Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Dentin SensitivitySkin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Picryl Chloride: A hapten that generates suppressor cells capable of down-regulating the efferent phase of trinitrophenol-specific contact hypersensitivity. (Arthritis Rheum 1991 Feb;34(2):180).Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Oxazolone: Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Dentin Desensitizing Agents: Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Latex Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Visceral Afferents: The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.Mice, Inbred BALB CTuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Arthus Reaction: A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Bird Fancier's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Patch Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Saccharopolyspora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Urocanic Acid: 4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.Streptodornase and Streptokinase: A mixture of the enzymes (streptokinase and streptodornase) produced by hemolytic streptococci. It is used topically on surface lesions and by instillation in closed body cavities to remove clotted blood or fibrinous or purulent accumulations. It is also used as a skin test antigen in evaluating generalized cell-mediated immunodeficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.-.Mice, Inbred C3HAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Exanthema: Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.Mice, Inbred CBADesensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Urticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Fanconi Anemia: Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome: Severe drug eruption characterized by high fever, erythematous rash and inflammation of internal organ(s).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Thioxanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with a SULFUR in the center ring.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.NitrobenzenesHemocyaninTh2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins: A diverse group of proteins whose genetic MUTATIONS have been associated with the chromosomal instability syndrome FANCONI ANEMIA. Many of these proteins play important roles in protecting CELLS against OXIDATIVE STRESS.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Mycobacterium lepraemurium: The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Reflex, Abdominal: Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Peanut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that regulates the activities of CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE. It is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM, but moves to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to FANCE PROTEIN.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Granuloma, Respiratory Tract: Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Skin Manifestations: Dermatologic disorders attendant upon non-dermatologic disease or injury.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Dermatitis, Irritant: A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Trinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Dental Occlusion, Traumatic: An occlusion resulting in overstrain and injury to teeth, periodontal tissue, or other oral structures.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.

Emergent immunoregulatory properties of combined glucocorticoid and anti-glucocorticoid steroids in a model of tuberculosis. (1/2860)

In Balb/c mice with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is a switch from a protective Th1-dominated cytokine profile to a non-protective profile with a Th2 component. This switch occurs while the adrenals are undergoing marked hyperplasia. Treatment with the anti-glucocorticoid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone or 3 beta, 17 beta-androstenediol, during the period of adrenal hyperplasia, maintains Th1 dominance and is protective. We investigated the effects of these hormones as therapeutic agents by administering them from day 60, when the switch to the non-protective cytokine profile was already well established. Given at this time (day 60), doses that were protective when given early (from day 0) were rapidly fatal. A physiological dose of the glucocorticoid corticosterone was also rapidly fatal. However when the corticosterone and the anti-glucocorticoid (AED or DHEA) were co-administered, there was protection, with restoration of a Th1-dominated cytokine profile, enhanced DTH responses, and enhanced expression of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. Therefore this combination of steroids has an emergent property that is quite unlike that of either type of steroid given alone. It may be possible to exploit the ant-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids while preserving a Th1 bias, by combining glucocorticoids with DHEA or suitable metabolites.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of a designed TMV coat protein mutant, R46G, that elicits a moderate hypersensitivity response in Nicotiana sylvestris. (2/2860)

The hypersensitivity resistance response directed by the N' gene in Nicotiana sylvestris is elicited by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein R46G, but not by the U1 wild-type TMV coat protein. In this study, the structural and hydrodynamic properties of R46G and wild-type coat proteins were compared for variations that may explain N' gene elicitation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals no significant secondary or tertiary structural differences between the elicitor and nonelicitor coat proteins. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies, however, do show different concentration dependencies of the weight average sedimentation coefficients at 4 degrees C. Viral reconstitution kinetics at 20 degrees C were used to determine viral assembly rates and as an initial assay of the rate of 20S formation, the obligate species for viral reconstitution. These kinetic results reveal a decreased lag time for reconstitution performed with R46G that initially lack the 20S aggregate. However, experiments performed with 20S initially present reveal no detectable differences indicating that the mechanism of viral assembly is similar for the two coat protein species. Therefore, an increased rate of 20S formation from R46G subunits may explain the differences in the viral reconstitution lag times. The inferred increase in the rate of 20S formation is verified by direct measurement of the 20S boundary as a function of time at 20 degrees C using velocity sedimentation analysis. These results are consistent with the interpretation that there may be an altered size distribution and/or lifetime of the small coat protein aggregates in elicitors that allows N. sylvestris to recognize the invading virus.  (+info)

Vascularity in asthmatic airways: relation to inhaled steroid dose. (3/2860)

