A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
A potent synthetic agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with 3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine substitution at residue 6. Nafarelin has been used in the treatments of central PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY and ENDOMETRIOSIS.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
Visible efflorescent lesions of the skin caused by acne or resembling acne. (Dorland, 28th ed, p18, 575)
The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
An ovarian neoplasm composed of LUTEAL CELLS derived from luteinized GRANULOSA CELLS and THECA CELLS. Luteomas respond to GONADOTROPINS, and vary in their hormone production (PROGESTERONE; ESTROGENS; or ANDROGENS). During PREGNANCY, a transient type of luteoma may develop due to an exaggerated LUTEINIZATION of the OVARY.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Neoplasms composed of tissues of the OVARY or the TESTIS, not neoplasms located in the ovaries or testes. Gonadal tissues include GERM CELLS, cells from the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Absence of menstruation.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

Effect of ovarian suppression on glucose metabolism of young lean women with and without ovarian hyperandrogenism. (1/197)

Gonadal steroids are believed to influence glucose metabolism, oestrogens inducing an improvement and androgens or progestins a deterioration. At baseline and after 3 months of ovarian suppression with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa: goserelin depot 3.75 mg/28 days), glucose metabolism was evaluated in eight lean women affected by ovarian hyperandrogenism (PCOS) and six age-weight-matched non-hyperandrogenic women (controls) by using both an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g; OGTT) and the minimal model method. The latter method allows calculation of peripheral insulin sensitivity (Si) and glucose dependent glucose utilization (Sg). In PCOS, higher fasting concentrations (P < 0.05) of insulin and C-peptide, and lower Sg (P < 0.05) and Si (P < 0.01) were found. GnRHa did not significantly modify glucose metabolism of controls, while in women with PCOS it decreased fasting glucose (P < 0.05) and significantly increased Si (P < 0.03) up to control values. The present data indicate that strong suppression of ovarian activity improves Si in lean women with PCOS, while it is without relevant effects on glucose metabolism of non-hyperandrogenic women.  (+info)

Dexamethasone supplementation to gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization in polycystic ovarian disease. (2/197)

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine whether glucocorticoid supplementation for patients with polycystic ovarian disease during ovulation induction with gonadotropins for in vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy is beneficial. METHODS: Seventy-one cycles of patients undergoing first attempts at IVF, with classical polycystic ovarian disease and hyperandrogenemia, who enrolled in the IVF-embryo transfer program, were evaluated retrospectively. In 20 cycles (20 patients) glucocorticoid supplementation was noted and compared to 51 cycles (51 patients) without glucocorticoid as adrenal androgen suppression. Ovaries were stimulated by gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist, human menopausal gonadotropin, and dexamethasone. Ovarian responsiveness and IVF-embryo transfer outcome were analyzed and included the number of follicles > 17 mm in diameter, serum estradiol concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration, number of human chorionic gonadotropin ampoules administered, number of oocytes retrieved, percentage of oocytes fertilized, number of embryos transferred, implantation rate, and number of clinical pregnancies and their outcome. RESULTS: The results showed that the pregnancy rate in patients who received glucocorticoid was 22.1%, compared to 26% in the controls (statistically insignificant). The IVF cycle variables studied revealed no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations did not support the notion that adrenal androgen suppression by glucocorticoid, or as an adjuvant therapy, is beneficial to patients with polycystic ovarian disease who enrolled in an IVF-embryo transfer program.  (+info)

Thirty-seven candidate genes for polycystic ovary syndrome: strongest evidence for linkage is with follistatin. (3/197)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder of women, characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. It is a leading cause of female infertility and is associated with polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and insulin resistance. We tested a carefully chosen collection of 37 candidate genes for linkage and association with PCOS or hyperandrogenemia in data from 150 families. The strongest evidence for linkage was with the follistatin gene, for which affected sisters showed increased identity by descent (72%; chi(2) = 12.97; nominal P = 3.2 x 10(-4)). After correction for multiple testing (33 tests), the follistatin findings were still highly significant (P(c) = 0.01). Although the linkage results for CYP11A were also nominally significant (P = 0.02), they were no longer significant after correction. In 11 candidate gene regions, at least one allele showed nominally significant evidence for population association with PCOS in the transmission/disequilibrium test (chi(2) >/= 3.84; nominal P < 0.05). The strongest effect in the transmission/disequilibrium test was observed in the INSR region (D19S884; allele 5; chi(2) = 8.53) but was not significant after correction. Our study shows how a systematic screen of candidate genes can provide strong evidence for genetic linkage in complex diseases and can identify those genes that should have high (or low) priority for further study.  (+info)

Adrenal 21-hydroxylase gene mutations in Slovenian hyperandrogenic women: evaluation of corticotrophin stimulation and HLA polymorphisms in screening for carrier status. (4/197)

OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Slovenian hyperandrogenic women, at the gene level. Previous endocrine studies indicated large differences in the incidence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in hyperandrogenic women. The predictive values of the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) response to ACTH stimulation and of HLA typing in screening for carrier status were re-evaluated. DESIGN: Molecular analysis of CYP21 gene, ACTH stimulation and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing were performed in 83 consecutive Slovenian hyperandrogenic women. MEASUREMENTS: Cortisol and 17-OHP concentrations were measured at baseline and 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Basal adrenal androgen concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: None of 83 hyperandrogenic patients was affected with non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency, but 12 of 81 patients (14.8%) had high concentrations of 17-OHP after stimulation, indicative of carrier status. The increase in 17-OHP concentrations could be explained by a carrier status for CYP21 gene mutations in only three of 12 patients (25%), whereas seven of 69 patients (10. 1%) with normal concentrations of 17-OHP after stimulation were found to be carriers of CYP21 gene mutations, indicating low positive predictive values of ACTH stimulation as a screening test for carriers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In total, 11 carriers were identified among 83 patients: seven CYP21 gene deletions/conversions, two Gln(318)Stop and one Val(281)Leu mutation and one gene conversion extending from exon 4 to exon 7 were found. The association between Val(281)Leu mutation and HLA-B14 antigen was confirmed in this Slovenian population. CONCLUSIONS: Basal or ACTH-stimulated 17-OHP concentrations are not a good indicator of the carrier status for 21-hydroxylase deficiency among Slovenian hyperandrogenic patients. Reliable screening for carriers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency is possible only by molecular analysis of the CYP21 gene.  (+info)

Clearance of acanthosis nigricans associated with the HAIR-AN syndrome after partial pancreatectomy: an 11-year follow-up. (5/197)

We describe a woman with the syndrome characterised by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans (the HAIR-AN syndrome), and an associated insulinoma (islet B-cell tumour), whose signs and symptoms cleared after partial pancreatectomy.  (+info)

Clinical presentation of PCOS following development of an insulinoma: case report. (6/197)

A 24 year old woman presented with a prolonged clinical history of fasting and exertional hypoglycaemia, and was subsequently diagnosed with an insulinoma. Concurrent symptoms of oligomenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism of similar duration were noted. Biochemically, hyperinsulinaemia was observed in association with a raised serum luteinizing hormone (LH), raised testosterone and androstendione concentrations. Surgical removal of the insulinoma resulted in resolution of the clinical and biochemical features of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) but minimal change was observed in the ovarian ultrasound appearances. This case demonstrates the role of insulin in mediating the hypersecretion of both LH and androgens in women with polycystic ovaries. We suggest that hyperinsulinaemia converted occult 'polycystic ovaries' to become clinically manifest as 'polycystic ovary syndrome'. This paradigm has clear implications for women with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus who presumably have systemic hyperinsulinaemia.  (+info)

