Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Cortisone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of a ketone and hydroxy group at C-20 of cortisone and other 17,20,21-trihydroxy steroids. EC 188.8.131.52.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2: An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 184.108.40.206) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 220.127.116.11).Steroid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processing of STEROIDS resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B-Specific): A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.Estranes: A group of compounds forming the nucleus of the estrogenic steroid family.Androstanes: The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 18.104.22.168, XX Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a female karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Estradiol Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 22.214.171.124Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.TetrahydrocortisolL-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.TetrahydrocortisoneNADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Carbenoxolone: An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent: A hereditary disease characterized by childhood onset HYPERTENSION, hypokalemic alkalosis, and low RENIN and ALDOSTERONE secretion. It results from a defect in the activity of the 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE TYPE 2 enzyme which results in inadequate conversion of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. The build up of unprocessed cortisol to levels that stimulate MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS creates the appearance of having excessive MINERALOCORTICOIDS.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.20-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase: An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.IMP Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 188.8.131.52.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseGlutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 184.108.40.206.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 220.127.116.11.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 18.104.22.168.) EC 22.214.171.124.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate: 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.Arylsulfotransferase: A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 126.96.36.199.Ribonucleotide ReductasesCorticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.Ketosteroids: Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase: An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 188.8.131.52Glycyrrhetinic Acid: An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.Cytochrome-B(5) Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN oxidoreductase that occurs both as a soluble enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of a single mRNA. The soluble form is present mainly in ERYTHROCYTES and is involved in the reduction of METHEMOGLOBIN. The membrane-bound form of the enzyme is found primarily in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and outer mitochondrial membrane, where it participates in the desaturation of FATTY ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis and drug metabolism. A deficiency in the enzyme can result in METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseFMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168 and EC 22.214.171.124.Cytochrome Reductases3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 126.96.36.199.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 188.8.131.52 was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206 and EC 220.127.116.11.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.
... β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 11β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, corticosteroid 11-reductase, and dehydrogenase, 11β-hydroxy ... Steroidogenic enzyme 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 Cortisone reductase ... cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: 11β- ... 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1- a tissue-specific amplifier of glucocorticoid action". Endocrinology. 142 (4): 1371 ...
... , also known as cortisone reductase, is an NADPH-dependent enzyme highly expressed in ... Cortisone reductase deficiency 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117594 - Ensembl, ... "Human adrenal cortex and aldosterone secreting adenomas express both 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 ... Wake DJ, Walker BR (February 2006). "Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity". Endocrine. 29 (1): ...
... is caused by dysregulation of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1), ... Cortisone reductase deficiency is caused by dysregulation of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme, otherwise ... encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase ... encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase ...
... encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase ... "Entrez Gene: H6PD hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (glucose 1-dehydrogenase)". Tan SG, Ashton GC (1976). "An autosomal glucose- ... Beutler E, Morrison M (1968). "Localization and characteristics of hexose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (glucose dehydrogenase)". J ... 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) polymorphism in human saliva". Hum. Hered. 26 (2): 113-23. doi: ...
20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.400.150 --- cortisone reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.485 --- imp ... 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.174.600 --- 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 ... 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.350.100 --- 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (B-specific) MeSH ... hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.174 --- 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.047. ...
... has been found to act as a potent inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) (IC50 = 60- ... It is a substrate for 5α-reductase like testosterone, and so is potentiated in so-called "androgenic" tissues like the skin, ... 11β-HSD2 is responsible for the inactivation of the glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone (into cortisone and 11- ... "The anabolic androgenic steroid fluoxymesterone inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2-dependent glucocorticoid ...
... encoding 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase ... 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (such as finasteride and dutasteride) may also be used; they work by blocking the conversion of ... Insulin resistance/Type II diabetes. A review published in 2010 concluded that women with PCOS have an elevated prevalence of ... Metformin is a drug commonly used in type 2 diabetes to reduce insulin resistance, and is used off label (in the UK, US, AU and ...
... is highly susceptible to enzymatic reduction via reductases and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases due to its double ... For the example, cortisone can be simultaneously deoxygenated at the C-17 and C-21 position by treatment with ... The tendency for progesterone to have a regulatory effect, the presence of progesterone receptors in many types of body tissue ... Subsequently, 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase reduce these metabolites to form the ...
... encoding 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase ... Impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta- ... Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Dodson WC, Dunaif A. Prevalence and predictors of risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired ... 2011, 62 (2): 120-8. PMID 21528473.. *^ Munir, Iqbal; Yen, Hui-Wen; Geller, David H.; Torbati, Donna; Bierden, Rebecca M.; ...
