The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Biological actions and events that constitute the steps by which living organisms take in and assimilate NUTRIENTS.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.
Functional obstruction of the COLON leading to MEGACOLON in the absence of obvious COLONIC DISEASES or mechanical obstruction. When this condition is acquired, acute, and coexisting with another medical condition (trauma, surgery, serious injuries or illness, or medication), it is called Ogilvie's syndrome.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A type of ILEUS, a functional not mechanical obstruction of the INTESTINES. This syndrome is caused by a large number of disorders involving the smooth muscles (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) or the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.

Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities in adults with falciparum malaria. (1/956)

We studied 424 adults with falciparum malaria admitted over 28 months. They were divided into three groups: cerebral malaria (n = 214); severe non-cerebral malaria (n = 58); and uncomplicated malaria (n = 152). Fundus examination was done daily from admission to discharge, and weekly thereafter in those with persistent changes. All patients were treated by a protocol based on WHO guidelines. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities were: retinal haemorrhages, 40 (9.43%) (25 cerebral malaria, 10 severe non-cerebral and five uncomplicated malaria); papilloedema, 17 (7.94%) cerebral malaria and two uncomplicated malaria; blurring of disc margins, 25 (11.68%) cerebral and seven non-cerebral; retinal oedema, six (2.80%) cerebral and five non-cerebral malaria; disc pallor, five patients all with cerebral malaria; vitreous haemorrhage and hard exudate in one patient each, both cerebral malaria. Retinal haemorrhage was associated with cerebral malaria and severe non-cerebral malaria, especially with severe anaemia (p < 0.001), as compared to uncomplicated malaria (p < 0.01). The association of papilloedema and cerebral malaria was highly significant compared to severe non-cerebral malaria (p < 0.001). None of these findings was associated with statistically significant mortality, except disc pallor in cerebral malaria (p < 0.05).  (+info)

Endothelial function in Marfan syndrome: selective impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation. (2/956)

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular complications of Marfan syndrome arise due to alterations in the structural and functional properties of fibrillin, a constituent of vascular connective tissues. Fibrillin-containing microfibrils are closely associated with arterial endothelial cells, indicating a possible functional role for fibrillin in the endothelium. Plasma concentrations of endothelial cell products are elevated in Marfan subjects, which indirectly indicates endothelial dysfunction. This study directly assessed flow- and agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent brachial artery reactivity in Marfan subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 20 Marfan and 20 control subjects, brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and blood pressure were measured by ultrasonic wall tracking, Doppler ultrasound, and photoplethysmography, respectively. Measurements were taken during hand hyperemia (a stimulus for endothelium-derived nitric oxide [NO] release in the upstream brachial artery) and after sublingual administration of the endothelium-independent vasodilator nitroglycerin. In 9 Marfan and 6 control subjects, the above parameters were also assessed during intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin (agonists that stimulate NO production) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an inhibitor of NO production). Flow-mediated responses differed markedly between Marfan and control subjects (-1.6+/-3.5% versus 6. 50+/-4.1%, respectively; P<0.0001), whereas nitroglycerin produced similar vasodilation (14.2+/-5.7% versus 15.2+/-7.8%; P=NS). Agonist-induced vasodilation to incremental intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin were not significantly different between Marfan and control subjects, and intra-arterial L-NMMA produced similar reductions in brachial artery diameter in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate impaired flow-mediated but preserved agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Marfan subjects and suggest preservation of basal NO release. Selective loss of flow-mediated dilation suggests a role for fibrillin in endothelial cell mechanotransduction.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (3/956)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

Neurogenic origin of articular hyperemia in early degenerative joint disease. (4/956)

It has been speculated that joint instability resulting from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture could be exacerbated by changes in vasomotor activity in the remaining supporting structures. In this study, the effect of ACL transection on medial collateral ligament (MCL) basal perfusion and its responsiveness to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and sympathetic adrenergic influences was examined. Using urethan-anesthetized rabbits, we tested the effects of CGRP and its antagonist CGRP-(8-37) by topical application of these agents to the exposed knee while sympathetic influences were tested by electrically stimulating the saphenous nerve. It was found that MCL basal perfusion was elevated in ACL-sectioned joints; however, this effect was abrogated by prior resection of the articular nerve supply. At the doses tested, the normal vasodilator response to CGRP was abolished in ACL-sectioned joints, whereas the response to CGRP-(8-37) was attenuated. Even under the influence of increased constrictor tone, MCL and capsule blood vessels still showed substantially reduced responses to exogenous CGRP administration. By contrast, nerve-mediated constrictor responses were mostly unaffected by joint instability. This study suggests that posttraumatic knee joint hyperemia is neurogenically mediated, possibly by increased secretion of CGRP.  (+info)

Endothelial function is impaired in fit young adults of low birth weight. (5/956)

OBJECTIVE: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease, with insulin resistance, are associated with low birth weight (the 'Small Baby Syndrome'). Common to these adult clinical conditions is endothelial dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction could precede their development in those of low birth weight. METHODS: Endothelial function was measured by ultrasonic 'wall-tracking' of flow-related brachial artery dilatation in fit 19-20 year old subjects randomly selected (blind to the investigators throughout the study) from low (< 2.5 kg) and normal (3.0-3.8 kg) birth weight subjects in the 1975-7 cohort of the Cardiff Births Survey and with no known cause for endothelial dysfunction. RESULTS: Flow-related dilatation was impaired in low birth weight relative to normal birth weight subjects (median 0.04 mm [1.5%] [n = 22] cf. 0.11 mm [4.1%] [n = 17], p < 0.05; 0.04 mm [1.5%] [n = 15] cf. 0.12 mm [4.4%] [n = 12], p < 0.05 after exclusion of inadvertently included ever-smokers). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction is a consequence of foetal malnutrition, consistent with contributing to the clinical features of the 'Small Baby Syndrome' in later adult life.  (+info)

The association between laser Doppler reactive hyperaemia curves and the distribution of peripheral arterial disease. (6/956)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether postocclusive laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) curves can be related to the arteriographic distribution of disease. DESIGN: Prospective study. MATERIALS: Sixty-nine patients with symptomatic peripheral ischaemia and 15 healthy subjects. METHODS: Laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) was monitored on the dorsum of the symptomatic foot following 2 min of arterial occlusion at the ankle. During reperfusion three patterns of LDF were identified (types I-III). All patients subsequently underwent arteriography which was reported independent of LDF results. The distribution of disease, particularly patency of below-knee vessels, was related to the type of LDF curve observed during reactive hyperaemia. RESULTS: Type I curves were observed in all healthy subjects and 75% of patients with a single arterial lesion. Type II curves were found in 78% of patients with multiple lesions above the knee. The presence of either a type I or II curve was associated with a continuous vessel from knee to ankle (positive predictive value 83%, p < 0.01), whilst type III curve was associated with discontinuous infrapopliteal run-off (positive predictive value 86%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that post-occlusive LDF curves may identify the distribution of arterial disease and may be useful in the non-invasive management of peripheral ischaemia.  (+info)

Inhibition of phospholipase A2 attenuates functional hyperemia in the hamster cremaster muscle. (7/956)

Arachidonic acid (AA) is the common precursor for several vasodilatory factors involved in the local control of blood flow. This study was designed to determine the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and AA release in functional hyperemia in the hamster cremaster muscle. The muscle was prepared for in vivo microscopy and subjected to electrical field stimulation for 1 min. First- and second-order arterioles dilated in response from a mean diameter of 66 +/- 5 to 88 +/- 7 micrometer (n = 6). PLA2 was then inhibited with quinacrine (3 x 10(-6) M) for 60 min. PLA2 inhibition was verified by an attenuation of thrombin-induced vasodilation (2 U/ml). Quinacrine had no effect on resting arteriolar diameter but completely abolished functional hyperemia. Quinacrine also had no effect on dilation induced by superfusion of the preparation with 3 x 10(-6)-10(-5) M AA, 10(-6)-10(-4) M adenosine, or 10(-6)-10(-4) M sodium nitroprusside, ruling out nonspecific effects of quinacrine on smooth muscle contractility. These results indicate that functional hyperemia in the hamster cremaster muscle is dependent on PLA2 activation and the availability of AA.  (+info)

Abnormalities of vascular endothelial function may contribute to increased coronary heart disease risk in UK Indian Asians. (8/956)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that abnormalities of endothelial function are present in Indian Asians and may contribute to their increased coronary heart disease risk. SETTING: Single centre in west London. PATIENTS: 26 Indian Asian and 18 European white healthy male subjects, aged 35 to 61 years recruited from general practice lists. DESIGN: Brachial artery diameter responses to reactive hyperaemia and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate were compared using high resolution ultrasound. RESULTS: Mean (SEM) flow mediated, endothelium dependent dilatation was reduced in Indian Asians compared with European whites, at 3.2 (0.8)% v 5.9 (1.0)%, p = 0.03. In contrast, there were no significant differences in baseline brachial arterial diameter (4.6 (0.1) v 4.6 (0.1) mm, p = 0.65) or glyceryl trinitrate induced dilatation (18.8 (1.5)% v 18.5 (1.7)%, p = 0.90) between Indian Asians and European whites, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that Indian Asian race was significantly associated with impaired flow mediated dilatation (regression coefficient = -2.8 (1.3)%, p = 0.03), and in multivariate analysis, this relation was independent of both conventional coronary heart disease risk factors and markers of insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial function is impaired in healthy UK Indian Asians compared with European whites, and the defect is not accounted for by major coronary heart disease risk factors. Endothelial function may be modulated by novel risk factors in Indian Asians.  (+info)

Left coronary artery inflow was recorded in the dog heart-lung preparation by means of a Gregg cannula and a Shipley-Wilson recording rotameter. Reactive hyperemia (RH) was induced by 10-second occlusions. The excess blood flow after release was quantified by planimetry and related to the blood flow debt incurred during the period of occlusion. In the normothermic heart, the excess coronary flow was 431% of the flow debt. At heart temperatures of 30 and 25.6° C, it dropped to 228% and 143% respectively. There was shortening of the duration of reactive hyperemia and reduction of peak flow at lower temperatures. These results were discussed in the light of chemical theories of the mechanism of reactive hyperemia and the effect of hypothermia thereon.. ...
Lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an emerging inflammatory marker with prognostic value. Reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) is a method to assess peripheral microvascular endothelial function and is linked to coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the association of Lp-PLA2 with RH-PAT, coronary flow reserve (CFR), and carotid intimal media thickness in CAD patients. Methods: Using RH-PAT, digital pulse volume changes during reactive hyperemia were assessed in 43 patients with angiographically documented CAD. RH-PAT index, a measure of reactive hyperemia, was calculated as the ratio of the digital pulse volume during reactive hyperemia divided by that at baseline using the Endo-PAT apparatus. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) of the LAD after adenosine infusion was assessed using Doppler echocardiography.The mean intima-media thickness (IMT) in common carotids and carotid bulbs using ultrasound imaging was also measured According to the values of ...
