary Hypertension Program is one of the nation's largest and most comprehensive treatment programs for patients with pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Our physicians and nurses have special expertise and interest in pulmonary hypertension, and are dedicated to the evaluation and care of patients with pulmonary hypertension. (
  • As a result, our patients receive the most comprehensive, timely care as well as benefit from cutting-edge research and the best treatment options available for pulmonary hypertension. (
  • This event provides patients and medical professionals with a unique opportunity to learn about the most recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • How should we best determine the need for inflight oxygen in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension? (
  • The researchers found an important clue about the central role of FoxO1 in tissue samples from pulmonary hypertension patients: "In these patients, FoxO1 is not sufficiently active, so that the activity of various genes is not properly controlled," says Pullamsetti. (
  • A potential new form of therapy could focus on increasing the activity of FoxO1 in the pulmonary arteries of patients," states Werner Seeger, department head at the Max Planck Institute in Bad Nauheim and director of Medical Unit II at Giessen University Hospital. (
  • This annual meeting is intended for scientists from academia, government, and industry responsible for developing and regulating products for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension as well as those parties responsibly for the treatment of these patients. (
  • In addition, non-controlled clinical studies suggest that atorvastatin is effective and safe in patients with pulmonary hypertension. (
  • In addition to providing lifesaving care for patients, these specialty care centers, like the one at Rhode Island Hospital, are valuable resources for medical professionals and families of people living with pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Explain to interested patients that this study suggested elevated plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic lung disease appear to indicate significant pulmonary hypertension, and is an independent predictor of poor prognosis and mortality. (
  • MUNICH, Germany March 31 - In patients with chronic lung disease, circulating levels of brain natriuretic peptide can be used to identify those with significant pulmonary hypertension. (
  • To evaluate the hormone's potential role as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in patients with chronic lung disease, the authors measured circulating brain natriuretic peptide levels in 176 consecutive patients with various pulmonary diseases. (
  • The authors found that more than 25% of all patients had significant pulmonary hypertension, as defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure of more than 35 mm Hg, and that these patients had decreased exercise tolerance and shorter life expectancy. (
  • Explain to interested patients that there is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, so that clinicians focus on alleviating symptoms, with several drugs shown to have some efficacy. (
  • CLAMART, France, Oct. 20 -- Combining sildenafil (Revatio) and epoprostenol (Flolan) significantly improved exercise capacity in some patients with pulmonary hypertension, researchers said here. (
  • Sildenafil patients were given 20 milligrams three times a day for the first four weeks, which is the approved dose for pulmonary hypertension. (
  • The study excluded patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with causes such as HIV, portal hypertension, and uncorrected congenital systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts, which may limit its application. (
  • The Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PAH)-Canada is an organization established by PH patients and their caregivers to provide support and education to the PH patient community. (
  • While for most patients there is no "cure" for pulmonary hypertension, certain medications can help lessen symptoms and improve lung and heart function. (
  • 5 Patients in WHO Group 1 are classified as having pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), whereas patients in Groups 2 to 5 are classified as non-PAH or PH. (
  • Our pulmonary hypertension experts specialize in diagnosing and the comprehensive medical management of patients with pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Omdana Therapeutics seeks to discover and develop transformative therapies for patients with dysregulated tissue homeostasis and vascular remodeling in areas such as Pulmonary Hypertension and Heart Failure. (
  • In-home noninvasive ventilation therapy, such as bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) can benefit chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, reports a new study. (
  • It's common for ILD patients to also develop pulmonary hypertension. (
  • PH can occur in patients with or without ordinary hypertension. (
  • In ILD patients, pulmonary hypertension is usually suspected when these symptoms are out of proportion to the severity of the patient's ILD. (
  • Several PH-specific therapies have recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients with other forms of PH - specifically pulmonary arterial hypertension. (
  • Pulmonary Rehabilitation - Pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with ILD, as well as patients with PH. (
  • Echocardiography is recommended as the initial step in the evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Other important considerations for patients with pulmonary hypertension include influenza and pneumonia immunizations, contraception counseling, preoperative assessment, and mental health. (
  • 1 - 4 Patients with pulmonary hypertension may initially present to family physicians, but symptoms such as dyspnea on exertion and fatigue are nonspecific and may be attributed to comorbid conditions. (
