Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the pentose phosphate pathway, catalyzing the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH), thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage and maintaining redox balance.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 2.8.2.1.
Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 1.1.1.14
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase is an enzyme (EC 1.1.1.8) that catalyzes the reversible conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol 3-phosphate, using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as an electron acceptor in the process.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex is a multi-enzyme complex involved in the citric acid cycle, catalyzing the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO2, thereby connecting the catabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and fats to the generation of energy in the form of ATP.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.1.1.43.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the first step in the beta-oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.205.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 1.2.1.2.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
A ketone oxidoreductase that catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to ACYL-CoA and CO2. The enzyme requires THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE as a cofactor. Defects in genes that code for subunits of the enzyme are a cause of MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE. The enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.2.4.3.
Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of certain acids, specifically catalyzing the reversible conversion of D-3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.

Retinoic acid stimulates the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells. (1/520)

The syncytiotrophoblasts of the human placenta express high levels of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2), the enzyme responsible for the inactivation of glucocorticoids. It has been proposed that the placental 11beta-HSD2 serves as a barrier to protect the fetus from high levels of maternal cortisol. To examine the hypothesis that nutritional signals regulate the expression of 11beta-HSD2 in placental syncytiotrophoblasts, we investigated the effects of retinoic acids (RAs), the major metabolites of vitamin A, on the expression of 11beta-HSD2 using human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells as a model. This trophoblast-like cell line displays a number of functional similarities to the syncytiotrophoblast. Treatment for 24 h with all-trans RA (1-1000 nM) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in 11beta-HSD2 activity with a maximal effect (increase to 3-fold) at 100 nM. The effect of all-trans RA (100 nM) was also time-dependent in that the effect was detectable at 6 h and reached its maximum by 48 h. Similar increases in 11beta-HSD2 activity were observed when the cells were treated with 9-cis RA. Results from semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that there was a corresponding increase in 11beta-HSD2 mRNA after RA treatment. Moreover, treatment with actinomycin D (100 ng/ml) abrogated the increase in 11beta-HSD2 mRNA induced by RA, indicating an effect on transcription. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated for the first time that RA, at physiological concentrations, induces 11beta-HSD2 gene expression and enzyme activity in JEG-3 cells. If this occurs in vivo, the present finding suggests that high expression of 11beta-HSD2 in the human placenta may be maintained, at least in part, by dietary intake of vitamin A.  (+info)

Developmental expression of sodium entry pathways in rat nephron. (2/520)

During the past several years, sites of expression of ion transport proteins in tubules from adult kidneys have been described and correlated with functional properties. Less information is available concerning sites of expression during tubule morphogenesis, although such expression patterns may be crucial to renal development. In the current studies, patterns of renal axial differentiation were defined by mapping the expression of sodium transport pathways during nephrogenesis in the rat. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to localize the Na-Pi cotransporter type 2 (NaPi2), the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2), the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), the Na/Ca exchanger (NaCa), the epithelial sodium channel (rENaC), and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD). The onset of expression of these proteins began in post-S-shape stages. NKCC2 was initially expressed at the macula densa region and later extended into the nascent ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL), whereas differentiation of the proximal tubular part of the loop of Henle showed a comparatively retarded onset when probed for NaPi2. The NCC was initially found at the distal end of the nascent distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and later extended toward the junction with the TAL. After a period of changing proportions, subsegmentation of the DCT into a proximal part expressing NCC alone and a distal part expressing NCC together with NaCa was evident. Strong coexpression of rENaC and 11HSD was observed in early nascent connecting tubule (CNT) and collecting ducts and later also in the distal portion of the DCT. Ontogeny of the expression of NCC, NaCa, 11HSD, and rENaC in the late distal convolutions indicates a heterogenous origin of the CNT. These data present a detailed analysis of the relations between the anatomic differentiation of the developing renal tubule and the expression of tubular transport proteins.  (+info)

Inhibition of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase obtained from guinea pig kidney by some bioflavonoids and triterpenoids. (3/520)

AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of some bioflavonoids and triterpenoids on 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-OHSD) from guinea pig kidney. METHOD: The 11 beta-OHSD of kidney cortex microsomes in addition of cortisol was incubated in the presence of NADP, Triton DF-18, and the test compounds at 37 degrees C for 1 h. The enzyme activity was assayed by measuring the rate of conversion of cortisol to cortisone eluted with HPLC gradient analysis. RESULTS: The IC50 (95% confidence limits) values of glycyrrhizic acid, naringenin, fisetin, emodin were 254 (202-320), 336 (270-418), 470 (392-564), and 527 (425-653) mumol.L-1, respectively. The inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid was 2-fold stronger than that of astramembranin I. The mode of action of naringenin was competitive inhibition. CONCLUSION: The test compounds inhibited the 11 beta-OHSD in kidney cortex with different potencies as glycyrrhizic acid did.  (+info)

Hypertension in mice lacking 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. (4/520)

Deficiency of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) in humans leads to the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (SAME), in which cortisol illicitly occupies mineralocorticoid receptors, causing sodium retention, hypokalemia, and hypertension. However, the disorder is usually incompletely corrected by suppression of cortisol, suggesting additional and irreversible changes, perhaps in the kidney. To examine this further, we produced mice with targeted disruption of the 11beta-HSD2 gene. Homozygous mutant mice (11beta-HSD2(-/-)) appear normal at birth, but approximately 50% show motor weakness and die within 48 hours. Both male and female survivors are fertile but exhibit hypokalemia, hypotonic polyuria, and apparent mineralocorticoid activity of corticosterone. Young adult 11beta-HSD2(-/-) mice are markedly hypertensive, with a mean arterial blood pressure of 146 +/- 2 mmHg, compared with 121 +/- 2 mmHg in wild-type controls and 114 +/- 4 mmHg in heterozygotes. The epithelium of the distal tubule of the nephron shows striking hypertrophy and hyperplasia. These histological changes do not readily reverse with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in adulthood. Thus, 11beta-HSD2(-/-) mice demonstrate the major features of SAME, providing a unique rodent model to study the molecular mechanisms of kidney resetting leading to hypertension.  (+info)

A proposed sequence of hormones controlling the induction of luteal 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and progesterone withdrawal in the late-pregnant rat. (5/520)

1. The previously reported induction of luteal 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase by administration of aminoglutethimide to late-pregnant rats was shown to be unaffected by prior removal of the foetuses. Aminoglutethimide therefore does not act via the foetuses in this context. 2. The ability of injected oestrogen to prevent the above induction was lost by delaying the injection for 12h after aminoglutethimide, although the increase in enzyme activity begins only after 24h. 3. Induction of 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase by foetoplacental removal on day 18 of pregnancy was inhibited by human choriogonadotropin, lutropin (luteinizing hormone) and pregnant-mare serum gonadotropin, but not by somatotropin (growth hormone), thyrotropin or follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone) 4. Indomethacin blocked the normal induction of 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in late pregnancy and that caused by aminoglutethimide. It partially blocked that caused by human choriogonadotropin given on days 19-20 and that caused by 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine on days 5-6, but failed to block that caused by human choriogonadotropin on days 15-16 or by foetoplacental removal on day 18 of pregnancy. 5. These findings, and the control of progesterone synthesis in late pregnancy, are interpreted in terms of a sequence of hormonal or enzymic syntheses, each of which is inhibited by the product of the preceding synthesis.  (+info)

Glucocorticoids and insulin resistance: old hormones, new targets. (6/520)

Insulin resistance has been proposed as a mediator of the association between risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the population. The clinical syndrome of glucocorticoid excess (Cushing's syndrome) is associated with glucose intolerance, obesity and hypertension. By opposing the actions of insulin, glucocorticoids could contribute to insulin resistance and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, we describe briefly the known mechanisms of insulin resistance and highlight the potential mechanisms for the effect of glucocorticoids. We then discuss factors which modulate the influence of glucocorticoids on insulin sensitivity; this highlights a novel therapeutic strategy to manipulate glucocorticoid action which may prove to be a useful tool in treating subjects with insulin resistance. Finally, we describe evidence from human studies that glucocorticoids make an important contribution to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in the population.  (+info)

Targeting proteins to the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum using N-terminal domains of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the 50-kDa esterase. (7/520)

Previous studies identified two intrinsic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, isozyme 1 (11beta-HSD) and the 50-kDa esterase (E3), sharing some amino acid sequence motifs in their N-terminal transmembrane (TM) domains. Both are type II membrane proteins with the C terminus projecting into the lumen of the ER. This finding implied that the N-terminal TM domains of 11beta-HSD and E3 may constitute a lumenal targeting signal (LTS). To investigate this hypothesis we created chimeric fusions using the putative targeting sequences and the reporter gene, Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein. Transfected COS cells expressing LTS-green fluorescent protein chimeras were examined by fluorescent microscopy and electron microscopic immunogold labeling. The orientation of expressed chimeras was established by immunocytofluorescent staining of selectively permeabilized COS cells. In addition, protease protection assays of membranes in the presence and absence of detergents was used to confirm lumenal or the cytosolic orientation of the constructed chimeras. To investigate the general applicability of the proposed LTS, we fused the N terminus of E3 to the N terminus of the NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase lacking the myristoyl group and N-terminal 30-residue membrane anchor. The orientation of the cytochrome b5 reductase was reversed, from cytosolic to lumenal projection of the active domain. These observations establish that an amino acid sequence consisting of short basic or neutral residues at the N terminus, followed by a specific array of hydrophobic residues terminating with acidic residues, is sufficient for lumenal targeting of single-pass proteins that are structurally and functionally unrelated.  (+info)

