Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Hypertension, Malignant: A condition of markedly elevated BLOOD PRESSURE with DIASTOLIC PRESSURE usually greater than 120 mm Hg. Malignant hypertension is characterized by widespread vascular damage, PAPILLEDEMA, retinopathy, HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY, and renal dysfunction.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Monocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Mice, Inbred C57BLSympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Rats, Inbred Dahl: Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.GlycogenBlood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome: A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.GizzardSodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.SulfonesTunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Masked Hypertension: Phenomenon where increased BLOOD PRESSURE readings taken in non-clinical settings (e.g., HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING) do not replicate in clinical settings.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Prehypertension: Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Takahashi K, Hiwada K, Kokubu T (1988). "Vascular smooth muscle calponin. A novel troponin T-like protein". Hypertension. 11 (6 ... Winder SJ, Walsh MP (1990). "Smooth muscle calponin. Inhibition of actomyosin MgATPase and regulation by phosphorylation". J. ... In muscle cells, they regulate muscle contraction by controlling the binding of myosin heads to the actin filament. Mutations ... of actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles and the cytoskeleton of non-muscle ...
Takahashi K, Hiwada K, Kokubu T (1988). "Vascular smooth muscle calponin. A novel troponin T-like protein". Hypertension. 11 (6 ... Winder SJ, Walsh MP (1990). "Smooth muscle calponin. Inhibition of actomyosin MgATPase and regulation by phosphorylation". J. ... "Entrez Gene: ACTA1 actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle". Bandman, E (1992). "Contractile protein isoforms in muscle development". ... "Alpha-skeletal actin induces a subset of muscle genes independently of muscle differentiation and withdrawal from the cell ...
... adrenoceptors in human vascular smooth muscle cells". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 286 (1 ... associates with hypertension". Hypertension. 43 (3): 592-7. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000116224.51189.80. PMID 14744925. Cayla C, ...
It can be used to treat hypertension as it will relax vascular smooth muscle to lower blood pressure. Hyperpolarisation of ... smooth muscle cell membranes pulls their membrane potential away from the threshold, so making it more difficult to excite them ...
When this gene is inhibited, vascular smooth muscle proliferates and can cause pulmonary hypertension, which, among other ... BMPR2 functions to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle tissue. It functions by promoting the survival of ... NIH/UW entry on Heritable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension OMIM entries on Heritable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Human BMPR2 ... It is especially important to screen for BMPR2 mutations in relatives of patients with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, for ...
Joseph BK, Thakali KM, Moore CL, Rhee SW (April 2013). "Ion channel remodeling in vascular smooth muscle during hypertension: ... KCNB1 also contributes to the function and regulation of smooth muscle fibers. Human studies on pulmonary arteries have shown ... smooth muscle contraction, and apoptosis. Voltage-gated potassium channels are essential in regulating neuronal membrane ... TEA also works on calcium-activated potassium channels, furthering its inhibitory effects on neurons and skeletal muscle. Some ...
... in vascular smooth muscle: interaction with tropomyosin paracrystals". Journal of Hypertension Supplement. 6 (4): S40-3. doi: ... including developing and remodeling smooth muscle as well as adult mature smooth muscle, epidermal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, ... "Biomechanical regulation of hedgehog signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo". American Journal of ... "Cyclic strain inhibits Notch receptor signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro". Circulation Research. 96 (5): 567-75 ...
... derived hydrogen peroxide in angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Hypertension. 1998;32:488- ... Angioten- sin II stimulates NADH and NADPH oxidase activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 1994;74:1141- ... Angiotensin II mediated hypertension in the rat increases vascular superoxide production via membrane NADH/NADPH oxidase ... Vascular NADPH oxidases are regulated by a variety of hormones and factors known to be important players in vascular remodeling ...
... in vascular smooth muscle: interaction with tropomyosin paracrystals". Journal of Hypertension. Supplement. 6 (4): S40-3. doi: ... In vivo data also support the role of calponin 1 as regulator of smooth muscle contractility. While aortic smooth muscle of ... Calponin 1 is up-regulated in smooth muscle tissues during postnatal development with a higher content in phasic smooth muscle ... "The maximal velocity of vascular smooth muscle shortening is independent of the expression of calponin". Journal of Muscle ...