"11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a tissue-specific regulator of glucocorticoid response". Endocrine Reviews. 25 (5 ... 5-Beta reductase is also the rate-limiting factor in the conversion of cortisone to tetrahydrocortisone. An alteration in 11- ... "Cortisol release from adipose tissue by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in humans". Diabetes. 58 (1): 46-53. doi: ... the endogenous type I and type II receptor agonist) or RU28362 (a specific type II receptor agonist) to adrenalectomized ...
CBG Cortisone reductase deficiency; 604931; H6PD Cortisone reductase deficiency; 604931; HSD11B1 Costello syndrome; 218040; ... Maroteaux type; 602875; NPR2 Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome; 254900; SCARB2 Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain, ... CYP17A1 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase X deficiency; 300438; HSD17B10 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria; 610006; ACADSB 3- ... type 1B; 276900; MYO7A Usher syndrome, type 1C; 276904; USH1C Usher syndrome, type 1D; 601067; CDH23 Usher syndrome, type 1D/F ...
5α-Reductase and 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Steroids are primarily oxidized by cytochrome P450 oxidase enzymes, such as ... Nakiterpiosin-type steroids are active against the signaling pathway involving the smoothened and hedgehog proteins, a pathway ... cortisone, and lanosterol 1969 (Chemistry) Derek Barton and Odd Hassel - Development of the concept of conformation in ... The mevalonate pathway (also called HMG-CoA reductase pathway) begins with acetyl-CoA and ends with dimethylallyl pyrophosphate ...
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. *17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. *5α-Reductase deficiency * ... Type Sex steroid effects Other effects Severe 21-hydroxylase deficiency causes salt-wasting CAH The most common cause of ... cortisol/cortisone: CAH 17α-hydroxylase. *CAH 11β-hydroxylase. *both: CAH 3β-dehydrogenase ... Types. Severe, early onset 21-hydroxylase deficient CAH. The two most serious neonatal consequences of 21- ...
3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 21-hydroxylase ... Inhibition type. Estimated inhibition at 2 μM Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. 20 μM. Competitive. ? ... 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase. 5.8 μM. Competitive. 4.3% ... ISBN 978-94-011-3864-2.. *^ a b c d Florencio Zaragoza Dörwald (4 February 2013). Lead Optimization for Medicinal Chemists: ...
... β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 11β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, corticosteroid 11-reductase, and dehydrogenase, 11β-hydroxy ... Steroidogenic enzyme 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 Cortisone reductase ... cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: 11β- ... 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1- a tissue-specific amplifier of glucocorticoid action". Endocrinology. 142 (4): 1371 ...
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, also known as cortisone reductase, is an NADPH-dependent enzyme highly expressed in ... Cortisone reductase deficiency 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117594 - Ensembl, ... "Human adrenal cortex and aldosterone secreting adenomas express both 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 ... Wake DJ, Walker BR (February 2006). "Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity". Endocrine. 29 (1): ...
... exhibiting both 11β-dehydrogenase and 11β-reductase reactions, with greater stability of the dehydrogenase activity (10). ... cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC), respectively]. There are two isozymes. 11β-HSD type 2 (11β-HSD-2) is a high ... 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1;. 11-DHC,. 11-dehydrocorticosterone;. ES,. embryonic stem;. PEPCK,. phosphoenolpyruvate ... 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 knockout mice show attenuated glucocorticoid-inducible responses and resist ...
... and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 and type 2 were grouped into a similarity cluster. A 147-member compound ... Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases (11βHSDs). 11βHSD1-dependent oxoreduction of cortisone and 11βHSD2-dependent ... Interestingly, tropinone reductase belongs to the family of the short-chain dehydrogenases, which also contains the ... pharmaceutically highly relevant hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Thus, 11βHSDs type 1 and type 2 were chosen as further members ...
11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Recombinant Protein-AAC50356.1 (MBS2031421) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ... 11-beta-HSD type II; NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 11-beta-HSD; Short chain dehydrogenase/reductase ... The type I isozyme has both 11-beta-dehydrogenase (cortisol to cortisone) and 11-oxoreductase (cortisone to cortisol) ... Unconjugated Antibody: 11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (MBS2026283). Immunogen: 11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type ...
... cortisone. This conversion is mediated by 11ß- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-HSD). Specific defects in this enzyme lead to ... he showed that this steroid was not metabolized by 5a-reductase and thus it might be useful for treatment of 5-alpha reductase ... Agarwal cloned two isoforms of 11-HSD (types 1 and 2) and expressed them using a number of different systems including Xenopus ... For example, in male genital skin, testosterone is converted by 5a-reductase to dihydrotestosterone which is a more potent ...