Use of a long-acting gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue in a postmenopausal woman with hyperandrogenism due to a hilus cell tumour. (7/197)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prove the utility of GnRH analogues for the suppression of androgen secretion in a postmenopausal woman with a suspected virilizing ovarian tumour. DESIGN AND METHODS: We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with virilization of recent onset. Hormonal studies revealed a fourfold increase in serum testosterone levels, normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentrations and high levels of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels. Computed axial tomography scan of the ovaries was normal and the adrenal glands showed a discrete enlargement. The long-acting GnRH analogue, triptorelin, was injected initially (3.75mg i.m.) and serum hormone levels were measured weekly throughout one month. RESULTS: GnRH produced a decrease in serum testosterone levels to normal values, in parallel with the suppression of serum LH and FSH concentrations. The patient was treated for three months with triptorelin and she experienced an amelioration of the hyperandrogenic symptoms. In order to achieve a diagnosis, the patient was submitted to a laparotomy that revealed a small hilus cell tumour in the left ovary. CONCLUSION: GnRH analogues may offer a good therapeutic option in some states of gonadotrophin-dependent hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin.  (+info)

The best correlation of the new index of hyperandrogenism with the grade of increased body hair. (8/197)

OBJECTIVE: Hyperandrogenemia is the most frequent endocrine disorder in fertile women causing a variety of negative metabolic disturbances. Establishing the diagnosis of androgen overproduction has important implications for the follow-up and treatment of patients. The aim of our study was to identify the optimal laboratory marker of androgen production by correlating the markers to the presence or grade of increased body hair as a clinical sign of hyperandrogenism. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: A total of 62 women with acne were included into the study. The serum concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated. The index of free testosterone (IFT) and a new index of hyperandrogenism (IHA) were calculated. The monitored laboratory markers were correlated to the presence or grade of increased body hair using several statistical methods. RESULTS: The statistical significance of differences between the average levels of laboratory markers between hirsute and non-hirsute women decreased in the following order: IHA, androstenedione and DHEA. Of all the above laboratory markers, only increased IHA was present significantly more often in hirsute women. The significance of correlation between the grade of increased body hair and the tested variables decreased in the following order: IHA, IFT, DHEA, androstenedione, DHEAS and testosterone. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical marker of hyperandrogenism correlates most closely to IHA, reflecting the levels of all commonly determined androgens or androgen precursors and SHBG. Its simple calculation makes IHA a suitable tool for determining total production of androgens in clinical practice, especially in cases with borderline elevations of values.  (+info)

Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens (male sex hormones) in the body. This can lead to various symptoms such as hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility in women. It can be caused by conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and tumors in the ovaries or adrenal glands. Proper diagnosis and management of hyperandrogenism is important to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperandrogenism (excess male hormones), ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The Rotterdam criteria are commonly used for diagnosis, which require at least two of the following three features:

1. Oligo- or anovulation (irregular menstrual cycles)
2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (e.g., hirsutism, acne, or high levels of androgens in the blood)
3. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination (presence of 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, or increased ovarian volume >10 mL)

The exact cause of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin resistance and obesity are common findings in women with PCOS, which can contribute to the development of metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Management of PCOS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss), medications to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce hyperandrogenism (e.g., oral contraceptives, metformin, anti-androgens), and fertility treatments if desired. Regular monitoring of metabolic parameters and long-term follow-up are essential for optimal management and prevention of complications.

Hirsutism is a medical condition characterized by excessive hair growth in women in areas where hair growth is typically androgen-dependent, such as the face, chest, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. This hair growth is often thick, dark, and coarse, resembling male-pattern hair growth. Hirsutism can be caused by various factors, including hormonal imbalances, certain medications, and genetic conditions. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience excessive or unwanted hair growth to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Oligomenorrhea is a medical term used to describe infrequent menstrual periods, where the cycle length is more than 35 days but less than 68 days. It's considered a menstrual disorder and can affect people of reproductive age. The causes of oligomenorrhea are varied, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, excessive exercise, significant weight loss or gain, and stress. In some cases, it may not cause any other symptoms, but in others, it can be associated with infertility, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, or obesity. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle modifications, hormonal medications, or surgery in rare cases.

Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition characterized by the formation of various types of blemishes on the skin, such as blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, and cysts or nodules. These lesions typically appear on areas of the body that have a high concentration of sebaceous glands, including the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders.

Acne vulgaris occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cells and excess oil (sebum) produced by the sebaceous glands. This blockage provides an ideal environment for bacteria, particularly Propionibacterium acnes, to multiply, leading to inflammation and infection. The severity of acne vulgaris can range from mild with only a few scattered comedones (blackheads or whiteheads) to severe cystic acne, which can cause significant scarring and emotional distress.

The exact causes of acne vulgaris are not fully understood, but several factors contribute to its development, including:

1. Hormonal changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or due to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
2. Genetic predisposition
3. Use of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and lithium
4. Excessive production of sebum due to overactive sebaceous glands
5. Accumulation of dead skin cells that clog pores
6. Bacterial infection (particularly Propionibacterium acnes)
7. Inflammation caused by the body's immune response to bacterial infection and clogged pores

Treatment for acne vulgaris depends on its severity and can include over-the-counter or prescription topical treatments, oral medications, chemical peels, light therapies, or even hormonal therapies in some cases. It is essential to seek professional medical advice from a dermatologist or healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for individual needs.

Virilism is a condition that results from excessive exposure to androgens (male hormones) such as testosterone. It can occur in both males and females, but it is more noticeable in women and children. In females, virilism can cause various masculinizing features like excess body hair, deepened voice, enlarged clitoris, and irregular menstrual cycles. In children, it can lead to premature puberty and growth abnormalities. Virilism is often caused by conditions that involve the adrenal glands or ovaries, including tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and certain medications.

Nafarelin is a synthetic decapeptide analog of the natural gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). It is primarily used as a nasal spray for the treatment of central precocious puberty in children and endometriosis in adults.

In medical terms, Nafarelin is defined as:

A synthetic decapeptide analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) used in the treatment of central precocious puberty and endometriosis. It acts as a potent agonist of GnRH receptors, leading to an initial increase in the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), followed by downregulation of these receptors and a decrease in FSH and LH secretion. This results in decreased gonadal steroid production, including estrogen and testosterone, which helps to control the symptoms of central precocious puberty and endometriosis.

Nafarelin is available under the brand name Synarel and is administered as a nasal spray. It is important to note that Nafarelin can cause side effects such as hot flashes, headaches, and mood changes, and it may also affect bone growth in children with central precocious puberty. Therefore, it should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Acanthosis nigricans is a medical condition characterized by the darkening and thickening of the skin in certain areas of the body. These areas typically include the back of the neck, armpits, groin, and skin folds. The skin becomes velvety to touch, and may have a "dirty" appearance.

The condition is often associated with insulin resistance, which can be a sign of type 2 diabetes or prediabetes. It can also be linked to obesity, hormonal imbalances, certain medications, and some rare genetic syndromes.

In addition to the changes in skin color and texture, people with acanthosis nigricans may also experience itching, odor, or discomfort in the affected areas. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as managing diabetes or losing weight. Topical treatments may also be used to improve the appearance of the skin.

17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the adrenal glands and, in smaller amounts, by the ovaries and testes. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

In a medical context, 17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone may also refer to a synthetic form of this hormone that is used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, a medication called 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHP) is used to reduce the risk of preterm birth in women who have previously given birth prematurely. It works by suppressing uterine contractions and promoting fetal lung maturity.