NAD- and NADP-dependent 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms in guinea pig kidney with gossypol inhibition. (8/520)

AIM: To study the mechanism of gossypol-induced hypokalemia. METHODS: The 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-OHSD) protein was prepared from guinea pig kidney. The activity of 11 beta-OHSD with NAD or NADP as the coenzyme was measured by HPLC in both control and gossypol treatment. RESULTS: The Vmax and K(m) were 0.64 mmol.h-1/g protein and 0.07 mumol (cortisol) for NAD-dependent 11 beta-OHSD, 1.75 mmol.h-1/g protein and 0.21 mumol (cortisol) for NADP-dependent 11 beta-OHSD, respectively when 80 micrograms of enzyme protein was used. The inhibitory effects of gossypol on these two 11 beta-OHSD isoforms were different. The IC50 (95% confidence limits) were 50.2 (48.3-52.0) mumol of gossypol for NAD-dependent 11 beta-OHSD and 1143 (1098-1188) mumol of gossypol for NADP-dependent 11 beta-OHSD. The Ki was gossypol 96 mmol.L-1 for the former and 340 mmol.L-1 for the latter. CONCLUSION: The NAD-dependent 11 beta-OHSD is a more critical physiologic mechanism than NADP-dependent 11 beta-OHSD for hypokalemia caused by gossypol.  (+info)

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone metabolism. They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions of hydroxyl groups on the steroid molecule, which can lead to the activation or inactivation of steroid hormones. HSDs are involved in the conversion of various steroids, including sex steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens) and corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, cortisone). These enzymes can be found in different tissues throughout the body, and their activity is regulated by various factors, such as hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Dysregulation of HSDs has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 3-beta-hydroxy steroids to 3-keto steroids, which is an essential step in the production of various steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol.

There are several isoforms of 3-HSDs that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct substrate specificities. For instance, 3-HSD type I is primarily found in the ovary and adrenal gland, where it catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 17-hydroxycortisol. On the other hand, 3-HSD type II is mainly expressed in the testes, adrenal gland, and placenta, where it catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione and androstenedione to testosterone.

Defects in 3-HSDs can lead to various genetic disorders that affect steroid hormone production and metabolism, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and sexual development disorders.

17-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. They are involved in the conversion of 17-ketosteroids to 17-hydroxy steroids or vice versa, by adding or removing a hydroxyl group (–OH) at the 17th carbon atom of the steroid molecule. This conversion is essential for the production of various steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

There are several isoforms of 17-HSDs, each with distinct substrate specificities, tissue distributions, and functions:

1. 17-HSD type 1 (17-HSD1): This isoform primarily catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), an active form of estrogen. It is mainly expressed in the ovary, breast, and adipose tissue.
2. 17-HSD type 2 (17-HSD2): This isoform catalyzes the reverse reaction, converting estradiol (E2) to estrone (E1). It is primarily expressed in the placenta, prostate, and breast tissue.
3. 17-HSD type 3 (17-HSD3): This isoform is responsible for the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone, an essential step in male sex hormone biosynthesis. It is predominantly expressed in the testis and adrenal gland.
4. 17-HSD type 4 (17-HSD4): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione, an intermediate step in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It is primarily expressed in the placenta.
5. 17-HSD type 5 (17-HSD5): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol, a critical step in glucocorticoid biosynthesis. It is predominantly expressed in the adrenal gland and liver.
6. 17-HSD type 6 (17-HSD6): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone, similar to 17-HSD3. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the ovary.
7. 17-HSD type 7 (17-HSD7): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the ovary.
8. 17-HSD type 8 (17-HSD8): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
9. 17-HSD type 9 (17-HSD9): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
10. 17-HSD type 10 (17-HSD10): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
11. 17-HSD type 11 (17-HSD11): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
12. 17-HSD type 12 (17-HSD12): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
13. 17-HSD type 13 (17-HSD13): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
14. 17-HSD type 14 (17-HSD14): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
15. 17-HSD type 15 (17-HSD15): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
16. 17-HSD type 16 (17-HSD16): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
17. 17-HSD type 17 (17-HSD17): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
18. 17-HSD type 18 (17-HSD18): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
19. 17-HSD type 19 (17-HSD19): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
20. 17-HSD type 20 (17-HSD20): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
21. 17-HSD type 21 (17-HSD21): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
22. 17-HSD type 22 (17-HSD22): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
23. 17-HSD type 23 (17-HSD23): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
24. 17-HSD type 24 (17-HSD24): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
25. 17-HSD type 25 (17-HSD25): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
26. 17-HSD type 26 (17-HSD26): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However

20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases (20-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of steroid hormone precursors to their active forms by adding or removing a hydroxyl group at the 20th carbon position of the steroid molecule.

There are several isoforms of 20-HSDs, each with distinct tissue distribution and substrate specificity. The most well-known isoforms include 20-HSD type I and II, which have opposing functions in regulating the activity of cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal gland.

Type I 20-HSD, primarily found in the liver and adipose tissue, converts inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol. In contrast, type II 20-HSD, expressed mainly in the kidney, brain, and immune cells, catalyzes the reverse reaction, converting cortisol back to cortisone.

Dysregulation of 20-HSDs has been implicated in various medical conditions, such as metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, and cancers. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing targeted therapies for these conditions.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (11β-HSD2) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol and aldosterone. It is primarily found in tissues such as the kidneys, colon, and salivary glands.

The main function of 11β-HSD2 is to convert active cortisol into inactive cortisone, which helps to prevent excessive mineralocorticoid receptor activation by cortisol. This is important because cortisol can bind to and activate mineralocorticoid receptors, leading to increased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, as well as other effects on blood pressure and electrolyte balance.

By converting cortisol to cortisone, 11β-HSD2 helps to protect mineralocorticoid receptors from being overstimulated by cortisol, allowing aldosterone to bind and activate these receptors instead. This is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and electrolyte balance.

Deficiencies or mutations in the 11β-HSD2 enzyme can lead to a condition called apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME), which is characterized by high blood pressure, low potassium levels, and increased sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. This occurs because cortisol is able to bind to and activate mineralocorticoid receptors in the absence of 11β-HSD2 activity.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol, in the body. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal glands that helps regulate various physiological processes such as metabolism, immune response, and stress response.

11β-HSD1 is primarily expressed in liver, fat, and muscle tissues, where it catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol. Cortisone is a biologically inactive form of cortisol that is produced when cortisol levels are high, and it needs to be converted back to cortisol for the hormone to exert its effects.

By increasing the availability of active cortisol in these tissues, 11β-HSD1 has been implicated in several metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Inhibitors of 11β-HSD1 are currently being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11-β-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol and cortisone, which belong to the class of glucocorticoids. These enzymes exist in two isoforms: 11-β-HSD1 and 11-β-HSD2.

1. 11-β-HSD1: This isoform is primarily located within the liver, adipose tissue, and various other peripheral tissues. It functions as a NADPH-dependent reductase, converting inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol. This enzyme helps regulate glucocorticoid action in peripheral tissues, influencing glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation.
2. 11-β-HSD2: This isoform is predominantly found in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the kidneys, colon, and salivary glands. It functions as a NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase, converting active cortisol to its inactive form, cortisone. By doing so, it protects the mineralocorticoid receptor from being overstimulated by cortisol, ensuring aldosterone specifically binds and activates this receptor to maintain proper electrolyte and fluid balance.

Dysregulation of 11-β-HSDs has been implicated in several disease states, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat related conditions.

Estradiol dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of estradiols, which are steroid hormones that play important roles in the development and maintenance of female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation or reduction reactions of estradiols, converting them to other forms of steroid hormones.

There are two main types of estradiol dehydrogenases: 1) 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-alpha HSD), which catalyzes the conversion of estradi-17-beta to estrone, and 2) 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-beta HSD), which catalyzes the reverse reaction, converting estrone back to estradiol.

These enzymes are widely distributed in various tissues, including the ovaries, placenta, liver, and adipose tissue, and play important roles in regulating the levels of estradiols in the body. Abnormalities in the activity of these enzymes have been associated with several medical conditions, such as hormone-dependent cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, and hirsutism.

Sulfotransferases (STs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the process of sulfoconjugation, which is the transfer of a sulfo group (-SO3H) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and are found in various organisms, including humans.

In humans, STs are involved in the metabolism and detoxification of numerous xenobiotics, such as drugs, food additives, and environmental pollutants, as well as endogenous compounds, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and lipids. The sulfoconjugation reaction catalyzed by STs can increase the water solubility of these compounds, facilitating their excretion from the body.

STs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity. The largest family of STs is the cytosolic sulfotransferases, which use 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as a cofactor to transfer the sulfo group to various acceptor molecules, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and steroids.