... smooth muscle relaxation and consequently cause penis erection during sexual stimulation. Pulmonary hypertension is the result ... PDE5 inhibitors are used as potent pulmonary vasodilators reducing Pulmonary hypertension and inhibiting vascular remodelling. ... bladder and smooth muscles. Because of the localization of PDE5 in the smooth muscle tissue, inhibitors were developed for the ... PDE5A3 is not as widespread as the other two isoforms, and is only found in smooth muscle tissues, it is found in the heart, ...
Moreover, NO is involved in paracrine signalling between the endothelium and the smooth muscle that maintains vascular tone; ... Thus, oxidized LDL also contributes to the hypertension often seen with atherosclerosis. The role LDL plays suggests two ... "Atherosclerosis and the arterial smooth muscle cell: proliferation of smooth muscle is a key event in the genesis of the ... Carter, Robert III; Jones, Harlan P (2005). "The Vascular Biology of Athersclerosis". In Moffatt, Robert J.; Stamford, Bryand. ...
"Activation of RhoA and inhibition of myosin phosphatase as important components in hypertension in vascular smooth muscle". ... 1997). "Interaction of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase with phospholipids". Biochemistry. 36 (24): 7607-14. doi:10.1021/ ... "Thromboxane A2-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle involves activation of Ca2+ entry and Ca2+sensitization ... 2002). "Phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of smooth muscle protein phosphatase 1M at Thr850 induces its dissociation ...
PKG reduces intracellular Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle to increase smooth muscle relaxation and promote blood flow. PKG also ... pulmonary arterial hypertension, stenocardia. It was shown that in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension due to ... "Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype". Journal of Vascular Research. 34 (4): 245 ... Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and growth, platelet ...
It relaxes vascular smooth muscle by binding to the heme moiety of cytosolic guanylate cyclase, activating guanylate cyclase ... Humans with atherosclerosis, diabetes, or hypertension often show impaired NO pathways. A high salt intake was demonstrated to ... Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and growth, platelet ... The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels uses nitric oxide to signal the surrounding smooth muscle to relax, thus ...
This action involves IP's ability to relax vascular smooth muscle and is considered to be one of the fundamental functions of ... IP receptor agonists are front-line drugs to treat pulmonary hypertension. Major drugs in this category include PGI2 itself (i. ... to relax certain pre-contracted smooth muscle preparations and smooth muscle-containing tissues such as those of pulmonary ... It is found throughout the vascular network on endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Standard prostanoids have the following ...
... reflect leakage of plasma components across vascular endothelium and excessive extracellular matrix production by smooth muscle ... In hypertension only the afferent arteriole is affected, while in diabetes mellitus, both the afferent and efferent arteriole ... The term "onion-skin" is sometimes used to describe this form of blood vessel with thickened concentric smooth muscle cell ... In malignant hypertension these hyperplastic changes are often accompanied by fibrinoid necrosis of the arterial intima and ...
"Sulfur dioxide inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing the Erk/MAP kinase pathway mediated by cAMP/ ... pulmonary arterial hypertension, stenocardia.[30] It was shown that in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension due to ... Endogenous sulfur dioxide also has been shown to lower the proliferation rate of endothelial smooth muscle cells in blood ... Smooth muscle cell proliferation is one of important mechanisms of hypertensive remodeling of blood vessels and their stenosis ...
... is more potent than losartan in blocking the angiotensin ll-induced responses in vascular smooth muscle cells". Journal of ... Journal of human Hypertension, 16 (2): 13-16, doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001391, PMID 11967728 Zusman, R.M.; Jullien, V; Lemetayer, P ... American Journal of Hypertension, 18 (9 Pt 2): 134-141, doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.05.005, PMID 16125050 Gerth, W.C.; Remuzzi ... American Journal of Hypertension, 12 (2 Pt 1): 231-235, doi:10.1016/S0895-7061(99)00116-8, PMID 10090354 Kamiyama, E.; Yoshigae ...
The E series of prostaglandins are responsible for maintaining the patency of the DA (by dilation of vascular smooth muscle) ... If left uncorrected, patency leads to pulmonary hypertension and possibly congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. ... Gruzdeva, A; Nguyena, M.; Kovarovob, M.; Koller, B (March 2012). "PGE2 through the EP4 receptor controls smooth muscle gene ... EP4 is the major receptor associated with PGE2-induced dilation of the DA and can be found across the DA in smooth muscle cells ...