It's important to note that 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Androstenedione is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. It is a precursor to both male and female sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen. In the adrenal glands, it is produced from cholesterol through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes. Androstenedione can also be converted into other steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrone.

In the body, androstenedione plays an important role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deep voice in men, and breast development and menstrual cycles in women. It also contributes to bone density, muscle mass, and overall physical strength.

Androstenedione is available as a dietary supplement and has been marketed as a way to boost athletic performance and increase muscle mass. However, its effectiveness for these purposes is not supported by scientific evidence, and it may have harmful side effects when taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Additionally, the use of androstenedione as a dietary supplement is banned by many sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Acneiform eruptions refer to skin conditions that resemble or mimic the appearance of acne vulgaris. These eruptions are characterized by the presence of papules, pustules, and comedones on the skin. However, acneiform eruptions are not true acne and can be caused by various factors such as medications, infections, or underlying medical conditions.

Some examples of acneiform eruptions include:

* Drug-induced acne: Certain medications such as corticosteroids, lithium, and antiepileptic drugs can cause an acne-like rash as a side effect.
* Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, flushing, and pimple-like bumps on the face.
* Pseudofolliculitis barbae: A condition that occurs when curly hair grows back into the skin after shaving, causing inflammation and acne-like lesions.
* Gram-negative folliculitis: A bacterial infection that can occur as a complication of long-term antibiotic use for acne treatment.

It is important to distinguish acneiform eruptions from true acne vulgaris, as the treatment approach may differ depending on the underlying cause. Dermatologists or healthcare providers specializing in skin conditions can provide an accurate diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) is a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands. It is a modified form of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is converted to DHEA-S in the body for storage and later conversion back to DHEA or other steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. DHEA-S is often measured in the blood as a marker of adrenal function. It is also available as a dietary supplement, although its effectiveness for any medical purpose is not well established.

Precocious puberty is a medical condition where the onset of sexual maturation occurs at an unusually early age, typically before the age of 8 in girls and before the age of 9 in boys. It is characterized by the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development or growth of facial hair, as well as the start of menstruation in girls. This condition can be caused by various factors including central nervous system abnormalities, genetic disorders, or exposure to certain hormones. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent potential negative effects on growth, bone health, and psychosocial development.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

CAH is caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of these hormones. The most common form of CAH is 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which affects approximately 90% to 95% of all cases. Other less common forms of CAH include 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.

The severity of the disorder can vary widely, depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. In severe cases, the lack of cortisol production can lead to life-threatening salt wasting and electrolyte imbalances in newborns. The excess androgens produced due to the enzyme deficiency can also cause virilization, or masculinization, of female fetuses, leading to ambiguous genitalia at birth.

In milder forms of CAH, symptoms may not appear until later in childhood or even adulthood. These may include early puberty, rapid growth followed by premature fusion of the growth plates and short stature, acne, excessive hair growth, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility.

Treatment for CAH typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and/or sex hormones. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and careful management of medication doses is essential to prevent complications such as adrenal crisis, growth suppression, and osteoporosis.

In severe cases of CAH, early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the risk of serious health problems and improve quality of life. Genetic counseling may also be recommended for affected individuals and their families to discuss the risks of passing on the disorder to future generations.

A luteoma is a benign ovarian tumor that is composed of luteinized cells, which are typically found in the corpus luteum of the ovary. The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms during the menstrual cycle and produces progesterone to support pregnancy.

Luteomas are rare tumors that usually occur in women of reproductive age, particularly those who have used fertility drugs or who have had prolonged exposure to high levels of estrogen. They can be asymptomatic or may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and menstrual irregularities.

Luteomas are typically diagnosed through imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, and the diagnosis is confirmed through biopsy or surgical removal of the tumor. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, and the prognosis is generally good, with a low risk of recurrence. However, luteomas can produce high levels of hormones that may cause virilization or other endocrine abnormalities, so follow-up care is important to monitor for any potential complications.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced mainly in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating the active forms of the sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in the body. SHBG binds to these hormones in the bloodstream, creating a reservoir of bound hormones. Only the unbound (or "free") fraction of testosterone and estradiol is considered biologically active and can easily enter cells to exert its effects.

By binding to sex hormones, SHBG helps control their availability and transport in the body. Factors such as age, sex, infection with certain viruses (like hepatitis or HIV), liver disease, obesity, and various medications can influence SHBG levels and, consequently, impact the amount of free testosterone and estradiol in circulation.

SHBG is an essential factor in maintaining hormonal balance and has implications for several physiological processes, including sexual development, reproduction, bone health, muscle mass, and overall well-being. Abnormal SHBG levels can contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and certain types of cancer.

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein hormone that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovaries of females. AMH plays an essential role in female reproductive physiology, as it inhibits the recruitment and further development of primordial follicles, thereby regulating the size of the primordial follicle pool and the onset of puberty.

AMH levels are often used as a biomarker for ovarian reserve assessment in women. High AMH levels indicate a larger ovarian reserve, while low levels suggest a decreased reserve, which may be associated with reduced fertility or an earlier onset of menopause. Additionally, measuring AMH levels can help predict the response to ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

A neoplasm of gonadal tissue refers to an abnormal growth or tumor that develops in the reproductive organs, specifically the ovaries in women and the testes in men. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their growth can interfere with the normal function of the gonads.

Gonadal tissue neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic mutations, environmental factors, and hormonal imbalances. The symptoms of these tumors may vary depending on their size, location, and type, but they can include pelvic pain, bloating, abnormal menstruation, or a palpable mass in the affected area.

It is essential to diagnose and treat gonadal tissue neoplasms as early as possible to prevent complications such as infertility, metastasis, or death. Diagnostic procedures may include imaging tests, blood tests, and biopsies, while treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It serves as a precursor to other hormones, including androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol. DHEA levels typically peak during early adulthood and then gradually decline with age.

DHEA has been studied for its potential effects on various health conditions, including aging, cognitive function, sexual dysfunction, and certain chronic diseases. However, the evidence supporting its use for these purposes is generally limited and inconclusive. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking DHEA to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

Metformin is a type of biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used primarily in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It works by decreasing glucose production in the liver, reducing glucose absorption in the gut, and increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle and fat tissue. By lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose levels, metformin helps to control blood sugar levels and improve glycemic control. It is also used off-label for various other indications such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes. Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious side effect that requires immediate medical attention.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

Adrenal gland diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function or structure of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. They are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are various types of adrenal gland diseases, some of which include:

1. Adrenal Insufficiency: A condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones, particularly cortisol and aldosterone. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and skin hyperpigmentation.
2. Cushing's Syndrome: A condition characterized by an excess of cortisol in the body. It can be caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, or it can result from long-term use of steroid medications.
3. Adrenal Cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and high blood pressure.
4. Pheochromocytoma: A tumor that develops in the adrenal glands and causes an overproduction of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Symptoms may include high blood pressure, headaches, sweating, and anxiety.
5. Adrenal Hemorrhage: A condition where bleeding occurs in the adrenal glands, often as a result of severe trauma or infection. This can lead to adrenal insufficiency and other complications.
6. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: An inherited disorder that affects the production of cortisol and other hormones in the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include ambiguous genitalia, precocious puberty, and short stature.

Treatment for adrenal gland diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Hyperinsulinism is a medical condition characterized by an excess production and release of insulin from the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells in the body to take in sugar (glucose) for energy or storage. In hyperinsulinism, the increased insulin levels can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can lead to symptoms such as sweating, shaking, confusion, and in severe cases, seizures or loss of consciousness.