Introduction: Drug-eluting stents (DESs) are replacing bare-metal stents (BMSs), but in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a problem. Impaired endothelial function is a key event in the atherosclerosis process and a predictor of future cardiovascular events. Reactive hyperemia index (RHI) assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates endothelial function noninvasively.. Hypothesis: We prospectively assessed the prognostic value of RHI in predicting ISR after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).. Methods: RHI was measured using Endo-PAT 2000 before PCI (initial RHI) and at follow-up angiography (F/U RHI) in 249 consecutive patients who had successful PCI. F/U angiography was performed at six and nine months after PCI with BMS and DES, respectively. ISR was defined as percent diameter stenosis ,50% at F/U angiography assessed by quantitative coronary angiography.. Results: At F/U, ISR was seen in 68 patients (27.3%). F/U ln(RHI) was significantly lower in patients with ISR than in ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of short term atorvastatin treatment on forearm vasodilatory response to reactive hyperaemia (RH%) and on components of the thrombosis-fibrinolysis system (antithrombin III, proteins and S, factors V and VII, von Willebrand factor, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1)) in patients with heart failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 35 patients with heart failure were enrolled in this study; 17 patients received atorvastatin 10 mg/day and 18 patients received no statin for four weeks. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography. RH% and forearm vasodilatory response to nitrate were defined as the percentage change of FBF from rest to the maximum flow during reactive hyperaemia and after nitrate administration, respectively. Plasma concentrations of antithrombin III, protein C, protein S, factor V, factor VII, von Willebrand factor, tPA, and PAI-1 were determined before and after treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of vitamin C on forearm vasodilatory response to reactive hyperemia and on plasma level of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), antithrombin III (ATIII), proteins C and S, and factors V (fV) and VII (fVII) in patients with both type 2 diabetes and CAD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 39 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD were divided into two groups and received vitamin C (2 g/day) or no antioxidant for 4 weeks. Forearm blood flow was determined using venous occlusion gauge-strain plethysmography at baseline and after treatment. Forearm vasodilatory response to reactive hyperemia (RH%) or nitrate (NTG%) was defined as the percent change of flow from baseline to the maximum flow during reactive hyperemia or after administration of nitrate, respectively. Biochemical markers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or other standard methods. RESULTS: RH% was significantly
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Synonyms for constriction hyperemia in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for constriction hyperemia. 1 synonym for hyperemia: hyperaemia. What are synonyms for constriction hyperemia?
In this prospective study, older age, more invasive (noncarotid) surgery, and lower hyperemic flow velocity in the brachial artery predicted cardiovascular events in a high risk group of patients with peripheral arterial disease referred for surgery. When hyperemic flow velocity, a measure of microvascular function, flow-mediated dilation, a measure of conduit artery function, and other risk factors were included in the same multivariable model, both measures of vascular function were significant predictors, although flow-mediated dilation was the stronger predictor of risk. These findings suggest that microvascular and conduit artery vasodilator function provide incremental information about cardiovascular risk, and that both may relate to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events.. Reactive hyperemia is a fundamental homeostatic response of the vasculature that serves to accelerate oxygen delivery to tissues following a period of ischemia. Hyperemic blood flow peaks within a few seconds after ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of Adenosine A2A and A2B Receptors to Ischemic Coronary Dilation. T2 - Role of KV and KATP Channels. AU - Berwick, Zachary C.. AU - Payne, Gregory A.. AU - Lynch, Brandon. AU - Dick, Gregory M.. AU - Sturek, Michael. AU - Tune, Johnathan D.. PY - 2010/11/1. Y1 - 2010/11/1. N2 - This study was designed to elucidate the contribution of adenosine A2A and A2B receptors to coronary reactive hyperemia and downstream K+ channels involved. Coronary blood flow was measured in open-chest anesthetized dogs. Adenosine dose-dependently increased coronary flow from 0.72 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.5 mL/minute/g under control conditions. Inhibition of A2A receptors with SCH58261 (1 μm) attenuated adenosine-induced dilation by ~50%, while combined administration with the A2B receptor antagonist alloxazine (3 μm) produced no additional effect. SCH58261 significantly reduced reactive hyperemia in response to a transient 15 second occlusion; debt/repayment ratio decreased from 343 ± 63 to ...
Post Occlusive Reactive Hyperaemia (PORH). The increase in microvascular blood flow following arterial occlusion post occlusion reactive hyperaemia (PORH) can be assessed using the non-invasive laser Doppler technique. Following release of the arterial occlusion there is a marked transient increase
Methods 116 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with AMI received evaluation of vascular endothelial function using PAT technique within 72 h of admission, reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) was calculated. By the cut point of normal RHI (1.67) patients were divided into the normal endothelial function group (RHI ,=1.67) and the endothelial dysfunction group (RHI,1.67), follow-up of MACE was conducted in both groups during hospitalisation (median value 8.0 days) and after discharge from hospital (243.8±68.3 days). MACE included cardiac death, recurrent acute myocardial infarction, recurrent unstable angina during hospitalisation, ischaemic stroke, elective PCI or CABG, and hospitalisation due to cardiovascular causes.. ...
It remains controversial which of the two regulators, red blood cell velocity (RBC-V) or concentration (RBC-C), is a main contributor to increasing flow (RBC-F) during functional hyperemia in the rat hippocampus induced by ,i,N,/i,-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). To address this, we monitored these parameters simultaneously under NMDA-infusion via microdialysis in the hippocampus of urethane-anesthetized rats and found a greater elevation in RBC-V than in RBC-C. This suggests that an RBC-V-dependent increase in RBC-F occurs under NMDA-induced functional hyperemia in the hippocampus as well as in the cortex.,br,. ...
Endothelial and microvascular function are important elements of overall cardiovascular health. Dysfunction in either or both is predictive of future cardiovascular events, thus preventing or minimizing the degree of dysfunction is critical to constraining the risk of such events. Reactive hyperemia is a transient increase in blood flow that occurs following a period of ischemia (e.g. arterial occlusion) and is indicative of microvascular health. Regular physical exercise is critical as a preventive measure in maintaining the capacity for reactive hyperemia; however, consistent dedication to regular exercise regimens is difficult or impossible for some people. Recent evidence suggests that chronic passive heat therapy (CHT) may result in improvements to cardiovascular health similar to that of exercise. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 8 weeks of CHT on forearm post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. METHODS: Five, young, healthy and able-bodied university students (21 ± 1 years) underwent hot water
It is widely accepted that the coronary flow reserve is lower in subendocardium than in subepicardium.7 When coronary perfusion pressure is reduced stepwise while keeping myocardial oxygen demand constant, autoregulation is maintained, and transmural flow remains almost constant. As the pressure is lowered further, subendocardial flow decreases first, and a decrease in subepicardial flow reserve follows.5 Why is the coronary flow reserve in subendocardium lower than in subepicardium? The one possible reason is the difference in the vasodilatory responses between two layers. However, the present study demonstrated that the percent diameter change at peak reactive hyperemic flow was greater in subendocardial arterioles than in subepicardial arterioles (see Fig 3⇑). Thus, the hypothesis that decreased subendocardial flow reserve may be due to decreased vascular reactivity was shown to be unfounded. If anything, the vascular responses increased, perhaps in an attempt to compensate for the imposed ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Microvascular function. T2 - A potential link between salt sensitivity, insulin resistance and hypertension. AU - De Jongh, Renate T.. AU - Serné, Erik H.. AU - Ijzerman, Richard G.. AU - Stehouwer, Coen D.A.. PY - 2007/9/1. Y1 - 2007/9/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Generalized microvascular dysfunction may contribute to the development of salt sensitivity, insulin resistance and hypertension, and may thus link these cardiovascular risk factors. To test this hypothesis, we examined skin microvascular function, salt sensitivity, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in 27 normotensive and 26 hypertensive individuals. METHODS: Capillary density was examined by videomicroscopy during venous congestion and postocclusive reactive hyperaemia. Endothelium-(in)dependent vasodilation was assessed by iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and by laser Doppler flowmetry. Salt sensitivity was determined as the difference in mean arterial pressure (MAP) between a 1-week high-salt diet ...
In the present study, the novel KATP channel antagonist HMR 1402 did not alter the cardiac action potential under control conditions but significantly attenuated the shortening of the APD90 induced either by the KATP channel agonist rilmakalim or by hypoxia. In a similar manner, the same concentration of this drug that attenuated these reductions in APD90 did not inhibit the activation of pancreatic or coronary vascular KATP channels in vitro. In conscious dogs, HMR 1402 prevented ischemically induced ventricular fibrillation without altering the increases in mean coronary blood flow induced either by submaximal exercise or by the reactive hyperemic response to brief (15-s) coronary artery occlusions. These findings were in marked contrast to glibenclamide that provoked large reductions in coronary blood flow (Billman et al., 1993, 1998). Finally, HMR 1402, in contrast to glibenclamide (Billman et al., 1998), did not alter plasma insulin concentrations. When considered together, these data ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Na+-induced intestinal interstitial hyperosmolality and vascular responses during absorptive hyperemia. AU - Bohlen, H.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - The coupled active transport of Na+ with sugars and amino acids could cause intestinal villus interstitial hyperosmolarity, which contributes to absorptive hyperemia. However, for the villus hyperosmolarity to cause a major vascular response, a mild-to-moderate hyperosmolarity must occur in the vicinity of the major resistance vessels of the submucosa. Interstitial Na+ activity was measured throughout the small intestinal wall of rats with monensin ion-selective electrodes during glucose absorption. In the upper half of villi, the resting [Na+] was 201 ± 5 (SE) mM and increased to 267 ± 6 mM during luminal exposure to 25-300 mg/100 ml glucose. The submucosal resting [Na+] was 144 ± 1 mM and increased to 177 ± 3 mM during luminal glucose exposure. The time courses of Na+ appearance and submucosal arterial dilatation were almost ...
The regulation of CBF in response to neuronal metabolic demand is a dynamic and tightly regulated process. Given that neuronal metabolism relies almost exclusively on oxidative metabolism, all normal function, from control of motor activity to cognitive ability and memory acquisition, requires adequate delivery of oxygenated blood. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this coupling of neuronal metabolism to CBF remain poorly understood. Metabolic regulation of CBF is thought to involve release of vasoactive metabolites in response to neuronal activity. Numerous studies over the past decade have implicated modulation of ion channels by several diverse stimuli as one of the principal transduction processes responsible for defining the activation state of cerebral arteriolar muscle and thereby adjusting blood flow to meet metabolic demand. Very recently, studies from a number of laboratories, including our own, have defined a predominant role for metabolites of AA in controlling ion ...
Maximal twitch contractions of fast muscles of the cat caused an increase in phosphate concentration in the venous plasma from them: this efflux was greater as the contraction frequency was increased.
The ratio of oxidized lipoprotein(a) to native lipoprotein(a) (oxLp(a)/Lp(a)) may be a reasonable index for assessing endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study investigated whether the oxLp(a)/Lp(a) level is correlated with the endothelial function using the Endo-PATTM, a newly developed device, in patients with T2DM. A total of 63 patients with T2DM (mean age: 59 years old) were enrolled in the study. The patients serum Lp(a) and oxLp(a) levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI) level was measured using an Endo-PATTM 2000. A correlation analysis between the measured variables was conducted. Among the patients, the mean hemoglobin A1c was 7.8%. The median level of oxLp(a)/Lp(a) was 0.28 (interquartile range: 0.07-0.54), and the mean RHI was 1.8 (standard deviation: 0.4). In a multiple linear regression analysis, the oxLp(a)/Lp(a) level was an independent, significant, and inverse variable for the RHI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does sympathetic activation blunt nitric oxide-mediated hyperemia in the human forearm?. AU - Engelke, K. A.. AU - Williams, M. M.. AU - Dietz, N. M.. AU - Joyner, M. J.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank the subjects who volunteered for this study, Tamara Eickhoff and Darrell Loeffler for technical assistance, and Mrs Catherine Nelson and Mrs Janet Beckman for their devoted and excellent secretarial assistance. Keith Engelke was supported in part by the Jimmie Heuga Center. Malaika Williams was supported by a summer research stipend from Abbott Laboratories. Niki Dietz was supported by NIH GCRC CAP Award RR00585-24S2. This work was also supported by NIH HL46493, NIH PPG NS32352 (to M.j.j.), RR00585-24 to the Mayo General Clinical Research Center, the Glen L. and Lyra M. Ebling Cardiology Research Endowment, and the Mayo Foundation.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - To determine if the vasodilating substance nitric oxide (NO) interferes with the ability of ...
The investigators enroll consecutive, stable high risk patients for cardiovascular events. The reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry index (RHI) was measured before coronary angiography and coronary lesions were assessed angiographically by SYNTAX Scoring system. The investigators all subjects and examined the occurrence of cardiovascular events (CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, unstable angina pectoris, hospitalization for HF, coronary revascularization, or non-fatal aortic and peripheral vascular disease ...