II increases the expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in human vascular smooth muscle cells ... via a lipoxygenase-dependent pathway". American Journal of Hypertension. 18 (3): 299-307. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.09.008. ...
... and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy (enlargement) induced by ATII may lead to increased blood pressure and hypertension. ... "J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 1 (2): 129-133. doi:10.1007/s13539-010-0014-2. PMC 3060646. PMID 21475695.. ... ACE inhibitors have been shown to be effective for indications other than hypertension[14] even in patients with normal blood ... What are the dose comparisons of all ACE inhibitors used in hypertension? Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine ...
The vascular wall consists of amongst others the vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells that line the lumen, and ... too small a diameter of the resistance vessels relates to insufficient tissue perfusion as well as hypertension. ... Quick functional changes are accomplished by contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the wall of the small ... Chronic changes in diameter result from vascular remodeling - reshaping of the vascular wall, where existing elements are ...
These receptors are found on vascular smooth muscle, where they are responsible for the vasoconstrictive action of ... Although not a first line choice for either hypertension or prostatic hyperplasia, it is a choice for patients who present with ... Antagonist of alpha-1 adrenoceptors on vascular smooth muscle, thereby inhibiting the vasoconstrictor effect of circulating and ... This sympatholytic drug is used in the treatment of hypertension, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. ... ...
"Comparison of vasopressin binding sites in human uterine and vascular smooth muscle cells". European Journal of Pharmacology. ... vascular vasopressin receptor gene microsatellite polymorphisms in human essential hypertension". Journal of Molecular and ... receptor antidiuretic hormone receptor 1A SCCL vasopressin subtype 1a receptor V1-vascular vasopressin receptor AVPR1A vascular ... functional expression and tissue distribution of human cDNA for the vascular-type vasopressin receptor". Biochemical and ...
... aortic smooth muscle cells from patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms suggesting that CMV infection contributes to vascular ... Mice fed a high cholesterol diet showed significantly more vascular damage and hypertension when they had been infected with ... "Active cytomegalovirus infection in aortic smooth muscle cells from patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm". J Mol Med. 87 (4 ... Further, renin and angiotensin II release were increased in these animals as additional factors to lead to hypertension. In ...
One of the main advantages of using PET is that it can also provide muscle activation data about deeper lying muscles such as ... Cardiology, atherosclerosis and vascular disease study: In clinical cardiology, FDG-PET can identify so-called "hibernating ... a smoothing prior leading to total variation regularization or a Laplacian distribution leading to ℓ. 1. {\displaystyle \ell _{ ... Hypertension. 38 (1): 6-8. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.38.1.6. PMID 11463751.. ...
Skeletal and smooth muscle properties of enalapril hydrochlorothiazide combination materials loss from the body.. ... increased urination, leg discomfort,.Director, Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program. lisinopril NORDIL 10,881. ...
... such as vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal gland. Paediatric population, the safety and efficacy of in children and ... In patients with hypertension side effects of hydrochlorothiazide telmisartan reduces both systolic and diastolic blood ... Patients with both renal impairment and collagen vascular disease (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus hydrochlorothiazide SLE) ... Tubocurarine) The effect of nondepolarizing skeletal muscle relaxants may be potentiated by hydrochlorothiazide. The ...
Aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (vascular smooth muscle cells [VSMCs]) were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats as described ... Rapid effects of aldosterone on clonal human vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007; 292: C788-C794. ... Biosynthesis and a link to angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 1994; 269: 24316- ... Glucocorticoid-Related Signaling Effects in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Gergö A. Molnar, Carsten Lindschau, Galyna Dubrovska ...
Vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy is a normal compensatory state that may play a pathogenic role in hypertension. ... Na+, K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase regulation in hypertrophied vascular smooth muscle cells.. L M Krug, B C Berk ... Angiotensin II stimulates a hypertrophic response in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. As part of the growth response, ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Hypertension.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person ...
Buy or Rent Vascular Smooth Muscle Function in Hypertension as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can ... Vascular Smooth Muscle Function in Hypertension Edition by Theodora Szasz and Publisher Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences. Save ... Vascular Smooth Muscle Function in Hypertension by Theodora Szasz * Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences ...
TGF-β1 Signaling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Induces Sustained Canonical Smad3 Pathways in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. ...