There are several types of hyperinsulinism, including congenital forms that are present at birth and acquired forms that develop later in life. Congenital hyperinsulinism is often caused by genetic mutations that affect the way insulin is produced or released from the pancreas. Acquired hyperinsulinism can be caused by factors such as certain medications, hormonal disorders, or tumors of the pancreas.

Treatment for hyperinsulinism depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Treatment options may include dietary changes, medication to reduce insulin secretion, or surgery to remove part or all of the pancreas.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Alopecia is a medical term that refers to the loss of hair or baldness. It can occur in various parts of the body, but it's most commonly used to describe hair loss from the scalp. Alopecia can have several causes, including genetics, hormonal changes, medical conditions, and aging.

There are different types of alopecia, such as:

* Alopecia Areata: It is a condition that causes round patches of hair loss on the scalp or other parts of the body. The immune system attacks the hair follicles, causing the hair to fall out.
* Androgenetic Alopecia: Also known as male pattern baldness or female pattern baldness, it's a genetic condition that causes gradual hair thinning and eventual hair loss, typically following a specific pattern.
* Telogen Effluvium: It is a temporary hair loss condition caused by stress, medication, pregnancy, or other factors that can cause the hair follicles to enter a resting phase, leading to shedding and thinning of the hair.

The treatment for alopecia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as with telogen effluvium, hair growth may resume without any treatment. However, other forms of alopecia may require medical intervention, including topical treatments, oral medications, or even hair transplant surgery in severe cases.

Flutamide is an anti-androgen medication, which is primarily used to treat prostate cancer. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male hormones), such as testosterone, on cancer cells. This helps to slow down or stop the growth of prostate cancer cells. Flutamide may be given in combination with other medications, such as a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, to enhance its effectiveness. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets.

Flutamide can have side effects, including breast tenderness and enlargement, hot flashes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of sexual desire. In rare cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as liver damage. It is important to be monitored by a healthcare professional while taking this medication to ensure that it is working properly and to manage any potential side effects.

Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase, also known as CYP17A1, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells in the adrenal glands and gonads. This enzyme catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and subsequent lyase cleavage of pregnenolone and progesterone, converting them into dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, respectively. These steroid intermediates are essential for the biosynthesis of both glucocorticoids and sex steroids, including cortisol, aldosterone, estrogens, and testosterone.

Defects in the CYP17A1 gene can lead to several disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased production of cortisol and sex steroids and increased mineralocorticoid levels. This condition results in sexual infantilism, electrolyte imbalances, and hypertension.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Theca cells are specialized cells that are part of the follicle where the egg matures in the ovary. They are located in the outer layer of the follicle and play an important role in producing hormones necessary for the growth and development of the follicle and the egg within it. Specifically, they produce androgens, such as testosterone, which are then converted into estrogens by another type of cells in the follicle called granulosa cells. These hormones help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a possible pregnancy. In some cases, theca cells can become overactive and produce too much testosterone, leading to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Menarche is the first occurrence of menstruation in a female adolescent, indicating the onset of reproductive capability. It usually happens between the ages of 10 and 16, with an average age of around 12-13 years old, but it can vary widely from one individual to another due to various factors such as genetics, nutrition, and overall health.

Achieving menarche is a significant milestone in a girl's life, signaling the transition from childhood to adolescence. It is also an essential indicator of sexual maturation, often used in conjunction with other physical changes to assess pubertal development. However, it does not necessarily mean that a girl is psychologically or emotionally prepared for menstruation and sexual activity; therefore, appropriate education and support are crucial during this period.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

A Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is a medical test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. It measures how well your body is able to process glucose, which is a type of sugar.

During the test, you will be asked to fast (not eat or drink anything except water) for at least eight hours before the test. Then, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample to measure your fasting blood sugar level. After that, you will be given a sugary drink containing a specific amount of glucose. Your blood sugar levels will be measured again after two hours and sometimes also after one hour.

The results of the test will indicate how well your body is able to process the glucose and whether you have normal, impaired, or diabetic glucose tolerance. If your blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes, you may have prediabetes, which means that you are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

It is important to note that a Glucose Tolerance Test should be performed under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as high blood sugar levels can be dangerous if not properly managed.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Androgen antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of androgens, which are hormones that contribute to male sexual development and characteristics. They work by binding to androgen receptors in cells, preventing the natural androgens from attaching and exerting their effects. This can be useful in treating conditions that are caused or worsened by androgens, such as prostate cancer, hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women), and acne. Examples of androgen antagonists include flutamide, bicalutamide, and spironolactone.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