MUSIC] Our previous talk was about normal conditions, how it is structured and regulated in health. Now about disease. There are three major typical pathological processes in microcirculation system. These are hyperaemia, ischaemia, and stasis. And all of them can occur separately, or as mosaic elements within a structure of bigger, more complicated pathological processes. For example, hyperaemia and stasis are embedded, as elements, into the structure of inflammation. Or for example, in thrombosis of arteriolae, a person is going to have ischaemia. In thrombosis of venulae, a person is going to have venous hyperaemia, and so on. So three major, typical pathological processes. Hyperaemia, local increase of blood supply and/or blood content in organ or in portion of tissue. Ischemia, local decrease of blood supply and blood content in organ or tissue portion. Stasis, local stop of blood flow in vessels, obligatory and within vessels. Here you can see the principle drawing of normal circulation, ...
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The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous ...
Fluxionary hyperemia definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Nitraflex Green Apple GAT 300gm [GAT11] - Details PWD Testosterone and Hyperemia enhancer. Contains scientifically advance Vasoactive and CFB compounds. Highly concentrated. One scoop has the potency equivalent to three scoops. Reactive Hyperemia aids in elevated blood flow in the muscles while performing highly intense exercises which results in the increase in the size of the muscles. Directions Training days:
Intercellular waves of calcium (Ca2+) are an important signalling mechanism in a wide variety of cells within the body, crucial for cellular coordination and control. In particular the Ca2+ concentration within smooth muscle cells (SMCs) lining the blood vessel walls controls the cell dilation and contraction and thus the vessel radius. The process of functional hyperaemia by which neuronal activity results in a localised response of increased blood ow via the dilation of SMCs is associated with multiple pathologies such as cortical spreading depression (CSD). This process can be modelled by a `neurovascular unit (NVU) containing a neuron, astrocyte, and the SMC and endothelial cell (EC) within the vessel wall. Our research consists of modelling the Ca2+ dynamics of a both a single SMC and two coupled SMCs (via an intercellular Ca2+ ux) mainly with the minimal nonspatial Goldbeter et al. (1990) cell model. This is compared with the more complex model of a SMC/EC `unit which also includes the ...
In young women, superimposing CPT on FMD resulted in 1) a significant dilation during occlusion and reduction in peak diameter (Fig. 3), 2) an alteration in the postocclusion SR profile (Fig. 5) and 3) an ∼20% decrease in normalized popliteal FMD, when data were calculated relative to occlusion (Fig. 6). When FMD was calculated relative to rest, normalized FMD was not significantly influenced by adrenergic stimulation in young women. By contrast, popliteal dilation estimated relative to rest or occlusion was not significantly blunted in older women after superimposition of CPT on FMD (Fig. 6). These findings underscore the importance of analyzing FMD with respect to both resting and occlusion diameters since changes in conduit artery diameter during occlusion occur through different mechanisms as those evoked by reactive hyperemia and may affect estimation and assessment of endothelium-dependent dilation. Additionally, the application of CPT on FMD in the popliteal artery in young women did ...
Selected genes are highlighted in orange, bookmarked genes are green. - Chemical increases gene, - Chemical decreases gene, - Chemical increases and decreases gene simultaneosly, No arrows - gene doesnt interact with the chemical. - Gene should be increased/decreased most of the time and the chemical does it. - Gene should be increased/decreased most of the time but the chemical does the opposite. ...
Endothelix is dedicated to bringing Endothelial Function monitoring to physicians offices and patients homes like blood pressure monitoring is today. In fact, Endothelixs VENDYS system combines both BP and EF monitoring in one easy-to-use, fully automated device. VENDYS uses thermosensors at the fingertips to measure vascular reactivity during a 5-minute arm-cuff occlusion induced reactive hyperemia. VENDYS is FDA-cleared and is available to purchase or rent. Request a live demo or a quote at www.endothelix.com or call 650-263-7636. ACC Exhibit Hall Booth Number 509. ...
Mr. Anderson above proposes that the pump mainly effects slow twitch oxidative fibers because of capilarization (no strength; just mass). Dr. Lowery suggests that not being able to get a pump is a sign of fatigue - this i think is important. BUT if we look at occlusion training (which reactive hyperemia seems to be a type), then the pump should also be affecting both fast and slow twitch fibers myofibral growth. Occlulusion, it seems, may indeed get fast twitch fibers involved more directly than without occlusion - thats a theory. Since we also see in low load occlusion training effects on strength: it goes up. SO is this kind of self-occlusion with self-selected low resistance weights to induce the effect having the same effect as a cuff? Could be - as per this review ...
You must really understand the amount of debt you are taking on and how you are going to pay it off. Make sure you have a realistic idea of what your pay is going to be like. I think students these days are being fed some pie-in-the-sky ideas. I am worried for these kids coming out of school today. I would encourage them to look at debt repayment programs like public health and the military pretty seriously. Focus on getting your basic skills down while you are in school, and when you get out of school start growing those extra skills that you dont get as much exposure to in school ...
A woman with controlled HIV infection developed in late August 2016 a pruritic rash with fever and conjunctival hyperaemia after a trip to the French Caribbean islands. On day 3 after symptom onset, Zika virus RNA was detected in plasma, urine and vaginal samples with respective viral loads of 3.8, 6.1 and 5.3 log copies/mL. Notably, we demonstrated the presence of infectious Zika virus particles in the vaginal samples by isolation in cell culture.
Mini debate) FFR and IFR: Hyperaemia mimics exercise more closely and is still essential for accurate physiological stenosis assessment in 2015 ...
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The current study had some limitations. First, we did not clarify the detailed molecular mechanism of how retinal glial cells regulate RBF in response to flicker stimulation. Although we recently found possible involvement of the retinal NO derived from nNOS in flicker-induced hyperemia in the retina in anesthetized cats,26 the current findings that L-NPA further reduced flicker-induced hyperemia in the retina after LAA treatment may indicate that NO derived from nNOS in retinal neurons and retinal glial cells may be involved in the flicker-induced hyperemia in the retina. In addition, although it was suggested that one particular mechanism of neurovascular coupling in which glial cells release vasodilatory PGE2 and/or EETs as the arachidonic acid metabolites produced by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a principal and perhaps dominant mechanism mediating functional hyperemia in the retina,5 we did not examine the role of these molecules in flicker-induced hyperemia in the retina because there is no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxotremorine-induced cerebral hyperemia does not predict infarction volume in spontaneously hypertensive or stroke-prone rats. AU - Harukuni, Izumi. AU - Takahashi, Hiroshi. AU - Traystman, Richard J.. AU - Bhardwaj, Anish. AU - Kirsch, Jeffrey R.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Objectives: We tested the following hypotheses: a) spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHR-SP) have more brain injury than spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive controls (Wistar-Kyoto rats [WKY]) when exposed to transient focal ischemia; b) infarction size is not correlated with baseline blood pressure; and c) infarction size is inversely related to the cerebral hyperemic response to oxotremorine, a muscarinic agonist that increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Design: In vivo study. Setting: Animal laboratory in a university teaching hospital. Subjects: Adult age-matched male WKY, SHR, and SHR-SP. Interventions: Rats were instrumented ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of nitric oxide, 20-HETE, and EETs during functional hyperemia in whisker barrel cortex. AU - Liu, Xiaoguang. AU - Li, Chunyuan. AU - Falck, John R.. AU - Roman, Richard J.. AU - Harder, David R.. AU - Koehler, Raymond C. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) modulates vasodilation in cerebral cortex during sensory activation. NO is known to inhibit the synthesis of 20-HETE, which has been implicated in arteriolar constriction during astrocyte activation in brain slices. We tested the hypothesis that the attenuated cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to whisker stimulation seen after NO synthase (NOS) inhibition requires 20-HETE synthesis and that the ability of an epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) antagonist to reduce the CBF response is blunted after NOS inhibition but restored with simultaneous blockade of 20-HETE synthesis. In anesthetized rats, the increase in CBF during whisker stimulation was attenuated after the blockade of neuronal NOS with ...
This thesis aims to evaluate the blood flow velocity in the Brachial artery during reactive hyperemia. Primarily to appraise the information it might contain regarding cardiovascular function and cardiovascular risk.. Ultrasonographic doppler measurements of the Brachial artery were made on the 1016 men and women aged 70 included in the prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) study. Analysis of the blood flow velocity in the forearm was made in comparison to established methods of estimating endothelial function, clinical markers of cardiovascular risk, the Framingham risk score and global atherosclerosis determined by whole body magnetic resonance angiography.. Systolic blood flow velocity was positively related to cardiovascular risk whereas the diastolic velocity was inversely correlated. However, the systolic to diastolic blood flow velocity (SDFV) ratio was more closely associated with cardiovascular risk than its components apart.. Ultrasonographic markers ...
Physical exam was reported as normal, besides hyperemia (redness) and slight edema at the urethral meatus , which should be ... venous drainage, cavernous-venous incompetence, hyperemia (external urethral meatus), edema (external urethral meatus), diabetic .... ...
In the coronary circulation, angiography of coronary artery responses to vasoactive agents may be used to test for endothelial function, and venous occlusion plethysmography and ultrasonography are used to assess endothelial function of peripheral vessels in humans.[3]. A non-invasive method to measure endothelial dysfunction is % Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) as measured by Brachial Artery Ultrasound Imaging (BAUI).[6] Current measurements of endothelial function via FMD vary due to technical and physiological factors. Furthermore, a negative correlation between percent flow mediated dilation and baseline artery size is recognised as a fundamental scaling problem, leading to biased estimates of endothelial function.[7]. A non-invasive, FDA-approved device for measuring endothelial function that works by measuring Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) is Itamar Medicals EndoPAT™.[8][9] It has shown an 80% sensitivity and 86% specificity to diagnose coronary artery disease when compared against the ...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension often co-exist and both are associated with endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesised that AF would further worsen endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in hypertension patients compared to those without AF. In a cross-sectional comparison, we measured brachial artery diameter at rest and during reactive hyperaemia following 5 min of arterial occlusion in two patient groups: AF (and hypertension) (n = 61) and hypertension control groups (n = 33). The AF (and hypertension) subgroups: permanent AF (n = 30) and paroxysmal AF (n = 31) were also assessed. The permanent AF patients received heart rate and blood pressure (BP) control optimisation and were then followed up after eight weeks for repeat FMD testing. There was no significant difference in FMD between AF (and hypertension) group and hypertension control group (4.6%, 95% CI [2.6-5.9%] vs 2.6%, 95% CI [1.9-5.3%]; p = 0.25). There was a significant difference in FMD between permanent AF ...
Recent studies have revealed that functional hyperemia is initiated in capillaries (14, 15) and that RBCs themselves can act as oxygen-sensing regulators to control capillary RBC velocity in response to local PO2 changes (15). However, the underlying mechanisms of how PO2 could modulate RBC velocity in capillaries are unknown. Experimental findings presented here implicate that deoxyHb-band 3 interactions in RBCs are the molecular switch that responds to local PO2 changes and controls RBC deformability and consequently RBC capillary velocity. Evidently, we showed that (i) while ex vivo capillary velocity and deformation of mRBC-WT and mRBC-subst 1-35 exhibited a linear relation with local PO2 changes, RBCs from transgenic mice that had enhanced or weakened deoxyHb-band 3 interactions showed capillary velocity and deformation independent of PO2. RBCs with enhanced deoxyHb-band 3 interactions showed higher capillary velocity and deformability compared to RBCs that had weakened deoxyHb-band 3 ...