Two isoforms of human 11 beta-HSD have been cloned, an NADP(H)-dependent (type 1) dehydrogenase/oxo-reductase enzyme, and a ... responsible for the interconversion of hormonally active cortisol to inactive cortisone, dictates specificity for the ... Type 1 and type 2 isoforms of human 11 beta-HSD are expressed in a distinct tissue-specific fashion, in keeping with the ... Type 2 11 beta-HSD is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues where it serves to protect the MR in an autocrine ...
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is expressed in neutrophils and restrains an inflammatory response in male mice. ... β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the brain does not contribute to systemic interconversion of cortisol and cortisone ... 5α-Reductase Type 1 Modulates Insulin Sensitivity in Men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2014, 99(8), E1397- ... In the mid-1990s the intracellular enzyme 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11b-HSD1)was thought to inactivate cortisol ...
11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) performs end-organ metabolism of glucocorticoids (GCs) by catalyzing ... Only reductase activity was observed in living cells, evidenced by the restricted conversion of cortisone to cortisol. ... The expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I by lymphocytes provides a novel means for intracrine regulation ... Macrophages from 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-deficient mice exhibit an increased sensitivity to ...
... including 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), which generates active cortisol from cortisone, and 5alpha- ... reductase (5alphaR), which inactivates cortisol, has been implicated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 101 obese ... Two women and five men were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. In women, adipose 11beta-HSD1 expression was increased in patients ... and type 2 diabetes are largely unknown. Altered endogenous glucocorticoid metabolism, ...
... a crucial feature seems to be 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, known as 11β-HSD1, shown in Figure 3. Cortisone, an ... they decrease both dehydrogenase and reductase activity of 11β-HSD1. Because the nonselective inhibitors have also been shown ... Stulnig TM, Waldhausl W. "11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 in obesity and Type 2 diabetes." Diabetologia (2004) 47:1- ... "Comparative enzymology of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 from six species." Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (2005) ...
... and reductase (11 beta R) activities, which catalyse the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone, and prednisolone and ... 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSD) has both dehydrogenase (11 beta DH) ... 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSD) has both dehydrogenase (11 beta DH) and reductase (11 beta R) activities, ... This enzyme confers specificity on the mineralocorticoid receptor by local oxidation of cortisol to cortisone. Using ...
11-beta Type II peptide (MBS653968) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Peptides. Application: Elisa (EIA), Antibody Blocking ... 11-b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11b-HSD) is a microsomal short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) which catalyzes the inter ... AME is principally a disorder of juveniles and children with this condition oxidize cortisol to cortisone poorly but carry out ... Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, 11-beta Type II, Peptide. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, 11-beta Type ...
... cytochrome P450 17A1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3βHSD2), in the androgen biosynthesis pathway. In prostate ... While 17βHSD was inhibited in LNCaP, PC-3 cells and in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cells, 5α-reductase (SRD5A) was not. ... cortisone ratios in humans consuming Rooibos. Our investigations have been extended to include the immune modulating properties ... together with their 11keto-derivatives pose novel substrates for 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) type1 and type2. ...
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases 11ベータ-ヒドロキシステロイドデヒドロゲナーゼ 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 11ベータ- ... Cortisone Reductase コルチゾンレダクターゼ Enzyme Inhibitors 酵素阻害剤 ... 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 11ベータ-ヒドロキシステロイドデヒドロゲナーゼ1型 ... hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1. Disease : Chemicals : Biological Phenomena : Anatomy : Organisms
... short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 9C; member 3; 11-DH2; 11-beta-HSD2; -HSD11 type II; 11-beta-hydroxysteroid ... cortisol/cortisone, organism-specific biosystem; C21-Steroid hormone biosynthesis, progesterone =, cortisol/cortisone, ... 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II; NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; short chain dehydrogenase/ ... Antigen standard for hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 2 (HSD11B2) is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently ...
11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 (11ß-HSD1 and 11ß-HSD2), as well as 5α- and 5ß-reductase. The paper presents ... Cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) are metabolized to A-ring reduced metabolites in the reactions catalyzed by 5α- and 5ß-reductase ... 2S,3S)-N-7-(3,4-epoxy-2-hydroxybut-1-yl)guanine [EHBG]). This process is presently considered a primary mechanism for the ... The parameters known to reflect the function of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2) were calculated to verify ...
Despite the name,11-beta-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 generally acts as a reductive enzyme, converting Cortisone to ... As mentioned, reductase activity by 11b-hsd promotes the formation of active cortisol from inactive cortisone and dehydrogenase ... And, if that was not enough, ethanol has been found to directly inhibit 11-beta-HSD-2s dehydrogenase activity, via increase it ... What is of note is that the two isoenzymes, 11-beta- hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11b-1) and type 2 (11b-2) that ...
