Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Hydroxylysine: A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques: The process of embryo initiation in culture from vegetative, non-gametic, sporophytic, or somatic plant cells.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.Ascorbic Acid Deficiency: A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Desmosine: A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Peplomycin: An antineoplastic agent derived from BLEOMYCIN.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.ArabinoseDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Proline Oxidase: The first enzyme of the proline degradative pathway. It catalyzes the oxidation of proline to pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid in the presence of oxygen and water. The action is not reversible. The specific activity of proline oxidase increases with age. EC 1.5.3.-.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hyperoxaluria: Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Antibodies, Archaeal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to ARCHAEAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Archaeal: Substances of archaeal origin that have antigenic activity.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Variations in 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans along canine coronary arteries. A possible index of artery wall stress. (1/1144)

Focal areas of accentuated wall stress along the course of canine coronary arteries may be revealed by the level of 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans (GAG). In the anterior descending artery, 35SO4 incorporation in higher in the proximal than in the distal region and may be extraordinarily high as the vessel enters a proximally located muscle bridge and at the takeoff region of multidirectional branches. In the circumflex artery, the incorporation also is higher in the proximal than in the distal region and is high at the genu where the posterior descending artery forms. There are differences in uptake of 35SO4 in vessels even when the arteries arise from the same vascular bed.this was shown by the higher incorporation in the left coronary artery than in the right coronary artery. A general anatomical agreement exists between these sites of high 35SO4 incorporation and previously described locations of interval elastic disruption ans proliferation of intimal connective tissue in the dog.  (+info)

Suppression of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms by systemic treatment with a hydroxamate-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (RS 132908). (2/1144)

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are associated with chronic inflammation, disruption of medial elastin, and increased local production of elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a hydroxamate-based MMP antagonist (RS 132908) might affect the development of experimental AAAs. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent intraluminal perfusion of the abdominal aorta with 50 units of porcine pancreatic elastase followed by treatment for 14 days with RS 132908 (100 mg/kg/day subcutaneously; n = 8) or with vehicle alone (n = 6). The external aortic diameter (AD) was measured in millimeters before elastase perfusion and at death, with AAA defined as an increase in AD (DeltaAD) of at least 100%. Aortic wall elastin and collagen concentrations were measured with assays for desmosine and hydroxyproline, and fixed aortic tissues were examined by light microscopy. RESULTS: AAAs developed in all vehicle-treated rats, with a mean AD (+/- SE) that increased from 1.60 +/- 0.03 mm before perfusion to 5.98 +/- 1.02 mm on day 14 (DeltaAD = 276.4 +/- 67.7%). AAAs developed in only five of eight animals (62.5%) after MMP inhibition, with a mean AD that increased from 1.56 +/- 0.05 mm to 3.59 +/- 0.34 mm (DeltaAD = 128.1 +/- 18.7%; P <.05, vs vehicle). The overall inhibition of aortic dilatation attributable to RS 132908 was 53.6 +/- 6.8%. Aortic wall desmosine fell by 85.4% in the vehicle-treated rats (1210.6 +/- 87.8 pmol/sample to 176.7 +/- 33.4 pmol/sample; P <.05) but only by 65.6% in the animals treated with RS 312908 (416.2 +/- 120.5 pmol/sample). In contrast, hydroxyproline was not significantly affected by either elastase perfusion or drug treatment. Microscopic examination revealed the preservation of pericellular elastin and a greater degree of fibrocollagenous wall thickening after MMP inhibition, with no detectable difference in the extent of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic MMP inhibition suppresses aneurysmal dilatation in the elastase-induced rodent model of AAA. Consistent with its direct inhibitory effect on various MMPs, RS 132908 promotes the preservation of aortic elastin and appears to enhance a profibrotic response within the aortic wall. Hydroxamate-based MMP antagonists may therefore be useful in the development of pharmacologic approaches to the suppression of AAAs.  (+info)

Altered connective tissue in children with congenital dislocation of the hip. (3/1144)

The umbilical cord was employed as a source of collagen in 10 children with congenital dislocation of hip. The amount of collagen and its solubility were measured in slices of the cords and in the umbilical veins and compared with the values in normal subjects. Both the amount of collagen and its solubility were decreased in children with congenital dislocation of the hip.  (+info)

Effects of pirfenidone on procollagen gene expression at the transcriptional level in bleomycin hamster model of lung fibrosis. (4/1144)

