Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide: Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.CarbodiimidesStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.CME-CarbodiimideSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.EstersHydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein O-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to free carboxyl groups of a protein molecule forming methyl esters. EC 2.1.1.-.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.BenzaldehydesHydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)KetonesHistidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.AcroleinSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vanillic Acid: A flavoring agent. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13).Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Protein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Luteolin: 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Azo CompoundsBiocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Hydroxylamine: A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.DeoxyriboseLectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Ficain: A sulfhydryl proteinase with cysteine at the active site from ficus latex. Preferential cleavage is at tyrosine and phenylalanine residues. EC 3.4.22.3.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Kaempferols: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Delftia acidovorans: A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Hydroxylation of an N-methyl group leads to expulsion of a molecule of formaldehyde, while oxidation of the O-methyl groups ... Sites on drugs where conjugation reactions occur include carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), amino (NH2), and sulfhydryl (-SH) ... The detoxification of endogenous reactive metabolites such as peroxides and reactive aldehydes often cannot be achieved by the ... which can result in either the introduction of hydroxyl groups or N-, O- and S-dealkylation of substrates. The reaction ...
This allows for stronger hydrogen bonding between the 2'- and 3'- ribose hydroxyl groups and the side chain carboxyl group. The ... Furthermore, the researchers needed a dehydrogenase to replace the aldehyde dehydrogenase capacity of AdhE2. CoA-acylating ... Specifically, Asn9 binds to the 3'-hydroxyl group and the 2'-oxygen atom of adenyl ribose moiety. Through direct mutagenesis, ... However, this phosphate group makes NADPH much less stable than NADH, and therefore more expensive to synthesize. Thus, it is ...
Together the hydroxyl and carbonyl group forms the functional group carboxyl. Carboxylic acids usually exist as dimeric pairs ... In other words, it gets rid of the carboxyl groups of two acid molecules, and joins the remaining fragments together. Acid ... Oxidation of aldehydes with air using cobalt and manganese catalysts. The required aldehydes are readily obtained from alkenes ... The hydroxyl group on carboxylic acids may be replaced with a chlorine atom using thionyl chloride to give acyl chlorides. In ...
Together the hydroxyl and carbonyl group forms the functional group carboxyl. Carboxylic acids usually exist as dimeric pairs ... containing two carboxyl groups examples adipic acid the monomer used to produce nylon and aldaric acid - a family of sugar ... Oxidation of aldehydes with air using cobalt and manganese catalysts. The required aldehydes are readily obtained from alkenes ... A carboxylic acid /ˌkɑːrbɒkˈsɪlɪk/ is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH).[1] The general formula of a ...
As for aldehydes, the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to ... Specific esters are functionalized with an α-hydroxyl group in the Chan rearrangement. Esters with β-hydrogen atoms can be ... Unlike amides, esters are structurally flexible functional groups because rotation about the C-O-C bonds has a low barrier. ... group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group. Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides ...
Thus, cycloaddition yields the carboxyl group on C-3 and the phenyl group on C-4 regioselectively. Steric effects can either ... The magnesium then chelates to the hydroxyl group and the oxygen atom of nitrile oxide. The cycloaddition thus comes from the ... electron withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups, and the electron donating dimethylamine groups. Stable carbonyl ylide dipoles can ... The carbonyl ylide can be generated upon reaction of the dihalocarbenes with ketones or aldehydes. However, the synthesis of α- ...
... a hydroxyl group on C-3β, 2) a carboxyl group on C-6, and 3) a lactone between C-4 and C-10. The 3β-hydroxyl group can be ... In general, the most biologically active compounds are dihydroxylated gibberellins, which possess hydroxyl groups on both ... ent-7a-hydroxykaurenoic acid is converted to GA12-aldehyde by KAO - 8) GA12-aldehyde is converted to GA12 by KAO. GA12 is ... GA5 and GA6 are examples of bioactive GAs that do not have a hydroxyl group on C-3β. The presence of GA1 in various plant ...