BACKGROUND: There is an increase in vascularity in the asthmatic airway. Although inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are an effective anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma, there are few data on any effects on structural changes. METHODS: Endobronchial biopsy specimens from seven asthmatic subjects not receiving ICS and 15 receiving 200-1500 microg/day beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-collagen type IV antibody to outline the endothelial basement membrane of the vessels. These were compared with biopsy tissue from 11 non-asthmatic controls (four atopic and seven non-atopic). RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the density of vessels (number of vessels/mm2 of lamina propria) in the asthmatic subjects not on ICS compared with non-asthmatic controls (mean 485 (interquartile range (IQR) 390-597) versus 329 (IQR 248-376) vessels/mm2, p<0.05; 95% CI for the difference 48 to 286). There was no significant difference between asthmatic subjects on ICS and those not on ICS or control subjects in the number of vessels/mm2 (mean 421 (IQR 281-534)). However, patients who received >/=800 microg/day BDP tended to have a reduced number of vessels/mm2 compared with patients not on ICS and those receiving +info)

IL-10-induced anergy in peripheral T cell and reactivation by microenvironmental cytokines: two key steps in specific immunotherapy. (4/2860)

Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is widely used for treatment of allergic diseases and could potentially be applied in other immunological disorders. Induction of specific unresponsiveness (anergy) in peripheral T cells and recovery by cytokines from the tissue microenvironment represent two key steps in SIT with whole allergen or antigenic T cell peptides (PIT). The anergy is directed against the T cell epitopes of the respective antigen and characterized by suppressed proliferative and cytokine responses. It is initiated by autocrine action of IL-10, which is increasingly produced by the antigen-specific T cells. Later in therapy, B cells and monocytes also produce IL-10. The anergic T cells can be reactivated by different cytokines. Whereas IL-15 and IL-2 generate Th1 cytokine profile and an IgG4 antibody response, IL-4 reactivates a Th2 cytokine pattern and IgE antibodies. Increased IL-10 suppresses IgE and enhances IgG4 synthesis, resulting in a decreased antigen-specific IgE:IgG4 ratio, as observed normally in patients after SIT or PIT. The same state of anergy against the major bee venom allergen, phospholipase A2, can be observed in subjects naturally anergized after multiple bee stings. Together, these data demonstrate the pivotal role of autocrine IL-10 in induction of specific T cell anergy and the important participation of the cytokine microenvironment in SIT. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms explaining reasons for success or failure of SIT may enable possible predictive measures of the treatment.  (+info)

Pen c 1, a novel enzymic allergen protein from Penicillium citrinum. Purification, characterization, cloning and expression. (5/2860)

A 33-kDa alkaline serine protease secreted by Penicillium citrinum strain 52-5 is shown to be an allergenic agent in this fungus. The protein, designated Pen c 1, was purified by sequential DEAE-Sepharose and carboxymethyl (CM)-Sepharose chromatographies. Pen c 1 has a molecular mass of 33 kDa and a pI of 7.1. The caseinolytic enzyme activity of this protein was studied. The protein binds to serum IgE from patients allergic to Penicillium citrinum. The cDNA encoding Pen c 1 is 1420 bp in length and contains an open reading frame for a 397-amino-acid polypeptide. Pen c 1 codes for a larger precursor containing a signal peptide, a propeptide and the 33-kDa mature protein. Sequence comparison revealed that Pen c 1 possesses several features in common with the alkaline serine proteases of the subtilisin family. The essential Asp, His, and Ser residues that make up the catalytic triad of serine proteases are well conserved. Northern blots demonstrated that mRNAs transcribed from this gene are present at early stages of culture. The allergen encoded by Pen c 1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein bearing an N-terminal histidine-affinity tag. The protein, purified by affinity chromatography with a yield of 130 mg of pure protein per liter of culture, was able to bind to both a monoclonal anti-Pen c 1 antibody and IgE from the serum of patients allergic to Penicillium. Recombinant Pen c 1 can therefore be expressed in E. coli in large quantities and should prove useful as a standardized specific allergen for immuno-diagnosis of atopic disorders. In addition, full caseinolytic enzyme activity could be generated in the purified recombinant protein by sulfonation and renaturation, followed by removal of the affinity tag, indicating that the refolded protein can assume the same conformation as the native protein.  (+info)

In vitro and skin testing for allergy: comparable clinical utility and costs. (6/2860)