BACKGROUND: Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, partly due to systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. B-cells play an important pathogenic role in the inflammatory process that drives RA disease activity. Rituximab, a chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody that depletes B-cells, is an effective therapy for RA. The purpose of this study was to determine whether B-cell depletion with rituximab reduces systemic inflammation and improves macrovascular (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, FMD) and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) endothelial function in RA patients.. METHODS AND RESULTS: RA patients received a single course of rituximab (1000 mg IV infusion at baseline and on day 15). FMD, reactive hyperemia, inflammatory markers, and clinical assessments were performed at baseline, week 12, and week 24. Twenty patients (95% female, median age 54 years) completed the study. Following treatment, FMD improved from a baseline ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (tBCCAO), followed by reperfusion, is a model of transient global hypoperfusion. In the present …
BMC Nephrol. 2016 Jul 13;17(1):82. [Skin] Microvascular endothelial dysfunction is associated with albuminuria and CKD in older adults. Seliger SL, Salimi S, Pierre V, Giffuni J, Katzel L, Parsa A. Abstract. BACKGROUND: Impairment in glomerular endothelial function likely plays a major role in the development of albuminuria and CKD progression. Glomerular endothelial dysfunction may reflect systemic microvascular dysfunction, accounting in part for the greater cardiovascular risk in patients with albuminuria. Prior studies of vascular function in CKD have focused on conduit artery function or those with ESRD, and have not examined microvascular endothelial function with albuminuria.. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among older hypertensive male veterans with stage 1-4 CKD, and hypertensive controls without CKD. Microvascular function was quantified by two distinct Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measures: peak responses to 1) post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and 2) thermal ...
Background: There is a growing interest in the application of non-invasive clinical tools allowing one to assess the endothelial function, preceding atherosclerosis. The precision in estimating of the artery Flow Mediated Vasodilation (FMD) using standard 10-12 MHz linear array probes does not exceed 0.2 mm, far beyond that required. Methods: We have introduced a wide-band, high frequency 25-30 MHz, Golay encoded wobbling type imaging to measure dilation of the radial artery instead of the brachial one. 18 young volunteers, and 4 volunteers with cardiac events history, were examined. In the second approach 20 MHz linear scanning combined with 20 MHz pulsed Doppler attached to the linear array was used. The radial artery FMD was normalized using shear rate at the radial artery wall. Results and Conclusions: For the healthy group, the FMD resulting from reactive hyperemia response was over 20%; while in the atherosclerotic group, the FMD was at least twice as small, not exceeding 10%. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of myocardial perfusion and determination of coronary stenosis severity during hyperemia using real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography. AU - Leong-Poi, Howard. AU - Le, Elizabeth. AU - Rim, Se Joong. AU - Sakuma, Tadamichi. AU - Kaul, Sanjiv. AU - Wei, Kevin. N1 - Funding Information: Supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health (RO1-HL-48890 and K08-HL-03909, Bethesda, Md), the Mid-Atlantic Affiliate of the American Heart Association (B98458V, Baltimore, Md), and the Fourjay Foundation (Williamsport, Pa). Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc (St Louis, Mo) provided the contrast agent, Dupont Medical Products (North Billerica, Mass) provided the radiolabeled microspheres, and the ultrasound equipment was provided by Advanced Technology Laboratories (Bothell, Wash). Dr Leong-Poi is the recipient of a Fellowship training grant from the Canadian Institute of Health Research and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (Ottawa, Canada), and Dr Le was ...
W Sunman, AJ Williams, MD Tuersley, RMC Sheale, AM Breckenridge; Effect of Theophylline on Exercise-Induced and Ischaemic Hyperaemia in the Human Forearm. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1994; 86 (s30): 28P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs086028Pa. Download citation file:. ...
What is the central question of this study? Although heat stress is known to increase cardiovascular strain, no study, to date, had explored the potential impact of exercise-induced heat stress on vascular function. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that acute exercise tended to reduce flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), owing in part to reduced reactive hyperaemia/shear stimulus; thus, when FMD is normalized to shear no postexercise deficit exists. Exercise-induced heat stress increased reactive hyperaemia, shear rate, coupled with a sustained FMD postexercise, suggests that exercise-induced heat stress increases the amount of shear stimulus to elicit a similar response, indicating reduced vascular responsiveness, or reserve, which might increase cardiovascular susceptibility.
iFR remains a novel technology that offers an alternative to stenosis assessment using hyperemia. Classification match with fractional flow reserve, a hyperemic pressure-only index, is good but is not expected to be absolute because fractional flow reserve classification itself can differ when the index is close to its binary cutoff point (10,25). Studies such as the CLARIFY (Classification Accuracy of Pressure-Only Ratios Against Indices Using Flow Study) (7) and comparisons with positron emission tomography (26) have shown that it is possible in certain circumstances to reduce the iFR value with administration of vasodilator drugs. Previously this may have been considered a limitation of a baseline index; however, 5 recent studies (26-30) demonstrated that iFR has sufficient sensitivity to not differ in diagnostic ability compared with FFR or iFR with vasodilators such as adenosine. This challenges the need for maximal hyperemia during stenosis assessment.. This study should be interpreted as ...
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Adenosine is a key metabolite involved in metabolic hyperemia in many vascular beds including coronary circulation, cerebral circulation, and skeletal muscle circulation.1 The roles of adenosine in vasculature are most prominent during hypoxia, ischemia, and reactive hyperemia.1 One important action of adenosine is to induce endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.1-4 It is previously shown that, at least in some arteries, such as skeletal muscle arteries, a rise in [Ca2+]i is required for the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to adenosine.3-5 In the present study, we explored the possible role of CNG channels in adenosine-induced Ca2+ influx in vascular endothelial cells. Our results show that the adenosine-induced Ca2+ influx was markedly reduced by CNG-specific inhibitors L-cis-diltiazem and LY-83583 in H5V cells and in the primary cultured BAECs. Whole cell patch clamp recorded an adenosine-induced current that was sensitive to L-cis-diltiazem in both cell types. Furthermore, a ...
Researchers concluded that: (1) the protective activity of L-arginine involves gastric hyperemia (blood flow increase) mediated by NO (nitric oxide) and a mild irritant effect due to enhanced generation of endogenous prostaglandins, and (2) the ulcer healing properties of L-arginine depend upon its hyperemic and angiogenic actions, possibly involving NO.. Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ, Sliwowski Z, Drozdowicz D, Zaczek M, Kedra D. Role of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide-synthase, in gastroprotection and ulcer healing. J Gastroenterol. 1997 Aug;32(4):442-52. See also ...
Conjunctival hyperemia is the engorgement of the blood vessels (redness) of the clear membrane covering the white surface of the eye. Conjunctival hyperemia was evaluated 15 minutes post conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) (8 hours post dose) on Day 1 for both eyes using a 9-point scale in half-unit increments where: 0=none to 4=Extremely severe. The score for each participant was the average of the score of both eyes ...
Symptomatic pediatric patients infected with Zika virus generally have a mild, often nonspecific symptoms not requiring hospitalization.
Now, some details about venous or passive hyperaemia. Passive hyperaemia or venous congestion is increased blood supply to an organ or tissue due to reduced blood outflow through the veins. In venous congestion, blood velocity always decreases, decelerates. The etiology of venous congestion is related either to mechanical obstruction of blood flow in the veins. It can be thrombi or emboli, or it is resulted from external compression of the veins by ligation, by tumor, sometimes by pregnant uterus, if we speak about veins or abdominal cavity in pregnant women. It can be also some adhesions prevailing from normal venous outflow. And, here, you can see an illustration of the situation of total venous congestion in many vascular areas. It can occur in heart failure because of increase of venous pressure due to disorder of pumping functions, and it may occur simultaneously in many vascular beds, for example, with right heart failure or cor pulmonale. It may be observed in the greater circulation ...
Zero-in on the diagnostic accuracy of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and resting distal coronary artery pressure/aortic pressure (Pd/Pa) with respect to hyperemic fractional flow reserve (FFR).
Mental stress ischemia (MSI) is associated with poor prognosis for coronary artery disease (CAD) and is amenable to treatment, yet no easily administered test exists to diagnose it. Given the known increase in systemic vascular tone in response to stress, we studied the ability of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), a noninvasive functional measure of arterial tone, to predict those vulnerable to MSI. Seventy-seven patients with chronic stable CAD were subjected to mental stress with concomitant assessment of myocardial perfusion and pulse wave amplitude. Nuclear perfusion imaging was used to document MSI, and PAT was used to measure pulse wave and microarterial tone. A ratio of PAT measurements during stress to those before stress was used to characterize vascular responses. Serum catecholamines and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were simultaneously measured. Subjects who experienced MSI had a lower average PAT ratio than those who did not (0.76 ¡À 0.04 vs. 0.91 ¡À 0.05, P = 0.03). A receiver ...
Chronic venous congestion in spleen, depicted in the images below, may be identified by the presence of engorged vessels, some areas of hemorrhage may be found too.. [smooth=id:85;] Want a clearer concept, also. Read the articles on Chronic Venous Congestion. Compare it with normal histology of Spleen. See the images on Chronic Venous Congestion in Lungs. See the images on Chronic Venous Congestion in Liver ...
TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents ...
Note: All figures are as published in the HYEFU or PREFU documents, and do not include GDP revisions This debt-to-GDP ratio targeted by the coalition government is at odds with its desire to undertake major investments in a large number of areas including conservation, health, education, and transport. It essentially stops them being able to pay for all of their promises. Increasing debt (or debt-to-GDP) is not necessarily a bad move: debt spreads the cost of capital items across time (and in doing so, spreads the cost across future taxpayers that will use the assets). The concept is often described as intergenerational equity. If debt repayments were slowed to allow for greater government spending, there would be no discernible effect on financial stability or credit ratings. We anticipate the coalition government will resist the urge to alter the BRRs until after the 2018 Budget. Over the next 12 months, calls for more spending in priority areas will increase, eventually forcing the ...
WGGB has a fund held in trust for helping members who suffer urgent financial difficulties.. The money has been donated over many years by members and friends of WGGB, and an expert committee takes decisions on applications for help. Loans or grants are made to members who cannot meet debt repayments or have no money to pay business costs, household expenses or their WGGB subscriptions.. One recipient wrote: My deepest thanks for the £500. This money has paid three months of homecare bills and telephone charges and kept the wolf from the door.. The Welfare Fund operates guidelines to ensure the money is put to the best use. The main ones are:. ...
Population growth can increase GDP in the same way that bushfires can increase GDP: they make us spend more in order to build more, just to regain what we already had before. That can increase employment, but it doesnt increase our external income, so the money can only come from cutting other spending, either in the present (austerity measures) or in the future (increased debt repayments and/or insurance premiums ...
The owner tried looking for a pattern for me for an I-cord, but I told her that I was pretty sure PK already knew how to do an I-cord, since Ive seen some purses of hers that are nearly identical to the ones hanging in the shop. So I bought the bamboo/silk blend and thanked the owner for her help, then walked out and sent a picture of myself in front of the yarn shop and a picture of the yarn to PK for proof of debt repayment. It occurs to me now that I should have taken a lot more pictures, with the help of the friendly knitters, to make this more of a photo journal. Sorry, PK. ...
The first thing about this product is that it can help you by increasing the hyperemia in the body. What that does for the person is that it helps to saturate the body with oxygen and dilate the muscles. You might not know why in the world this would help, but if you think about it, when youre using muscles you need them to be big and dilated. This allows you to use them and really get the best muscles you possibly can. You can have a lot of benefits from it, and youll be able to create bigger and stronger muscle pumps, allowing you to have a much more fulfilling workout that youll be able to really get results with. Another thing regarding this as well, is that it also can help increase the muscle blood flow. This can help to increase circulation so that youre not as sore the next day, and you can even prevent sore muscles by getting the amount of oxygen that you need to them. Its more than just a simple product, for it can really help a person achieve the results that they want ...
When exposed to the skin or mucous membranes, there is considerable itching and hyperemia (redness), subcutaneous hemorrhage is likely without damaging the integrity of the skin. The severity of the pathological process and symptoms of chlorine poisoning are directly dependent on the dose of the poison (chlorine) and the duration of its action. ...
Are Avodart Side Effects Putting Your Health at Risk? | Jan 13, 2018 Check these Avodart side effect reports: A 54-year-old male patient was diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia, treated with AVODART and reported eye swelling,ocular hyperaemia,vision blurred. Dosage: 1cap Per Day.