The type I isozyme has both 11-beta-dehydrogenase (cortisol to cortisone) and 11-oxoreductase (cortisone to cortisol) ... The type II isozyme, encoded by this gene, has only 11-beta-dehydrogenase activity. In aldosterone-selective epithelial tissues ... the type II isozyme catalyzes the glucocorticoid cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone, thus preventing illicit ... a microsomal enzyme complex responsible for the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone. ...
2011 Jun 23 - 11-β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) converts cortisone to cortisol, mainly in the liver and ... Overexpression of hepatic 5α-reductase and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in visceral adipose tissue is associated ... 2010 Sep;161(1):113-26 - 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) is an attractive therapeutic target of type ... Errant Enzyme Causes Big Bellies - WebMD, 12/11/01 - They looked at an enzyme called 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type ...
11 Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 or Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Family 26C Member 1 or HSD11B1 or EC 22.214.171.124 ... 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is an NADPH-dependent enzyme highly expressed in key metabolic tissues including ... In these tissues HSD11B1 reduces cortisone to the active hormone cortisol that activates glucocorticoid receptors. This enzyme ... Corticosteroid 11 Beta Dehydrogenase Isozyme 1 (11 Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 or Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase ...
11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 are up- and down-regulated in cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. J Investig ... Body fat distribution and cortisol metabolism in healthy men: enhanced 5beta-reductase and lower cortisol/cortisone metabolite ... Type 1 11β-HSD reactivates cortisol from its inactive form cortisone. GH inactivates type 1 11β-HSD, preventing cortisol from ... hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). This enzyme has two forms, type 1 and 2, which are involved in cortisol metabolism. ...
11 Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 or Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase ... ... 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is an NADPH-dependent enzyme highly expressed in key metabolic tissues including ... In these tissues HSD11B1 reduces cortisone to the active hormone cortisol that activates glucocorticoid receptors. This enzyme ... Corticosteroid 11 Beta Dehydrogenase Isozyme 1 (11 Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 or Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase ...
... to long-term glucocorticoid therapy by acting locally on the bone cells by increasing the dehydrogenase action of 11β-HSD type ... determined the correlation between the effects of Ps leaf water extract with the regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ... HSD) type 1 enzyme activity in serum and bone of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic rats. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were ... dependent unidirectional enzyme with dehydrogenase action and inactivates cortisol to cortisone. Reductase activity for ...
Intracrinology: role of the family of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in human physiology and disease. J Mol Endocrinol. ... and type II males that sneak spawn [22,26]. We collected tissue samples from type I males at different time points in the ... and cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone  (Table 4). 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol are the major circulating ... The steroidogenic enzyme 3-keto-steroid reductase-like (hsd17b7), responsible for the interconversion between estrone and ...
DeficiencyHexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenaseShort chain dehydroIsozymeGlucose-6-phosphate d11ß- hydroxysteroGeneConversion of cortisone to cortisolGlucocorticoidsMetabolite cortisoneBeta-hydroxysteroid17beta-hydroxysteroid dehObesitySteroidMineralocorticoidCatalyzesInactive cortisone to cortisolInterconversion of cortisol and cortisoneAdiposeInhibition of 11HyperandrogenismTissuesNADPHCorticosteroneLocalizationActivityDiabetesAlpha-reductaseEndocrinologySRD5AType1HepaticHumansOxidoreductaseInactivationHydrocortisone
- Steroidogenic enzyme 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 Cortisone reductase deficiency Seckl JR, Walker BR (April 2001). (wikipedia.org)
- 36 Cortisone reductase deficiency (CORTRD) is a rare abnormality of cortisone metabolism. (malacards.org)
- Cortisone Reductase Deficiency, also known as 11-alpha beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type i deficiency of , is related to cortisone reductase deficiency 2 and hyperandrogenism due to cortisone reductase deficiency . (malacards.org)
- An important gene associated with Cortisone Reductase Deficiency is HSD11B1 (Hydroxysteroid 11-Beta Dehydrogenase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Pentose phosphate pathway and Steroid hormone biosynthesis . (malacards.org)
- 74 Cortisone reductase deficiency is caused by dysregulation of the 11? (malacards.org)
- Hyperandrogenism Due to Cortisone Reductase Deficiency, also known as 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency type 1 , is related to cortisone reductase deficiency and body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 . (malacards.org)
- An important gene associated with Hyperandrogenism Due to Cortisone Reductase Deficiency is H6PD (Hexose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase/Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase). (malacards.org)
- Cortisone-reductase deficiency associated with heterozygous mutations in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. (malacards.org)
- Steroid biomarkers and genetic studies reveal inactivating mutations in hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in patients with cortisone reductase deficiency. (malacards.org)