Controversy exists concerning the appropriate use of skin testing and in vitro testing for the diagnosis of allergy, particularly inhalant allergy. Earlier comparisons of skin testing and in vitro testing concluded that skin testing had superior accuracy at lower expense. In light of new developments with in vitro allergy testing, however, this issue should be reconsidered. A review of the recent scientific literature indicates that in vitro and skin testing are highly correlated. However, without the existence of an independent gold standard for inhalant allergy, it is not possible to determine which test is more accurate. The accuracy of either test can be compromised if conducted using different protocols or having insufficient quality control. Given their respective trajectories for technological advancement, quantification, and quality control, in vitro testing may offer the more standardized approach. Although the cost per test of in vitro testing remains greater than that of skin testing, the per-patient costs of the two modalities appear to be comparable, given the greater number of allergens typically used in skin testing. In summary, both skin testing and in vitro testing are acceptable as frontline diagnostic tools.  (+info)

Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in patients with severe mosquito allergy; establishment of an IL-2-dependent NK-like cell line. (7/2860)

The clinical evidence of a relationship between severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB) and clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK cells has been accumulated. In order to clarify the mechanism of EBV-induced NK cell proliferation and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients, we studied clonally expanded NK cells from three HMB patients and succeeded in establishing an EBV-infected NK-like cell line designated KAI3. Immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that KAI3 cells as well as infected NK cells exhibited an EBV latent infection type II, where EBV gene expression was limited to EBNA 1 and LMP1. As KAI3 was established by culture with IL-2, IL-2 responsiveness of peripheral blood NK cells from patients was examined. The results represented markedly augmented IL-2-induced IL-2R alpha expression in NK cells. This characteristic property may contribute to the persistent expansion of infected NK cells. However, KAI3 cells as well as the NK cells from patients were not protected from apoptosis induced by either an anti-Fas antibody or NK-sensitive K562 cells. Preserved sensitivity to apoptosis might explain the relatively regulated NK cell numbers in the peripheral blood of the patients. To our knowledge, KAI3 is the first reported NK-like cell line established from patients of severe chronic active EBV infection (SCAEBV) before the onset of leukaemias or lymphomas. KAI3 cells will contribute to the study of EBV persistency in the NK cell environment and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients.  (+info)

Detection of allergen-induced basophil activation by expression of CD63 antigen using a tricolour flow cytometric method. (8/2860)

In the field of allergy diagnosis, most in vitro functional tests are focused on basophils. Nevertheless, the very small number of circulating basophils limits these experiments and their clinical benefit remains controversial. As flow cytometry is a valuable tool for identifying cell populations, even at low concentrations, we developed a tricolour flow cytometric method for the study of allergen-induced basophil activation. Identification of cells was based both on CD45 expression and on the presence of IgE on the cell surface, since basophils express high-affinity receptors for IgE (Fc epsilon RI). Cell activation upon allergen challenge was assessed by the expression of CD63 antigen on the plasma membrane. Basophil isolation and activation (with the chemotactic peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine) were validated in 32 non-allergic patients. In 12 allergic patients, basophil stimulation by a relevant allergen was in most cases positive (10/12). Furthermore a concentration-dependent hook effect was observed. Of the allergic and non-allergic patients, none showed non-specific activation with an irrelevant allergen (specificity 100%). Overall, our preliminary results, even in a small population, suggest that this is a reliable and valuable method for the diagnosis of allergies complementing specific allergen IgE and skin test results. Obviously, additional clinical studies are needed to validate these first results.  (+info)