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Cortet-Rudelli C, Dewailly D (Sep 21, 2006). "Diagnosis of Hyperandrogenism in Female Adolescents". Hyperandrogenism in ... Amoah-Arko A, Evans M, Rees A (20 October 2017). "Effects of myoinositol and D-chiro inositol on hyperandrogenism and ovulation ... If testosterone levels are above 100 to 200 ng/dL, per different sources, other possible causes of hyperandrogenism, such as ... Huang A, Brennan K, Azziz R (April 2010). "Prevalence of hyperandrogenemia in the polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosed by the ...
"Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-12-12. Welt, Corinne K.; Barbieri, Robert L. " ... Abnormal androgen production is also induced, eventually leading to hyperandrogenism and Müllerian aplasia. Bardet-Biedl ...
CPA is one of the most commonly used medications in the treatment of hirsutism, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovary syndrome ... Catteau-Jonard S, Cortet-Rudelli C, Richard-Proust C, Dewailly D (2012). "Hyperandrogenism in adolescent girls". Pediatric and ... explains why there are relatively few studies of it in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions such as hyperandrogenism ...
TRIM37 Mullerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism; 158330; WNT4 Multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata; 150800; FH Multiple ...
This pathway is not always considered in the clinical evaluation of patients with hyperandrogenism, for instance due to rare ... "Diagnosis of hyperandrogenism: biochemical criteria". Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 20 (2): 177-91. doi:10.1016/j.beem. ...
171-. ISBN 978-3-642-66353-6. Stanczyk FZ (June 2006). "Diagnosis of hyperandrogenism: biochemical criteria". Best Pract Res ...
Hyperandrogenism is a condition in women in which androgen levels are excessively and abnormally high. It is commonly seen in ... Hyperandrogenism is associated with virilization - that is, the development of masculine secondary sexual characteristics like ... Although antiandrogens do not treat the underlying cause of hyperandrogenism (e.g., PCOS), they are able to prevent and reverse ... Androgen-dependent skin and hair conditions like acne and pattern hair loss may also occur in hyperandrogenism, and menstrual ...
"Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism: MedlinePlus Genetics". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-11-11. Biason-Lauber, Konrad, A ... hyperandrogenism) May develop acne and male pattern of hair growth including hair on the face/chest (hirsutism) Susceptible to ...
"IOC Regulations on Female Hyperandrogenism" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 22 June 2012. Archived (PDF) from the ...
"CAS suspends IAAF Hyperandrogenism Regulations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August ... "The application of the IAAF hyperandrogenism regulations remain suspended" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 ... an interim arbitral award suspending the regulations used by the IAAF to determine whether athletes with hyperandrogenism were ...
In regards to hyperandrogenism in female athletes, the IOC encouraged reinstatement of the IAAF policies suspended by the Court ... In doing so the court immediately suspended the practice of hyperandrogenism regulation used by the IAAF and declared it void ... In June 2012, in advance of the 2012 Summer Olympics, the IOC released IOC Regulations on Female Hyperandrogenism to address ... In November 2015, the IOC held a meeting to address both its transgender and hyperandrogenism policies. In regard to ...
"IAAF approves new rules on hyperandrogenism". The Guardian. 12 April 2011. Matt Slater (28 July 2015). "Sport & gender: A ... hyperandrogenism regulation' by track and field's governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations. It ...
... recent case reports further support the affiliation of adrenocortical adenomas with hyperandrogenism or florid hyperandrogenism ... "Florid hyperandrogenism due to a benign adrenocortical adenoma". BMJ Case Reports. 2018: bcr-2018-224804. doi:10.1136/bcr-2018- ... hyperandrogenism/feminization, virilization, or hirsutism. Some of the common symptoms associated with adrenocortical adenomas ... More prevalent in females Hyperandrogenism Irregular menstrual cycles Neuropsychological Sleep disorders Depression Skin Easy ...
Schmidt TH, Shinkai K (October 2015). "Evidence-based approach to cutaneous hyperandrogenism in women". Journal of the American ... Ibáñez L, de Zegher F (2006). "Low-dose flutamide-metformin therapy for hyperinsulinemic hyperandrogenism in non-obese ... as well as in hyperandrogenism (e.g., in polycystic ovary syndrome or congenital adrenal hyperplasia), and is effective in ... it significantly improves the signs of hyperandrogenism, hirsutism and particularly acne [48]. [...] flutamide 500mg/d combined ...
Some patients may manifest premature pubarche and hyperandrogenism. Other features that may form part of the syndrome include ...
It is widely used in the treatment of acne, excessive hair growth, and hyperandrogenism in women, who have much lower ... ISBN 978-3-662-45138-0. Schmidt TH, Shinkai K (October 2015). "Evidence-based approach to cutaneous hyperandrogenism in women ...
Shearer, Jasmin L; Salmons, Nabeel; Murphy, Damian J; Gama, Rousseau (January 2017). "Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism: the ...
HAIR-AN is found in 1-3% women affected hyperandrogenism. Other studies have proposed the SAHA syndrome as a cause of the HAIR- ... The HAIR-AN syndrome is a rare subtype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) characterized by hyperandrogenism (HA), insulin ... In the majority of young women affected by HAIR-AN, hyperandrogenism leads to oily skin, acne, hirsutism, menstrual ... Dédjan, A. H.; Chadli, A.; El Aziz, S.; Farouqi, A. (2015). "Case Report Hyperandrogenism-Insulin Resistance-Acanthosis ...
Hypogonadism Hyperandrogenism Hypoestrogenism Hypergonadism Hyperestrogenism Androgen Bhasin, S; Brito, JP; Cunningham, GR; ...
Admoni O, Israel S, Lavi I, Gur M, Tenenbaum-Rakover Y (June 2006). "Hyperandrogenism in carriers of CYP21 mutations: the role ... Due to hyperandrogenism, females may present with symptoms like hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, acne, infertility, and androgenetic ... This backdoor pathway is not always considered in the clinical evaluation of patients with hyperandrogenism conditions such as ... The particularly mild clinical symptoms of LOCAH such as hyperandrogenism, hirsutism and acne or infertility overlap with other ...
Severe cases of hyperandrogenism, such as in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. As part of the pharmacologic treatment of ...
Treatment of hyperandrogenism can be done through prescription of antiandrogens. They do so by inhibiting the release of ... In addition to cortisol, the adrenal gland also releases androgen, leading to hyperandrogenism, which gives rise to the ... One of the symptoms of cortisone reductase deficiency is hyperandrogenism, resulting from activation of the Hypothalamic- ...
Hyperandrogenism in women results in menstrual abnormalities, insulin resistance, and ovarian dysfunction in the body. Obesity ... Hyperandrogenism can disrupt this cycle and decrease follicular maturation, leading to irregular menstrual cycles (anovulatory ... Studies have shown that hyperandrogenism could be caused by a reaction between ovarian theca cells and reactive oxygen species ... Insulin has been shown to increase androgen production, leading to hyperandrogenism. These androgens are converted to estrogen ...
In women with hyperandrogenism, mean levels of total testosterone have been reported to be 62.1 ng/dL. Testosterone's ... Excessive levels of testosterone in men may be associated with hyperandrogenism, higher risk of heart failure, increased ... "Non-sex hormone-binding globulin-bound testosterone as a marker for hyperandrogenism". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & ... "Utilization of commercial laboratory results in management of hyperandrogenism in women". Endocrine Practice. 4 (1): 1-10. doi: ...
Some studies suggest female athletes with FHA may also be affected by hyperandrogenism in addition to hypoestrogenism, and it ... Javed A, Kashyap R, Lteif AN (2015-01-13). "Hyperandrogenism in female athletes with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: a ... and hyperandrogenism including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) must be excluded before a diagnosis of FHA can be given. A ... less stress fractures and higher BMDs have been observed in patients whose FHA may be due to hyperandrogenemia. However, ...
Stewart, Erin (17 August 2016). "Haters and hyperandrogenism: Caster Semenya's road to becoming an Olympic favourite". Special ...
Hyperandrogenism HAIR-AN syndrome List of cutaneous conditions Jean L. Bolognia; Joseph L. Jorizzo; Ronald P. Rapini. ...
"Utilization of commercial laboratory results in management of hyperandrogenism in women". Endocrine Practice. 4 (1): 1-10. doi: ...
A controlled clinical study has not found cimetidine to be effective in the treatment of hyperandrogenism.[123, 124] 5. Pregler ... Thus, this drug is not recommended for the treatment of hyperandrogenism. Katsambas AD, Dessinioti C (2010). "Hormonal therapy ... and hyperandrogenism (high androgen levels) in women. As such, its use for such indications is not recommended. Cimetidine is ...
Hyperandrogenism affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Hyperandrogenism can affect both men and women but is more ... Because hyperandrogenism is characterized by elevated male sex hormone levels, symptoms of hyperandrogenism in men are often ... If hyperandrogenism is severe, virilization may occur. Family history is also assessed for occurrences of hyperandrogenism ... Diagnosing hyperandrogenism can be complex due to the wide variety and severity of signs and symptoms that may present. It is ...
Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism is a condition that affects the reproductive system in females. Explore symptoms, ... Mutations in the WNT4 gene cause Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism. This gene belongs to a family of WNT genes that play ... Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism is a very rare disorder; it has been identified in only a few individuals worldwide. ... Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism is a condition that affects the reproductive system in females. This condition is caused ...
... s controversial Hyperandrogenism policy ÔÇô a policy which intends to force women athletes with high ... The IAAFs Hyperandrogenism regulations applies only on women with higher levels of testosterone and hyperandrogenic female ... The IWG side event on Hyperandrogenism at the IWG World Conference will be facilitated by Dr. Payoshni Mitra, Athletes Rights ... International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)s controversial Hyperandrogenism policy ÔÇô a policy which intends to ...
Our International Sports Law Diary ,br/,The ,a href=http://www.sportslaw.nl target=_blank,Asser International Sports Law Centre,/a, is part of the ,a href=https://www.asser.nl/ target=_blank,,img src=/sportslaw/blog/media/logo_asser_horizontal.jpg style=vertical-align: bottom; margin-left: 7px;width: 140px alt=T.M.C. Asser Instituut /,,/a,, All posts tagged Hyperandrogenism
Our International Sports Law Diary ,br/,The ,a href=http://www.sportslaw.nl target=_blank,Asser International Sports Law Centre,/a, is part of the ,a href=https://www.asser.nl/ target=_blank,,img src=/sportslaw/blog/media/logo_asser_horizontal.jpg style=vertical-align: bottom; margin-left: 7px;width: 140px alt=T.M.C. Asser Instituut /,,/a,, All posts tagged Hyperandrogenism
Postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenism: case reports of three patients. Andreja Maric , Sonja Medjimurec , Tea Premosa & ... Signs of hyperandrogenism regressed, DM2 is well controlled with metformin.. Conclusion: Resolving the origin of androgen ... Signs of hyperandrogenism regressed.. Postmenopausal woman, 59 yrs, presented with perennial DM2, diabetic retinopathy, ...
Effect of berberine on hyperandrogenemia, ovulation dysfunction and inflammation in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome ... Purpose: To study the effect of berberine (BBR) on hyperandrogenemia (HA), ovulation dysfunction and inflammation in a mouse ... Conclusion: Berberine lowers the weight of PCOS mice, mitigates hyperandrogenemia and inflammatory state, and enhances recovery ...
Hyperandrogenism. Excess androgen production, or hyperandrogenism, is a defining feature of PCOS. To diagnose it in a female, a ... Doctors call this hyperandrogenism. Androgens play an important role in the development of acne. They cause the glands in the ...
Right now, hyperandrogenism would only be one condition that has been addressed, but there would be several different ... And since we have done so for hyperandrogenism, if these factors fall outside the norm, and give some athletes an advantage ... In particular, there is a condition called hyperandrogenism wherein females have higher levels of androgens, such as ... Yes, they might boost athletic performance, but it isnt as though hyperandrogenism suddenly makes people superhumans. Athletes ...
This module looks at pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and outcomes of hyperadrenocorticism / hyperandrogenism ... hyperandrogenism in ferrets. This is a one-part course that can also be taken as part of the Endocrine conditions course bundle ... Hyperadrenocorticism/Hyperandrogenism £15.00 not including VAT Click here to be notified by email when Hyperadrenocorticism/ ... Develop your knowledge and understanding of hyperadrenocorticism / hyperandrogenism in ferrets. This is a one-part course that ...
Copyright ©2023 The Curbsiders, All Rights Reserved.. The Curbsiders are board-certified Internists. The opinions expressed on this show are those of The Curbsiders and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of their places of employment. The opinions expressed on this podcast are meant for entertainment and education and should not be used to diagnose or treat any medical condition nor should they be used as a substitute for medical advice from a qualified, board-certified practicing clinician. The Curbsiders have no relevant financial disclosures.. ...
Hyperandrogenism can result in a virilisation syndrome, which is characterised by clitoral hypertrophy, deepening of the voice ... Hyperandrogenism can result in a virilisation syndrome, which is characterised by clitoral hypertrophy, deepening of the voice ... Androgen-secreting neoplasms of the ovary are a rare cause of hyperandrogenism in women and account for ,5% of all ovarian ... Ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a post-menopausal patient with severe hyperandrogenism. ...
Why pick on hyperandrogenism?. So then why is hyperandrogenism singled out as a biological variation that makes competition ... This decision about hyperandrogenism is about women in sports and women outside sports. Semenyas case would never have ... This is because setting a limit on hyperandrogenism and singling it out from other biological variations that may confer an ... The Court of Arbitration for Sports suspension of regulations on hyperandrogenism-a medical condition that causes an excessive ...
Sonja B. Kristiansen at Houston Fertility Center provides specialized fertility treatment for patients with hyperandrogenism. ... What Is Hyperandrogenism?. Hyperandrogenism is a term used to describe women who have an excess of male hormones in their body ... One of the primary causes of hyperandrogenism is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the development of cysts on the ovaries as ... Women diagnosed with PCOS or hyperandrogenism who are also overweight are first encouraged to achieve a healthy weight before ...
MeCP2 duplication causes hyperandrogenism by upregulating LHCGR and downregulating RORα *Yu-Meng Wang ...
The treatment of hyperandrogenism with oral contraceptives. / Azziz, R.; Gay, F. In: Seminars in Reproductive Endocrinology, ... Azziz R, Gay F. The treatment of hyperandrogenism with oral contraceptives. Seminars in Reproductive Endocrinology. 1989 Jan 1; ... Azziz, R. ; Gay, F. / The treatment of hyperandrogenism with oral contraceptives. In: Seminars in Reproductive Endocrinology. ... Azziz, R & Gay, F 1989, The treatment of hyperandrogenism with oral contraceptives, Seminars in Reproductive Endocrinology, ...
Candidate gene analysis in premature pubarche and adolescent hyperandrogenism. Fertil Steril. 2001 Apr; 75(4):724-30. ...
Diagnosis of hyperandrogenism: clinical criteria as a source in references of Wikipedia ... In June 2020 the work Diagnosis of hyperandrogenism: clinical criteria was on the 268,609th place in the ranking of the most ... From Wikipedians' point of view, Diagnosis of hyperandrogenism: clinical criteria is the 413,802nd most reliable ...
Hyperandrogenism - diagnosis. Hyperandrogenism - therapy. Women. Specialty. Endocrinology. Gynecology. Abstract. This book is a ... 1. Definition and epidemiology -- 2. Causes of hyperandrogenism -- 3. Clinical features and assessment of hyperandrogenism: ... This book is a practical clinical guide to the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hyperandrogenism, an extremely ... practical clinical guide to the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hyperandrogenism, an extremely common endocrine ...
Hyper-androgenism. National Institutes of Health (1990) [3]. Both of the following and exclusion of related disorders. Oligo- ... Hyperandrogenism as critical, with addition of at least one ovarian marker and exclusion of related disorders. Oligo- ... There are multiple supplements with proposed benefit in PCOS, addressing both insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Although ... Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical diagnosis characterized by oligoovulation, hyperandrogenism, and often the ...
Many have a form of polycystic ovary syndrome, with irregular or infrequent menstrual cycles, hyperandrogenism, and ovarian ...
Regarding hyperandrogenism, the three guidelines consider hirsutism as clinical evidence of androgen excess. According to the ... Zeng, X.; Xie, Y.-J.; Liu, Y.-T.; Long, S.-L.; Mo, Z.-C. Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Correlation between hyperandrogenism, ... Numerous studies proved that women and adolescents with PCOS and obesity have more pronounced signs of hyperandrogenism and ... Ibáñez, L.; Potau, N.; Francois, I.; de Zegher, F. Precocious Pubarche, Hyperinsulinism, and Ovarian Hyperandrogenism in Girls ...
Hyperandrogenism: a condition in which females make more androgens (male hormones) than usual. While the main role of androgens ...
Impact of EA and physical exercise on hyperandrogenism and oligo/amenorrhea in women with PCOS. January 1, 2011. /in ...
Maternal hyperandrogenism is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and overweight in adolescent and adult ... Noroozzadeh, M., Rahmati, M., Behboudi-Gandevani, S. & Tehrani, F. R. (2022). Maternal hyperandrogenism is associated with a ...
The impact of hyperandrogenism in female obesity and cardiometabolic diseases associated with polycystic ovary syndrome ... 2013) The impact of hyperandrogenism in female obesity and cardiometabolic diseases associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. ... Based on evidence from cross-sectional and interventional studies, hyperandrogenism, obesity, and cardiometabolic risk in women ... that have provided novel insights into a potential role for hyperandrogenism in the development of adverse cardiometabolic risk ...
Hyperandrogenism. Hyperplasia. Leydig cell tumor. Ovarian neoplasms. Ovary. Postmenopause. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. Sex cord- ... Clinical hyperandrogenism data, hormonal status (T, E2, LH, FSH) and the pelvic images (Transvaginal sonography and Magnetic ... Methods: Thirty-four postmenopausal women ranging from 52 to 80 years of age with clinical hyperandrogenism referred to the ... The clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, especially deepening of the voice (p < 0.001) and muscle hypertrophy (p = 0.01), were ...