- Corticosterone methyl oxidase type II (CMO II) deficiency: biochemical approach to diagnosis. (wikipathways.org)
- 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) due to 17Î²-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 deficiency. (wikipathways.org)
- A novel nonstop mutation in the stop codon and a novel missense mutation in the type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) gene causing, respectively, nonclassic and classic 3beta-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (wikipathways.org)
- The R453Q variant in the hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (H6PD) and 83557insA mutations in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) type 1 gene (HSD11B1) interact, resulting in cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD), a rare disorder characterized by a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like phenotype. (cdc.gov)
- 1. 3-Beta-HSD, Deficiency of 2. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- The molecular basis of cortisone reductase deficiency, the putative "11beta-HSD1 knockout state" in humans, has been defined and is caused by intronic mutations in HSD11B1 that decrease gene transcription together with mutations in hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an endoluminal enzyme that provides reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate as cofactor to 11beta-HSD1 to permit reductase activity. (ox.ac.uk)
- A study of the hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene R453Q and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene 83557insA polymorphisms in the polyc. (cdc.gov)
- Mutations of the hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene rarely cause hyperandrogenemic polycystic ovary syndrome. (cdc.gov)
- Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: a new risk gene for multiple sclerosis. (cdc.gov)
- Lack of Association of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene 83,557insA and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene R453Q polymorphisms with body composition, adrenal androgen production, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and dementia. (cdc.gov)
- We speculate that hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and therefore reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate supply may be crucial in determining the directionality of 11beta-HSD1 activity. (ox.ac.uk)
- Recent data suggest the type 1 isozyme (11β-HSD-1) may function as an 11β-reductase, regenerating active glucocorticoids from circulating inert 11-keto forms in specific tissues, notably the liver. (pnas.org)
- He showed that the 11-HSD1 isozyme catalyzes both oxidation of cortisol (and corticosterone) and reduction of cortisone (and 11-dehydrocorticosterone), requires NADP or NADPH as a cofactor, and requires glycosylation for full activity. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- The type I isozyme has both 11-beta-dehydrogenase (cortisol to cortisone) and 11-oxoreductase (cortisone to cortisol) activities. (creativebiomart.net)
- The type II isozyme, encoded by this gene, has only 11-beta-dehydrogenase activity. (creativebiomart.net)
- its circulating pool of ∼80 nmol/l is largely dependent on dehydrogenase activity (cortisol to cortisone) from the related isozyme 11β-HSD2, expressed in kidney and gut. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This conversion is mediated by 11ß- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-HSD). (utsouthwestern.edu)
- CONTEXT: Adipose tissue is an important site for extragonadal steroid hormone biosynthesis through the expression and activity of P450 aromatase, 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) 1, and 17ß-HSDs. (bvsalud.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the stress hormone cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. (wikipedia.org)
- The human gene for 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
- Mutations of the gene encoding 11β-HSD-2 are responsible for the human syndrome of "apparent mineralocorticoid excess," characterized by illicit activation of renal mineralocorticoid receptors by cortisol, producing sodium retention, severe hypertension, and hypokalemia ( 7 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
- Through positional cloning, they identified disease causing mutations in (AGPAT2) gene located on chromosome 9q34, encoding 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2, in the affected subjects from 26 of the 42 pedigrees of various ethnicities. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- Antigen standard for hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 2 (HSD11B2) is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
- We report here the cloning and characterization of a novel human SDR gene SCDR10B which encodes a protein with similarity to 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1. (edu.pl)
- Audige A, Dick B, Frey BM, Frey FJ, Corman B, Vogt B (2002) Glucocorticoids and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene expression in the aging kidney. (edu.pl)
- Two homozygous mutations in the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene in a case of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. (wikipathways.org)
- Familial hyperaldosteronism type I is caused by an unequal crossover of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) genes, giving rise to a chimeric CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene (CG). (ahajournals.org)
- 2 - 4 Different pedigrees exhibiting different crossover patterns of the hybrid gene have been described, which suggests that the mutations arose independently in each pedigree. (ahajournals.org)
- The HSD11B2 gene, encoding the kidney isoenzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, is a candidate for essential hypertension. (nature.com)
- Neuropilins guide preganglionic sympathetic axons and chromaffin cell precursors to establish the adrenal medulla  "By combining lineage tracing, gene expression studies, genetic ablation and the analysis of mouse mutants, we demonstrate that preganglionic axons direct chromaffin cell precursors into the adrenal primordia. (edu.au)