  • Results from invasive hemodynamic testing with right heart catheterization, preferably at an expert center, should be obtained before initiating treatment with vasodilator therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. (
  • In patients with pulmonary hypertension due to lung disease or left heart disease, treatment should focus on optimizing comorbid conditions. (
  • Use of vasodilator therapies in patients with pulmonary hypertension due to lung disease or left heart disease is potentially harmful and not recommended. (
  • Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension should receive lifelong anticoagulation in the absence of contraindications. (
  • Patients with pulmonary hypertension should receive seasonal influenza vaccination and age-appropriate pneumococcal vaccination, unless contraindicated. (
  • Perioperative assessment of patients with pulmonary hypertension should include echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular function. (
  • In the study, 17 patients (43.6%) had ambulatory hypertension , whereas 4 (10.3%) had hypertension on the basis of their clinic blood pressure . (
  • Acute kidney injury in sickle patients with painful crisis or acute chest syndrome and its relation to pulmonary hypertension . (
  • Data from patients with exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension, who reported starting treatments within the last 5 years. (
  • Three female pulmonary hypertension patients came together in 1987 with the hope of reaching other pulmonary hypertension patients. (
  • The goal was to connect pulmonary hypertension patients with one another, help locate pulmonary hypertension specialists and centers, form support groups, and publish a newsletter about the pulmonary hypertension community. (
  • In 1990, the women started mailing newsletters, Pathlight, to about 100 people and a fourth woman soon connected with the three pulmonary hypertension patients and the United Patients Association for Pulmonary Hypertension was formed. (
  • United Patients Association for Pulmonary Hypertension officially changed its name to the Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) in 1997 and hired its first full-time staff member in 1999. (
  • Because pulmonary hypertension might be reported secondary to other diseases, this report presents data for pulmonary hypertension as any contributing cause of death or any-listed hospital diagnosis. (
  • Careful measurements of blood flows and pressures define the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • In an individual with suspected pulmonary hypertension, PPH is the diagnosis of exclusion. (
  • A noninvasive test called an echocardiogram can suggest the diagnosis, and it is confirmed by a cardiac catheterization procedure called right heart catheterization, in which the pulmonary artery pressure is directly measured. (
  • Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is useful for the diagnosis as well as for the followup of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. (
  • Having met the highest standards for diagnosis and disease management, our Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) Program was one of the first pediatric centers in the country and the only one in the state accredited as a Center of Comprehensive Care , the highest designation possible. (
  • established a four-tier classification for the diagnosis of PH based upon the degree of main pulmonary artery enlargement on computed tomography, whereby the likelihood of PH increases with increasing tier severity. (
  • The topics covered will include: classification of pulmonary hypertension, epidemiology and pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management in Groups I-V. There are also sections devoted to issues faced in pediatrics and pregnancy, as well as a section on patient support, among other topics. (
  • For certain categories of pulmonary hypertension, particularly pulmonary arterial hypertension, treatment options are rapidly evolving, and early diagnosis and prompt referral to an expert center are critical to ensure the best prognosis. (
  • Fortunately, the deep expertise of University Hospitals' pulmonary team can help ensure the right diagnosis quickly, improving your chance for positive outcomes. (
  • The rationale for this method of delivery is that less of the substance reaches the systemic circulation (a "pseudoselective" pulmonary vasodilator). (
  • Risk factors for pulmonary hypertension are liver failure, chronic lung disease, blood clotting disorders, and underlying diseases, such as scleroderma, dermatomyositis , and systemic lupus erythematosus . (
  • When these pressures are abnormally high, the person is diagnosed as having high blood pressure (systemic hypertension). (
  • The pressures in the lung arteries (pulmonary arteries) are normally significantly lower than the pressures in the systemic circulation. (
  • Normal pulmonary circulation is a high-flow, low-resistance circuit capable of accommodating the entire right ventricular output at one fifth the pressure of the systemic circulation level. (
  • The body's natural response to hypoxia is to cause pulmonary vasoconstriction and systemic vasodilation. (
  • Saw reductions mean systemic arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, and heart rate. (
  • The current study clearly demonstrates the adverse effects of nicotine on both systemic and pulmonary blood pressure and cardiac remodeling," said Dr. Gardner. (
  • PH should not be confused with ordinary hypertension - sometimes called systemic hypertension or high blood pressure. (