Elevated androstenedione levels may cause symptoms of hyperandrogenism in females. Measurement of androstenedione is useful in ...
... and signs of hyperandrogenism. Although the exact etiopathophysiology of this condition is unclear, PCOS can result from ... Alemzadeh R, Kichler J, Calhoun M. Spectrum of metabolic dysfunction in relationship with hyperandrogenemia in obese adolescent ... hyperandrogenemia is essential for the diagnosis in this age group. [46] ...
The hormonal imbalance leads to an increased production of androgens called hyperandrogenism. Insulin is significant for the ... Hyperandrogenism • Increased risk of miscarriages • PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) Infertility is not an absolute condition ...
  • To study the effect of berberine (BBR) on hyperandrogenemia (HA), ovulation dysfunction and inflammation in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (ajol.info)
  • Berberine lowers the weight of PCOS mice, mitigates hyperandrogenemia and inflammatory state, and enhances recovery of ovulation. (ajol.info)
  • Excess androgen production, or hyperandrogenism, is a defining feature of PCOS. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One of the primary causes of hyperandrogenism is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the development of cysts on the ovaries as a result of malfunctioning ovarian follicles. (infertilityivfhouston.com)
  • Women diagnosed with PCOS or hyperandrogenism who are also overweight are first encouraged to achieve a healthy weight before beginning fertility treatment. (infertilityivfhouston.com)
  • This procedure has proven successful for women with hyperandrogenism, PCOS, or other ovulation disorders. (infertilityivfhouston.com)
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical diagnosis characterized by oligoovulation, hyperandrogenism, and often the presence of polycystic ovaries. (va.gov)
  • Impact of EA and physical exercise on hyperandrogenism and oligo/amenorrhea in women with PCOS. (acupuncturepregnancy.com.au)
  • The Rotterdam diagnostic criteria have also introduced two new phenotypic subgroups (including normoandrogenemic women with PCOS) that have provided novel insights into a potential role for hyperandrogenism in the development of adverse cardiometabolic risk in women with PCOS. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Although no agreed-upon diagnostic criteria currently exist for adolescent polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), hyperandrogenemia is essential for the diagnosis in this age group. (medscape.com)
  • Supplements of resveratrol may reverse the hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a new study suggests. (medscape.com)
  • Based on these observations, he and his colleagues hypothesized that resveratrol might relieve the hyperandrogenism seen in patients with PCOS. (medscape.com)
  • It seems that women with PCOS are especially vulnerable to developing a fatty liver - especially if they also have hyperandrogenism. (liversupport.com)
  • Calculated free testosterone, free androgen index, or calculated bioavailable testosterone should be used to assess biochemical hyperandrogenism in the diagnosis of PCOS. (medscape.com)
  • The main diagnostic part of PCOS is hyperandrogenism, which is having too many androgens, or male sex hormones. (healthline.com)
  • Other signs of hyperandrogenism (eg, clitoromegaly, increased muscle mass, voice deepening) are more characteristic of an extreme form of PCOS termed hyperthecosis. (medscape.com)
  • Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition characterized by high levels of androgens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperandrogenism can affect both men and women but is more noticeable in women since elevated levels of androgens in women may facilitate virilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women with Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism have higher-than-normal levels of male sex hormones called androgens in their blood (hyperandrogenism), which can cause acne and excessive facial hair (facial hirsutism). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Loss of regulation by WNT4 likely disrupts development of the female reproductive system and induces abnormal production of androgens, leading to the features of Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In particular, there is a condition called hyperandrogenism wherein females have higher levels of 'androgens,' such as testosterone. (thesportsniche.com)
  • The hormonal imbalance leads to an increased production of androgens called hyperandrogenism. (pearltrees.com)
  • Symptoms of hyperandrogenism may include acne, seborrhea (inflamed skin), hair loss on the scalp, increased body or facial hair, and infrequent or absent menstruation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of hyperandrogenism can be treated with birth control pills or antiandrogens, such as cyproterone acetate or spironolactone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because hyperandrogenism is characterized by elevated male sex hormone levels, symptoms of hyperandrogenism in men are often negligible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated androstenedione levels may cause symptoms of hyperandrogenism in females. (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms may include the following: Hirsutism (male-pattern hair growth) Alopecia (balding) Masculine appearance Hidradenitis suppurativa Polycystic ovarian syndrome Oligomenorrhea (menstrual irregularities) Acne Obesity Infertility Deepening of voice Oily skin Seborrhea (skin inflammation) Libido (increased sex drive) Type 2 diabetes Hyperandrogenism, especially high levels of testosterone, can cause serious adverse effects if left untreated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prominent signs of hyperandrogenism are hirsutism (unwanted growth of hair, especially in the abdominal region and on the back), adult acne, deepening of the voice, and alopecia (balding). (wikipedia.org)
  • Virilizing ovarian tumors (VOT) and ovarian stromal hyperthecosis (OH) are the most common hyperandrogenism etiologies in the postmenopausal women. (usp.br)
  • Due to the difficulties in establishing the differential diagnosis between VOT and OH, bilateral oophorectomy is the treatment of choice in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin. (usp.br)
  • point of view, 'Diagnosis of hyperandrogenism: clinical criteria' is the 413,802nd most reliable publication with DOI number in different language versions of Wikipedia (AR-score). (bestref.net)
  • This book is a practical clinical guide to the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hyperandrogenism, an extremely common endocrine disease that can affect women from adolescence to menopause. (nshealth.ca)
  • Clinical features and assessment of hyperandrogenism: differential diagnosis for clinical use -- 4. (nshealth.ca)
  • Obtain total testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels in patients with clinical hyperandrogenism and 8 AM 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels if late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is suspected. (medscape.com)
  • Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCP) should be recommended to manage hyperandrogenism and/or irregular menstrual cycles. (medscape.com)
  • Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism is a condition that affects the reproductive system in females. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These regulations were referred to by both bodies as hyperandrogenism regulations and have led to athletes with DSDs being described as having hyperandrogenism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IAAF's Hyperandrogenism regulations applies only on women with higher levels of testosterone and hyperandrogenic female athletes are believed to have performance advantage over other athletes. (sundaystandard.info)
  • Hyperandrogenism is a term used to describe women who have an excess of male hormones in their body. (infertilityivfhouston.com)
  • Hyperandrogenism clinically manifests as excess terminal body hair in a male distribution pattern. (medscape.com)
  • Hyperandrogenism affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperandrogenism in women is typically diagnosed in late adolescence with a medical evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While hyperandrogenism in women can be caused by external factors, it can also appear spontaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Girls with Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism do not inherit the mutation from their mother, because women with this disorder cannot have children. (medlineplus.gov)
  • International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)'s controversial Hyperandrogenism policy ÔÇô a policy which intends to force women athletes with high testerone levels to take medication to regulate the hormones ahead of competitions ÔÇô has attracted the wrath of International Working Group on Women and Sports (IWG). (sundaystandard.info)
  • Based on evidence from cross-sectional and interventional studies, hyperandrogenism, obesity, and cardiometabolic risk in women appear to be linked through complex and multidirectional pathways. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Data from female-to-male transsexuals are particularly informative because these show direct effects of hyperandrogenism (induced through exogenous use of androgenic therapies) on fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk in women. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Candidate gene analysis in premature pubarche and adolescent hyperandrogenism. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Slike spekulasjoner bidro til en innramming av Caster Semenya som et problem, og som «idrettens store dilemma» (Røed-Johannesen 2019). (forskningsradet.no)