- 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) is a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: 11β-hydroxysteroid + NADP+ ⇌ an 11-oxosteroid + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 11beta-hydroxysteroid and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 11-oxosteroid, NADPH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
- 11β-HSD type 2, a dehydrogenase, thus excludes glucocorticoids from otherwise nonselective mineralocorticoid receptors in the kidney. (pnas.org)
- 11β-HSD type 2 (11β-HSD-2) is a high affinity (nanomolar K M ), NAD-dependent exclusive 11β-dehydrogenase ( 3 , 4 ), which excludes glucocorticoids from otherwise nonselective mineralocorticoid receptors in aldosterone target tissues, such as the distal nephron ( 5 , 6 ), and from the feto-placental unit ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
- 11β-HSD-1 shares less than 30% homology with 11β-HSD-2, has a lower affinity for glucocorticoids (micromolar K M ), and uses NADP(H) as cosubstrate. (pnas.org)
- However, though transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells with 11β-HSD-1 cDNA encodes bidirectional activity ( 11 ), transfection of the same cDNA into other cell lines encodes a predominant 11β-reductase ( 13 , 14 ), which regenerates active glucocorticoids from inert 11-keto forms. (pnas.org)
- Brian Walker's research using a wide range of translational tools (rodent models, detailed integrative physiology in humans, and epidemiology) has systematically documented that cortisol contributes to the association between multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease ('metabolic syndrome') in the population, how glucocorticoids influence vascular lesions and their complications ,and that manipulation of cortisol action offers novel therapeutic approaches in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease . (ncl.ac.uk)
- Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase belongs to the subfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR), and 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase catalyzes the interconversion of inactive glucocorticoids (cortisone in human, dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) and active glucocorticoids (cortisol in human, corticosterone in rodents). (edu.pl)
- Glucocorticoids have a profound negative effect on adipose tissue mass, giving rise to obesity, which in turn is regulated by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme. (bvsalud.org)
- OBJECTIVE: To quantify estrogens (estradiol, estrone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol, cortisone) in breast adipose tissue from both healthy and diseased women and their relationships with adiposity indices and breast cancer prognostic markers. (bvsalud.org)
- In epithelial cells, the 11 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11HSD2) shields the MR from becoming occupied by glucocorticoids that circulate at higher concentrations 467458-02-2 manufacture than aldosterone . (cylch.org)
- 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD), responsible for the interconversion of hormonally active cortisol to inactive cortisone, dictates specificity for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the distal nephron and colon. (semanticscholar.org)
- 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSD) has both dehydrogenase (11 beta DH) and reductase (11 beta R) activities, which catalyse the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone, and prednisolone and prednisone. (stoynev.us)
- HSD11B2 has several biochemical functions, for example, 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [NAD(P)] activity, NAD binding, steroid binding. (creativebiomart.net)
- An 11-beta-hydroxysteroid + NADP + = an 11-oxosteroid + NADPH. (uniprot.org)
- The body will fluctuate between the 2 hormones via the enzymes 11-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (11b-HSD) type I and type II. (seasonswellness.com)
- 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity was assessed by urinary THF+5α-THF/THE. (bioscientifica.com)
- 11betaHSD1 or 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, is an enzyme which catalyzes conversion of inactive cortisone into active cortisol and is found in the eye. (fiteyes.com)
- This paper is a review of the role of cortisol and abdominal obesity in the epidemic of type 2 Diabetes. (kon.org)
- Future efforts in this related struggle against both obesity and type 2 diabetes should encompass a strong focus on cortisol so such prevention and treatment can successfully advance. (kon.org)
- Abdominal obesity has been strongly correlated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and cortisol may be involved (Franco, 2001). (kon.org)
- Although circulating cortisol concentrations are invariably normal in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome ( 1 ), in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies over the last decade have collectively shown the importance of local generation of cortisol, via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in liver and fat, in mediating many facets of the metabolic syndrome ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- 2) The Metabolic Syndrome: A major cause of the diabetes epidemic is the rise in obesity which leads to a cluster of diabetes- and cardiovascular disease-related metabolic abnormalities that shorten life expectancy. (stanford.edu)
- 2009) Efficacious 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I inhibitors in the diet-induced obesity mouse model. (guidetopharmacology.org)
- Metabolic syndrome without obesity: hepatic overexpression of 11 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in transgenic mice," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 101, no. 18, pp. 7088-7093, 2004. (hindawi.com)