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随着人工智能时代的到来,在机器人换人大潮下,中国已连续两年坐上世界机器人最大消费国的宝座。根据国际机器人联合会(IFR)发布的数据,2017年中国机器人销量为13.8万台,增长58%,预计2018年中国机器人产销量持续增长;另据统计局数据显示,2018年1-12月全国工业机器人产量为147682套,同比增长4.6%。. 国内机器人产销量的增长,也带动了整个机器人产业链的发展,中商产业研究院整理出最全面的机器人产业链全景图供广大读者参阅,目前,机器人产业链主要是功能零部件、机器人本体及控制系统通过集成系统形成下游应用的工业机器人、服务机器人、特种机器人等 ...
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"CV Physiology , Active Hyperemia". www.cvphysiology.com. Retrieved 2020-01-08. "CV Physiology , Reactive Hyperemia". www. ... Reactive hyperemia is the second subtype, which occurs after a short interruption, or arrest, in blood flow. In response to the ... Active hyperemia is one subtype, which occurs in response to increased metabolic demand, meaning high oxygen requirements ... Second, skeletal muscle can undergo hyperemia, which is a mechanism of local blood flow regulation with two major subtypes. ...
... causes hyperemia of the iris. Conditions/substances to avoid are: heat, acids and acid fumes. Wells A.F ...
With hyperemia, disc hemorrhages may also be present. Continued damage to the optic nerve results in the development of optic ...
US2484029; see Example 1 Reubi FC (January 1950). "Renal hyperemia induced in man by a new phthalazine derivative". Proceedings ...
... , edema, is a severe and generalized edema with widespread subcutaneous tissue swelling.[1] It is usually caused by liver failure (cirrhosis of the liver), renal failure/disease, right-sided heart failure, as well as severe malnutrition/protein deficiency. The increase in salt and water retention caused by low cardiac output can also result in anasarca as a long term maladaptive response. It can also be created from the administration of exogenous intravenous fluid. Certain plant-derived anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, such as docetaxel, cause anasarca through a poorly understood capillary leak syndrome.[2] In Hb Barts, the high oxygen affinity results in poor oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues, resulting in anasarca. ...
The skin of the face, normally around the mouth, and the mucosa of the mouth and/or throat, as well as the tongue, swell over the period of minutes to hours. The swelling can also occur elsewhere, typically in the hands. The swelling can be itchy or painful. There may also be slightly decreased sensation in the affected areas due to compression of the nerves. Urticaria (hives) may develop simultaneously. In severe cases, stridor of the airway occurs, with gasping or wheezy inspiratory breath sounds and decreasing oxygen levels. Tracheal intubation is required in these situations to prevent respiratory arrest and risk of death. Sometimes, the cause is recent exposure to an allergen (e.g. peanuts), but more often it is either idiopathic (unknown) or only weakly correlated to allergen exposure. In hereditary angioedema, often no direct cause is identifiable, although mild trauma, including dental work and other stimuli, can cause attacks.[4] There is usually no associated itch or urticaria, as it ...
The result of the model calculations are presented in a table given in the appendix for a range of Hi from 0.30 to 0.50 with ANH performed to minimum hematocrits from 0.30 to 0.15. Given a Hi of 0.40, if the Hm is assumed to be 0.25.then from the equation above the RCM count is still high and ANH is not necessary, if BLs does not exceed 2303 ml, since the hemotocrit will not fall below Hm, although five units of blood must be removed during hemodilution. Under these conditions, to achieve the maximum benefit from the technique if ANH is used, no homologous blood will be required to maintain the Hm if blood loss does not exceed 2940 ml. In such a case ANH can save a maximum of 1.1 packed red blood cell unit equivalent, and homologous blood transfusion is necessary to maintain Hm, even if ANH is used. This model can be used to identify when ANH may be used for a given patient and the degree of ANH necessary to maximize that benefit. For example, if Hi is 0.30 or less it is not possible to save a ...
Since salt restriction is the basic concept in treatment, and aldosterone is one of the hormones that acts to increase salt retention, a medication that counteracts aldosterone should be sought. Spironolactone (or other distal-tubule diuretics such as triamterene or amiloride) is the drug of choice since they block the aldosterone receptor in the collecting tubule. This choice has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial.[16] Diuretics for ascites should be dosed once per day.[17] Generally, the starting dose is oral spironolactone 100 mg/day (max 400 mg/day). 40% of patients will respond to spironolactone.[14] For nonresponders, a loop diuretic may also be added and generally, furosemide is added at a dose of 40 mg/day (max 160 mg/day), or alternatively (bumetanide or torasemide). The ratio of 100:40 reduces risks of potassium imbalance.[17] Serum potassium level and renal function should be monitored closely while on these medications.[15] Monitoring diuresis: Diuresis can be monitored ...
Blood clot prevention and treatment reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism. Heparin and warfarin are used to inhibit the formation and growth of existing thrombi, with the former used for acute anticoagulation while the latter is used for long-term anticoagulation.[2] The mechanism of action of heparin and warfarin are different as they work on different pathways of the coagulation cascade.[5] Heparin works by binding to and activating the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III, an enzyme that acts by inactivating thrombin and factor Xa.[5] In contrast, warfarin works by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme needed to synthesize vitamin K dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X.[5][6] Bleeding time with heparin and warfarin therapy can be measured with the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time (PT), respectively.[6] Some treatments have been derived from bacteria. One drug is streptokinase, which is an enzyme secreted by several streptococcal ...
Fibrinolysis is the physiological breakdown of blood clots by enzymes such as plasmin. Organisation: following the thrombotic event, residual vascular thrombus will be re-organised histologically with several possible outcomes. For an occlusive thrombus (defined as thrombosis within a small vessel that leads to complete occlusion), wound healing will reorganise the occlusive thrombus into collagenous scar tissue, where the scar tissue will either permanently obstruct the vessel, or contract down with myofibroblastic activity to unblock the lumen. For a mural thrombus (defined as a thrombus in a large vessel that restricts the blood flow but does not occlude completely), histological reorganisation of the thrombus does not occur via the classic wound healing mechanism. Instead, the platelet-derived growth factor degranulated by the clotted platelets will attract a layer of smooth muscle cells to cover the clot, and this layer of mural smooth muscle will be vascularised by the blood inside the ...
There is no single test for confirming that breathlessness is caused by pulmonary edema - there are many causes of shortness of breath. Low oxygen saturation and disturbed arterial blood gas readings support the proposed diagnosis by suggesting a pulmonary shunt. A chest X-ray will show fluid in the alveolar walls, Kerley B lines, increased vascular shadowing in a classical batwing peri-hilum pattern, upper lobe diversion (increased blood flow to the superior parts of the lung), and possibly pleural effusions. In contrast, patchy alveolar infiltrates are more typically associated with noncardiogenic edema[2] Lung ultrasound, employed by a healthcare provider at the point of care, is also a useful tool to diagnose pulmonary edema; not only is it accurate, but it may quantify the degree of lung water, track changes over time, and differentiate between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic edema.[20] Especially in the case of cardiogenic pulmonary edema, urgent echocardiography may strengthen the ...
In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. Swollen astrocytes occur in gray and white matter. Cytotoxic edema is seen with various toxins, including dinitrophenol, triethyltin, hexachlorophene, and isoniazid. It can occur in Reye's syndrome, severe hypothermia, early ischemia, encephalopathy, early stroke or hypoxia, cardiac arrest, and pseudotumor cerebri. During an ischemic stroke, a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell membranes, which in turn results in a massive buildup of sodium and calcium intracellularly. This causes a rapid uptake of water and subsequent swelling of the cells.[5] It is this swelling of the individual cells of the brain that is seen as the main distinguishing characteristic of cytotoxic edema, as opposed to vasogenic edema, wherein ...
Generation of interstitial fluid is regulated by the forces of the Starling equation.[8] Hydrostatic pressure within blood vessels tends to cause water to filter out into the tissue. This leads to a difference in protein concentration between blood plasma and tissue. As a result, the colloidal or oncotic pressure of the higher level of protein in the plasma tends to draw water back into the blood vessels from the tissue. Starling's equation states that the rate of leakage of fluid is determined by the difference between the two forces and also by the permeability of the vessel wall to water, which determines the rate of flow for a given force imbalance. Most water leakage occurs in capillaries or post capillary venules, which have a semi-permeable membrane wall that allows water to pass more freely than protein. (The protein is said to be reflected and the efficiency of reflection is given by a reflection constant of up to 1.) If the gaps between the cells of the vessel wall open up then ...
... is a medical condition in which injury to the small intestine occurs due to not enough blood supply.[2] It can come on suddenly, known as acute mesenteric ischemia, or gradually, known as chronic mesenteric ischemia.[1] The acute form of the disease often presents with sudden severe abdominal pain and is associated with a high risk of death.[1] The chronic form typically presents more gradually with abdominal pain after eating, unintentional weight loss, vomiting, and fear of eating.[1][2] Risk factors for acute mesenteric ischemia include atrial fibrillation, heart failure, chronic kidney failure, being prone to forming blood clots, and previous myocardial infarction.[2] There are four mechanisms by which poor blood flow occurs: a blood clot from elsewhere getting lodged in an artery, a new blood clot forming in an artery, a blood clot forming in the superior mesenteric vein, and insufficient blood flow due to low blood pressure or spasms of arteries.[3][6] Chronic disease ...
Hyperemia. *Hypotension. *Injection-site haematoma. *Injection-site ecchymosis (Caverject only). *Pain: *Back ...
... e on the face and conjunctiva (eyes) can be a sign of a death by asphyxiation, particularly when involving reduced venous return from the head (such as in strangulation). Petechiae are thought to result from an increase of pressure in the veins of the head and hypoxic damage to endothelia of blood vessels.[7] Petechiae can be used by police investigators in determining if strangulation has been part of an attack. The documentation of the presence of petechiae on a victim can help police investigators prove the case.[8] Petechiae resulting from strangulation can be relatively tiny and light in color to very bright and pronounced. Petechiae may be seen on the face, in the whites of the eyes or on the inside of the eyelids. ...
The major cause for distal tubal occlusion is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), usually as a consequence of an ascending infection by chlamydia or gonorrhea.[citation needed] However, not all pelvic infections will cause distal tubal occlusion.[citation needed] Tubal tuberculosis is an uncommon cause of hydrosalpinx formation.[citation needed] While the cilia of the inner lining (endosalpinx) of the fallopian tube beat towards the uterus, tubal fluid is normally discharged via the fimbriated end into the peritoneal cavity from where it is cleared. If the fimbriated end of the tube becomes agglutinated, the resulting obstruction does not allow the tubal fluid to pass; it accumulates and reverts its flow downstream, into the uterus, or production is curtailed by damage to the endosalpinx. This tube then is unable to participate in the reproductive process: sperm cannot pass, the egg is not picked up, and fertilization does not take place. Other causes of distal tubal occlusion include adhesion ...
... it would seem impossible for a muscle contraction and skeletal muscle hyperemia to be uncoupled. Another experiment recently ... "Vasodilation is obligatory for contraction-induced hyperemia in canine skeletal muscle". Journal of Physiology (London). 557: ...
Pulpal hyperemia: Pulpal hyperemia refers to inflammation of a traumatised tooth which can be caused by a stimuli such as ... Pulpal hyperemia is reversible[23] and produces a red hue seen initially after trauma which has the ability to disappear if the ...
Necrotic foci on liver are usually found and general hyperemia is common. Due to the speed of infection and mortality, birds ...
Hyperperfusion can be caused by inflammation, producing hyperemia of a body part. Malperfusion, also called poor perfusion, is ...
He translated the book Hyperemia as a Therapeutic Agent by August Bier. "Glycozone" was ozonated olive oil "Hydrozone" was ...
It reduces tissue hyperemia, edema, and nasal congestion commonly associated with colds or allergies. Other beneficial effects ...
A non-invasive, FDA-approved device for measuring endothelial function that works by measuring Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) ... "Noninvasive identification of patients with early coronary atherosclerosis by assessment of digital reactive hyperemia". J Am ...