  • Studies in mouse models showed that a diet rich in n-3 PUFA (supplemented with fish oil) increased IgE production in an airway hypersensitivity model, but suppressed proliferation and cytokine production of T cells in a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) model. (chalmers.se)
  • Only subjects demonstrating two hypersensitive teeth that satisfied the tactile and airblast hypersensitivity enrolment criteria, qualified to participate in the study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We report a case of hypersensitivity myocarditis secondary to clozapine administration that was diagnosed in vivo for the first time through endomyocardial biopsy and was successfully treated with corticosteroids. (redorbit.com)
  • Its use, limited by the well-known agranulocytosis risk, has also been associated with severe cardiovascular side effects and sudden death.1-3 Both dilated cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, as result of direct toxicity and drug hypersensitivity, respectively, have been described at autopsy.2,3 We report a case of hypersensitivity myocarditis secondary to clozapine administration diagnosed for the first time in vivo by endomyocardial biopsy and successfully treated with corticosteroids. (redorbit.com)
  • An unusual case was published involving a case of hypersensitivity to Canadian goose dropping s. (medicinenet.com)
  • ABSTRACT: Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most commonly prescribed and consumed drug classes, they are associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including NSAID-induced hypersensitivity reactions (NHRs). (uspharmacist.com)
  • Indoor Environmental Consultants (IEC) provides mold testing and consulting services to help prevent hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and other health issues. (webwire.com)
  • The bioactive polymer used in UNO forms a rapid, protective, dentin integrated layer to prevent hypersensitivity", said Dr. Kishen. (globenewswire.com)
  • Dentine hypersensitivity is a sharp, sudden pain arising from the teeth when exposed to touch or hot and cold foods. (cochrane.org)
  • Dentine hypersensitivity may be defined as the pain arising from exposed dentine, typically in response to external stimuli, and which cannot be explained by any other form of dental disease. (cochrane.org)
  • Poulsen S, Errboe M, Lescay Mevil Y, Glenny A-M. Potassium containing toothpastes for dentine hypersensitivity. (cochrane.org)
  • The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of dentine hypersensitivity reduction using in office paste formula containing nanoHydroxyapatite with the commercially available fluoride (duraphat) and a placebo in treating hypersensitivity in a single visit. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The parents of 15-year-old Jenny Fry claim that she suffered from electro-hypersensitivity (EHS), which caused her to suffer tiredness, headaches and bladder problems. (scienceblogs.com)
  • It depends where you have visceral hypersensitivity, in the stomach or osophagus or in bowls. (healingwell.com)
  • I had visceral hypersensitivity in the stomach. (healingwell.com)
  • Some people are troubled by such a problem called visceral hypersensitivity . (healthcentral.com)
  • In the case of visceral hypersensitivity, everything from digestion to urination can become painful. (healthcentral.com)
  • 1 All of these conditions are really just a form of visceral hypersensitivity. (healthcentral.com)
  • The biggest hallmark of visceral hypersensitivity to watch out for is pain provoked with normally non-painful stimuli. (healthcentral.com)
  • Alternatives to medications are also worth mentioning for the treatment of visceral hypersensitivity, especially those that provoke a relaxation response like meditation, hypnosis or visualization. (healthcentral.com)
  • I did some reading and found something called esophageal hypersensitivity. (healingwell.com)
  • Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. (bionity.com)
  • Other psychiatric problems that often coexist with tics and tic disorders include learning disorders, impulse control disorders, school phobia, sensory hypersensitivity , and rage attacks. (yourdictionary.com)
  • New research shows that patients with fibromyalgia have hypersensitivity to non-painful events based on images of the patients' brains, which show reduced activation in primary sensory regions and increased activation in sensory integration areas. (wiley.com)
  • however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. (jci.org)
  • These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity. (jci.org)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - The International Serious Adverse Events Consortium has finished enrolling two studies investigating genetic markers linked to drug-induced liver injury and hypersensitivity reactions, and it has launched a new study focused on finding markers of treatment-related inflammatory bowel disease. (genomeweb.com)
  • In type 2 hypersensitivity, the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patient's own cell surfaces. (bionity.com)
  • Type 3 hypersensitivity occurs when antigens and antibodies are present in roughly equal amounts, causing extensive cross-linking. (bionity.com)
  • The Hypersensitivity Pathway complements our catalog of research reagents including antibodies and ELISA kits against OVALBUMIN, BCG, ALB, CD2, CD4. (novusbio.com)
  • We have 3105 products for the study of the Hypersensitivity Pathway that can be applied to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Flow Cytometry, Western Blot, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits. (novusbio.com)
  • We describe the various types of glycopeptide hypersensitivity reactions associated with glycopeptides and lipoglycopeptides, including IgE-mediated reactions, RMS, and linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis, as well as describe cross-reactivity with other glycopeptides. (mdpi.com)
  • Another form of type 2 hypersensitivity is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). (bionity.com)
  • The mechanistic pathways involved in adaptive hypersensitivity suggest that inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase pathways might prevent the development of adaptive hypersensitivity and allow more prolonged efficacy of endocrine therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • hypersensitivity, heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. (factmonster.com)
  • Hypersensitivity to abacavir is immunologically mediated, driven by conventional MHC-I antigen presentation and activation of HLA-B*5701. (medscape.com)
  • Cellular hypersensitivity to antigen, as measured by this technique, develops in guinea pigs infected with Histoplasma or immunized with emulsions of complete Freund's adjuvant and T 4 bacteriophage, bovine γ-globulin, human γ-globulin, or picrylated guinea pig skin. (jimmunol.org)
  • The significance of in vitro hypersensitivity of several cell functions to antigen is discussed in regard to the cell types which have been available in culture. (jimmunol.org)