- During the last 10 years, evidence has accumulated that strongly argues for an etiological role of 11 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 β -HSD1) in obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- CONCLUSIONS Whole-body 11β-HSD1 activity is increased in obese men with type 2 diabetes, whereas liver 11β-HSD1 activity is sustained, unlike in euglycemic obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Conversely, hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity, assessed by measuring plasma cortisol after oral administration of cortisone, is reduced in obesity ( 17 , 19 , 21 ), although it is uncertain whether increased inactivation of cortisone and cortisol by A-ring reductases in the liver ( 22 ) contributes to the difference in plasma cortisol. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Both cortisol and cortisone metabolite excretion correlated with central obesity, where the intraabdominal fat depot showed the strongest association. (diva-portal.org)
- Considerable evidence suggests that it arises as a complex trait with contributions from both heritable and nonheritable intrauterine and extrauterine factors, among which insulin resistance and obesity are most common [ 2,3 ]. (uptodate.com)
- Here, we establish that S -nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), a major protein denitrosylase, provides a key regulatory link between inflammation and autophagy, which is disrupted in obesity and diabetes. (webpediatrica.com)
- Therapeutic inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 reductase activity in patients with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, as well as in glaucoma and osteoporosis, remains an exciting prospect. (ox.ac.uk)
- Other names in common use include corticosteroid 11β-dehydrogenase, β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 11β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, corticosteroid 11-reductase, and dehydrogenase, 11β-hydroxy steroid. (wikipedia.org)
- Using rat liver and a prostate microsomal fraction, he showed that this steroid was not metabolized by 5a-reductase and thus it might be useful for treatment of 5-alpha reductase deficient patients. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- Biochemical and pharmacogenetic dissection of human steroid 5 alpha-reductase type II. (wikipathways.org)
- Subsequently, NADP(H) cofactor preference and enzymatic reducing activity of DHRS7 was determined towards endogenous substrates with a steroid structure (cortisone, 4-androstene-3,17-dion) and also toward relevant exogenous substances bearing a carbonyl group harmful to human health (1,2-naphtoquinone, 9,10-phenantrenequinone). (ox.ac.uk)
- To prevent over-stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by cortisol, 11β-HSD converts the biologically active cortisol to the inactive cortisone, which can no longer bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- This enzyme confers specificity on the mineralocorticoid receptor by local oxidation of cortisol to cortisone. (stoynev.us)
- Schematic from the potential sites for inhibiting the activities of aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor 467458-02-2 manufacture activationAbbreviations: MR, mineralocorticoid receptor. (cylch.org)
- 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) catalyzes the interconversion of cortisol and corticosterone with their inert 11-keto forms [cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC), respectively]. (pnas.org)
- The AGPAT2 catalyzes the acylation of the lysophosphatidic acid at the sn-2 position to form phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TG) and glycerophospholipids, which are involved in signal transduction. (utsouthwestern.edu)
- 11beta-HSD1 is a dimeric enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of cortisone to cortisol within the endoplasmic reticulum. (malacards.org)
- 16 The enzyme 11βHSD type 2 (11βHSD2) isoform binds NAD with high affinity and catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 11β-hydroxyglucocorticoids. (nature.com)
- 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, also known as cortisone reductase, is an NADPH-dependent enzyme highly expressed in key metabolic tissues including liver, adipose tissue, and the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
- Salicylate downregulates 11β-HSD1 expression in adipose tissue in obese mice and hence may explain why aspirin improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
- In the mid-1990s the intracellular enzyme 11 b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11b-HSD1)was thought to inactivate cortisol, and perhaps 'protect' liver, adipose tissue, and blood vessels from excessive exposure to cortisol. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance are associated with increased adipose 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression and elevated hepatic 5alpha-reductase activity. (ox.ac.uk)
- Bujalska IJ, Walker EA, Hewison M, Stewart PM (2002a) A switch in dehydrogenase to reductase activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 upon differentiation of human omental adipose stromal cells. (edu.pl)
- Cortisol metabolites correlated with 11-HSD type 1 activity in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. (diva-portal.org)
- This is in contrast to 11beta-HSD type 1 which favors cortisol production and dominates in the liver , adipose tissue (fat), ovaries, testicles, prostate , brain , and muscle . (seasonswellness.com)
- Nevertheless, the reductase activity of 11β-HSD1 can regenerate cortisol in tissues with high enzyme expression, predominantly liver and fat. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cortisol levels in these tissues are amplified by the 11β-reductase activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which regenerates cortisol from inert cortisone ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- This is in part mediated through renal inactivation of active GCs by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which are then recycled within peripheral target tissues expressing 11β-HSD1. (biomedcentral.com)