As for aldehydes, the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to ... Protecting groups[edit]. As a class, esters serve as protecting groups for carboxylic acids. Protecting a carboxylic acid is ... Specific esters are functionalized with an α-hydroxyl group in the Chan rearrangement. ... From aldehydes[edit]. The Tishchenko reaction involve disproportionation of an aldehyde in the presence of an anhydrous base to ...
As for aldehydes, the hydrogen atoms on the carbon adjacent ("α to") the carboxyl group in esters are sufficiently acidic to ... hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.[1] Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol ... Protecting groupsEdit. As a class, esters serve as protecting groups for carboxylic acids. Protecting a carboxylic acid is ... Specific esters are functionalized with an α-hydroxyl group in the Chan rearrangement. ...
... carboxyl group acceptor) MeSH D08.811.913.696.630.025 --- acetate kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.630.050 --- aspartate kinase MeSH ... aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.249.750 --- omega-crystallins MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.311 --- aldehyde oxidase ... hydroxyl-kinase MeSH D08.811.150.240 --- dna modification methylases MeSH D08.811.150.280 --- dna restriction enzymes MeSH ... other substituted phosphate groups) MeSH D08.811.913.696.900.074 --- CDP-diacylglycerol-inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase MeSH ...
In the Oxy-Cope rearrangement, a hydroxyl group is added at C3 forming an enal or enone after Keto-enol tautomerism of the ... carbonyl and carboxyl> hydride> phenyl and vinyl>> alkyl. Alkyl groups undergo [1,5] shifts very poorly, usually requiring high ... phenylhydrazine and an aldehyde or ketone under acidic conditions. The reaction was discovered in 1883 by Hermann Emil Fischer ... If the migrating group remains on the same face of the π system, the shift is known as suprafacial, while if the migrating ...
As amino acids have both a primary amine group and a primary carboxyl group, these chemicals can undergo most of the reactions ... Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R ... and side chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.). In the form of proteins, amino ... In alternative fashion, the Strecker amino acid synthesis involves the treatment of an aldehyde with potassium cyanide and ...
The authors note that the dienophile's free hydroxyl group was integral to the success of the reaction, as hydroxyl-protected ... 2-dihydropyridine-1-carboxylate shown below put the newly installed carboxyl group in a position to rearrange exclusively to ... For instance, in uncommon combinations involving X groups on both diene and dienophile, a 1,3-substitution pattern may be ... Conversion of the cis-aldehyde to its corresponding alkene by Wittig olefination and subsequent ring-closing metathesis with a ...
In general, the hydroxyl group makes the alcohol molecule polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to ... If a higher priority group is present (such as an aldehyde, ketone, or carboxylic acid), then the prefix "hydroxy" is used, e.g ... there seems no reason why the simple word acid should not connote carboxyl, and why al should not connote COH; the names ... The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the ...
Procollagen is then modified by the addition of hydroxyl groups to the amino acids proline and lysine. This step is important ... This enzyme acts on lysines and hydroxylysines producing aldehyde groups, which will eventually undergo covalent bonding ... The relatively high content of proline and hydroxyproline rings, with their geometrically constrained carboxyl and (secondary) ... where there is no space for a larger side group than glycine's single hydrogen atom. For the same reason, the rings of the Pro ...
Its ketone group was protected as an acetal (2-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, TsOH) and a carboxyl group was removed (LiCl, DMSO ... The alcohol was oxidized to the aldehyde using a Parikh-Doering oxidation and TIPS group removal gave hemiacetal 19 called (+)- ... the new amino group acylated (acetic anhydride, pyridine), both alcohol protecting groups removed (NaOMe / meOH) and the allyl ... potassium hydroxide caused rearrangement of the C12-13 double bond and ring closure in a conjugate addition by the hydroxyl ...
