Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.BrazilLarva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Muscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Basophil Degranulation Test: An in vitro test used in the diagnosis of allergies including drug hypersensitivity. The allergen is added to the patient's white blood cells and the subsequent histamine release is measured.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Ant Venoms: Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Dicistroviridae: A family of invertebrate RNA viruses in the order Picornavirales.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Bursa of Fabricius: An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.

Evolutionary dynamics of a mitochondrial rearrangement "hot spot" in the Hymenoptera. (1/339)

The arrangement of tRNA genes at the junction of the cytochrome oxidase II and ATPase 8 genes was examined across a broad range of Hymenoptera. Seven distinct arrangements of tRNA genes were identified among a group of wasps that have diverged over the last 180 Myr (suborder Apocrita); many of the rearrangements represent evolutionarily independent events. Approximately equal proportions of local rearrangements, inversions, and translocations were observed, in contrast to vertebrate mitochondria, in which local rearrangements predominate. Surprisingly, homoplasy was evident among certain types of rearrangement; a reversal of the plesiomorphic gene order has arisen on three separate occasions in the Insecta, while the tRNA(H) gene has been translocated to this locus on two separate occasions. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene translocation is real and is not an artifactual translocation resulting from the duplication of a resident tRNA gene followed by mutation of the anticodon. The nature of the intergenic sequences surrounding this region does not indicate that it should be especially prone to rearrangement; it does not generally have the tandem or inverted repeats that might facilitate this plasticity. Intriguingly, these findings are consistent with the view that during the evolution of the Hymenoptera, rearrangements increased at the same time that the rate of point mutations and compositional bias also increased. This association may direct investigations into mitochondrial genome plasticity in other invertebrate lineages.  (+info)

Presence of polydnavirus transcripts in an egg-larval parasitoid and its lepidopterous host. (2/339)

The parasitoid Chelonus inanitus (Braconidae, Hymenoptera) oviposits into eggs of Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) and, along with the egg, also injects polydnaviruses and venom, which are prerequisites for successful parasitoid development. The parasitoid larva develops within the embryonic and larval stages of the host, which enters metamorphosis precociously and arrests development in the prepupal stage. Polydnaviruses are responsible for the developmental arrest and interfere with the host's endocrine system in the last larval instar. Polydnaviruses have a segmented genome and are transmitted as a provirus integrated in the wasp's genome. Virions are only formed in female wasps and no virus replication is seen in the parasitized host. Here it is shown that very small amounts of viral transcripts were found in parasitized eggs and early larval instars of S. littoralis. Later on, transcript quantities increased and were highest in the late last larval instar for two of the three viral segments tested and in the penultimate to early last larval instar for the third segment. These are the first data on the occurrence of viral transcripts in the host of an egg-larval parasitoid and they are different from data reported for hosts of larval parasitoids, where transcript levels are already high shortly after parasitization. The analysis of three open reading frames by RT-PCR revealed viral transcripts in parasitized S. littoralis and in female pupae of C. inanitus, indicating the absence of host specificity. For one open reading frame, transcripts were also seen in male pupae, suggesting transcription from integrated viral DNA.  (+info)

Related RNAs in lepidopteran cells after in vitro infection with Hyposoter didymator virus define a new polydnavirus gene family. (3/339)

In the present study, we describe the isolation and the characterization of three different Hyposoter didymator virus (HdV) lepidopteran host-expressed genes, the products of which might interfere with the host physiology during parasitism. In this report, we study the expression of HdV genes in Sf9 cells infected with HdV since results indicate that the Sf9 model mimics to some extent the in vivo model and may be utilized to study expression of HdV genes in lepidopteran host cells. This system allowed us to isolate three HdV-specific cDNAs, termed M24, M27, and M40. cDNA nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated significant regions of homology. The three cDNAs displayed repeated sequences arranged in tandem array that might have evolved through domain duplication. Similar to other previously described polydnavirus host-expressed genes, two intron positions have been found in the M24 leader region. The cDNAs corresponded to RNAs of 1.5, 1.6, and 2.3 kb that are also detected in parasitized Spodoptera littoralis larvae. They are encoded by different genes likely located on different HdV DNA molecules. Corresponding RNAs are detected early postinfection and remain detectable for at least 10 days postinfection. They encode secreted glycine- and proline-rich proteins. An antiserum raised against a baculovirus recombinant M24-encoded protein detected similar proteins in the culture medium of infected lepidopteran cells and in parasitized host hemolymph. We propose that the three cloned genes belong to an HdV gene family specifically expressed in parasitized lepidopteran hosts.  (+info)

General kin selection models for genetic evolution of sib altruism in diploid and haplodiploid species. (4/339)

A population genetic approach is presented for general analysis and comparison of kin selection models of sib and half-sib altruism. Nine models are described, each assuming a particular mode of inheritance, number of female inseminations, and Mendelian dominance of the altruist gene. In each model, the selective effects of altruism are described in terms of two general fitness functions, A(beta) and S(beta), giving respectively the expected fitness of an altruist and a nonaltruist as a function of the fraction of altruists beta in a given sibship. For each model, exact conditions are reported for stability at altruist and nonaltruist fixation. Under the Table 3 axions, the stability conditions may then be partially ordered on the basis of implications holding between pairs of conditions. The partial orderings are compared with predictions of the kin selection theory of Hamilton.  (+info)

Linkage analysis of sex determination in Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). (5/339)