  • A patient is deemed to have pulmonary hypertension if the pulmonary mean arterial pressure is greater than 25mmHg at rest, or greater than 30mmHg during exercise. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is a hemodynamic state signifying the presence of one or more pulmonary vascular disease entities and is characterized by a severe elevation in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance ( 1 ). (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is a pathological condition in which the pulmonary arterial pressure rises above normal levels and may cause sequelae of haemodynamic changes that can become life threatening. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disorder of the pulmonary vasculature that results in increased pulmonary arterial pressure and is defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mm Hg at rest, the pressure being measured invasively with a pulmonary artery catheter [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Yaks have adapted to life in high altitude by blunting pulmonary vasoconstriction in response to chronic hypoxia, which allows them to maintain low pulmonary arterial pressure. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is a common, complex group of disorders that result from different pathophysiologic mechanisms but are all defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater at rest during right heart catheterization. (
  • [11] A 1973 World Health Organization meeting was the first attempt to classify pulmonary hypertension by its cause, and a distinction was made between primary PH (resulting from a disease of the pulmonary arteries) and secondary PH (resulting secondary to other, non-vascular causes). (
  • Their primary end point was a measurement of exercise capacity as defined by the six minute walk test (which measures how far someone can walk in six minutes), and the main secondary end points were improvements in pulmonary haemodynamics and breathlessness. (
  • This syndrome is recognized by the WHO as pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to intrinsic lung disease. (
  • The classification of primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension has been reclassified, and now is based on the main underlying disease or condition, symptoms, and treatment options for pulmonary hypertension . (
  • However, secondary pulmonary hypertension may occur in many types of diseases including congenital heart disease, lung disease, various connective tissue diseases and sickle cell disease. (
  • When another health problem is the cause, it is called secondary pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Chest radiograph in a patient with secondary pulmonary hypertension reveals enlarged pulmonary arteries. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension may be divided into primary and secondary forms. (
  • Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a disease of unknown etiology, whereas secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension (SPAH) is due to either intrinsic parenchymal disease of the lung or disease extrinsic to the lung. (
  • Hence, a designated algorithm should be used to exclude secondary causes of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • For example, a combination of essential ("regular") hypertension and obesity can lead to malfunction of the left ventricle in diastole, the filling half of the cardiac cycle, leading to secondary pulmonary hypertension. (
  • subjects with pulmonary hypertension secondary to any other etiology other than those specified in the inclusion criteria. (
  • The beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) activator in pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. (
  • The pathobiology of pulmonary artery hypertension is now better understood. (
  • The genetic abnormality perhaps must be accompanied by some additional environmental factor to cause pulmonary artery hypertension ("the double hit hypothesis"), and the remodelling occurs because that factor (or factors) acts in concert with disturbed BMPR signalling to cause an increase in production of cytokines and other factors. (
  • The purpose of the study is to determine whether circulating molecular and cellular biomarkers are predictive of imatinib effect on pulmonary artery hypertension. (
  • Although the complex molecular mechanisms responsible for the vasculopathy of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) have only recently begun to be unraveled, it has been recognized for decades that the most significant determinant of both symptoms and survival in PAH is the degree of cardiac impairment that results from the increased right ventricular afterload. (
  • The presence of pulmonary hypertension in the setting of old blood clots is referred as CTEPH. (
  • CTEPH is considered the only form of pulmonary hypertension that is potentially curable. (
  • People without evidence of prior pulmonary clot can still develop CTEPH. (
  • The treatment of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a complex surgery called pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, which can potentially cure this disease. (
  • Who is affected by chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)? (
  • What are the symptoms of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)? (
  • Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an uncommon consequence of acute pulmonary embolism. (
  • Abstract BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and compliance are comparable in proximal and distal chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). (
  • Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare but serious condition. (
  • If you have been diagnosed with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or have concerns about your lung health, come see one of our pulmonologists at University Hospitals. (
  • [1] Medications specifically used to treat pulmonary hypertension include epoprostenol , treprostinil , iloprost , bosentan , ambrisentan , macitentan , and sildenafil . (
  • How does atrial septostomy treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)? (
  • What medications are used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension? (
  • When do you need surgery to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension? (
  • A protein drug produced in lettuce leaves was found to help treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), revealed a research led by Henry Daniell of Penn's School of Dental Medicine. (