Within the sclera, white, opaque nodules develop in conjunction with local edema or hyperemia. This opacification may extend to ...
Conjunctiva shows hyperaemia and chemosis. Eyelids are usually swollen.. *Corneal involvement (rare) may occur in herpes ...
The most common one is conjunctival hyperemia, which occurs in more than 10% of patients. Other effects include blurred vision ...
Patient remains asymptomatic until epithelial erosions precipitate acute episodes of ocular hyperemia, pain, and photophobia. ...
The other measures are break up time, tear flow, hyperemia (redness, swelling), tear fluid cytology, and epithelial damage ( ... Other evaluating methods, such as hyperemia, cytology etc. have increasingly been used to assess eye irritation. There are ...
The papules become depressed, gray and necrotic, and may be surrounded by an area of hyperemia. Rarely, papules may transform ...
PRNewswire/ -- Hyperemia Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2014 Summary GlobalDatas clinical trial report, Hyperemia Global ... GlobalDatas clinical trial report, Hyperemia Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2014 provides data on the Hyperemia clinical ... This report provides elemental information and data relating to the clinical trials on Hyperemia. It includes an overview of ... 22, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Hyperemia Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2014. Summary. ...
Hyperemia is the increase of blood to your organs. There are two types of hyperemia. The causes of hyperemia include exercise, ... Learn the signs of hyperemia and what to do if you experience hyperemia. ... There are two types of hyperemia: active hyperemia and passive hyperemia:. Active hyperemia. This is the increase of blood flow ... Hyperemia is the increase of blood to your organs. There are two types of hyperemia. The causes of hyperemia include exercise, ...
Fluxionary hyperemia definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... fluxionary hyperemia in Medicine Expand. fluxionary hyperemia flux·ion·ar·y hyperemia (flŭkshə-něrē). n. See active hyperemia ...
Reactive hyperemia definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... reactive hyperemia in Medicine Expand. reactive hyperemia n. Hyperemia in a part resulting from the restoration of its ...
Functional hyperaemia, metabolic hyperaemia, arterial hyperaemia or active hyperaemia, is the increased blood flow that occurs ... Hyperaemia (also hyperemia) is the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body. It can have medical implications ... Reactive hyperaemia, a sub-category of arterial hyperaemia, is the transient increase in organ blood flow that occurs following ... Hyperaemia can also occur due to a fall in atmospheric pressure outside the body. The term is from Greek ὑπέρ (hupér) over + ...
Lomb today announced it has obtained the exclusive global license for a new low-dose brimonidine formulation for hyperemia from ... Lomb today announced it has obtained the exclusive global license for a new low-dose brimonidine formulation for hyperemia from ...
PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS: "Reactive hyperemia" describes the increase in muscle blood flow that occurs during high-intensity ... vascularity and reactive hyperemia (pumps) during their workouts, and provide long-term support of testosterone and nitric ... GAT™ NITRAFLEX™ Hyperemia & Testosterone Enhancing Pwd. Details. http://www.gnc.com/performance-probiotics/410670.html 12. ...
The functional hyperemia response in the retina. (A) Mean increase in primary arterial diameter to flicker stimulation in ... Functional hyperemia and mechanisms of neurovascular coupling in the retinal vasculature. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013 Nov;33 ... Functional hyperemia and mechanisms of neurovascular coupling in the retinal vasculature. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013 Nov;33 ... Functional hyperemia and mechanisms of neurovascular coupling in the retinal vasculature. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013 Nov;33 ...
Functional Hyperemia in the Brain. David R. Harder, Nabil J. Alkayed, Andrew R. Lange, Debebe Gebremedhin and Richard J. Roman ... Functional Hyperemia in the Brain. David R. Harder, Nabil J. Alkayed, Andrew R. Lange, Debebe Gebremedhin and Richard J. Roman ... a phenomenon referred to as functional hyperemia. The mechanisms underlying functional hyperemia in the brain have been ... Functional Hyperemia in the Brain. Hypothesis for Astrocyte-Derived Vasodilator Metabolites. David R. Harder, Nabil J. Alkayed ...
What is active hyperemia? Meaning of active hyperemia medical term. What does active hyperemia mean? ... Looking for online definition of active hyperemia in the Medical Dictionary? active hyperemia explanation free. ... Related to active hyperemia: passive congestion, reactive hyperemia, passive hyperemia. hyperemia. [hi″per-e´me-ah] an excess ... venous hyperemia passive hyperemia.. ac·tive hy·per·e·mi·a. hyperemia resulting from an increased afflux of arterial blood into ...
... J Hepatol. 1994 Jul;21(1):88-94. doi ...
Change from baseline in mean conjunctival hyperemia scores at month 3. Hyperemia is engorgement of the blood vessels (redness) ... Evaluation of Hyperemia With the Use of Ocular Prostaglandin Analogues. This study has been completed. ... Change From Baseline in Mean Conjunctival Hyperemia Scores at Month 3 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Month 3 ]. ... This study will evaluate hyperemia and ocular surface tolerability in patients on prostaglandin analogues ...
... as sympathetic activation was shown to limit reactive hyperemia in the human fore-arm (Ardill et al., 1967). However, the ... Sympathetic limitation of exercise hyperemia: even hypoperfused muscle is not exempted ... Sympathetic limitation of exercise hyperemia: even hypoperfused muscle is not exempted. D. J. Duncker1* and I. H. Heinonen1,2,3 ... Citation: Duncker DJ and Heinonen IH (2012) Sympathetic limitation of exercise hyperemia: even hypoperfused muscle is not ...
Shop for GAT Sport Nitraflex Lemon Lime Flavored Hyperemia & Testosterone Enhancing Powder at Ralphs. Find quality health ...
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hyperemia - condition when there is more blood in your body that there should be hematoma - means accumulation of blood. ... if anyone out there in physiology-land can offer a laymans explanation of the difference between a hematoma and hyperemia. ...
Abstract 19997: Contrasting Regulatory Functions of Coronary Arterial Kvβ Subunits in Metabolic Hyperemia. Matthew A Nystoriak ... Abstract 19997: Contrasting Regulatory Functions of Coronary Arterial Kvβ Subunits in Metabolic Hyperemia ... Abstract 19997: Contrasting Regulatory Functions of Coronary Arterial Kvβ Subunits in Metabolic Hyperemia ... Abstract 19997: Contrasting Regulatory Functions of Coronary Arterial Kvβ Subunits in Metabolic Hyperemia ...
... J Nucl Med. 1998 May;39(5):790-2. ... Hypofixation of 99mTc-ECD leads to failure to detect the characteristic finding of temporal lobe hyperemia in acute HSE. ...
During reactive hyperemia, when O2 availability was maximal by NIR spectroscopy, O2 consumption was elevated but submaximal, ... Myocardial oxygenation in dogs during reactive hyperemia Author(s): William J. Parsons; Judith C. Rembert; Robert P. Bauman; ... The mechanisms of myocardial oxygenation during reactive hyperemia were studied in the beating heart using continuous near ... Cellular O2 supply and mitochondrial oxidation state are restored early during reactive hyperemia by increased O2 delivery, ...
The functional hyperaemia of fast muscles could be matched, qualitatively and quantitatively, by injections or infusions of NaH ... Hilton, S. M.: Experiments on the post-contraction hyperaemia of skeletal muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.)120, 230-245 (1953)Google ... Hilton, S. M.: The search for the cause of functional hyperaemia in skeletal muscle. In: Circulation in skeletal muscle (O. ... Hilton, S. M., Hudlická, O.: Further studies on the mediation of functional hyperaemia in skeletal muscle J. Physiol. (Lond.) ...
AJ Jaap, M Hammersley, AC Shore, JE Tooke; Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Reduced Microvascular Hyperaemia. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 ... Altered cutaneous microvascular responses to reactive hyperaemia in coronary artery disease: a comparative study with conduit ... reactive hyperaemia and core heat load tests Clin Sci (Lond) (September, 1999) ...
This coupling is a hallmark of normal brain function and forms the basis of functional hyperemia (1, 2). Functional hyperemia ... Functional hyperemia in the brain: Hypothesis for astrocyte-derived vasodilator metabolites. Stroke 29, 229-234 (1998).. ... RBC-mediated capillary hyperemia provides a simple yet robust mechanism for swift and precise local increases in capillary flow ... Recent studies have revealed that functional hyperemia is initiated in capillaries (14, 15) and that RBCs themselves can act as ...
Results: LDPM showed hyperemia at 2-3 mm distance (35.8 +/- 15.2 a.u.), but not at 30 mm distance (7.4 +/- 2.5 a.u.) compared ... Acute skin trauma induces hyperemia, but superficial papillary nutritive perfusion remains unchanged. Sundheim, Liv Kristin ...
Now, some details about venous or passive hyperaemia. Passive hyperaemia or venous congestion is increased blood supply to an ... Now, few aspects of pathogenesis of venous hyperaemia. You can see in these photo, venous hyperaemia in frog microcirculatory ... 4_5 Venous (Passive) Hyperaemia. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that ... Close results of venous hyperaemia are oedema, hydrops, congestive stasis. Chronic venous congestion may result in hemorrhage ...
Postocclusive Hyperemia Measured with Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Transcutaneous Oxygen Tension in the Diagnosis of Primary ...
Postocclusive Hyperemia Measured with Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Transcutaneous Oxygen Tension in the Diagnosis of Primary ... The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of TcPO2 and postocclusive hyperemia measured with ... Following the baseline assessment, LDF postocclusion hyperemia time to peak blood flow and TcPO2 values were measured. For the ... Although the exact mechanism is unknown, reactive hyperemia is thought to occur due to the build-up of vasodilator metabolites ...
... expressed as AUC of reactive hyperaemia) following more prolonged ischemia (666.6+/-86.6 vs 500.0+/-33.5 ml/100 ml). The ... Hyperemia / drug therapy*, prevention & control. Ischemia. Ischemic Preconditioning / methods. Lower Extremity / pathology*. ... expressed as AUC of reactive hyperaemia) following more prolonged ischemia (666.6+/-86.6 vs 500.0+/-33.5 ml/100 ml). The ... channel blocker glibenclamide was associated with a significant reduction in the AUC of reactive hyperaemia (666.6+/-86.6 vs ...
Keywords: Dipyridamole, Hyperemia, Myocardium, Positron-Emission Tomography, Product Labeling, Vasodilator Agents, Diagnostic ... Dipyridamole Hyperemia for Cardiac PET Imaging , Journal Scan. Mar 25, 2015 Share via: ... Regadenoson Versus Dipyridamole Hyperemia for Cardiac PET Imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2015;Mar 16:[Epub ahead of print]. ... Use of regadenoson according to the package insert results in approximately 20% less hyperemia than dipyridamole. Slightly ...
View Ocular Hyperaemia Levitra side effect risks. Male, 76 years of age, weighting 190.0 lb, was diagnosed with erectile ... Is Ocular Hyperaemia a common side effect of Levitra? ... Ocular Hyperaemia This Ocular Hyperaemia Levitra side effect ... Levitra Ocular Hyperaemia Side Effect Reports. Home → Levitra → Ocular Hyperaemia The following Levitra Ocular Hyperaemia side ... Erectile Dysfunction, Ocular Hyperaemia This report suggests a potential Levitra Ocular Hyperaemia side effect(s) that can have ...
... of the neural mechanisms may lead us to an insight about a possible neural mechanism responsible for exercise hyperemia in ... of the neural mechanisms may lead us to an insight about a possible neural mechanism responsible for exercise hyperemia in ... Whether neurally mediated vasodilatation may contribute to exercise hyperemia has not been completely understood. Bülbring and ... Whether neurally mediated vasodilatation may contribute to exercise hyperemia has not been completely understood. Bülbring and ...