  • Individuals with Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism typically have an underdeveloped or absent uterus and may also have abnormalities of other reproductive organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism may occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At the crossroads of fertility and metabolism: the importance of AMPK-dependent signaling in female infertility associated with hyperandrogenism. (who.int)
  • But Semenya is thought to have a condition known as hyperandrogenism , which means that she produces exceptionally high levels of testosterone. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome accounts for about 70% of hyperandrogenism cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also examines the issue of hyperandrogenism and evidence-based treatments of autism. (intechopen.com)
  • In addition to testing, we also provide a wide range of fertility services, including fertility treatment for hyperandrogenism . (infertilityivfhouston.com)
  • In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (now World Athletics) and IOC (International Olympic Committee) released statements restricting the eligibility of female athletes with high testosterone, whether through hyperandrogenism or as a result of a difference in sex development (DSD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperandrogenism has also been observed to increase insulin tolerance, which can lead to type two diabetes and dyslipidemia, such as high cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a recently published case of type B insulin resistance masquerading as ovarian hyperthecosis, GnRH agonist treatment curtailed hyperandrogenism without ameliorating diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • Our objective was to compare whether timed caloric intake differentially influences insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in lean PCOS women. (nih.gov)
  • We studied the syndrome of acanthosis nigricans, obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenemia in 22 patients. (utmb.edu)
  • If the total serum testosterone level is normal, measure the free serum level because hyperandrogenism (and insulin resistance, if present) decreases sex steroid-binding globulin, such that the unbound, biologically active testosterone moiety may be elevated even if the total level is unremarkable. (medscape.com)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. (cfp.ca)
  • Ovarian Hyperandrogenism and Response to Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analogues in Primary Severe Insulin Resistance. (nih.gov)
  • [ 4 ] Hyperandrogenism, in turn, contributes to the generation of insulin resistance through the stimulation of lipolysis, and therefore the increased blood availability of free fatty acids and the modification of muscle-skeletal structure and metabolic activity. (medscape.com)
  • 5 , 6 Premature onset of puberty is preceded by childhood insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia, 7 which may persist after puberty 8 and continue into early adulthood. (cmaj.ca)
  • It is currently unclear to what extent PCOS-associated traits (hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and coronary artery disease) are the result of environmental factors or genetic predisposition. (nih.gov)
  • We describe an adolescent with type A IR who experienced resolution of clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism during GnRH agonist treatment. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] The diagnostic criteria of PCOS are currently based on the presence of clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism in association with chronic oligo-anovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology at ultrasound, after the exclusion of other causes. (medscape.com)
  • These features include oligomenorrhea or anovulation, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. (ukessays.com)
  • [ 3 ] Clinical hyperandrogenism is a concern for patients, yet there are limited data on treatment options in severe IR syndromes. (medscape.com)
  • This book is a practical clinical guide to the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hyperandrogenism, an extremely common endocrine disease that can affect women from adolescence to menopause. (nshealth.ca)
  • Clinical features and assessment of hyperandrogenism: differential diagnosis for clinical use -- 4. (nshealth.ca)
  • Excessive hyperandrogenism, though proper hydrocortisone supplementation is a frequent clinical problem in girls with congenit. (nel.edu)
  • In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (now World Athletics) and IOC (International Olympic Committee) released statements restricting the eligibility of female athletes with high testosterone, whether through hyperandrogenism or as a result of a difference in sex development (DSD). (wikipedia.org)
  • 8] In 2014, Dutee Chand, a female athlete with hyperandrogenism, challenged the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAFF) in order to compete in the Olympics despite her high testosterone levels. (villanova.edu)
  • 17] The 2015 guidelines notably did not eliminate testosterone tests for female athletes with hyperandrogenism. (villanova.edu)
  • 20] Additionally, it remains unclear whether female athletes with hyperandrogenism will still have to undergo genital examinations after their testosterone levels are determined to be too high. (villanova.edu)
  • 1. Hyperandrogenism due to a testosterone-secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor associated with a dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-secreting adrenal adenoma in a postmenopausal woman: case presentation and review of literature. (nih.gov)
  • Women with naturally elevated endogenous testosterone (hyperandrogenism) are being treated as if they are cheating. (humankinetics.com)
  • Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism is a condition that affects the reproductive system in females. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism typically have an underdeveloped or absent uterus and may also have abnormalities of other reproductive organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women with Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism have higher-than-normal levels of male sex hormones called androgens in their blood (hyperandrogenism), which can cause acne and excessive facial hair (facial hirsutism). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the WNT4 gene cause Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Loss of regulation by WNT4 likely disrupts development of the female reproductive system and induces abnormal production of androgens, leading to the features of Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Girls with Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism do not inherit the mutation from their mother, because women with this disorder cannot have children. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism may occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 11. Diffuse stromal Leydig cell hyperplasia: a unique cause of postmenopausal hyperandrogenism and virilization. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism. (nih.gov)
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Stimulation Test Versus Venous Sampling in Postmenopausal Hyperandrogenism. (nni.com.sg)
  • It presents with mild acanthosis nigricans, severe IR, and hyperandrogenism in the absence of obesity or lipodystrophy. (medscape.com)
  • It presents after puberty with acanthosis nigricans, IR, and hyperandrogenism. (medscape.com)
  • As female obesity is associated with hyperandrogenism and infertility, we studied the role of SDC3 polymorphisms in female individuals undergoing diagnostics prior to infertility treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia as a mechanism for hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of this syndrome should permit monitoring for the development of hyperandrogenemia during puberty and determination of other affected family members. (utmb.edu)
  • GnRH agonist therapy should be considered in the treatment of hyperandrogenism in severe cases of IR. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] Similarly, we describe an adolescent patient with type A IR who demonstrated resolution of hyperandrogenism during GnRH agonist treatment while severe IR persisted. (medscape.com)
  • 10. Hyperandrogenism in post-menopausal women: a diagnosis challenge. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Coincidental diagnosis of an occult hilar steroid cell tumor of the ovary and a cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma in a 49-year-old woman with severe hyperandrogenism. (nih.gov)
  • These criteria were recently expanded to include polycystic ovaries apparent on ultrasonography and biochemical hyperandrogenemia, but these criteria are not necessary for diagnosis. (cfp.ca)
  • Symptoms of hyperandrogenism may include acne, seborrhea (inflamed skin), hair loss on the scalp, increased body or facial hair, and infrequent or absent menstruation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated androstenedione levels may cause symptoms of hyperandrogenism in females. (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms of hyperandrogenism can be treated with birth control pills or antiandrogens, such as cyproterone acetate or spironolactone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because hyperandrogenism is characterized by elevated male sex hormone levels, symptoms of hyperandrogenism in men are often negligible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of hyperandrogenism with severe IR, dysglycemia, and normal lipids, type A IR was considered. (medscape.com)
  • 9. Pure leydig cell tumour of the ovary in a post-menopausal patient with severe hyperandrogenism and erythrocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • In the past, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has required that trans athletes or athletes with naturally-occurring hormonal imbalances (such as hyperandrogenism) submit to embarrassing sex tests. (villanova.edu)
  • Presenting the subject of Hyperandrogenism, actress Taapsee Pannu played an instrumental part in putting forth the concern of 'gender test' in sports. (outlookindia.com)