Abnormalities in ST activity have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of STs is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Cortisone is a type of corticosteroid hormone that is produced naturally in the body by the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and helps to regulate metabolism, reduce inflammation, and suppress the immune system. Cortisone can also be synthetically produced and is often used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions such as arthritis, asthma, and skin disorders. It works by mimicking the effects of the natural hormone in the body and reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system. Cortisone can be administered through various routes, including oral, injectable, topical, and inhalational.

Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase, also known as CYP17A1, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells in the adrenal glands and gonads. This enzyme catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and subsequent lyase cleavage of pregnenolone and progesterone, converting them into dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, respectively. These steroid intermediates are essential for the biosynthesis of both glucocorticoids and sex steroids, including cortisol, aldosterone, estrogens, and testosterone.

Defects in the CYP17A1 gene can lead to several disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased production of cortisol and sex steroids and increased mineralocorticoid levels. This condition results in sexual infantilism, electrolyte imbalances, and hypertension.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It plays an essential role in cellular metabolism, particularly in redox reactions, where it acts as an electron carrier. NAD exists in two forms: NAD+, which accepts electrons and becomes reduced to NADH. This pairing of NAD+/NADH is involved in many fundamental biological processes such as generating energy in the form of ATP during cellular respiration, and serving as a critical cofactor for various enzymes that regulate cellular functions like DNA repair, gene expression, and cell death.

Maintaining optimal levels of NAD+/NADH is crucial for overall health and longevity, as it declines with age and in certain disease states. Therefore, strategies to boost NAD+ levels are being actively researched for their potential therapeutic benefits in various conditions such as aging, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic diseases.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme found in various tissues within the body, including the heart, liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. It plays a crucial role in the process of energy production, particularly during anaerobic conditions when oxygen levels are low.

In the presence of the coenzyme NADH, LDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, generating NAD+ as a byproduct. Conversely, in the presence of NAD+, LDH can convert lactate back to pyruvate using NADH. This reversible reaction is essential for maintaining the balance between lactate and pyruvate levels within cells.

Elevated blood levels of LDH may indicate tissue damage or injury, as this enzyme can be released into the circulation following cellular breakdown. As a result, LDH is often used as a nonspecific biomarker for various medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, muscle damage, and certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that an isolated increase in LDH does not necessarily pinpoint the exact location or cause of tissue damage, and further diagnostic tests are usually required for confirmation.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Androsterone is a weak androgen and an endogenous steroid hormone. It's produced in the liver from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and is converted into androstenedione, another weak androgen. Androsterone is excreted in urine as a major metabolite of testosterone. It plays a role in male sexual development and function, although its effects are much weaker than those of testosterone. In clinical contexts, androsterone levels may be measured to help diagnose certain hormonal disorders or to monitor hormone therapy.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathway of glycolysis. Its primary function is to convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (a triose sugar phosphate) into D-glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate, while also converting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into its reduced form NADH. This reaction is essential for the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during cellular respiration. GAPDH has also been implicated in various non-metabolic processes, including DNA replication, repair, and transcription regulation, due to its ability to interact with different proteins and nucleic acids.

20-α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (20-α-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of steroids, specifically the oxidation of 20α-hydroxysteroids to 20-keto steroids. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism and regulation of steroid hormones, such as corticosteroids and progestogens.

In the adrenal gland, 20-α-HSD is involved in the biosynthesis and interconversion of various corticosteroids, including cortisol, cortisone, and aldosterone. By catalyzing the conversion of cortisol to cortisone or vice versa, this enzyme helps maintain a balance between active and inactive forms of these hormones, which is essential for proper physiological functioning.

In the reproductive system, 20-α-HSD is involved in the metabolism of progestogens, such as progesterone and its derivatives. This enzyme can convert active forms of progestogens into their inactive counterparts, thereby regulating their levels and activity within the body.

Dysregulation or mutations in 20-α-HSD have been implicated in several medical conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and certain reproductive disorders.

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a class of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of alcohol and other aldehydes in the body. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids, using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a cofactor.

There are several isoforms of ALDH found in different tissues throughout the body, with varying substrate specificities and kinetic properties. The most well-known function of ALDH is its role in alcohol metabolism, where it converts the toxic aldehyde intermediate acetaldehyde to acetate, which can then be further metabolized or excreted.

Deficiencies in ALDH activity have been linked to a number of clinical conditions, including alcohol flush reaction, alcohol-induced liver disease, and certain types of cancer. Additionally, increased ALDH activity has been associated with chemotherapy resistance in some cancer cells.

Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GLDH or GDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly within liver and kidney tissues. It catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate, which links amino acid metabolism with the citric acid cycle and energy production. This enzyme is significant in clinical settings as its levels in blood serum can be used as a diagnostic marker for diseases that damage liver or kidney cells, since these cells release GLDH into the bloodstream upon damage.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), also known as Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism, particularly in the glycolytic pathway. It catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG), while also converting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to its reduced form NADH. This reaction is essential for the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during cellular respiration. GAPDH has been widely used as a housekeeping gene in molecular biology research due to its consistent expression across various tissues and cells, although recent studies have shown that its expression can vary under certain conditions.

Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. It catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate, while simultaneously reducing NAD+ to NADH. This reaction is essential for energy production in the form of ATP and NADH within the cell.

There are two main types of Malate Dehydrogenase:

1. NAD-dependent Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH1): Found primarily in the cytoplasm, this isoform plays a role in the malate-aspartate shuttle, which helps transfer reducing equivalents between the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
2. FAD-dependent Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH2): Located within the mitochondrial matrix, this isoform is involved in the Krebs cycle for energy production.

Abnormal levels of Malate Dehydrogenase enzyme can be indicative of certain medical conditions or diseases, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), muscle damage, or various types of cancer. Therefore, MDH enzyme activity is often assessed in diagnostic tests to help identify and monitor these health issues.

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+, producing NADH or NADPH respectively. This reaction occurs in the citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which is a crucial metabolic pathway in the cell's energy production and biosynthesis of various molecules. There are three isoforms of IDH found in humans: IDH1 located in the cytosol, IDH2 in the mitochondrial matrix, and IDH3 within the mitochondria. Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have been associated with several types of cancer, such as gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), leading to abnormal accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate, which can contribute to tumorigenesis.

Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS) is not exactly a medical term, but a biochemical term. However, it is often referred to in the context of medical and biological research.

PAPS is a crucial molecule in the metabolism of living organisms and serves as the primary donor of sulfate groups in the process of sulfonation, which is a type of enzymatic modification that adds a sulfate group to various substrates such as proteoglycans, hormones, neurotransmitters, and xenobiotics. This process plays an essential role in several biological processes, including detoxification, signal transduction, and cell-cell recognition.

Therefore, PAPS is a critical molecule for maintaining proper physiological functions in the body, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Arylsulfotransferases (ASTs) are a group of enzymes that play a role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by catalyzing the transfer of a sulfuryl group from a donor, such as 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), to an acceptor aromatic molecule. This results in the formation of a sulfate ester, which can then be excreted from the body. ASTs are found in various tissues, including the liver, kidney, and intestine, and are involved in the metabolism of numerous drugs, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Defects in ASTs have been associated with certain genetic disorders, such as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency and disorders of steroid sulfation.

Ketosteroids are a type of steroid compound that contain a ketone functional group in their chemical structure. They are derived from cholesterol and are present in both animal and plant tissues. Some ketosteroids are produced endogenously, while others can be introduced exogenously through the diet or medication.

Endogenous ketosteroids include steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol, which contain a ketone group in their structure. Exogenous ketosteroids can be found in certain medications, such as those used to treat hormonal imbalances or inflammation.

Ketosteroids have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, including as anti-inflammatory agents and for the treatment of hormone-related disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential benefits.

Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DHLD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in several important metabolic pathways in the human body, including the citric acid cycle and the catabolism of certain amino acids. DHLD is a component of multi-enzyme complexes, such as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDC).

The primary function of DHLD is to catalyze the oxidation of dihydrolipoamide, a reduced form of lipoamide, back to its oxidized state (lipoamide) while simultaneously reducing NAD+ to NADH. This reaction is essential for the continued functioning of the PDC and KGDC, as dihydrolipoamide is a cofactor for these enzyme complexes.

Deficiencies in DHLD can lead to serious metabolic disorders, such as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (RR-MADD). These conditions can result in neurological symptoms, developmental delays, and metabolic acidosis, among other complications. Treatment typically involves dietary modifications, supplementation with specific nutrients, and, in some cases, enzyme replacement therapy.

NADP (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate) is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role as an electron carrier in various redox reactions in the human body. It exists in two forms: NADP+, which functions as an oxidizing agent and accepts electrons, and NADPH, which serves as a reducing agent and donates electrons.

NADPH is particularly important in anabolic processes, such as lipid and nucleotide synthesis, where it provides the necessary reducing equivalents to drive these reactions forward. It also plays a critical role in maintaining the cellular redox balance by participating in antioxidant defense mechanisms that neutralize harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS).

In addition, NADP is involved in various metabolic pathways, including the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis. Overall, NADP and its reduced form, NADPH, are essential molecules for maintaining proper cellular function and energy homeostasis.

Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of carbohydrates, including sugars and sugar alcohols. These enzymes play a crucial role in cellular metabolism by helping to convert these molecules into forms that can be used for energy or as building blocks for other biological compounds.

During the oxidation process, carbohydrate dehydrogenases remove hydrogen atoms from the carbohydrate substrate and transfer them to an electron acceptor, such as NAD+ or FAD. This results in the formation of a ketone or aldehyde group on the carbohydrate molecule and the reduction of the electron acceptor to NADH or FADH2.

Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are classified into several subgroups based on their substrate specificity, cofactor requirements, and other factors. Some examples include glucose dehydrogenase, galactose dehydrogenase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase.

These enzymes have important applications in various fields, including biotechnology, medicine, and industry. For example, they can be used to detect or quantify specific carbohydrates in biological samples, or to produce valuable chemical compounds through the oxidation of renewable resources such as plant-derived sugars.

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the process of cellular respiration, specifically in the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) and the electron transport chain. It is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells.

SDH catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate, converting it into a molecule of fadaquate in the process. During this reaction, two electrons are transferred from succinate to the FAD cofactor within the SDH enzyme complex, reducing it to FADH2. These electrons are then passed on to ubiquinone (CoQ), which is a mobile electron carrier in the electron transport chain, leading to the generation of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

SDH is also known as mitochondrial complex II because it is the second complex in the electron transport chain. Mutations in the genes encoding SDH subunits or associated proteins have been linked to various human diseases, including hereditary paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and some forms of neurodegenerative disorders.

L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction between L-iditol and NAD+ to produce L-sorbose and NADH + H+. This enzyme plays a role in the metabolism of sugars, specifically in the conversion of L-iditol to L-sorbose in various organisms, including bacteria and fungi. The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme is part of the polyol pathway, which is involved in the regulation of osmotic pressure and other cellular processes.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It serves as a precursor to other hormones, including androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol. DHEA levels typically peak during early adulthood and then gradually decline with age.

DHEA has been studied for its potential effects on various health conditions, including aging, cognitive function, sexual dysfunction, and certain chronic diseases. However, the evidence supporting its use for these purposes is generally limited and inconclusive. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking DHEA to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose and lipids. It catalyzes the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), which is a key intermediate in the synthesis of triglycerides, phospholipids, and other glycerophospholipids.

There are two main forms of GPD: a cytoplasmic form (GPD1) and a mitochondrial form (GPD2). The cytoplasmic form is involved in the production of NADH, which is used in various metabolic processes, while the mitochondrial form is involved in the production of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

Deficiencies or mutations in GPD can lead to a variety of metabolic disorders, including glycerol kinase deficiency and congenital muscular dystrophy. Elevated levels of GPD have been observed in certain types of cancer, suggesting that it may play a role in tumor growth and progression.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase (G1DH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of β-D-glucose into D-glucono-1,5-lactone and reduces the cofactor NAD+ into NADH. This reaction plays a role in various biological processes, including glucose sensing and detoxification of reactive carbonyl species. G1DH is found in many organisms, including humans, and has several isoforms with different properties and functions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

The Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex (KGDC or α-KGDH) is a multi-enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle. It is located within the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotic cells and functions to catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate into succinyl-CoA, thereby connecting the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain for energy production.

The KGDC is composed of three distinct enzymes:

1. α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1): This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation and oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to form a thioester intermediate with lipoamide, which is bound to the E2 component.
2. Dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2): This enzyme facilitates the transfer of the acetyl group from the lipoamide cofactor to CoA, forming succinyl-CoA and regenerating oxidized lipoamide.
3. Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3): The final enzyme in the complex catalyzes the reoxidation of reduced lipoamide back to its disulfide form, using FAD as a cofactor and transferring electrons to NAD+, forming NADH.

The KGDC is subject to regulation by several mechanisms, including phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions that can inhibit or activate the complex, respectively. Dysfunction of this enzyme complex has been implicated in various diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Aldehyde oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using NAD+ or FAD as cofactors. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been identified in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals.

The oxidation reaction catalyzed by aldehyde oxidoreductases involves the transfer of electrons from the aldehyde substrate to the cofactor, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid and reduced NAD+ or FAD. The enzymes are classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity.

One of the most well-known members of this family is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones as part of the alcohol metabolism pathway. Another important member is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which further oxidizes the aldehydes generated by ADH to carboxylic acids, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic aldehydes in the body.

Deficiencies in ALDH enzymes have been linked to several human diseases, including alcoholism and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of aldehyde oxidoreductases is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Glucose dehydrogenases (GDHs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of glucose to generate gluconic acid or glucuronic acid. This reaction involves the transfer of electrons from glucose to an electron acceptor, most commonly nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) or phenazine methosulfate (PMS).

GDHs are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They play important roles in different biological processes, such as glucose metabolism, energy production, and detoxification of harmful substances. Based on their cofactor specificity, GDHs can be classified into two main types: NAD(P)-dependent GDHs and PQQ-dependent GDHs.

NAD(P)-dependent GDHs use NAD+ or NADP+ as a cofactor to oxidize glucose to glucono-1,5-lactone, which is then hydrolyzed to gluconic acid by an accompanying enzyme. These GDHs are involved in various metabolic pathways, such as the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway.

PQQ-dependent GDHs, on the other hand, use pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as a cofactor to catalyze the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid directly. These GDHs are typically found in bacteria and play a role in energy production and detoxification.

Overall, glucose dehydrogenases are essential enzymes that contribute to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and energy balance in living organisms.

Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is a metabolic pathway that supplies reducing energy to cells by converting glucose into ribose-5-phosphate and NADPH.

PGD catalyzes the third step of this pathway, in which 6-phosphogluconate is converted into ribulose-5-phosphate, with the concurrent reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. This reaction is essential for the generation of NADPH, which serves as a reducing agent in various cellular processes, including fatty acid synthesis and antioxidant defense.

Deficiencies in PGD can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, which is characterized by the premature destruction of red blood cells due to a defect in the pentose phosphate pathway.

Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases (SADHs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between sugar alcohols and sugars, which involves the gain or loss of a pair of electrons, typically in the form of NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of sugar alcohols, which are commonly found in various plants and some microorganisms.

Sugar alcohols, also known as polyols, are reduced forms of sugars that contain one or more hydroxyl groups instead of aldehyde or ketone groups. Examples of sugar alcohols include sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, and erythritol. SADHs can interconvert these sugar alcohols to their corresponding sugars through a redox reaction that involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms.

The reaction catalyzed by SADHs is typically represented as follows:

R-CH(OH)-CH2OH + NAD(P)+ ↔ R-CO-CH2OH + NAD(P)H + H+

where R represents a carbon chain, and CH(OH)-CH2OH and CO-CH2OH represent the sugar alcohol and sugar forms, respectively.

SADHs are widely distributed in nature and have been found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. These enzymes have attracted significant interest in biotechnology due to their potential applications in the production of sugar alcohols and other value-added products. Additionally, SADHs have been studied as targets for developing novel antimicrobial agents, as inhibiting these enzymes can disrupt the metabolism of certain pathogens that rely on sugar alcohols for growth and survival.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the body's energy production process. They are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of various fatty acids, which are broken down into smaller molecules called acyl-CoAs in the body.

More specifically, acyl-CoA dehydrogenases facilitate the removal of electrons from the acyl-CoA molecules, which are then transferred to coenzyme Q10 and eventually to the electron transport chain. This process generates energy in the form of ATP, which is used by cells throughout the body for various functions.

There are several different types of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, each responsible for oxidizing a specific type of acyl-CoA molecule. These include:

* Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), which oxidizes acyl-CoAs with 12 to 20 carbon atoms
* Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), which oxidizes acyl-CoAs with 14 to 20 carbon atoms
* Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), which oxidizes acyl-CoAs with 6 to 12 carbon atoms
* Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD), which oxidizes acyl-CoAs with 4 to 8 carbon atoms
* Isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which oxidizes isovaleryl-CoA, a specific type of branched-chain acyl-CoA molecule

Deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) or long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCADD), which can cause symptoms such as hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, and developmental delays.

NADH dehydrogenase, also known as Complex I, is an enzyme complex in the electron transport chain located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ and the reduction of coenzyme Q to ubiquinol, playing a crucial role in cellular respiration and energy production. The reaction involves the transfer of electrons from NADH to coenzyme Q, which contributes to the generation of a proton gradient across the membrane, ultimately leading to ATP synthesis. Defects in NADH dehydrogenase can result in various mitochondrial diseases and disorders.

Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMDH or IMPDH) is an enzyme that is involved in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. It catalyzes the conversion of inosine monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), which is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP).

There are two isoforms of IMPDH, type I and type II, which are encoded by separate genes. Type I IMPDH is expressed in most tissues, while type II IMPDH is primarily expressed in lymphocytes and other cells involved in the immune response. Inhibitors of IMPDH have been developed as immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. Defects in the gene encoding IMPDH type II have been associated with retinal degeneration and hearing loss.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) are a group of intracellular enzymes found in nearly all human cells, particularly in the heart, liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. They play a crucial role in energy production during anaerobic metabolism, converting pyruvate to lactate while regenerating NAD+ from NADH. LDH exists as multiple isoenzymes (LDH-1 to LDH-5) in the body, each with distinct distributions and functions.