Allylboration is also often used to add allyl groups in a 1,2 fashion to aldehydes and ketones. Thanks to decades of research, ... A group attached at this site is sometimes described as allylic. Thus, CH2=CHCH2OH "has an allylic hydroxyl group". Allylic C−H ... Benzylic groups are related to allyl groups; both show enhanced reactivity. Pentadienyl[edit]. A CH2 group connected to two ... Carbonyl allylation is a type of organic reaction in which an activated allyl group is added to carbonyl group producing an ...
... the polar group is a mere -OH (hydroxyl or alcohol). In the case of phospholipids, the polar groups are considerably larger and ... The general structure of an α-amino acid, with the amino group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... A reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom that can be in equilibrium with the open-chain aldehyde (aldose) or keto form ... turned into a ring of carbon atoms bridged by an oxygen atom created from the carbonyl group of one end and the hydroxyl group ...
... and hydroxyls interact strongly with each other. Plus, when functional groups are more electronegative than atoms they attach ... Aldehyde. Aldehyde RCHO formyl- (-COH). or. oxo- (=O). -al Acetaldehyde. (Ethanal) Acyl halide. Haloformyl RCOX ... Carboxyl. RCOOH carboxy-. -oic acid Acetic acid. (Ethanoic acid) Ester. Carboalkoxy RCOOR' alkanoyloxy-. or. alkoxycarbonyl ... the reactivity of a functional group can be modified by other functional groups nearby. In organic synthesis, functional group ...
Note that in the IUPAC system, the name ethylene is reserved for the divalent group -CH2CH2-. Hence, names like ethylene oxide ... Some products derived from this group are polyvinyl chloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methyl chloroform, ... This group also discovered that ethylene could be combined with chlorine to produce the oil of the Dutch chemists, 1,2- ... Aldehyde. *Alkoxy (Methoxy). *Benzoyl. *Carbonyl. *Carboxyl. *Carboxylic anhydride. *Dioxirane. *Epoxide. *Ester. *Ether ...
... are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The ... Methylations can occur by the formation of an ether bond on hydroxyl groups forming O-methylated polyphenols. In the case of ... Metabolism Aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase uses an aromatic alcohol and NAD+ to produce an aromatic aldehyde, NADH and H+. Aryl- ... and other UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isozymes with identical carboxyl termini". J Biol Chem. 267 (5): 3257-61. PMID 1339448. ...
Methylations can occur by the formation of an ether bond on hydroxyl groups forming O-methylated polyphenols. In the case of ... the O-methylated flavone tangeritin, all of the five hydroxyls are methylated, leaving no free hydroxyls of the phenol group. ... Phenolic acids, Phenolic aldehydes Gallic, salicylic acids 8 C6-C2 1 Acetophenones, Tyrosine derivatives, Phenylacetic acids 3- ... and other UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isozymes with identical carboxyl termini". J Biol Chem. 267 (5): 3257-61. PMID 1339448.. ...
They are far less acidic than hydrogens alpha to carbonyl groups (such as in ketones or aldehydes), however. ... which is usually a hydroxyl group, still matters. The term "oxide" or other terms are used for high molar mass polymer when end ... The phenoxide ion will then substitute the -X group in the alkyl halide, forming an ether with an aryl group attached to it in ... are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group-an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups. They have ...
... are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The ... Methylations can occur by the formation of an ether bond on hydroxyl groups forming O-methylated polyphenols. In the case of ... Phenolic acids, Phenolic aldehydes. Gallic, salicylic acids. 8. C6-C2. 1. Acetophenones, Tyrosine derivatives, Phenylacetic ... and other UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isozymes with identical carboxyl termini". J Biol Chem. 267 (5): 3257-61. PMID 1339448.. ...
Procollagen is then modified by the addition of hydroxyl groups to the amino acids proline and lysine. This step is important ... This enzyme acts on lysines and hydroxylysines producing aldehyde groups, which will eventually undergo covalent bonding ... The relatively high content of proline and hydroxyproline rings, with their geometrically constrained carboxyl and (secondary) ... where there is no space for a larger side group than glycine's single hydrogen atom. For the same reason, the rings of the Pro ...