- 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a bi-directional enzyme that, in the presence of the NADPH-generating enzyme H6PDH, primarily activates GCs (cortisone to cortisol in humans, 11-dehydrocorticosterone to corticosterone in mice) in vivo and determines their tissue-specific exposure [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Wild type (WT) and 11β-HSD1 knockout (KO) mice were treated with corticosterone (100 μg/ml, 0.66% ethanol) or vehicle (0.66% ethanol) in drinking water over 4 weeks (six animals per group). (biomedcentral.com)
- Wild type mice receiving corticosterone developed marked trabecular bone loss with reduced bone volume to tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N). Histomorphometric analysis revealed a dramatic reduction in osteoblast numbers. (biomedcentral.com)
- Clearly a preponderance of 11 β reductase (corticosterone regenerating) action over 11 β dehydrogenation (corticosterone inactivating) action would result in higher tissue levels of the active steroids. (diabetesobesity.org.uk)
- Rapid administration of corticosterone (the endogenous type I and type II receptor agonist) or RU28362 (a specific type II receptor agonist) to adrenalectomized animals induced changes in leukocyte distribution. (wikipedia.org)
- 11β-HSD-1 in tissue homogenates and when purified is bidirectional, exhibiting both 11β-dehydrogenase and 11β-reductase reactions, with greater stability of the dehydrogenase activity ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
- The reductase reaction predominates in intact cells, whereas broken cells, homogenates, and microsomes all show bidirectional activity. (pnas.org)
- Although some studies have illustrated that type 2 diabetics do not have higher levels of ACTH or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity than normal individuals, other studies have alternatively illustrated that cortisol levels are increased in diabetics (Chiodini, 2007). (kon.org)
- The subsequent appearance of D3 cortisol exclusively reflects 11β-HSD1 reductase activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The activity level of 5α-reductase (5AR), the enzyme that converts testosterone to 5α-DHT. (lmreview.com)
- OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of dexamethasone on the histomorphometric characteristics of perirenal adipocytes of adrenalectomized, dexamethasone-treated rats (ADR+Dexa) and the association of dexamethasone treatment with the expression and activity of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1). (bvsalud.org)
- These different genetic lesions may all act by decreasing the activity of a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase, SM-20/EglN3/PHD3, resulting in reduced apoptosis of neural crest cells during development. (labome.org)
- To examine this, we quantified in vivo whole-body, splanchnic, and hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity in obese type 2 diabetic subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Samples were obtained from the hepatic vein and an arterialized hand vein at steady state and after oral administration of cortisone (5 mg) to estimate whole-body and liver 11β-HSD1 activity using tracer dilution. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Enzyme activity has been quantified using a stable isotope tracer, 9,11,12,12-[ 2 H] 4 cortisol (d4-cortisol), from which the 11-deuterium is removed during interconversion with cortisone, allowing quantification of dilution of d4-cortisol by d3-cortisol and hence of 11β-HSD1 activity, independently from the influence of other cortisol-metabolizing enzymes ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- TNFα inhibited the differentiation of these cells, as indicated by a decrease in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, an established marker of adipocyte differentiation. (bioscientifica.com)
- The expression and thus the activity of these 2 enzymes can be increased or decreased. (seasonswellness.com)
- through a predominant β reductase activity. (diabetesobesity.org.uk)
- although the morbidity and mortality rates for countless diseases have been reduced due to advances in medical research and high standard of living, the rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus increases. (kon.org)
- According to the US National Commission on Diabetes, the likelihood of acquiring type 2 diabetes is 2-fold for mildly obese individuals, 5-fold for moderately obese individuals, and 10-fold for the severely obese individuals (Pi-Sunyer, 2007). (kon.org)
- Type 2 Diabetes develops through abnormal insulin action and insulin secretion (Goldstein, 2002). (kon.org)
- OBJECTIVE: The precise molecular mechanisms contributing to the development of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes are largely unknown. (ox.ac.uk)
- Two women and five men were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. (ox.ac.uk)
- [ 12 ] In a study of 190 patients with type 2 diabetes, 63 subjects (33%) had high cortisol concentrations. (medscape.com)
- In addition, ∼30% of patients who have insulin resistance eventually develop type 2 diabetes. (physiology.org)
- The benefits of pharmacological inhibition may be reduced if hepatic 11β-HSD1 is similarly decreased in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten obese men with type 2 diabetes and seven normal-weight control subjects were infused with 9,11,12,12-[ 2 H] 4 cortisol (40%) and cortisol (60%) at 1.74 mg/h. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The diagnosis of PCOS has lifelong implications with increased risk for metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and possibly cardiovascular disease and endometrial carcinoma. (uptodate.com)
- Os estudos do Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group demonstraram que tanto a administração de metformina como a mudança no estilo de vida (dieta e exercício físico) podem reduzir a incidência de diabetes melito tipo 2 (DM2). (bvsalud.org)
- Identifying new ways to manipulate these two ancient fuel gauges by activating AMPK and inhibiting peripheral serotonin may lead to the development of new therapies for treating type 2 diabetes. (webpediatrica.com)