  • My right cardiac cath impression was : Pulmonary Systolic pressure was 25 mm/Hg. (
  • Chronic lung disease and associated prolonged hypoxemia lead to sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and narrowing of the pulmonary vasculature, which in turn can lead to right heart enlargement with ventricular hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function (cor pulmonale), the authors noted. (
  • Both pulmonary hypertension and cardiac sequelae, such as diastolic dysfunction, have been associated with accelerated mortality in the sickle cell disease population. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension can happen in association with many other diseases, such as lung disease and heart disease. (
  • While not all pulmonary hypertension can be prevented, you can take steps to prevent it by making healthy lifestyle changes and managing high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, chronic liver disease, and chronic lung disease from tobacco use. (
  • Another common cause of pulmonary hypertension in children is lung disease. (
  • When a patient comes to National Jewish Health, whether it be for pulmonary hypertension or for another lung disease, they can expect that we are going to be dedicated to helping them understand what is the cause of their shortness of breath. (
  • In Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Interstitial Lung Disease: A Clinical Guide, renowned experts provide a state-of-the-art overview of the problems seen by physicians in the clinical management of ILDs. (
  • Divided into two sections, the first part provides and update on general issues and introduces both interstitial lung disease and associated pulmonary hypertension. (
  • [ 1 ] Such conditions include chronic pulmonary obstruction (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]), interstitial lung disease (ILD), sleep-disordered breathing disorders, alveolar hypoventilation disorders, and long-term exposure to high altitude. (
  • Scientists at Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago took a major step toward developing a new treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a severe lung disease with a five-year survival rate of 50 percent. (
  • Who would have thought that a lung disease is being affected by the cells that are part of the hematologic system, not the pulmonary system," Hamid said. (
  • However, although pulmonary hypertension potentially develops in every hypoxemic or chronic lung disease, there is still uncertainty about the degree of a clinical relevant pulmonary hypertension and about the time point when right heart catheterization should be initiated, as this is the method of choice to definitely diagnose pulmonary hypertension, " they wrote. (
  • In addition, brain natriuretic peptide allows an assessment of the relevance of pulmonary hypertension and could serve as a useful prognostic parameter in chronic lung disease," they concluded. (
  • [13] Pulmonary venous hypertension typically presents with shortness of breath while lying flat or sleeping ( orthopnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea ), while pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) typically does not. (
  • This most commonly occurs when the pulmonary venous pressure is elevated, so called pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH). (
  • Some of this is a direct pressure transmission from the venous system backward and some can result from a reactive constriction of the pulmonary arteries. (
  • Inherited cases of this disorder are known as familial pulmonary arterial hypertension. (
  • A gene for familial pulmonary arterial hypertension, which codes for BMPR2 a receptor in the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family, has been discovered. (
  • Department of Pediatrics and Vera Moulton Wall Center for Pulmonary Vascular Disease, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (M.R. (
  • It is the preferred screening study to look for obstructive pulmonary vascular disease. (
  • In this issue of Circulation , Tolle and colleagues 5 postulated that mild pulmonary vascular disease, when resting hemodynamics are not substantially abnormal, could be identified by unmasking the impairment in right ventricular function with exercise. (
  • 30 mm Hg), 2 the evidence supporting this threshold as indicative of pulmonary vascular disease has been limited until now. (
  • The Tolle et al results support the notion that less severe degrees of pulmonary vascular disease, which they call exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPAH), are part of a continuum that can be associated with both symptoms and measurable impairment. (
  • They devised a strategy combining metabolic and invasive methodologies in their study, which underscores the importance of hemodynamic confirmation when pulmonary vascular disease is suspected. (
  • To provide a forum for open discussion between scientists from academia, government, and the pharmaceutical industry on pulmonary vascular disease and the novel therapies being developed to treat it. (
  • Severe pulmonary hypertension, with a total prevalence of about 30-50/million, can be primary or associated with apparently disparate conditions including connective tissue disease, congenital heart disease, chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, HIV infection, use of an appetite suppressant, and liver disease. (
  • If you have severe pulmonary hypertension, your doctor may prescribe medications called calcium channel blockers. (
  • The standard treatment for severe pulmonary hypertension is intravenous epoprostenol, but interest has been growing in combination therapies with the hope that synergistic effects might improve outcomes, the researchers said. (
  • high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), or PH, is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries. (