A time course study was carried out to elucidate the mechanisms for antifibrotic effect of pirfenidone (PD). Hamsters were intratracheally (i.t.) instilled with saline (SA) or bleomycin (BL) (7.5 units/kg/5 ml). The animals were fed a diet containing 0.5% PD or the same control diet (CD) without the drug 2 days before and throughout the study. The animals were sacrificed at various times after instillation. The lung hydroxyproline level in BL + CD groups was gradually increased and peaked at 21 days to 181% of the SA + CD control. The BL + PD-treated groups showed a gradual decrease in their lung collagen content, showing a maximum reduction of 40% at day 21. The lung malondialdehyde levels of the BL + CD groups were increased by several-fold of the corresponding SA + CD groups at various times. The lung prolyl hydroxylase (PH) activities in the BL + CD groups were also increased by several-fold of the corresponding SA + CD groups at these time points. The hamsters in the BL + PD showed a gradual decrease in the lung malondialdehyde levels from 10 to 21days compared with their corresponding BL + CD groups. Treatment with PD also reduced the lung PH activities in the BL + PD groups compared with the corresponding BL + CD groups. However, PD failed to manifest any direct inhibitory effect on PH activity in vitro. BL treatment increased the lung procollagen I and III gene expressions in the BL + CD groups by several-fold at varying times compared with the corresponding SA + CD, and treatment with PD in the BL + PD groups significantly down-regulated the BL-induced overexpression of these genes. Studies evaluating the regulation of these genes at the transcriptional level revealed PD significantly reduced the transcription of PC I at 14 days. Our results indicate that the antifibrotic effect of PD was partly due to suppression of the BL-induced inflammatory events and partly due to down-regulation of BL-induced overexpression of lung procollagen I and III genes.  (+info)

A new approach to assessing collagen turnover by using a micro-assay. A highly efficient and rapid turnover of collagen in rat periodontal tissues. (5/1144)

Measurement of [3H]proline incorporation into newly synthesized and mature collagen in connective tissues was used to compare rates and efficiency of collagen turnover. The approach minimizes label-recycling problems. By using a micro-assay to determine hydroxyproline specific radioactivities, a highly efficient and rapid collagen turnover in rat periodontal tissues was demonstrated.  (+info)

T cell independence of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. (6/1144)

The role of T cells and cytokines in bleomycin (BLM)-induced fibrosis was evaluated in susceptible and resistant strains of normal and SCID mice. Histology and hydroxyproline analysis showed that BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis in C57BL/6 and (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 mice, whereas BALB/c mice were resistant to the disease. To test whether lymphocytes were required for the induction of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, SCID mice were injected intratracheally with BLM and evaluated for the development of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Similar morphological changes and increases in hydroxyproline were observed in both C57BL/6 SCID and (C57BL/6 x CB.17)F1 SCID animals compared to those seen in wild-type C57BL/6 and (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 mice. In contrast, CB.17 SCID mice, which are genetically similar to BALB/c mice, were resistant to disease induction. Analysis of the cellular infiltrate in BLM-treated C57Bl/6 SCID mice confirmed a lack of T cells in the lungs of SCID mice and demonstrated a pronounced accumulation of eosinophils in areas of developing pulmonary fibrosis. NK cells were significantly elevated in untreated SCID mice and did not increase further after BLM treatment. Analysis of selected cytokines 1 day after initiation of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis indicated that the levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma appeared to segregate with fibrosis in both the SCID and wild-type mice. The data demonstrate that T cells are not required for the induction of fibrosis by BLM and suggest that responses by non-lymphoid cells may be sufficient for the induction of fibrosis.  (+info)

The action of the benzopyrones on an experimental model of lymphoedema: a contribution to their mode of action. (7/1144)

A number of preparations containing benzopyrones are used clinically as a therapy for lymphoedema; however, their exact mode of action is not well known. This work presents evidence which indicates that, as in the treatment of thermally induced oedemas, the benzopyrones work by enhancing the lysis of the accumulated proteins. This is evidenced by reduced levels of total protein in the extracellular compartment of the skin, while peptides and amino acids were increased in the serum at 6 and 12 h respectively after the drug's administration. Failure to observe very marked increases in peptides and amino acids at other times in the serum and skin was attributed to the rapid incorporation of these into the large number of maturing phagocytes which enter the lymphoedematous tissues. Likewise, protease activity levels were not elevated as expected. This possibly was the consequence of a number of factors including serum deactivation, inhibition of release and membrane stabilization.  (+info)

Histology and tissue chemistry of tidemark separation in hamsters. (8/1144)

Adult articular cartilage is divided by the tidemark into a deep calcified layer and a more superficial uncalcified layer. Histologic examination of articular cartilage from the knee joint of golden Syrian hamsters 123 days of age or older revealed defects at the tidemark in the tibia. Defects ranged from small separations of the calcified and uncalcified layers along the tidemark to progressively larger defects apparently formed by dissolution. These larger defects appeared as cavities in the noncalcified cartilage, had smooth rather than rough edges, frequently contained coalesced debris, and often resulted in a bulge in the articular surface. Occasionally, these large defects broke through the articular surface. Defects were not observed in tibial cartilage of younger (<90 days old) hamsters or in femoral cartilage from hamsters of any age. Exercise neither protected against nor increased the severity of the defects. Collagen cross-linking by pyridinoline was examined as a function of age and increased from 1,090 to 3,062 micromoles of pyridinoline/mole of hydroxyproline over the period of 1-9 months of age but was not correlated with defect formation. With increasing age, these focal tidemark defects could lead to osteoarthrosis-like cartilage lesions.  (+info)