An elevated level of LDH in the blood may indicate tissue damage or injury, as these enzymes are released into the circulation following cellular destruction. Therefore, measuring LDH levels is a common diagnostic tool to assess various medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, muscle damage, and some types of cancer. However, an isolated increase in LDH may not be specific enough for a definitive diagnosis, and additional tests are usually required for confirmation.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Formate dehydrogenases (FDH) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of formic acid (formate) to carbon dioxide and hydrogen or to carbon dioxide and water, depending on the type of FDH. The reaction is as follows:

Formic acid + Coenzyme Q (or NAD+) -> Carbon dioxide + H2 (or H2O) + Reduced coenzyme Q (or NADH)

FDHs are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of many microorganisms that use formate as an electron donor for energy conservation or as a carbon source for growth. In addition to their biological significance, FDHs have attracted much interest as biocatalysts for various industrial applications, such as the production of hydrogen, reduction of CO2, and detoxification of formic acid in animal feed.

FDHs can be classified into two main types based on their cofactor specificity: NAD-dependent FDHs and quinone-dependent FDHs. NAD-dependent FDHs use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a cofactor, while quinone-dependent FDHs use menaquinone or ubiquinone as a cofactor. Both types of FDHs have a similar reaction mechanism that involves the transfer of a hydride ion from formate to the cofactor and the release of carbon dioxide.

FDHs are composed of two subunits: a small subunit containing one or two [4Fe-4S] clusters and a large subunit containing a molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and one or two [2Fe-2S] clusters. Moco is a complex prosthetic group that consists of a pterin ring, a dithiolene group, and a molybdenum atom coordinated to three ligands: a sulfur atom from the dithiolene group, a terminal oxygen atom from a mononucleotide, and a serine residue. The molybdenum center can adopt different oxidation states (+4, +5, or +6) during the catalytic cycle, allowing for the transfer of electrons and the activation of formate.

FDHs have various applications in biotechnology and industry, such as the production of hydrogen gas, the removal of nitrate from wastewater, and the synthesis of fine chemicals. The high selectivity and efficiency of FDHs make them attractive catalysts for these processes, which require mild reaction conditions and low energy inputs. However, the stability and activity of FDHs are often limited by their sensitivity to oxygen and other inhibitors, which can affect their performance in industrial settings. Therefore, efforts have been made to improve the properties of FDHs through protein engineering, genetic modification, and immobilization techniques.

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the body's energy production process. Specifically, they are involved in the breakdown of fatty acids within the cells.

More technically, acyl-CoA dehydrogenases catalyze the removal of electrons from the thiol group of acyl-CoAs, forming a trans-double bond and generating FADH2. This reaction is the first step in each cycle of fatty acid beta-oxidation, which occurs in the mitochondria of cells.

There are several different types of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, each specific to breaking down different lengths of fatty acids. For example, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is responsible for breaking down longer chain fatty acids, while medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) breaks down medium-length chains.

Deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as MCAD deficiency or LC-FAOD (long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders), which can cause symptoms like vomiting, lethargy, and muscle weakness, especially during periods of fasting or illness.

Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of purines, which are nitrogen-containing compounds that form part of DNA and RNA. Specifically, XDH helps to break down xanthine and hypoxanthine into uric acid, a waste product that is excreted in the urine.

XDH can exist in two interconvertible forms: a dehydrogenase form (XDH) and an oxidase form (XO). In its dehydrogenase form, XDH uses NAD+ as an electron acceptor to convert xanthine into uric acid. However, when XDH is converted to its oxidase form (XO), it can use molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor instead, producing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as byproducts. These reactive oxygen species can contribute to oxidative stress and tissue damage in the body.

Abnormal levels or activity of XDH have been implicated in various diseases, including gout, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, also known as hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.16), is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of succinic semialdehyde to succinate, which is a key step in the GABA degradation pathway.

Deficiency in this enzyme can lead to an accumulation of succinic semialdehyde and its downstream metabolite, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), resulting in neurological symptoms such as developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, and movement disorders. GHB is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and also a recreational drug known as "Grievous Bodily Harm" or "Liquid Ecstasy."

The gene that encodes for succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase is located on chromosome 6 (6p22.3) and has been identified as ALDH5A1. Mutations in this gene can lead to succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, which is an autosomal recessive disorder.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases (3-HADs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. These enzymes catalyze the third step of the beta-oxidation process, which involves the oxidation of 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA. This reaction is an essential part of the energy-generating process that occurs in the mitochondria of cells and allows for the breakdown of fatty acids into smaller molecules, which can then be used to produce ATP, the primary source of cellular energy.

There are several different isoforms of 3-HADs, each with specific substrate preferences and tissue distributions. The most well-known isoform is the mitochondrial 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (M3HD), which is involved in the oxidation of medium and long-chain fatty acids. Other isoforms include the short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), which are involved in the oxidation of shorter and longer chain fatty acids, respectively.

Deficiencies in 3-HADs can lead to serious metabolic disorders, such as 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (3-HAD deficiency), which is characterized by the accumulation of toxic levels of 3-hydroxyacyl CoAs in the body. Symptoms of this disorder can include hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and developmental delays. Early diagnosis and treatment of 3-HAD deficiency are essential to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Ketone oxidoreductases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ketones to corresponding alcohols or vice versa, through the process of reduction or oxidation. These enzymes play an essential role in various metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions within living organisms.

In the context of medical research and diagnostics, ketone oxidoreductases have gained attention for their potential applications in the development of biosensors to detect and monitor blood ketone levels, particularly in patients with diabetes. Elevated levels of ketones in the blood (known as ketonemia) can indicate a serious complication called diabetic ketoacidosis, which requires prompt medical attention.

One example of a ketone oxidoreductase is the enzyme known as d-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (d-BDH), which catalyzes the conversion of d-beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate. This reaction is part of the metabolic pathway that breaks down fatty acids for energy production, and it becomes particularly important during periods of low carbohydrate availability or insulin deficiency, as seen in diabetes.

Understanding the function and regulation of ketone oxidoreductases can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders like diabetes and contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for their management.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

In the context of medicine and biology, sulfates are ions or compounds that contain the sulfate group (SO4−2). Sulfate is a polyatomic anion with the structure of a sphere. It consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.

Sulfates can be found in various biological molecules, such as glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, which are important components of connective tissue and the extracellular matrix. Sulfate groups play a crucial role in these molecules by providing negative charges that help maintain the structural integrity and hydration of tissues.

In addition to their biological roles, sulfates can also be found in various medications and pharmaceutical compounds. For example, some laxatives contain sulfate salts, such as magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) or sodium sulfate, which work by increasing the water content in the intestines and promoting bowel movements.

It is important to note that exposure to high levels of sulfates can be harmful to human health, particularly in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a common air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels. Prolonged exposure to SO2 can cause respiratory problems and exacerbate existing lung conditions.

Uridine Diphosphate (UDP) Glucose Dehydrogenase is an enzyme that plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism. Its systematic name is UDP-glucose:NAD+ oxidoreductase, and it catalyzes the following chemical reaction:

UDP-glucose + NAD+ -> UDP-glucuronate + NADH + H+

This enzyme helps convert UDP-glucose into UDP-glucuronate, which is a crucial component in the biosynthesis of various substances in the body, such as glycosaminoglycans and other glyconjugates. The reaction also results in the reduction of NAD+ to NADH, which is an essential coenzyme in numerous metabolic processes.

UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is widely distributed in various tissues, including the liver, kidney, and intestine. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as glucosuria and hypermethioninemia.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic disorder that affects the normal functioning of an enzyme called G6PD. This enzyme is found in red blood cells and plays a crucial role in protecting them from damage.

In people with G6PD deficiency, the enzyme's activity is reduced or absent, making their red blood cells more susceptible to damage and destruction, particularly when they are exposed to certain triggers such as certain medications, infections, or foods. This can lead to a condition called hemolysis, where the red blood cells break down prematurely, leading to anemia, jaundice, and in severe cases, kidney failure.

G6PD deficiency is typically inherited from one's parents in an X-linked recessive pattern, meaning that males are more likely to be affected than females. While there is no cure for G6PD deficiency, avoiding triggers and managing symptoms can help prevent complications.