  • In all groups, the average pressure in the pulmonary arteries is higher than 25 mmHg at rest or 30 mmHg during physical activity. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is abnormally elevated pressure in the pulmonary circulation. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension occurs when the pressure in the pulmonary arteries increases abnormally. (
  • When pressure in the pulmonary circulation becomes abnormally elevated, it is referred to as pulmonary hypertension. (
  • This, in turn, increases the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries. (
  • Exercise induced pulmonary hypertension is an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries causing them to become constricted, hypertrophied, and thickened during exertional activities. (
  • We are proud to be one of eight pediatric centers in the nation to earn accreditation from the Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) as a Pulmonary Hypertension Accredited Comprehensive Care Center . (
  • Seattle Children's is one of the few pediatric centers in the country that take part in research studies of new medicines for pulmonary hypertension - or new versions meant for children (pediatric formulations) - like oral treprostinil. (
  • The Pulmonary Hypertension Center at Rhode Island Hospital is one of the nation's first centers of its kind to be accredited by the Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA). (
  • Health care centers across the country are undergoing the rigorous review process to receive accreditation and demonstrate that they meet and exceed national standards of excellence,' said Dr. Murali Chakinala, a member of PHA's Pulmonary Hypertension Association Oversight Committee. (
  • University Hospitals is one of only a few healthcare centers across the nation with the expertise to offer the treatment of choice: pulmonary endarterectomy. (
  • There is currently no cure for pulmonary hypertension, although research on a cure is ongoing. (
  • There is no cure for pulmonary hypertension. (
  • We continue to work every day to end isolation, provide education, involve our constituents in everything we do, and find a cure for pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Other typical signs of pulmonary hypertension include an accentuated pulmonary component of the second heart sound, a right ventricular third heart sound , and parasternal heave indicating a hypertrophied right ventricle . (
  • This is because the cardinal symptom, dyspnoea, is shared with many more common diseases, and the signs of pulmonary hypertension are difficult to elicit for the non-specialist. (
  • But they could also be warning signs of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Nonetheless, they were confident enough in their data to state that "plasma brain natriuretic peptide facilitates noninvasive detection of significant pulmonary hypertension with high accuracy and can be suggested as a screening test for the presence of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Often, but not always, pulmonary hypertension will improve after the congenital heart defect is repaired. (
  • In addition, our clinic has has particular interest in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) with resulting pulmonary hypertension. (
  • The treatment for pulmonary hypertension can include oxygen, diuretics, blood thinners, medications that open the pulmonary arteries, and treatments for any underlying disease. (
  • However in others, blood clots might not dissolve and can lead to progressive right-sided heart failure and/or development of pulmonary hypertension (increased blood pressure in the lung). (
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research in Bad Nauheim and Giessen University have discovered that transcription factor FoxO1 regulates the division of cells and plays a key role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Reduced FoxO1 activity is therefore an important factor in the development of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • As such, it is likely that a variety of treatments will be required to address the various causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension. (
  • In the past, pulmonary hypertension was not treatable, but now several treatments are available. (
  • By collecting details in one place, doctors can find out more about pulmonary hypertension and which treatments help. (
  • Pulmonary Hypertension Association: "Conventional Medical Therapies," "Epoprostenol," "Treatments. (
  • If we aim to cure this disease, the next set of medications and treatments should be those that target the origin at the molecular level," said Stephen Y. Chan, M.D., Ph.D., director of the UPMC Center for Pulmonary Vascular Biology and Medicine at the Vascular Medicine Institute at Pitt, and senior author of the study. (
  • Learn more about symptoms, causes, diagnostic tests and treatments for pulmonary hypertension and other pulmonary vascular diseases in our Health Library. (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension is also a rare complication of certain infectious diseases, including HIV and schistosomiasis. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension can have many causes or associated diseases. (
  • According to the 2008 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Dana Point, California, group 3 pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mm Hg) comprises cases of pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia. (
  • In an attempt to detect the problem at an earlier stage, guidelines have been developed for screening populations at risk for its development such as those with connective tissue diseases, HIV infection, or chronic liver disease with portal hypertension. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a group of diseases characterized by high pulmonary artery pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. (
  • Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease characterised by raised pulmonary vascular resistance, which results in diminished right-heart function due to increased right ventricular afterload. (