  • For this reason, hydroxyproline content has been used as an indicator to determine collagen and/or gelatin amount. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hi, I am trying to analyse the hydroxyproline to determine collagen content in rat heart samples, I am following Reddy and Enwemeka 1996 paper but unable to get a proper standard curve, even my blank (water) looks similar to my highest standard concentration (2--0ug). (biology-online.org)
  • It was subsequently shown that the increase in stability is primarily through stereoelectronic effects and that hydration of the hydroxyproline residues provides little or no additional stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The arabinose residues are attached to hydroxyproline mostly in the form of trisaccharides. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Is specific for AGPs containing non-contiguous peptidyl hydroxyproline residues. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Identification of plant hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein sequences by performing sequence bias and motif search, prediction of hydroxylated proline residues and scraping relevant data from web based prediction services. (rdrr.io)
  • These results suggest that cell wall strengthening in S. graminicola-infected resistant pearl millet is brought about by a combination of polypeptide cross-linking of isodityrosine as well as by the high content of hydroxyproline in HRGPs, and H2O2, in contrast to the susceptible plant. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • Trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline CAS NO:51-35-4 L-Hydroxyproline Molecular Formula:C5H9NO3 Appearance: White crystals or crystalline powder Package:25kgs/drum Application:1. (lookchem.com)
  • for example, low molecular weight Bio Cell is combined with proline hydroxyproline and vitamin C for healthy skin and hair. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since dye-linked dehydrogenation activity for several unique compounds related to plants as substrates including opine(s) and l -hydroxyproline had been reported in bacterial cell-free extract from 1950s to 1980s, those genetic and molecular information have only recently been elucidated [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Hydroxyproline is formed only as a post-translational modification in the peptide chain and proline hydroxylase does not hydroxylate free proline. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In the degradation pathway of bacteria, D-hydroxyproline dehydrogenase (HypDH) catalyzes the dehydrogenation reaction of cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline, and is classified into two types: homomeric and heteromeric enzymes. (intechopen.com)
  • In addition, we found that hydroxyproline promoted hypoxia- and HIF-dependent phenotype in HCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, we demonstrated that hypoxia activated proline biosynthesis via upregulation of ALDH18A1 , subsequently leading to accumulation of hydroxyproline via attenuated PRODH2 activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the following, we present a computational study on the influence of stereoelectronic effects on the conformational properties of hydroxyproline and discuss the impact on the collagen triple-helix stability. (scienomics.com)
  • Structural basis for the recognition of hydroxyproline in HIF-1 alpha by pVHL. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hydroxyproline oxidation was initiated by adding 50ul chloramine T solution to each well. (biology-online.org)
  • The so-called dye-linked dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of various biomolecules in the presence of an artificial electron acceptor, in which several unique compounds related to plants as substrates such as opine(s) and L-hydroxyproline are contained. (intechopen.com)
  • Hydroxyproline (hydroxyproline), is one of the imino acids, usually with a hydroxyl group in the fourth position, but sometimes also in the third position. (grantprintinginc.com)
  • Hydroxyproline (Hyp) catabolism, which occurs mainly in the liver and kidney, is a prominent source of glyoxylate and could account for a significant portion of the oxalate produced in PH. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hydroxyproline is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver. (healthmatters.io)
  • Thirty-two men with stage D2 prostatic cancer were monitored by bone scan, acid and alkaline phosphatase values, and urinary hydroxyproline, beginning from 4 to 36 months after initiation of hormonal manipulation and/or systemic chemotherapy. (elsevier.com)
  • 4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) and prolyl dipeptides such as prolyl hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) have been found as disease biomarkers in the diagnosis of bone turnover and osteoporosis. (wichita.edu)
  • The crystal structure of a hydroxylated HIF-1 alpha peptide bound to VCB (pVHL, elongins C and B) and solution binding assays reveal a single, conserved hydroxyproline-binding pocket in pVHL. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Biochemical assay showed serum ALT actions, serum AST actions, and information screening compounds of hepatic hydroxyproline had been markedly greater in rats injected with CCl4 for 12 wk, that are consistent using the histological observations. (thrombininhibitors.com)
  • This study will also look at whether hydroxyproline is reabsorbed by the kidney and converted to glycolate and oxalate. (rarediseasesnetwork.org)
  • In the following, we will present a work flow for analyzing the conformational preferences of hydroxyproline using MAPS software platform [15' and discuss the implications of stereoelectronic effects as structure directing element. (scienomics.com)
  • Emodin could reduce the scores of hepatic fibrosis grading, inhibit the ALT and AST activities in serum and lowered the articles of hepatic hydroxyproline. (thrombininhibitors.com)