... reductase Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3β-hydroxy-5-ene steroid dehydrogenase 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase ... steroid-Δ5-3β-ol dehydrogenase 3β-HSDH 5-ene-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3β-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase 3β-HSD is ... 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) (EC 1.1.1.145) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the ... Steroidogenic enzyme 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Cravioto MD, Ulloa-Aguirre A, Bermudez JA, Herrera J, Lisker R, Mendez JP ...
... possesses the combined activities of the 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ-5-4 isomerase and 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... In enzymology, a 3-β(or 20-α)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.210) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5α- ... Sharaf MA, Sweet F (September 1982). "Dual activity at an enzyme active site: 3 beta,20 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase ...
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases that catalyze the dehydrogenation of ... Steroidogenic enzyme Steroid hydroxylase Hydroxysteroid+Dehydrogenases at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
... steroid metabolism Disorders of sexual development Intersex 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... 17-β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency is a cause of 46,XY disorder of sex development (46,XY DSD) that presents in ... 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency is caused by mutations found in the 17β-HSD III (17BHSD3) gene.17β-HSD III ... 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of sexual development condition that is ...
... (3-HSD) may refer to: 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ( ...
Other names in common use include 7alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, and 7alpha-HSDH. As of late 2007, 3 structures have ... In enzymology, a 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.159) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3alpha, ... Haslewood ES, Haslewood GA (July 1976). "The specificity of a 7 alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli". The ... MacDonald IA, Roach PD (August 1981). "Bile induction of 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in Clostridium ...
Other names in common use include 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 20alpha-HSD, ... "Expression of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2, P450 aromatase, and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... "Human placental 17 beta-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Two activities at a single enzyme ... In enzymology, a 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.149) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 17alpha, ...
... and dehydrogenase. Edenharder R, Pfutzner A (1988). "Characterization of NADP-dependent 12 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... In enzymology, a 12beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.238) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3alpha, ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 12beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP+ 12-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include ... 12beta-hydroxy steroid (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), ...
12alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and NADP+-12alpha-hydroxysteroid ... In enzymology, a 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.176) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3alpha, ... MacDonald IA, Mahony DE, Jellet JF, Meier CE (1977). "NAD-dependent 3alpha- and 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities ... Other names in common use include 12alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, ...
... and 21-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NADP+). Monder C, White A (1965). "The 21-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases of liver. A ... 21-hydroxy steroid (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), dehydrogenase, 21-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (nicotinamide ... In enzymology, a 21-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.151) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Other names in common use include 21-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, ...
This enzyme is also called 16alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase. Meigs RA, Ryan KJ (1966). "16-alpha-hydroxysteroid ... In enzymology, a 16alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.147) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 16alpha-hydroxysteroid:NAD(P)+ 16-oxidoreductase. ... H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 16alpha-hydroxysteroid, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are 16-oxosteroid, NADH ...
This enzyme is also called 21-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NAD+). Monder C, White A (1965). "The 21-hydroxysteroid ... In enzymology, a 21-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NAD+) (EC 1.1.1.150) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... A nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase and two nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenases". J. Biol ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 21-hydroxysteroid:NAD+ 21-oxidoreductase. ...
Other names in common use include NADP+-dependent 7beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 7beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ( ... In enzymology, a 7beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.201) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a ... MacDonald IA, Roach PD (August 1981). "Bile induction of 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in Clostridium ... Hirano S, Masuda N (May 1982). "Characterization of NADP-dependent 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases from Peptostreptococcus ...
Steroidogenic enzyme 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 Cortisone reductase ... Effect of Hyperlipidemia on 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase Hyperlipidemia has a great effect on 11β-hydroxysteroid- ... 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) enzymes catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to ... The dehydrogenase activity of a HSD-11β converts a 11beta-hydroxysteroid to the corresponding 11-oxosteroid by reducing NADP+ ...
Has 3α-HSDTooltip 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20α-HSDTooltip 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in addition to ... 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD, HSD17B) (EC 1.1.1.51), also 17-ketosteroid reductases (17-KSR), are a group of ... Ning X, Yang Y, Deng H, Zhang Q, Huang Y, Su Z, Fu Y, Xiang Q, Zhang S (2017). "Development of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... Soubhye J, Alard IC, van Antwerpen P, Dufrasne F (2015). "Type 2 17-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as a novel target for the ...
Steroidogenic enzyme 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type I; dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 4)". Rizner TL, Lin HK, Peehl DM, Steckelbroeck S, ... 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD or aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... Khanna M, Qin KN, Cheng KC (June 1995). "Distribution of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rat brain and molecular ...
20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, dehydrogenase, 20beta-hydroxy steroid, Delta4-3-ketosteroid hydrogenase, 20beta-hydroxysteroid ... dehydrogenase, 3alpha,20beta-hydroxysteroid:NAD+-oxidoreductase, NADH-20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 20beta-HSD. This ... In enzymology, a 3alpha(or 20beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.53) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Edwards CA, Orr JC (1978). "Comparison of the 3α- and 20β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Activities of the Cortisone Reductase of ...
17beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 3alpha(17beta)-HSD, and 3alpha(17beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NAD+). This enzyme ... hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase distinct from 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in hamster liver". Biochem. J. 266 (2): 583-9. PMC ... In enzymology, a 3alpha(17beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (NAD+) (EC 1.1.1.239) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3alpha(or 17beta)-hydroxysteroid:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use ...
In enzymology, a 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (A-specific) (EC 1.1.1.213) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... Tomkins GM (1956). "A mammalian 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 218 (1): 437-447. PMID 13278351. Portal: ... more specifically it is part of the group of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3alpha- ... transfer from pyridine nucleotides catalyzed by delta-4-3-oxosteroid 5-beta-reductase and 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ...
Penning TM, Sharp RB (1987). "Prostaglandin dehydrogenase activity of purified rat liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... In enzymology, a 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (B-specific) (EC 1.1.1.50) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... Marcus PI; Talalay P (1956). "Induction and purification of alpha- and beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases". J. Biol. Chem. 218 ... more specifically it is part of the group of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3alpha- ...
3(or 17)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.209, 3(17)alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) is an enzyme with systematic ... beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Lau PC, Layne DS, Williamson DG (August 1982). "A 3(17) alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... 3(or+17)alpha-hydroxysteroid+dehydrogenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ... alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases of female rabbit kidney and liver". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 257 (16): 9450-6. ...
"Entrez Gene: HSD11B1 hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1". Classen-Houben D, Schuster D, Da Cunha T, Odermatt A, Wolber G ... 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, also known as cortisone reductase, is an NADPH-dependent enzyme highly expressed in ... Tannin GM, Agarwal AK, Monder C, New MI, White PC (September 1991). "The human gene for 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. ... Whorwood CB, Mason JI, Ricketts ML, Howie AJ, Stewart PM (April 1995). "Detection of human 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ...
... is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal ... 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) type II (HSD3B2). As a result, higher levels of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone appear in the ... "Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4) isomerase deficiency". Semin. Reprod ... 3β-HSD II mediates three parallel dehydrogenase/isomerase reactions in the adrenals that convert Δ4 to Δ5 steroids: ...
17OHDHP is then converted to 5α-pregnane-3α,17α-diol-20-one (5α-Pdiol) via 3α-reduction by a 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Lin, Hsueh K.; Penning, Trevor M. (2003). "Role of human type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ( ... Penning, Trevor M. (1997). "Molecular Endocrinology of Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases". Endocrine Reviews. 18 (3): 281-305. doi: ... and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases from rat and human prostate". J Biol Chem. 272 (25): 15959-66. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.25. ...
Soubhye J, Alard IC, van Antwerpen P, Dufrasne F (2015). "Type 2 17-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as a novel target for the ... Sam KM, Auger S, Luu-The V, Poirier D (1995). "Steroidal spiro-gamma-lactones that inhibit 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... Poirier D (2009). "Advances in development of inhibitors of 17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases". Anticancer Agents Med Chem. ... Poirier D (2003). "Inhibitors of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases". Curr. Med. Chem. 10 (6): 453-77. doi:10.2174/ ...
ISBN 978-81-88237-33-3. Poirier, Donald (Mar 2003). "Inhibitors of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases". Curr Med Chem. 10 (6 ... Umbelliferone is a potent inhibitor of type 3 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, the primary enzyme responsible for the ...
17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 and D-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase/hydratase involved in Zellweger syndrome". ... "Entrez Gene: HSD17B4 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4". Huyghe S, Mannaerts GP, Baes M, Van Veldhoven PP (September ... Green VL, Speirs V, Landolt AM, Foy PM, Atkin SL (April 1999). "17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 2, 3, and 4 ... Dong Y, Qiu QQ, Debear J, Lathrop WF, Bertolini DR, Tamburini PP (October 1998). "17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in human ...
"Characterization of type 12 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an isoform of type 3 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... "Entrez Gene: HSD17B12 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 12". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method ... The enzyme 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-12 (HSD17B12) uses NADPH to reduce 3-ketoacyl-CoA to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA during ... 2006). "Systemic distribution and tissue localizations of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12". J. Steroid ...
Roe CR, Kaplan NO (1969). "Purification and substrate specificities of bacterial hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases". Biochemistry. ... Other names in common use include etiocholanolone 3alpha-dehydrogenase, etiocholanolone 3alpha-dehydrogenase, and 3alpha- ... In enzymology, a 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-androstane-17-one 3alpha-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.152) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... hydroxy-5beta-steroid dehydrogenase. This enzyme participates in androgen and estrogen metabolism. ...
Corticosteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase isozyme 2 also known as 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: HSD11B2 hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 2". Geerling, Joel C.; Arthur D. Loewy (September 2009). " ... 2005). "11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a tissue-specific regulator of glucocorticoid response". Endocr. Rev. 25 (5 ... 1998). "A new compound heterozygous mutation in the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene in a case of apparent ...
... reductase Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3β-hydroxy-5-ene steroid dehydrogenase 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase ... steroid-Δ5-3β-ol dehydrogenase 3β-HSDH 5-ene-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3β-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase 3β-HSD is ... 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) (EC 1.1.1.145) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the ... Steroidogenic enzyme 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Cravioto MD, Ulloa-Aguirre A, Bermudez JA, Herrera J, Lisker R, Mendez JP ...
3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3BHSD) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder of steroid biosynthesis that results in ... 3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency. 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3BHSD) is required for the synthesis of ... 3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency. 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3BHSD) is required for the synthesis of ... Type I 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme is normal in patients with type II 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ...
17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 13. Names. 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. 17-beta-HSD 13. hepatic retinol/retinal ... HSD17B13 hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 [Homo sapiens] HSD17B13 hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 [Homo sapiens] ... hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:18685 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000170509 ... DltE; Short-chain dehydrogenase [General function prediction only]. * NM_178135.5 → NP_835236.2 17-beta-hydroxysteroid ...
HSD17B4 hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 4 [Homo sapiens] HSD17B4 hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 4 [Homo sapiens]. ... 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4. 17beta-estradiol dehydrogenase type IV. 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta- ... beta-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase. beta-keto-reductase. epididymis secretory sperm binding protein. hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 ... hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 4provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:5213 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000133835 MIM ...
Crystal structure of a 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (holo form) from fungus Cochliobolus lunatus in complex with NADPH ... Structural studies on the flavonoid inhibition of a fungal 17Beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Cassetta, A., Krastanova, I., ... The 17β-HSD (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) from the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17β-HSDcl) is a NADP(H)- ... Crystal structure of a 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (holo form) from fungus Cochliobolus lunatus in complex with NADPH ...
Hydroxysteroid (17 beta) Dehydrogenase 4 (HSD17B4) Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone ID: OTI4C4]. ... Recombinant protein of human hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 (HSD17B4), 20 µg ...
M. A. BAILEY, R. J. UNWIN, D. G. SHIRLEY; RAPID COMMUNICATIONIn vivo inhibition of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in ... RAPID COMMUNICATIONIn vivo inhibition of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the rat stimulates collecting duct sodium ... receptors in the collecting duct depends on inactivation of glucocorticoids by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β ...
What does hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase do?. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) or oxidoreductases catalyze the ... What does 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase do?. 17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD) controls the last step ... What is the role of hydroxysteroid ( 17β ) dehydrogenase 13?. Hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenases (HSD17Bs) form an enzyme ... How does 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 affect male sexual development?. 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 ...
17β Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 14 (17β-HSD14): Entwicklung und Synthese potenter und selektiver Inhibitoren zur strukturellen ... Studie über die Genregulation der Expression der 3alpha-Hydroxysteroid-Dehydrogenase im Bakterium Comamonas testosteroni by: ... Structural Characterization of 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 14 and Inhibitor Optimization Using Crystallography and ... Carbonyl Reductases and Pluripotent HydroxysteroidDehydrogenases of the Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/ReductaseSuperfamily: ...
Catalyzes the oxidation of the 12alpha-hydroxy group of bile acids, both in their free and conjugated form ...
Human HSD17b14(17-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 14) ELISA Kit. Human 17 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 14(HSD17B14) ... Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in samples from ... Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in samples from ... Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in samples from ...
N2 - 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) are responsible for the pre-receptor reduction/oxidation of steroids at the ... AB - 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) are responsible for the pre-receptor reduction/oxidation of steroids at the ... 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) are responsible for the pre-receptor reduction/oxidation of steroids at the 17- ... abstract = "17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) are responsible for the pre-receptor reduction/oxidation of steroids ...
Differential Induction of Fibroblast 11Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A Mechanism for Tissue Specific Regulation of ... Differential Induction of Fibroblast 11Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A Mechanism for Tissue Specific Regulation of ...
... sulfate followed by E1 reduction to E2 by 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B1), so HSD17B1 gene expression may play an ... From: Decreased expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is associated with DNA hypermethylation in colorectal ...
3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3BHSD) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder of steroid biosynthesis that results in ... encoded search term (3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency) and 3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency What to ... 3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Feb 11, 2014 * Author: J Paul Frindik, MD, FACE ... 3alpha-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type III deficiency: a novel mechanism for hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr. 93 ...
3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3BHSD) deficiency is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that results in ... This condition is due to defects in type II 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that occurs almost exclusively in ... Older patients with mild defects in 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (late-onset or nonclassic variant) may present ... The need for replacement therapy varies in late-onset (nonclassic) 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency and depends ...
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Category: 11??-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase. Most of the earlier microarray studies of differences in adipose tissue. Most of ... Categorized as 11??-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Tagged TSPAN31, Zanosar kinase activity assay. Posts navigation. Page 1 … Page ... Categorized as 11??-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Tagged BIBW2992 supplier, TNFSF10. G3/10 is an element from the probiotic ... Categorized as 11??-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Tagged BILN 2061 price, TSPAN4. Among replication mutations that destabilize ...
Categorized as Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, 11??- Both cGVHD and aGVHD drive back ALL relapse. Both cGVHD and aGVHD drive ... Categorized as Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, 11??- FLU (Sequoia Study Products, UK), dissolved in DMSO was added to the FLU + ... Category: Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, 11??-. We also thank Dr. We also thank Dr. in the Assisting Information. ... Categorized as Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, 11??- The pharmacology of TUG-891, a potent and selective agonist from the free ...
... adrenal-hyperplasia-congenital-due-to-3-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-deficiency- [meta_description] => [meta_keywords ... due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency [description] => [description_short] => [quantity] => 0 [minimal_quantity ...
HSD17B4 hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 4 [Homo sapiens] HSD17B4 hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 4 [Homo sapiens]. ... 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4. 17beta-estradiol dehydrogenase type IV. 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta- ... beta-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase. beta-keto-reductase. epididymis secretory sperm binding protein. hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 ... hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 4provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:5213 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000133835 MIM ...
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases, Adipocytes, Adipose Tissue, Cushing Syndrome, Humans, Hydrocortisone, Hydroxysteroid ...
NC genome using hybrid de novo genome assemblies and identification of the 12α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene. Favale N.. Co ... NC strain and to identify the coding region for a 12α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (12α-HSDH), involved in BAs metabolism. The ... NC strain and to identify the coding region for a 12α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (12α-HSDH), involved in BAs metabolism. The ...
Synonyms: CAH due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. A rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Get in touch with RARE Concierge.. ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency?. Our RARE Concierge Services Guides are ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. ...
However, the role of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which catalyzes the conversion of inactive cortisone ... "11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 amplifies inflammation in LPS-induced THP-1 cells". Iranian Journal of Basic Medical ... 11 Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is induced in human monocytes upon differentiation to macrophages. J Immunol 2001; ... 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, but not type 2, deficiency worsens acute inflammation and experimental arthritis in ...
Osteoblastic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity increases with age and glucocorticoid exposure. J Bone Miner ... 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a regulator of glucocorticoid response in osteoporosis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31:16-21 ... Expression and functional consequences of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human bone. Bone. 2000;27:375-81 ... 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 selective inhibitor BVT.2733 protects osteoblasts against endogenous glucocorticoid ...
17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) is a steroidogenic enzyme essential for invertebrate spermatogenesis. A homologue of HSD ... 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) is a steroidogenic enzyme essential for invertebrate spermatogenesis. A homologue of HSD ... EST Cloning and Expression of 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase in the Ascidian, Ciona intestinalis Testis. Kang Hee Kho ... EST Cloning and Expression of 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase in the Ascidian, Ciona intestinalis Testis. Kang Hee Kho ...
We speculate that hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and therefore reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate ... 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) interconverts inactive cortisone and active cortisol. Although ... by intronic mutations in HSD11B1 that decrease gene transcription together with mutations in hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, ... 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases, Cloning, Molecular, ...
Submicroscopic duplications of the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase HSD17B10 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 are associated with ...
3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. *3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, see 3-beta-hydroxysteroid ... 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, see 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. *3beta-HSDH deficiency, see ... 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency. *17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency, see 17-beta ... 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, see 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. *4 alpha aminobutyrate ...
  • 3-Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3BHSD) deficiency is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that results in decreased production of all three groups of adrenal steroids: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids. (medscape.com)
  • Although first described in male infants with ambiguous genitalia and severe salt wasting, 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency also occurs in 46,XX female infants (who may have mild clitoromegaly), as well as in older patients who present with a milder or so-called late-onset variant. (medscape.com)
  • A variety of mutations in the HSD3B2 gene affect the activity of this enzyme, resulting in the extremely variable, phenotypic presentations of 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • It is caused by deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which results in a defect of the peripheral metabolism of cortisol to cortisone. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency is a condition that affects male sexual development. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • New insight into the molecular basis of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of eight mutations in the HSD3B2 gene eleven patients from seven new families and comparison of the functional properties of twenty-five mutant enzym. (medscape.com)