  • Although much debate continues on the topic of the primary insult that leads to pulmonary arterial hypertension, it is clear that the disease is characterized by smoldering inflammation. (
  • When pulmonary hypertension occurs in the absence of a known cause, it is referred to as primary pulmonary hypertension. (
  • The cause of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is unknown. (
  • What are the symptoms of primary pulmonary hypertension? (
  • The following are the most common symptoms for primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). (
  • How is primary pulmonary hypertension diagnosed? (
  • Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is rarely discovered in a routine medical exam. (
  • How is primary pulmonary hypertension treated? (
  • Another name is primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). (
  • Medscape: "The Classification of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension," "Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Treatment & Management. (
  • Chronic up-regulation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is also the primary mechanism for pulmonary hypertension due to long-term exposure to high altitude. (
  • Phenformin as a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension. (
  • I have right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension, which appears to be primary. (
  • It is the first study to investigate the pharmacologic prophylaxis of rebound pulmonary hypertension during the primary attempt to wean from inhaled nitric oxide. (
  • Although pulmonary arterial hypertension often occurs on its own, it can also be part of syndromes that affect many parts of the body. (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension is usually sporadic, which means it occurs in individuals with no known family history of the disorder. (
  • Calpain enables the bad behavior that occurs in pulmonary hypertension," said Su, corresponding author of the study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. (
  • On the basis of the results, a more focused approach to establish the etiology of the pulmonary hypertension may then involve tests 6-9. (
  • Our better understanding of pulmonary arterial hypertension as an immunologic disease will certainly usher in a new era of targeted therapies for this fatal condition and shift management away from vasodilation toward immunomodulation. (
  • Recent advances in medical therapies have had a profound impact on the outcome of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • The program treats all types of pulmonary hypertension and provides the full spectrum of care, including parenteral therapies and multiple drug therapies. (
  • Thanks to the availability of targeted or advanced therapies for pulmonary hypertension, this survival rate has improved in recent years. (
  • Advance our understanding of pulmonary hypertension and develop new therapies. (
  • The symptoms of pulmonary hypertension during the initial stage of the disease are common to many other medical conditions (e.g., difficulty breathing, fatigue). (
  • Variations in other genes may increase the risk of developing pulmonary arterial hypertension or modify the course of the disease (usually making it more severe). (
  • Increases in mortality from and hospitalization for pulmonary hypertension might reflect increased physician awareness and changes in diagnosing and reporting this chronic disease. (
  • Although pulmonary hypertension historically has been considered a disease of women of childbearing age, it affects all ages and racial populations. (
  • Additional epidemiologic initiatives also are needed to ascertain prevalence and incidence of various pulmonary hypertension disease entities such as pulmonary arterial hypertension. (
  • however, prognosis may depend on the underlying disease or condition that is causing pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Unfortunately, many of the symptoms may mimic other pulmonary syndromes (such as asthma), thus necessitating a higher level of suspicion for this disease. (
  • Six years ago they did a CT to check for pulmonary disease and said probably normal. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease. (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a rare and complex disease, associated with many different medical conditions, which is caused by a growth of cells lining the inside of the lung arteries, resulting in high pressure in areas of the body. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is a serious, chronic disease that can lead to heart failure if it's not treated. (
  • World PH Day puts a spotlight on the global impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare, complex, life-threatening disease. (
  • World PH Day raises awareness about the worldwide impact of this disease and rallies the global PH community to share its collective story of hope," says Karen A. Fagan, M.D., chair, PHA Board of Trustees and professor of Internal Medicine and Pharmacology and chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of South Alabama. (
  • The importance of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is well illustrated in a genetic disorder called Chuvash disease. (
  • This condition is caused by a missense mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene that leads to enhanced hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, effectively causing individuals with Chuvash disease to function as if they were chronically exposed to hypoxia despite being in an environment with normal oxygenation. (
  • A key problem is that the early symptoms (breathlessness, dizziness and fatigue) are not very specific and can be easily confused with many other, more common conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or sleep apnea. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare disease in newborns, infants, and children that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. (