We conclude that, in analogy with the in vitro findings in cultured vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells treated with GC, also in ... glucocorticoids increase transmembrane Ca2+ influx in vascular smooth muscle in vivo.. Kornel L1, Prancan AV, Kanamarlapudi N, ... We propose that this may be the main pathogenic mechanism of GC-induced hypertension. ... Study on the mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced hypertension: ... Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology. *Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/ ...
... of Cyclooxygenase-2 Exacerbates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension and Enhances Contractility of Vascular Smooth Muscle ... of Cyclooxygenase-2 Exacerbates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension and Enhances Contractility of Vascular Smooth Muscle ... of Cyclooxygenase-2 Exacerbates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension and Enhances Contractility of Vascular Smooth Muscle ... of Cyclooxygenase-2 Exacerbates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension and Enhances Contractility of Vascular Smooth Muscle ...
Abstract 18218: Vascular Dysfunction as a Primary Cause of Hypertension in Mice with Smooth Muscle Specific Deletion of RGS2. ... Abstract 18218: Vascular Dysfunction as a Primary Cause of Hypertension in Mice with Smooth Muscle Specific Deletion of RGS2 ... Abstract 18218: Vascular Dysfunction as a Primary Cause of Hypertension in Mice with Smooth Muscle Specific Deletion of RGS2 ... Abstract 18218: Vascular Dysfunction as a Primary Cause of Hypertension in Mice with Smooth Muscle Specific Deletion of RGS2 ...
NOD2 deficiency exacerbates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and enhances pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell ... NOD2 deficiency exacerbates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and enhances pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell ... NOD2 deficiency exacerbates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and enhances pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell ... Smooth muscle cells isolated from discrete compartments of the mature vascular media exhibit unique phenotypes and distinct ...
... smooth muscle endothelial and nerve) level through to the blood vessel wall to the vascular system as a functional system. This ... and is a source of background literature for research in vascular pharmacology. ... Hypertension Jaye P. F. Chin, and Anthony M. Dart. 19. Pulmonary hypertension George Cremona, and Tim Higenbottam. ... The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle. C. J. Garland and J. A. Angus. Abstract. This book provides an understanding of how ...
... .noexiste{ color: #000; } .imagenItem{ ... Reduction of eNOS in vascular smooth muscle by salt independently of hypertension; Bentham Science Publishers; Anti- ... Conclusion: A high salt diet decreases eNOS expression in vascular smooth muscle layers of aorta and small arteries, which is ... Background: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is known to be expressed in endothelium and smooth muscle cells of ...
Mechanism of Calcium Activation in Vascular Smooth Muscle. Khalil, Raouf; Lodge, Nicholas; Saida, Kooichi; More ... Role of Calcium in the Activation of Smooth Muscle. Lüllmann, Heinz; Ziegler, Albrecht ... Regression of Structural Alterations of Hypertension with Calcium Antagonists - Vascular Hypertrophy. Hansson, Lennart ... Membrane Handling of Calcium in Essential Hypertension. Bing, Robert F.; Heagerty, Anthony M.; Swales, John D. ...
Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension - , J. Usha Raj, Pulmonary Endocrine Pathology: Endocrine Cells and Endocrine Tumours ... Download Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension - , J. Usha Raj, ... Vascular Smooth Muscle Function In Hypertension - , Rita C. A. Tostes. Hypertension is defined by an increase in systemic blood ... Pathophysiology Of Pulmonary Hypertension - , J. Usha Raj. Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening disease with no known ...
1991) Hypertension 18:742-747, pmid:1743755.. OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ... Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been shown to contain insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors and respond to ... Blocking ligand occupancy of the αVβ3 integrin inhibits insulin-like growth factor I signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells ... Blocking ligand occupancy of the αVβ3 integrin inhibits insulin-like growth factor I signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells ...
Pulmonary Hypertension. accepting inquires Justin MacDonald. * Vascular smooth muscle biology. * Chronic inflammation ... the Smooth Muscle Research Group and the Airways Inflammation Research Group. Students individual research programs are ... Students gain a foundation in molecular biology, organ and vascular systems, cardiovascular and respiratory physiology and ...
Interaction between PGI(2) and ET-1 pathways in vascular smooth muscle from Group-III pulmonary hypertension patients ... analogue and an ERA on ET-1 release and HPA smooth muscle cells (hPASMCs) proliferation were determined by ELISA and MTT ... Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by an elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure and it is classified into five ...