  • Subramaniam P, Clayton PT, Portmann BC, Mieli-Vergani G, Hadzic N. Variable clinical spectrum of the most common inborn error of bile acid metabolism--3beta-hydroxy-Delta 5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Simard J, Moisan AM, Morel Y. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4) isomerase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Persistent testicular delta5-isomerase-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta5-3beta-HSD) deficiency in the delta5-3beta-HSD form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (medscape.com)
  • 3alpha-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type III deficiency: a novel mechanism for hirsutism. (medscape.com)
  • Delayed diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with salt wasting due to type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Nordenström A, Forest MG, Wedell A. A case of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD3B2) deficiency picked up by neonatal screening for 21-hydroxylase deficiency: difficulties and delay in etiologic diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Jeandron DD, Sahakitrungruang T. A novel homozygous Q334X mutation in the HSD3B2 gene causing classic 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency: an unexpected diagnosis after a positive newborn screen for 21-hydroxylase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Detection and functional characterization of the novel missense mutation Y254D in type II 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) gene of a female patient with nonsalt-losing 3 beta HSD deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • The need for replacement therapy varies in late-onset (nonclassic) 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency and depends on the severity of the defect. (naqlafshk.com)
  • A rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B2) deficiency and characterized by salt-wasting and non-salt wasting CAH with a wide variety of symptoms including glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiencies in both sexes. (globalgenes.org)
  • The molecular basis of cortisone reductase deficiency, the putative "11beta-HSD1 knockout state" in humans, has been defined and is caused by intronic mutations in HSD11B1 that decrease gene transcription together with mutations in hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an endoluminal enzyme that provides reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate as cofactor to 11beta-HSD1 to permit reductase activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Deficiency of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3βHSD2) causes a very rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) known as 3βHSD2 deficiency, which is a consequence of biallelic HSD3B2 gene defects. (eurospe.org)
  • Among the remaining half, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) deficiency plays an important role. (pucv.cl)
  • 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) (EC 1.1.1.145) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the steroid progesterone from pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone from 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition is due to defects in type II 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that occurs almost exclusively in the gonads and adrenal glands. (medscape.com)
  • The 17β-HSD (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) from the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17β-HSDcl) is a NADP(H)-dependent enzyme that preferentially catalyses the interconversion of inactive 17-oxo-steroids and their active 17β-hydroxy counterparts. (rcsb.org)
  • In order to test the proposal that the aldosterone specificity of mineralocorticoid receptors in the collecting duct depends on inactivation of glucocorticoids by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD), we have assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of 11β-HSD on collecting duct Na + reabsorption in vivo . (portlandpress.com)
  • The enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • Licorice influences cortisol production by inhibiting the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • The HSD17B3 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • Hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenases (HSD17Bs) form an enzyme family characterized by their ability to catalyze reactions in steroid and lipid metabolism. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a key enzyme that transform cortisone to cortisol, which activates the endogenous glucocorticoid function. (ijbs.com)
  • 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) is a steroidogenic enzyme essential for invertebrate spermatogenesis. (molcells.org)
  • To address the second, we investigated RNAs bound by the metabolic enzyme hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 17-β 10 (HSD17B10). (nature.com)
  • Submicroscopic duplications of the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase HSD17B10 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 are associated with mental retardation. (ru.nl)
  • Analyses of the mitochondrial hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B10) uncover the RNA-binding specificity of an enigmRBP. (nature.com)
  • Carboxyl-terminal mutations in 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II cause severe salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (medscape.com)
  • Mutations in the type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B2) gene can cause premature pubarche in girls. (medscape.com)
  • 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1, and not Type 12, is a target for endocrine therapy of hormone-dependent breast cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Anti-inflammatory effect of a selective 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor via the stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 in LPS-activated mice and J774.1 murine macrophages. (ac.ir)
  • 5. Itoi S, Terao M, Murota H, Katayama I. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 contributes to the pro-inflammatory response of keratinocytes. (ac.ir)
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of levalbuterol-induced 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in airway epithelial cells. (ac.ir)
  • Carbenoxolone prevents chemical eye ischemia-reperfusion-induced cell death via 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibition. (ac.ir)
  • 11. Chapman KE, Coutinho AE, Zhang Z, Kipari T, Savill JS, Seckl JR. Changing glucocorticoid action: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in acute and chronic inflammation. (ac.ir)
  • 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a tissue-specific regulator of glucocorticoid response. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) interconverts inactive cortisone and active cortisol. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Agarwal, AK 2001, ' Transcriptional influence of two poly purine-pyrimidine tracts located in the HSD11B2 (11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2) gene ', Endocrine Research , vol. 27, no. 1-2, pp. 1-9. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 17β-HSDcl belongs to the SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily. (rcsb.org)
  • 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), encoded by Hsd11b1 , is a reductase that can convert inactive cortisone into metabolically active cortisol, but the role of 11β-HSD1 in sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction remains poorly understood. (jbr-pub.org.cn)
  • 7. Chapman K, Holmes M, Seckl J. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: Intracellular gate-keepers of tissue glucocorticoid action. (ac.ir)
  • Background: 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase one is responsible for activating inert glucocorticoid cortisone into biologically active cortisol in humans and may be a novel target for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (figshare.com)
  • 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) enzymes catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • Cortisol, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and central obesity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, the role of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which catalyzes the conversion of inactive cortisone into active cortisol, in inflammation remains unclear. (ac.ir)
  • To investigate whether impaired placental function may be a determinant, we measured placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activity, protein and mRNA, placental CRH mRNA, fetal cortisol, and fetal estriol concentrations at delivery. (edu.au)
  • In mammalian tissues, two isozymes of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) catalyze the interconversion of hormonally active cortisol (F) and inactive cortisone (E). 11β-HSD2 is a high affinity dehydrogenase expressed in adult kidney that inactivates F to E protecting the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) (which has equal affinity for F and aldosterone in vitro) from cortisol excess. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • The enzymatic defects causing female virilization involve 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (3β-HSD), P 450 C21 hydroxylase (21-OH), and P 450 C11 hydroxylase (11-OH). (health.am)
  • Down-Regulation of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR) and Up-Regulation of Hydroxysteroid 11-Beta Dehydrogenase Type 2 (HSD11B2) Isoenzyme in Critically Ill Patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Predicted to enable oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor and steroid dehydrogenase activity. (nih.gov)
  • CHILD syndrome is inherited in an X-linked dominant fashion and involves a mutation in the NSDHL (NAD[P]H steroid dehydrogenase-like protein) gene. (medscape.com)
  • Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) or oxidoreductases catalyze the interconversion of alcohol and carbonyl functions in a position- and stereospecific manner on the steroid nucleus and side chain, using oxidized (+) or reduced (H) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD(H), or NADP(H) as cofactors. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • There are two such repeat elements in the HSD11B2 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) gene. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Older patients with mild defects in 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (late-onset or nonclassic variant) may present with premature pubic hair development, hirsutism, irregular menstrual cycles or primary amenorrhea. (medscape.com)
  • Hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase (HSD11B) isoenzymes regulate which ligand will bind to MR. In this study we aimed to evaluate the expression of the MR and the HSD11B isozymes in peripheral polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in critical illness for a 13-day period. (bvsalud.org)
  • d ) Validation of the yeast mRNA interactome using western blotting of input samples and eluate after interactome capture with specific antibodies (ADH1, alcohol dehydrogenase 1, PUB1) or against TAP-tagged proteins (PGK1, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, TDH1, triose phosphate dehydrogenase, TRX2, thioredoxine 2, SHE2, Swi5p-dependent HO Expression 2). (nature.com)
  • Results: WZS08 was the most potent inhibitor of rat, mouse, and human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, with half maximum inhibitory concentrations of 378.0, 244.1, and 621.1 nM, respectively, and it did not affect 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase two at 100 μM. (figshare.com)
  • Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) constitute a universal superfamily of functionally heterogeneous proteins and participate in the metabolism of steroids, prostaglandins, retinoids, aliphatic alcohols, and xenobiotics. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Patients with classic salt-losing 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase require initial replacement of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoid, plus the addition of sex steroids at appropriate, pubertal age. (naqlafshk.com)
  • Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute a superfamily of proteins catalysing reactions of a wide range of substrates in all life forms. (avhandlingar.se)
  • 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) are responsible for the pre-receptor reduction/oxidation of steroids at the 17-position into active/inactive hormones, and the 15 known enzymes vary in their substrate specificity, localisation, and directional activity. (bath.ac.uk)
  • We speculate that hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and therefore reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate supply may be crucial in determining the directionality of 11beta-HSD1 activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
  • In pea (Pisum sativum), the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) gene family consists of at least three members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). The SAD genes are transiently expressed in plants after short exposures to ultraviolet-B radiation, which in turn leads to formation of SAD protein in leaf and stem tissue upon prolonged irradiation. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Methods: A series of benzylidene cyclopentanone derivatives were synthesized, and the selective inhibitory effects on rat, mouse and human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase one and two were screened. (figshare.com)
  • Studies of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes in infants and children manifesting premature pubarche and increased adrenocorticotropin-stimulated delta 5-steroid levels. (medscape.com)
  • 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyse the pre-receptor activation/inactivation of hormones and other substrates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis were used to better understand the structure/function relationships in the family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR). (avhandlingar.se)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human 17 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 14(HSD17B14) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Conclusion: WZS08 selectively inhibits rat, mouse, and human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, and can treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a mouse model. (figshare.com)