To test whether sex determination in the parasitic wasp Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is based upon a single locus or multiple loci, a linkage map was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The map includes 71 RAPD markers and one phenotypic marker, blonde. Sex was scored in a manner consistent with segregation of a single "sex locus" under complementary sex determination (CSD), which is common in haplodiploid Hymenoptera. Under haplodiploidy, males arise from unfertilized haploid eggs and females develop from fertilized diploid eggs. With CSD, females are heterozygous at the sex locus; diploids that are homozygous at the sex locus become diploid males, which are usually inviable or sterile. Ten linkage groups were formed at a minimum LOD of 3.0, with one small linkage group that included the sex locus. To locate other putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sex determination, sex was also treated as a binary threshold character. Several QTL were found after conducting permutation tests on the data, including one on linkage group I that corresponds to the major sex locus. One other QTL of smaller effect had a segregation pattern opposite to that expected under CSD, while another putative QTL showed a female-specific pattern consistent with either a sex-differentiating gene or a sex-specific deleterious mutation. Comparisons are made between this study and the in-depth studies on sex determination and sex differentiation in the closely related B. hebetor.  (+info)

Single-locus complementary sex determination in Diadegma chrysostictos (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). (6/339)

Following the establishment of isofemale lines and subsequent inbreeding, the ichneumonid parasitoid wasp Diadegma chrysostictos (Gmelin) was shown by segregation of polymorphic alloenzyme loci to have single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD). This and the biparental nature of diploid males was confirmed using two independent Mendelian recessive phenotypic markers. The existence of diploid males, sl-CSD, and the abrogation of diploid males following outbreeding was further confirmed by flow cytometry, a potentially general method that is independent of the maternal sex allocation or the need for genetic markers. Estimates of the number of sex alleles in several British populations demonstrated 17-19 alleles in Britain, with a decline toward the northerly limit of the parasitoid's range, varying from 16 in the south of England to 4-5 in central Scotland, in broad agreement with the rate of attainment of a male-biased sex ratio when used to establish en masse laboratory cultures. These data represent the second confirmation of the existence of sl-CSD in the Ichneumonidae (and the first in the Campopleginae subfamily), lending further support to the notion that sl-CSD was the ancestral condition in the Aculeata/Ichneumonoidea clade (Cook 1993a; Periquet et al. 1993).  (+info)

Behavioural mimicry of honeybees (Apis mellifera) by droneflies (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.). (7/339)

Droneflies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp. resemble honeybees (Apis mellifera) in appearance and have often been considered to be Batesian mimics. This study used a focal watch technique in order to compare the foraging behaviour of droneflies Eristalis tenax, Eristalis pertinax, Eristalis arbustorum and Eristalis nemorum) whilst they were feeding on patches of flowers with the behaviour of honeybees and other hymenopterans and dipterans. It was found that, on a range of plant species, the time droneflies spent on individual flowers and the time spent flying between them was more similar to that of honeybees than to the times of other hymenopterans and dipterans. These results suggest that dronefly behaviour has evolved to become more similar to that of honeybees and they support the hypothesis that droneflies are Batesian mimics.  (+info)

A linkage map of the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) based on random amplified polymorphic DNAs. (8/339)

A linkage map was constructed for the sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera), based on the segregation of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and a visible mutation, yellow fat body (yfb). Forty haploid male progeny (20 yfb and 20+) from a single diploid female parent (yfb/+) were examined. Sixty-one of the 180 arbitrary primers tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) produced one or more RAPD bands. A total of 79 RAPD markers were detected. Of these, seven showed significant deviation from the expected 1:1 ratio, and were therefore excluded from further analysis. The remaining 72 RAPD markers and the marker mutation, yfb, were subjected to linkage analysis. Sixty RAPD markers and the yfb marker were organized into 16 linkage groups, spanning a distance of 517.2 cM. Twelve RAPD markers showed no linkage relationship to any group. Thirteen gel-purified RAPD bands were cloned and sequenced to generate the sequence-tagged sites (STSs). A single locus was represented by two markers, with one of them having a short internal deletion.  (+info)

  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Sharkey, Michael (2010): Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) from Thailand. (gbif.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of nine microsatellite loci in Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of African stem borer pests. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Genetic variation and founder effects in the parasitoid wasp, Diaeretiella rapae (M'intosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiidae), affecting its potential as a biological control agent. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Biologia reprodutiva de Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), discriminação entre lagartas parasitadas e não parasitadas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), tempo de desenvolvimento e razão sexual dos parasitoides. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Over 150,000 living species of Hymenoptera have been described, in addition to over 2,000 extinct ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additions to the checklist of Scoliidae, Sphecidae, Pompilidae and Vespidae of Peru, with notes on the endemic status of some species (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). (wikimedia.org)
  • Eurytoma Illiger, 1807 and Systole Walker, 1832 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) were reared from 25 plant species collected in rangelands of Qom province in Iran during 2011-2017. (ac.ir)
  • Hymenoptera originated in the Triassic , with the oldest fossils belonging to the family Xyelidae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) are taxonomically and ecologically diverse, with a wide range of social complexity, nesting preferences, floral associations, and biogeographic restrictions. (cambridge.org)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Tang, Chang-Ti, Melika, George, Yang, Man-Miao, Nicholls, James A., Stone, Graham N. (2011): New species of oak gallwasps from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). (gbif.org)
  • The presence of Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is reported for the first time in Northwestern Argentina. (scielo.org.ar)
  • La presencia de Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) fue detectada por primera vez en el noroeste argentino. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Presencia de Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasitoide del psílido asiático Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) en cultivos cítricos de Corrientes. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Guadeloupe by imported Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). (scielo.org.ar)
  • Vinson S. These sequenced genomes represent only 15 of the 97 extant families The Hymenoptera is divided into 2 suborders. (opportunitygreen.com)
  • I highly recommend Hymenoptera and Conservationto anybody who works with Hymenoptera (including invasive species, biological control and honeybees) or in general conservation, and to anyone with an interest in entomology. (wiley.com)