The solid support may carry functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde or amino groups. The support may be ... such as polyurethane together with a polyglycol to provide hydroxyl groups or a cellulose derivative to provide hydroxyl groups ... Blood group antigens include (A, B, and O (H). The blood group antigens are specific for all the blood group subtypes. By blood ... By multiple anti-blood group antibodies it is meant not only antibodies specific for each of the blood groups (i.e, ABH) but ...
The polymer can include hydroxyl, glycidyl, amino, carboxyl, or aldehyde functional groups, or a combination thereof. ... In the free base form, R7 has only one charged group, an anionic carboxyl at one terminus. The guanidinium side groups are ... An amide bond is formed as in reaction VII, except that here instead of carboxyl groups of R7, carboxyl groups of heparin take ... The oligoacrylate groups may include trimethylolpropane triacrylate groups and/or bis-acrylamido groups. The anionic groups can ...
... contact with nucleotide derivatives or their analogues having a reactive group which is reactive with the vinylsulfonyl group ... or their reactive precursors each of which is fixed onto a surface of the solid carrier by covalent bonding via a linking group ... carrier favorably employable for manufacturing DNA chip is composed of a solid carrier and a plurality of vinylsulfonyl groups ... The solid carrier should have a plurality of reactive groups such as amino, aldehyde, epoxy, carboxyl, mercapto, or hydroxyl. ...
Suitable R0 functional groups include H, amine, amide, carboxyl, hydroxyl, aldehyde, epoxy, silanol and azetidinium groups. The ... CONH and mixtures thereof and R0 is selected from the group comprising hydrogen, amine, amide, carboxyl, hydroxyl, aldehyde, ... CONH and mixtures thereof and R0 is selected from the group comprising hydrogen, amine, amide, carboxyl, hydroxyl, aldehyde, ... CONH and mixtures thereof and R0 is selected from the group comprising hydrogen, amine, amide, carboxyl, hydroxyl, aldehyde, ...
... to 45 percent by weight of resin solids of substantially saturated polyhydroxylated polydiene polymer having terminal hydroxyl ... groups; from about 10 to 50 percent by weight of resin solids of crosslinking material; from about 5 to 85 percent by weight of ... A thermosetting polyester generally contains a portion of free hydroxyl and/or carboxyl groups which are available for ... While the aldehyde employed is most often formaldehyde, other similar condensation products can be made from other aldehydes, ...
hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, epoxy or amino groups) or they may be modified, eg. by surface coating, to introduce a desired ... The term hydroxyboryl group as used herein includes dihydroxyboryl groups and also the possibility of an additional hydroxyl ... Such additional functional groups may include for example epoxy groups, carboxylic acid groups reacted with carbodiimide, OH ... functional groups well known and described in the art. One particularly suitable functional group system includes OH groups ...
... carboxyl, or hydroxyl groups on a single fiber (intramolecular crosslinks), or the fibers or on the fibers and the GAGs, ... which results in peptide bond formation between an epsilon amino group of lysine or hydroxylysine and a carboxyl group of ... Aldehyde and glycosidase-treated soft and bone tissue xenografts. US6262255. Apr 5, 1995. Jul 17, 2001. Biomm, Inc.. Non- ... At intervals of one, four, and six weeks after initiation of culture, three menisci from each group were removed, fixed, and ...
... to a chemically reactive group on the solid support, such as an activated carboxyl, hydroxyl, or aldehyde group. Alternatively ... Such conjugation includes either chemical conjugation by derivatizing active chemical functional groups to both the polypeptide ... "Accumulation of immunoreactivity to ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase PGP 9.5 in axons of human cases with spinal cord ... "Expression of the ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase PGP 9.5 in axons following spinal cord compression trauma. An ...