  • While the locus of blood flow control (at least in skeletal muscle tissue) is widely thought to reside at the level of the arteriole, research has begun to suggest that capillary endothelial cells may be coordinators of skeletal muscle blood flow during functional hyperaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The impact of skeletal muscle hyperemia on glucose regulation following exercise has yet to be examined. (uoregon.edu)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was to determine if postexercise skeletal muscle hyperemia plays a substantial role in glucose regulation in humans. (uoregon.edu)
  • We sought additional evidence to involve locally released prostaglandins in the mediation of reactive hyperemia in skeletal muscle at the level of the microcirculation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The purpose of these studies was to more clearly define the conditions under which a cause-and-effect relationship might exist between adenosine and skeletal muscle active hyperemia. (dtic.mil)
  • Second, skeletal muscle can undergo hyperemia, which is a mechanism of local blood flow regulation with two major subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of the subtype, the result of hyperemia is an increase in blood flow to the affected skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that pinacidil, a selective agonist for the SUR2B receptor found on smooth muscles, could serve as an independent means of inducing vasodilation and increased local blood volume to emulate functional hyperemia. (ccjm.org)
  • 6 However, only a few in vivo animal studies have investigated the molecular mechanism of flicker-induced vasodilation of retinal vessels and functional retinal hyperemia. (arvojournals.org)
  • These results suggest that *NO contributes to the vasodilation during reactive hyperemia in gingival tissue, and aids in the maintenance of homeostasis in gingival circulation. (sparrho.com)
  • leptomeningeal hyperemia congestion of the pia-arachnoid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Passive hyperaemia or venous congestion is increased blood supply to an organ or tissue due to reduced blood outflow through the veins. (coursera.org)
  • Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH), an index of microvascular function was calculated as (peak cutaneous blood flow--baseline cutaneous blood flow)/baseline cutaneous blood flow x 100 (12). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The increase in microvascular blood flow following arterial occlusion, post occlusion reactive hyperaemia (PORH), can be assessed using the non-invasive laser Doppler technique. (moor.co.uk)
  • Local heating produced a large synergistic increase in the post-exercise hyperaemia at sites with arteriovenous microvascular perfusion but not at sites with primarily nutritive perfusion. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this study was to measure the sensitivity and specificity of transcutaneous oxygen tension and postocclusive hyperemia testing using laser Doppler flowmetry in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. (hindawi.com)
  • Post-occlusive hyperemia, 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin challenge and thermal hyperemia were performed using laser Doppler flowmetry on the distal pad of the third left finger. (inserm.fr)
  • METHODS: Skin perfusion, measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, was assessed at rest and during reactive hyperemia. (uzh.ch)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Reactive hyperemia of the skin microcirculation can be easily and reproducibly assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. (uzh.ch)
  • Relationship between post-occlusive forearm skin reactive hyperaemia and vascular disease in patients with Type 2 diabetes--a novel index for detecting micro- and macrovascular dysfunction using laser Doppler flowmetry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We will explore whether the post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in the forearm is potentiated, because during ischaemia, more adenosine is formed in these subjects. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thermal hyperemia was more sensitive and specific than post-occlusive hyperhemia for differentiating SSc from primary RP. (inserm.fr)
  • Endothelial Dysfunction Assessed by Laser Doppler Post-occlusive Hyperemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • UNLABELLED This study was intended to investigate the microcirculation endothelial dysfunction through a laser Doppler method (PORH post-occlusive reactive hyperemia) in patients with chronic kidney disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Relationship between brachial artery blood flow and total [hemoglobin+myoglobin] during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Photic stimulation dilates retinal arterioles producing blood flow increases, a response termed functional hyperemia. (nih.gov)
  • active hyperemia ( arterial hyperemia ) that due to local or general relaxation of arterioles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • About one-third of the arterioles showed postocclusion hyperemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • active hyperemia - increased blood in a part due to local or general relaxation of the arterioles. (enacademic.com)
  • In Aim 2, we will develop a technique for optically controlling the diameter of individual arterioles in vivo to study the effect of functional hyperemia on neural responses. (grantome.com)
  • We hypothesized that TRPA1 channels in capillary endothelial cells are stimulated by neuronal activity and instigate a propagating retrograde signal that dilates upstream parenchymal arterioles to initiate functional hyperemia. (elifesciences.org)
  • Have we missed that neural vasodilator mechanisms may contribute to exercise hyperemia at onset of voluntary exercise? (frontiersin.org)
  • Whether neurally-mediated vasodilatation may contribute to exercise hyperemia has not been completely understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Careful consideration of the neural mechanisms may lead us to an insight about a possible neural mechanism responsible for exercise hyperemia in contracting muscle. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that coronary exercise hyperemia is impaired in PAD. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion These data indicate that coronary exercise hyperemia is impaired in PAD, which may predispose these patients to myocardial ischemia. (elsevier.com)
  • 2. The only significant side effect was conjunctival hyperemia, which was painless and resolved within 6 hours. (2minutemedicine.com)
  • Conjunctival findings like hyperemia , petechial hemorrhages and papillary or follicular reaction is seen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • bulbar hyperemia , conjunctival secretions, papillary reaction, trantas spots, corneal involvement at presentation, the severity of disease was graded as per the method described by Bonini et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For children infected with Zika virus, most have symptoms of fever, rash, and conjunctival hyperemia, with viral loads decreasing as the number of days since symptom onset increases, according to results published in JAMA Pediatrics . (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • At evaluation, 96.9% (n=340) were discharged following examination, 99.4% (n=349) had fever, 79.8% (n=280) had a rash, 69.2% (n=243) had facial/neck erythema, 66.7% (n=234) had fatigue, 63.5% (n=223) had headache, 60.4% (n=212) had chills, 58.7% (n=206) had pruritus, and 58.1% (n=204) had conjunctival hyperemia. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Although several signs and symptoms occurred, 4 signs experienced by most children included fever, facial or neck erythema, conjunctival hyperemia, and a maculopapular rash that was often pruritic," the authors noted. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Comparison of mean bulbar conjunctival hyperemia between the KPI-121 0.25% ophthalmic suspension group and the vehicle group using a 0-4 grading scale. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cellular O2 supply and mitochondrial oxidation state are restored early during reactive hyperemia by increased O2 delivery, increases in tissue blood volume and enhanced O2 extraction. (spie.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that cerebral functional hyperemia begins in capillaries, and red blood cells (RBCs) act as autonomous regulators of brain capillary perfusion. (sciencemag.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a single-voxel FAIR technique for the quantification of perfusion in the soleus muscle of healthy volunteers during an ischemia/reactive hyperemia paradigm. (ismrm.org)
  • Averaged over three subjects, a mean resting state perfusion of 24 +/- 7 ml/100g/min and a mean maximum perfusion during hyperemia of 139 +/- 32 ml/100g/min were found. (ismrm.org)
  • this process, termed neurovascular coupling, underlies use-dependent increases in local perfusion (functional hyperemia). (pnas.org)
  • Communication between active neurons and the cerebral microvasculature regulates activity-dependent increases in blood perfusion (functional hyperemia) in the brain through processes collectively referred to as 'neurovascular coupling' (NVC) ( Iadecola, 2017 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Clinically, hyperaemia in tissues manifests as erythema (redness of the skin) because of the engorgement of vessels with oxygenated blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperemia is engorgement of the blood vessels (redness) of the bulbar conjunctiva of the eye (the clear membrane covering the white surface of the eye). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hyperemia or cerebrovascular engorgement has long been considered by many as the cause of diffuse swelling and raised intracranial pressure (ICP). (elsevier.com)
  • Minson, T., Lorenzo, S. (2007) Human Cutaneous reactive hyperaemia: role of BKCa channels and sensory nerves. (moor.co.uk)
  • This is the first demonstration that highly focal exercise, unaccompanied by a systemic haemodynamic response, can elicit a post-exercise cutaneous hyperaemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Journal of Physiology, 585, pp 295-303 Patterson, G. C. (1956) The role of intravascular pressure in the causation of reactive hyperaemia in the human forearm. (moor.co.uk)
  • Yvonne-Tee G. B., Rasool A. H. G., Halim, A. S., Rahman A. R. A. (2005) Reproducibility of different laser Doppler fluximetry parameters of postocclusive reactive hyperemia in human forearm skin. (moor.co.uk)
  • Does sympathetic activation blunt nitric oxide-mediated hyperemia in the human forearm? (elsevier.com)
  • Reactive hyperemia index (RHI) assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates endothelial function noninvasively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (Aix) were used as markers of arterial stiffness, whereas endothelial function was assessed using reactive hyperemia index (RHI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Secondary outcomes included calculated Framingham CVD risk score and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) ratio. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Examples of tissues and organs that are known to have specialized mechanisms for functional hyperaemia include: The brain through the neuron-dependent haemodynamic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional hyperemia and mechanisms of neurovascular coupling in the retinal vasculature. (nih.gov)
  • Despite recent advances, the neurovascular coupling mechanisms mediating the functional hyperemia response in the retina remain unclear. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, the retinal functional hyperemia response is described, and the cellular mechanisms that may mediate the response are assessed. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms underlying functional hyperemia in the brain have been extensively studied, but the link between neuronal activation and nutritive blood flow has yet to be defined. (ahajournals.org)
  • The mechanisms of myocardial oxygenation during reactive hyperemia were studied in the beating heart using continuous near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. (spie.org)
  • To further investigate the mechanisms, postischemic skin hyperemia was measured before and after intradermal injection of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME and its inactive isoform D-NAME (0.5 micromol/10 microl each). (uzh.ch)
  • The overarching goal of this proposal is to understand the mechanisms and the functional role of the overshoot of blood supply in functional hyperemia. (grantome.com)
  • Acute effects of glibenclamide on reactive hyperaemia in the lower limbs in humans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Three episodes of 1 min ischemia in the lower limbs in humans reduced the metabolic debt repayment (expressed as AUC of reactive hyperaemia) following more prolonged ischemia (666.6+/-86.6 vs 500.0+/-33.5 ml/100 ml). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1 Studies in humans have shown that endothelium-derived nitric oxide also contributes to reactive hyperemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • The following Levitra Ocular Hyperaemia side effect reports were submitted by healthcare professionals and consumers. (patientsville.com)
  • This information will help you understand how side effects, such as Ocular Hyperaemia, can occur, and what you can do about them. (patientsville.com)
  • This Ocular Hyperaemia side effect was reported by a consumer or non-health professional from US. (patientsville.com)
  • This Ocular Hyperaemia Levitra side effect was reported by a health professional from UNITED STATES on Apr 27, 2010. (patientsville.com)
  • and developed a serious reaction and a Ocular Hyperaemia side effect. (patientsville.com)
  • This side effect report can indicate a possible existence of increased vulnerability to Levitra treatment in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction , resulting in Ocular Hyperaemia . (patientsville.com)
  • This finding indicates that some patients can be more vulnerable to developing Levitra side effects, such as Ocular Hyperaemia . (patientsville.com)
  • This report suggests a potential Levitra Ocular Hyperaemia side effect(s) that can have serious consequences. (patientsville.com)
  • Although Levitra demonstrated significant improvements in a number of clinically relevant cases, troublesome symptoms, such as Ocular Hyperaemia , may still occur. (patientsville.com)
  • Of those women, 27% (55) experienced problems that included ocular hyperemia , pain, and itchy swollen eyelids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This inflammation may be due to various factors, including excess blood in the eyelids ( hyperemia ) or in the eye's blood vessels ( ocular vasculature). (petmd.com)
  • Passive hyperemia is an increase or build up of blood that can't be pumped through the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • passive hyperemia that due to obstruction of flow of blood from the area. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • venous hyperemia passive hyperemia . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Now, some details about venous or passive hyperaemia. (coursera.org)
  • Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous). (ctdbase.org)