... a novel troponin T-like protein was purified from bovine aorta smooth muscle. The isolated protein was separated into several ... In a search for additional Ca2+ regulatory components in vascular smooth muscle, ... Vascular smooth muscle calponin. A novel troponin T-like protein Hypertension. 1988 Jun;11(6 Pt 2):620-6. doi: 10.1161/01.hyp. ... In a search for additional Ca2+ regulatory components in vascular smooth muscle, a novel troponin T-like protein was purified ...
Purchase Vascular Smooth Muscle: Metabolic, Ionic, and Contractile Mechanisms - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Applied Aspects of Smooth Muscle Mechanochemistry: Hypertension. VII. Summary and Perspectives. References. 2. Electrolyte ... Vascular Smooth Muscle: Metabolic, Ionic, and Contractile Mechanisms addresses the vascular smooth muscle function by ... Vascular Smooth Muscle: Metabolic, Ionic, and Contractile Mechanisms 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ...
Pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy caused by excessive pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is a major ... smooth muscle growth medium; NPH, normal human PASMC; siRNA, small interfering RNA; SMBM, smooth muscle basal medium. ... Pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy both contribute to the elevated PVR in IPAH patients. Medial ... The molecular composition of native ROC and SOC has not been completely elucidated in vascular smooth muscle cells. Functional ...
Role of the lipoxygenase pathway in angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. Hypertension. 1994; 23 ( ... Vascular Biology. The Effects of Leukocyte-Type 12/15-Lipoxygenase on Id3-Mediated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Growth. Angela M ... Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a key component of the response to injury in vascular disease. The role of ... and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), all important contributors to vascular lesion formation and progression.9,12,15-17 ...
Smooth muscle cell plasticity is a hallmark of hypertension, and pulsatile hemodynamics play a crucial role in the production ... The vascular smooth muscle cell in arterial pathology: a cell that can take on multiple roles. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;95:194-204 ... Hypertension-mediated thrombin generation within the vessel wall may also exert proliferative effects on smooth muscle cells ... Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Are Responsible for a Prothrombotic Phenotype of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Arteries ...
Diseases : Hypertension. Pharmacological Actions : Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Hypotensive, Vascular smooth ... 5 Abstracts with Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inhibitor Research. Filter by Study Type. In Vitro Study. ... Honokiol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, indicating it may have a role in arteriosclerosis treatment. Apr ... 7 Substances Researched for Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inhibitor Name. AC. CK. Focus. ...
Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by angiotensin II in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Hypertension 35: 68-75. ... In rat aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMC), AngII induces the transcription for COX-2 via involvement of nuclear factor- ... Angiotensin II-Induced Cyclooxygenase 2 Expression in Rat Aorta Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Does Not Require Heterotrimeric G ... Angiotensin II-Induced Cyclooxygenase 2 Expression in Rat Aorta Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Does Not Require Heterotrimeric G ...
... we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular ... particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, ... intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, ... HDAC4 mediates development of hypertension via vascular inflammation in spontaneous hypertensive rats.. Tatsuya Usui, Muneyoshi ...
  • In patients with advanced liver disease with portal hypertension, portal-systemic collaterals contribute to circulatory disturbance, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. (elsevier.es)
  • Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), a repressor for Na,K-ATPase has been implicated in the development of systemic hypertension, as proved by TCTP-over-expressing transgenic (TCTP-TG) mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies on several animal models show that antiprotease augmentation with human elafin is an effective strategy in the treatment of inflammatory vascular, systemic and pulmonary diseases and of inflammation triggered by reperfusion injury. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • This book is organized into six chapters and begins with an introduction to the complexities of energy metabolism and how metabolic events can be correlated with a simultaneous quantitative assessment of smooth muscle mechanics and the contractile machinery at the molecular level. (elsevier.com)
  • 1. Intracellular [Cl − ] ([Cl − ] i ) was measured with ion-selective microelectrodes in rat femoral arterial smooth muscle in normotensive controls and after the induction of deoxycorticosterone acetate/salt hypertension. (clinsci.org)
  • This review summarizes valvular and vascular tissue in terms of their basic anatomy, their cellular and ECM components and mechanical forces. (frontiersin.org)
  • The C-terminus is deglutamylated by AGTPBP1/ CCP1, AGBL1/CCP4 and AGBL4/CCP6, leading to the formation of Myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle, deglutamylated form. (abcam.com)