In some embodiments the chemical group may be aldehyde, hydroxyl, carboxyl, ester, amine, sulfo, or sulfhydryl. In some other ... modifications on the sugar moiety, e.g., wherein one or more of the hydroxyl groups are replaced with halogen, aliphatic groups ... In another embodiment, the chemical group may be aldehyde, hydroxyl, carboxyl, ester, amine, sulfo, or sulfhydryl. In yet ... 7. The method of claim 6, wherein the chemical group is aldehyde, hydroxyl, carboxyl, ester, amine, sulfo, or sulfhydryl. ...
In addition, intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups is likely to play a significant role in ... illustrating the importance of both a free carboxyl and a hydroxyl group in suitable positions. In agreement with Antillas ... Scheme 29 Axially chiral hydroxyl carboxylic acids catalyzed asymmetric allylation and propargylation of aldehydes.. ... It was proposed that the two bulky R-groups on the O,O′-diacyl tartaric acids force the two carboxylic acid groups into a syn- ...
... the other reactions lead to additional hydroxyl, aldehyde and/or carboxyl groups. These additional functional groups are ... The control group received the solvent in the same concentration as the treatment group. In the interest of animal welfare, ... Group contribution method : Predictions are made using a multilinear regression model that is fit to the training set (using ... Since the same number of fish are removed from the control group at the same time, the biological loading (fish/water) in the ...
... to a chemically reactive group on the solid support, such as an activated carboxyl, hydroxyl, or aldehyde group. ... 7 illustrates the groups of clones which have been obtained from the HCV genome in the region corresponding to the 409-1-1(abc ... The number of positives detected for each group of sera by the 5-1-1 and 409-1-1 (c-a) peptides are shown, as well as a ... indicating that one or more of the antigens in this group are effective to detect acute-infection serum. Three of these latter ...
These resins are resistant to hydrolysis and always contain a free carboxyl and hydroxyl group. These hydrophilic and ... Ketone aldehyde resins are manufactured by an aldol condensation of a ketone with an aldehyde³ (Figure 3). The alcohol groups ... are obtained by hydrogenating the keto groups and, in theory, this hydroxyl functionality interacts with polar groups of ... hard ketone aldehyde resin. • Co-binder 3 (used in Samples F-H):. hard polyester resin. Substrate description:. • OPP (oriented ...
... carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, polyether, aldehyde, ketone, amide, ester, and thiol groups. Of these effective substituent groups, ... C31 hydrocarbyl group; Y is a polyhydroxyhydrocarbyl moiety having a hydrocarbyl chain with at least 2 free hydroxyls directly ... the family of groups comprising phenyl, amino, alkyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups are more preferred than the others; and ... C31 hydrocarbyl group; Y is a polyhydroxyhydrocarbyl moiety having a hydrocarbyl chain with at least 2 free hydroxyls directly ...
... the magnetic particles may carry functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde or amino groups. These may in general ... or an amino group or a terminal nucleoside which may interact with a carboxyl group or a CNBr-activated hydroxyl group on the ... polyurethane together with a polyglycol to provide hydroxyl groups, or a cellulose derivative to provide hydroxyl groups, a ... If necessary, however, other surface functions such as carboxyl could be used to attach a linker carrying a hydroxyl group or ...
... effective substitution may be made with carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, polyether, aldehyde, ketone, amide, ester, and thiol groups ... If an absorbency aid is desired that enhances the rate of absorbency it can be chosen from the following group of chemicals: ... Of these effective substituent groups, the family of groupscomprising amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups are more preferred ... The more common functional groups of these polyfunctional resins are nitrogen containing groups such as aminogroups and ...
However, it exhibits a poor response to compounds with other functional groups such as: carbonyl, carboxyl, the hydroxyl group ... OH), aldehydes, or halogens. In contrast, the BID achieves superior sensitivity for such compounds, with less variation in ...