  • Venous (passive, static) hyperemia occurs when the outflow of blood along the veins is obstructed as a result of pressure on the venous wall (cicatrix, tumor, varicose dilatation of the veins, or edema), while the inflow remains unchanged or when there is a weakening of cardiac activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • KATP channels mediate adenosine-induced hyperemia in retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • volunteers (7 male, mean age 38 years) were studied on a 1.5 T Philips Intera system during adenosine induced hyperaemia (140 mcg/kg/min for 3 minutes, 0.05 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA) and at rest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functional hyperaemia is an increase in blood flow to a tissue due to the presence of metabolites and a change in general conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Functional hyperaemia, metabolic hyperaemia, arterial hyperaemia or active hyperaemia, is the increased blood flow that occurs when tissue is active. (wikipedia.org)
  • At any given frequency of contraction, the phosphate efflux from contracting gastrocnemius was less than that from tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus, which have a higher proportion of fast fibres and exhibit greater functional hyperaemia. (springer.com)
  • Soleus muscles, when contracting, released hardly any additional phosphate, except in the one experiment in which the muscle exhibited a functional hyperaemia. (springer.com)
  • There was thus a consistent relationship between the extent of functional hyperaemia and phosphate efflux in different muscles and within any one group of muscles. (springer.com)
  • The functional hyperaemia of fast muscles could be matched, qualitatively and quantitatively, by injections or infusions of NaH 2 PO 4 . (springer.com)
  • hyperemia resulting from an increased afflux of arterial blood into dilated capillaries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hyperemia due to an increased afflux of arterial blood into dilated capillaries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We also compared the effectiveness of arteriolar and capillary occlusions in producing reactive hyperemia in capillaries. (ahajournals.org)
  • We also examined the individual effect of an ATP-sensitive K + channel blocker (glibenclamide), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NMMA), and an adenosine-receptor antagonist (8PT) as well as the combined effect of these drugs on the subendocardial and subepicardial arteriolar responses during reactive hyperemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 also reported that intravenous injection of the nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevents a flicker-induced increase in RBF measured using microsphere methods, suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) may play a role in flicker-induced retinal hyperemia. (arvojournals.org)
  • Most cases of hyperemia are benign, healthy responses to activity. (medicinenet.com)
  • Widely used hemodynamic imaging techniques, such as fMRI, take advantage of functional hyperemia to infer neural activity from vascular responses. (grantome.com)
  • Experiments were performed on normal male and female subjects to compare blood flow responses following release of an arterial occlusion (reactive hyperemia). (elsevier.com)
  • Bohlen, H 1982, ' Na+-induced intestinal interstitial hyperosmolality and vascular responses during absorptive hyperemia ', American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology , vol. 11, no. 5. (elsevier.com)
  • Hyperemia in a part resulting from the restoration of its temporarily blocked blood flow. (dictionary.com)
  • Hyperaemia (also hyperemia) is the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive hyperaemia, a sub-category of arterial hyperaemia, is the transient increase in organ blood flow that occurs following a brief period of ischaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Reactive hyperaemia often occurs as a consequence of Raynaud's phenomenon, where the vasospasm in the vasculature leads to ischaemia and necrosis of tissue and thus a subsequent increase in blood flow to remove the waste products and clear up cell debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive hyperemia" describes the increase in muscle blood flow that occurs during high-intensity resistance exercise and produces the "pump" associated with increases in muscle size. (gnc.com)
  • Background -Cerebral blood flow is tightly coupled to neuronal metabolic activity, a phenomenon referred to as functional hyperemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • reactive hyperemia that due to increase in blood flow after its temporary interruption. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The tight coupling between cerebral blood flow and neural activity is a key feature of normal brain function and forms the basis of functional hyperemia. (sciencemag.org)
  • Objective- Reactive hyperemia is the compensatory increase in blood flow that occurs after a period of tissue ischemia, and this response is blunted in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • 780.99 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = eMedicineTopic = MeshID = D006940 Hyperemia describes the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body. (enacademic.com)
  • Arterial (active) hyperemia arises as a result of increased blood flow in the arteries owing to increased tonus of the vasodilator nerves or decreased tonus of the vasoconstrictor nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Arterial hyperemia is characterized by dilatation of the arteries in the hyperemized area, elevation of temperature in the area, acceleration of blood flow, and reddening (for example, hyperemia of the face). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Venous hyperemia is characterized by deceleration of blood flow to the point of complete stasis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, *NO was detected using an *NO selective electrode during interruption of blood flow and during reactive hyperemia in the gingiva. (sparrho.com)
  • Additionally, although it is supposed that functional hyperemia is an efficient means of distributing limited resources, we know surprisingly little about how critical this blood flow increase is for the health and function of neural tissue. (grantome.com)
  • The course of a typical RP attack is an initial ischemic phase manifested by blanching or cyanosis, followed by a rapid reflow of blood marked by digital erythema (reactive hyperemia). (hindawi.com)
  • In some muscles every arteriole showed hyperemia following occlusion, but in others none responded, presumably because of preparatory trauma. (ahajournals.org)
  • The average duration of hyperemia after a 1-minute occlusion was 74 ± 45 (SD) seconds. (ahajournals.org)
  • In a majority of instances there was no discernible reactive hyperemia with single capillary occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study we aimed to investigate the probable effects of Vanillic acid (VA) on some physiological parameters including cerebral hyperemia, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, anxiety behaviors and neurological deficits induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and reperfusion (BCCAO/R) in rats. (springermedizin.de)
  • The best post-occlusion parameters are: is TM-time of peak flow and especially TH-half-time of hyperemia response. (viamedica.pl)
  • Post-occlusion hyperemia test is very important complement trial in classical medical examination. (viamedica.pl)
  • Hypofixation of 99mTc-ECD leads to failure to detect the characteristic finding of temporal lobe hyperemia in acute HSE. (nih.gov)
  • It is presented with acute edema and hyperaemia of the paratenon with infiltration of inflammatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • n = 4 per group) animals, suggesting a dichotomous regulatory role for each of these subunits in coronary metabolic hyperemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • In conclusion, findings suggest that KV1.5 in CVSM associates with KVβ1.1 and KVβ2 subunits, which differentially modulate channel function to fine tune metabolic hyperemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Active hyperemia is one subtype, which occurs in response to increased metabolic demand, meaning high oxygen requirements within the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary hyperemia can be controlled by manipulating RBC properties independent of the neurovascular unit, providing an effective strategy to treat or prevent impaired functional hyperemia. (sciencemag.org)
  • Given the essential nature of the NVC response for healthy brain function and life itself, it is reasonable to presume that multiple sensory modalities with overlapping and complementary roles operate within brain capillary endothelial cells to ensure the fidelity of neuronally driven functional hyperemia. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we tested the hypothesis that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels in brain capillary endothelial cells contribute to functional hyperemia in the brain. (elifesciences.org)
  • Methods and Results- We prospectively measured reactive hyperemia and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by ultrasound in 267 patients with peripheral arterial disease referred for vascular surgery (age 66±11 years, 26% female). (ahajournals.org)
  • Sham, BCCAO/R, VA and VA+ BCCAO/R. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced after 2 weeks of pretreatment by VA. Subsequently, sensorimotor scores, elevated plus maze tests, cerebral hyperemia, and BBB disruption were evaluated 72 h after 30 min of BCCAO. (springermedizin.de)
  • To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal VA could attenuate reactive hyperemia and improve BBB disruption following BCCAO/R, and could improve neurological scores and anxiety like behaviors in this model of cerebral hypoperfusion. (springermedizin.de)
  • Cerebral hyperemia may be induced either directly by bacterial components or indirectly by components of the inflammatory cascade that precede CSF leukocyte migration. (elsevier.com)
  • Cerebral Hyperemia, Systemic Hypertension, and Perioperative Intracranial Morbidity: Is There a Smoking Gun? (lww.com)
  • There are a number of different reasons why hyperemia occurs. (medicinenet.com)
  • Active hyperemia is often a natural response that occurs as the body responds to activity. (medicinenet.com)
  • To address this, we monitored these parameters simultaneously under NMDA-infusion via microdialysis in the hippocampus of urethane-anesthetized rats and found a greater elevation in RBC-V than in RBC-C. This suggests that an RBC-V-dependent increase in RBC-F occurs under NMDA-induced functional hyperemia in the hippocampus as well as in the cortex. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Reactive hyperemia is a complex response that occurs after a period of tissue ischemia and primarily depends on local production of adenosine and other non-endothelium-dependent vasodilators that dilate tissue microvessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hyperemia was graded using a 5-point scale in which 0=no redness and +3=deep, diffuse redness. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The administration of the ATP-dependent K(+) channel blocker glibenclamide was associated with a significant reduction in the AUC of reactive hyperaemia (666.6+/-86.6 vs 563.1+/-76.6 ml/100 ml), and with the removal of the protective effect produced by 3 episodes of 1 min ischemia (563.1+/-76.6 vs 551.8+/-71.3 ml/100 ml). (biomedsearch.com)
  • After the compression of gingival tissue, hyperemia was observed in the gingiva, which depended on the duration of ischemia. (sparrho.com)
  • Protective effects of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin on local ischemia/reperfusion-induced suppression of reactive hyperemia in rat gingiva. (sparrho.com)
  • Arteriolar reactive hyperemia: modification by inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Occlusive hyperemia: a theory for the hemodynamic complications following resection of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations. (thejns.org)
  • 167 - 175 , 1993 Al-Rodhan NAF, Sundt TM Jr, Piepgras DG, et al: Occlusive hyperemia: a theory for the hemodynamic complications following resection of intracerebral arteriovenous malformations. (thejns.org)
  • Simultaneous hemodynamic imaging confirms that spatiotemporally coupled functional hyperemia is not present during these early stages of postnatal brain development, and develops gradually as cortical connectivity is established. (jneurosci.org)
  • Conclusions- Thus, lower reactive hyperemia is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with peripheral arterial disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The main objective of our study was to test whether thermal hyperemia in patients with SSc differed from that in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and healthy controls. (inserm.fr)
  • Furthermore, flow-mediated dilation and reactive hyperemia incrementally relate to cardiovascular risk, although impaired flow-mediated dilation was the stronger predictor in this population. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because reactive hyperemia is the stimulus for flow-mediated dilation and has been suggested to explain in large part the relationship between flow-mediated dilation and cardiovascular disease, 4,7 we examined the relative predictive value of both of these measures of vascular function for cardiovascular events. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that pinacidil provides an effective and selective means for inducing hyperemia in vivo, and may provide a useful tool in directly testing the impact of hemodynamics on neural activity, as recently predicted by the hemo-neural hypothesis. (ccjm.org)
  • Hyperaemia can also occur due to a fall in atmospheric pressure outside the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modulation of neurovascular coupling by oxygen and NO are described, and changes in functional hyperemia that occur with aging and in diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and other pathologies, are reviewed. (nih.gov)
  • Hemorrhages may occur during arterial hyperemia if there are pathological changes in the blood vessels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The predictive value of reactive hyperemia for cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerosis and the relative importance of reactive hyperemia compared with other measures of vascular function have not been previously studied. (ahajournals.org)
  • In our study, we observed the following light microscopic criteria: Disintegration and discontinuity in villous epithelium, irregularity, enlargement, compression, and edema in villi, decrease in the number of crypts, hyperemia and edema in sub-mucosae, mononuclear cellular infiltration, and PAS (+) reactive cellular counts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • citation needed] Hyperaemia is likely mediated by the increased synthesis and/or release of vasodilatory agents during periods of heightened cellular metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results indicate that 20-HETE synthesis normally does not substantially restrict functional hyperemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis inhibits hippocampal hyperemia in kainic acid-induced seizures. (sparrho.com)
  • Statins enhance postischemic hyperemia in the skin circulation of hypercholesterolemic patients: a monitoring test of endothelial dysfunction for clinical practice? (uzh.ch)
  • Reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) is a new method useful to measure endothelial dysfunction that has been reported by Kuvin et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • See active hyperemia . (dictionary.com)
  • The coupled active transport of Na + with sugars and amino acids could cause intestinal villus interstitial hyperosmolarity, which contributes to absorptive hyperemia. (elsevier.com)
  • We further demonstrate that TRPA1 is necessary for functional hyperemia and neurovascular coupling within the somatosensory cortex of mice in vivo. (elifesciences.org)