  • Sotatercept shows tremendous potential to be a groundbreaking therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension, and we expect sotatercept, as a Phase 2-ready compound, to be the lead molecule in our new pulmonary disease franchise," said Habib Dable, Chief Executive Officer for Acceleron. (
  • We are thrilled to reach this critical stage in developing the first drug for pulmonary arterial hypertension that targets the mechanisms behind disease development," says lead author Zhiyu Dai, PhD, from the Manne Research Institute at Lurie Children's, who also is a Research Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. (
  • Nevertheless, the Tolle et al study provides insight into the degree of abnormality that suggests the presence of a disease state and suggests that any definition of "early" pulmonary hypertension should encompass both invasive and noninvasive parameters to provide a more thorough, global assessment of integrated cardiopulmonary function. (
  • Also, the market for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is growing moderately due to newer launches of pipeline drugs that target different pathways to supress the symptoms of the disease. (
  • Global Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Market is forecasted to grow at a CAGR of 4.95% during 2016 - 2021F, on account of rising prevalence of the PAH disease among the population. (
  • The disease is characterised by progressive narrowing of the pulmonary arteries. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension, however, is still incurable, not least of all due to insufficient knowledge of what causes the disease at the molecular level. (
  • This is important because pulmonary arterial hypertension is a really bad disease," Hamid said. (
  • As a program with enormous experience in treating children with pulmonary hypertension, it's our responsibility to help train the next generation of professionals dedicated to curing this disease. (
  • People who smoke or have a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be at higher risk for severe complications and death from COVID-19 infection, reports a new study. (
  • In people who have never smoked, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, stated research published in the journal Thorax. (
  • The Neonatal Lung Injury & Pulmonary Hypertension Focus Group is a research group dedicated to improving the health of infants with pulmonary disease through innovative basic science, clinical, and translational research. (
  • Singer Chloe Temtchine, who suffers from pulmonary venoocclusive disease (PVOD), which accounts for a small number of pulmonary hypertension cases, wrote her song "Be Brave" shortly after she was released from a hospital's critical care unit, and donates 50% of sales proceeds to the PHA. (
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea) during exertion and fainting spells are the most common symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. (
  • Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension include shortness of breath with minimal exertion, fatigue, dizzy spells and fainting. (
  • The symptoms of pulmonary hypertension include the following: Shortness of breath Fatigue Chest pain Palpitations (heartbeat rate increased) Right-sided abdominal pain Poor appetite Lightheadedness Fainting Swelling (legs/ankles) Cyanosis Less common signs/symptoms include non-productive cough and exercise-induced nausea and vomiting. (
  • What Are the Types of Pulmonary Hypertension? (
  • Effective treatment is available for all types of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • For understandable reasons, the pulmonary circulation remains an enigma to most doctors. (
  • The result is elevated pulmonary pressure throughout the pulmonary circulation. (
  • These values can be obtained approximately by and ultrasound of the heart (echocardiogram), and more accurately using a catheter to measure the pressures in the pulmonary circulation (right heart catheterization). (
  • In the United States, about 1,000 new cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension are diagnosed each year. (
  • These findings support the usefulness of anticoagulating and antiaggregating therapy in selected cases of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • There are about 30-50 cases of Pulmonary hypertension seen in every million people, according to a 2003 study in the British Medical Journal. (
  • This is also a useful finding suggestive of chronic pulmonary embolism (PE). (
  • Dr. Shlobin routinely participates in the bi-annual PHA symposium and is a member of the PH council of The International Society For Heart and Lung Transplantation, as well as the Pulmonary Vascular Steering Committee for the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP). (
  • As part of our commitment to excellence in patient care, research and education, we bring together local, national and international experts during our Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium. (
  • The five-group World Health Organization (WHO) classification scheme was last updated in 2008 at the 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension ( TABLE 1 ). (
  • To overcome the increased resistance, blood pressure increases in the pulmonary artery and in the right ventricle of the heart, which is the chamber that pumps blood into the pulmonary artery. (
  • The lower right chamber of your heart, the right ventricle (VEN-trih-kul), pumps blood to your pulmonary arteries. (
  • Hypertension is the medical name for high blood pressure. (
  • It's not the hypertension or high blood pressure that's checked with a cuff. (
  • In October 2017, Dr. Shlobin, Pulmonary Hypertension Program Director, was invited to a two-year term on the PHA Scientific Leadership Council . (
  • DURHAM, N.C. , June 20, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Today Icagen, Inc. and Omdana Therapeutics, Inc. announced a collaboration to help advance the discovery of novel medicines for disorders related to tissue homeostasis and vascular remodeling such as pulmonary hypertension. (