... and/or which contain alkyl additions to the hydroxyl groups of the benzyl ring or to the carboxyl group (i.e. ethers and esters ... However, several phenylpropanoids whose carboxyl group at C9 is reduced (to either the aldehyde, alcohol, or alkane/alkene) ... The activities of the second group of enzymes, represented by IEMT and BEAT (Fig. 3, C and D), show little or no decline at the ... In C. breweri, the activities of scent enzymes follow two different patterns (Fig.3). The activities of the first group of ...
In which of the following functional groups ionization is stabilized by resonance? Select one: a. Carboxyl b. Hydroxyl c. Amine ... small group of interconnecting membranous s ... d. Aldehyde e. All of the above. * Inter-relationships of ...
... but enzymes that can further oxidize the hydroxyl group to a carboxyl group through an aldehyde intermediate also exist. Here, ... implying the significance of the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups at the C-3 and C-28 positions, respectively, in rendering a ... such as the addition of a hydroxyl group that can be oxidized further to a carbonyl or carboxyl group. The accumulation of ... The oxidation of the hydroxyl group at C-3 to a carbonyl group is a highly relevant modification for the synthesis of synthetic ...
Some biologically important functional groups include the hydroxyl group, the carbonyl group, the carboxyl group, the amino ... Compound alcohol aldehyde or ketone Functional group hydroxyl carbonyl Formula session.masteringbiology.com/myct/ ... Functional group hydroxyl carbonyl carboxyl amino sulfhydryl phosphate Formula Hint 3. Can you highlight the functional group ... Acidic R groups contain a carboxylic acid functional group, -COOH. Basic R groups contain an amino functional group (not amide ...
... hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds. ... Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to ,C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ... Group - 13 to Group 18 Elements: General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical ... Group - 17: Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures ...
Study notes & practice Aldehydes, Ketones & Carboxylic Acids sample question papers to score high in school board exams. ... Extramarks offers NCERT solutions for Aldehydes, Ketones & Carboxylic Acids of CBSE Class 12. ... A carboxyl group consists of a carbonyl group attached to the hydroxyl group. The common names of the carboxylic acid end with ... In Ketones, carbonyl group is bonded to two alkyl groups. In Aldehydes and Ketones, the carbonyl carbon atom is sp2 hybridised ...
... carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, polyether, aldehyde, ketone, amide, ester, and thiol groups. Of these effective substituent groups, ... per group, complete the study. Two subject groups will participate in this study. Both groups will include healthy infants, ... carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups are more preferred than the others; and phenyl-functional groups are most preferred. Suitable ... The two treatment groups that will be included in this study are as follows: Test Group: will use diapers having a skin care ...
When a hydroxyl group is joined to an alkane framework, an alcohol such as ethanol, is produced. When the hydroxyl group is ... The hydroxyl group of alcohols and phenols is responsible for an interesting variety of physical and ... If one hydrogen atom is removed from a water molecule, a hydroxyl functional group (―OH) is generated. ... The conjunction of a carbonyl and a hydroxyl group forms a functional group known as a carboxyl group. ...
  • 6. The process of claim 5 wherein said noncationic debonder is selected from the group consisting of sorbitan esters, ethoxylated sorbitan esters, propoxylated sorbitan esters, mixed ethoxylated/propoxylated sorbitan esters, and mixturesthereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • Only aldehydes can be prepared from acyl chlorides (Rosenmund's reduction), from Nitriles and esters (Stephen reaction), by Etard reaction, by Gattermann-Koch Reaction etc. (extramarks.com)
  • A prodrug according to claim 12, in which the linker group is selected from an ester, amide, oxime and phosphate. (sumobrain.com)
  • For example, amides are normally very unreactive, but the amide group in a β-lactam ring is relatively easily hydrolysed because the four-membered ring is very strained and hydrolysis converts the ring to a straight chain, relieving the strain. (wikibooks.org)
  • 1 . A reactive solid carrier comprising a solid carrier and a plurality of vinylsulfonyl groups or their reactive precursors each of which is fixed onto a surface of the solid carrier by covalent bonding via a linking group. (google.com)
  • 3 . The reactive solid carrier of claim 2 , wherein X is a vinyl group having the formula of -CH═CH 2 . (google.com)
  • 4 . The reactive solid carrier of claim 2 , wherein L is a linking group having an atom of divalence or multiple valence other than a carbon atom. (google.com)
  • 7 . The reactive solid carrier of claim 2 , wherein L is a linking group represented by -(L 1 ) n -NHCH 2 CH 2 -, in which L 1 is a linking group and n is 0 or 1. (google.com)
  • In phase I, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce reactive or polar groups into xenobiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of these specific detoxification systems are the glyoxalase system, which removes the reactive aldehyde methylglyoxal, and the various antioxidant systems that eliminate reactive oxygen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In phase I, a variety of enzymes act to introduce reactive and polar groups into their substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the aldehyde groups is potentially reactive and cross-links can be formed. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • If a cyclic compound contains a ring with less than six members (i.e. three, four or five membered rings), the ring will be under strain and functional groups that make up part of the ring will often be much more reactive than they would in a straight-chain compound. (wikibooks.org)
  • A prodrug according to claim 12 or claim 13, in which the linker group is an ester. (sumobrain.com)
  • 15. The method of claim 1, wherein immobilization is performed by an interaction selected from the group consisting of biotin-avidin capture, biotin-streptavidin capture, NHS-ester capture, thioether linkage, static charge interactions and van der Waals forces. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This compound contains an ester group that is part of a ring. (wikibooks.org)
  • 8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the polymeric film forming resin is selected from the group consisting of polyesters, acrylics, polyurethanes, copolymers and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • wherein said chemical papermaking additive is selected from the group consisting of strength additives, absorbancy additives, softener additives, and mixtures thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • 4. The process of claim 3 wherein said softener additive is selected from the group consisting of lubricants, plasticizers, cationic debonders, noncationic debonders, and mixtures thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • 8. The process of claim 7 wherein said strength additive is selected from the group consisting of permanent wet strength resins, temporary wet strength resins, dry strength additives, and mixtures thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • 9. The process of claim 8 wherein said strength additive is a permanent wet strength resin selected from the group consisting of polyamide-epichlorohydrin resin, polacrylamide resin, and mixtures thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. The absorbent article of claim 1 wherein said emollient contains about 5% or less water and comprises a petroleum based emollient selected from the group consisting of mineral oil, petrolatum, and mixtures thereof. (google.de)
  • Think about the electronegativity within the functional groups and the greater the difference within the bonds the more polar the side group will be (and the more polar the more hydrophilic). (openstudy.com)
  • The most common type of matrix is the dextran which has a sugar, hydrophilic linear polymer, and functionalized with carboxyl groups for covalent linkage with NH2 proteins. (nanohub.org)
  • Useful metabolites are excluded since they are polar, and in general contain one or more charged groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the plastic substrate is selected from the group consisting of thermoplastic olefins and reaction injected molding urethanes. (google.ca)
  • Iodoform reaction with sodium hypoiodite is used for the detection of CH3CO group or CH3CH(OH) group. (extramarks.com)
  • Synthesis of the desired pyrone was accomplished utilizing a Jacobsen asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder reaction between Danishefsky's diene and an optically pure aldehyde prepared in two steps from chiral pool. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This new finding demonstrated that not only the basic N-containing groups but also the acidic O-containing groups can enhance the CO 2 adsorbability of porous carbon, thus providing a new approach to design porous materials with superior CO 2 adsorption capacity. (springeropen.com)
  • In Rosenmund's reduction, acid chlorides are reduced to the corresponding aldehydes by passing hydrogen gas through boiling xylene solution of the acid chloride in the presence of Pd catalyst supported over BaSO4 and partially poisoned by the addition of sulphur or quinoline. (extramarks.com)
  • Kojic acid [21, a natural pyrone which carries one C=O and two OH groups, is envisaged to have similar properties of natural anthocyanins dyes for its ability to bind with Ti[O.sub. (thefreedictionary.com)