Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, formed by the action of monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and its measurement in urine is often used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis in clinical and research settings.
Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, formed in the body through the catabolic breakdown of this neurotransmitter by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase and then further metabolized in the liver before excretion in urine.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.
A symptom complex associated with CARCINOID TUMOR and characterized by attacks of severe flushing of the skin, diarrheal watery stools, bronchoconstriction, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. The carcinoid tumors are usually located in the gastrointestinal tract and metastasize to the liver. Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances. Cardiac manifestations constitute CARCINOID HEART DISEASE. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
Vanilmandelic acid (VMA) is a major metabolite of catecholamines, specifically normetanephrine and metanephrine, which are produced by the adrenal gland and can be measured in urine to help diagnose pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Cardiac manifestation of gastrointestinal CARCINOID TUMOR that metastasizes to the liver. Substances secreted by the tumor cells, including SEROTONIN, promote fibrous plaque formation in ENDOCARDIUM and its underlying layers. These deposits cause distortion of the TRICUSPID VALVE and the PULMONARY VALVE eventually leading to STENOSIS and valve regurgitation.
A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.

Octreotide acetate long-acting formulation versus open-label subcutaneous octreotide acetate in malignant carcinoid syndrome. (1/611)

PURPOSE: Subcutaneous (SC) octreotide acetate effectively relieves the diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome but requires long-term multiple injections daily. A microencapsulated long-acting formulation (LAR) of octreotide acetate has been developed for once-monthly intramuscular dosing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized trial compared double-blinded octreotide LAR at 10, 20, and 30 mg every 4 weeks with open-label SC octreotide every 8 hours for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome. Seventy-nine patients controlled with treatment of SC octreotide 0.3 to 0.9 mg/d whose symptoms returned during a washout period and who returned for at least the week 20 evaluation constituted the efficacy-assessable population. RESULTS: Complete or partial treatment success was comparable in each of the four arms of the study (SC, 58.3%; 10 mg, 66.7%; 20 mg, 71.4%; 30 mg, 61.9%; P> or =.72 for all pairwise comparisons). Control of stool frequency was similar in all treatment groups. Flushing episodes were best controlled in the 20-mg LAR and SC groups; the 10-mg LAR treatment was least effective in the control of flushing. Treatment was well tolerated by patients in all four groups. CONCLUSION: Once octreotide steady-state concentrations are achieved, octreotide LAR controls the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome at least as well as SC octreotide. A starting dose of 20 mg of octreotide LAR is recommended. Supplemental SC octreotide is needed for approximately 2 weeks after initiation of octreotide LAR treatment. Occasional rescue SC injections may be required for possibly 2 to 3 months until steady-state octreotide levels from the LAR formulation are achieved.  (+info)

The role of free serum tryptophan in the biphasic effect of acute ethanol administration on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid. (2/611)

1. Acute administration of ethanol exerts a biphasic effect on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid. Both effects are associated with corresponding changes in the availability of circulating free tryptophan. 2. The initial increases in the above concentrations are prevented by ergotamine, are unaltered by allopurinol and are potentiated by theophylline, whereas the later decreases are prevented by both ergotamine and allopurinol. 3. It is suggested that the initial enhancement by ethanol of brain tryptophan metabolism is caused by catecholamine-mediated lipolysis followed by displacement of protein-bound serum tryptophan, whereas the activation of liver tryptophaan pyrrolase, which is produced by the same mechanism, leads to the later decreases in the brain concentrations of tryptophan and its metabolites. 4. The initial effects of ethanol can be reproduced by an equicaloric dose of sucrose, and a comparison of the two treatments alone could therefore be misleading. 5. The effects of ethanol on liver and brain tryptophan metabolism have also been examined in mice, and a comparison of the results with those previously reported suggests that the ethanol effects are strain-dependent.  (+info)

Spinal reflexes and the concentrations of 5-HIAA, MHPG, and HVA in lumbar cereborspinal fluid after spinal lesions in man. (3/611)

Descending bulbospinal pathways that employ specific neurotransmitter substances are known to be capable of modulating segmental reflex activity in the experimental animal. To determine whether this might also occur in man correlations have been sought between the activity in spinal reflex pathways and the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3 methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 12 patients with complete or virtually complete spinal lesions. The concentrations of 5-HIAA and MHPG in lumbar CSF ARE REDUCED AFTER COMPLETE OR VIRTUALLY COMPLETE SPINAL LESIONS IN MAN. This may occur within 18 days of the lesion. MHPG concentrations appear to be inversely related to the level of the lesion. The HVA concentration in lumbar CSF is reduced when there is obstruction of the CSF pathways. No relationship could be demonstrated between the concentrations of 5-HIAA or MHPG in lumbar CSF and the activity in the spinal monosynaptic pathway (estimated from the proportion of the motoneurone pool activated by the Achilles tendon reflex or H reflex) or the activity of a spinal inhibitory mechanism (estimated by the degree of vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex). Patients with a tonic vibration reflex (TVR) tended to have higher MHPG levels. There appeared to be an association between low CSF HVA and enhanced vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex in the nine patients whose spinal lesions were complete.  (+info)

Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids. (4/611)

1. The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. 2. The DOPAC + HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. 3. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. 4. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. 5. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems.  (+info)

Cerebrospinal fluid monoaminergic metabolites differ in wild anubis and hybrid (Anubis hamadryas) baboons: possible relationships to life history and behavior. (5/611)

The article reports monoaminergic metabolite [homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)], values from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 27 wild baboons (Papio hamadryas) aged 40 to 140 months. Animals were either anubis, or anubis with hamadryas admixture; males of the latter subspecies generally have a reduced tendency to disperse from their natal groups. Overall, the values and interrelationships among the CSF monoamine metabolites resembled data reported from closely related, captive-housed animals. For example, age was significantly correlated with HVA concentrations (r = -60, p < .05), but not with the other metabolites. Notably, males characterized by hamadryas admixture had significantly higher concentrations of HVA, 5-HIAA, and MHPG (p < .05, respectively), a result possibly driven by differences in serotonergic activity. These data provide initial evidence that variation in central monoaminergic activity, as indicated by CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations, may reflect differences in behavior and life history that have taxonomic and, perhaps, evolutionary significance.  (+info)

Activities of human alcohol dehydrogenases in the metabolic pathways of ethanol and serotonin. (6/611)

Alcohols and aldehydes in the metabolic pathways of ethanol and serotonin are substrates for alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) of class I and II. In addition to the reversible alcohol oxidation/aldehyde reduction, these enzymes catalyse aldehyde oxidation. Class-I gammagamma ADH catalyses the dismutation of both acetaldehyde and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetaldehyde (5-HIAL) into their corresponding alcohols and carboxylic acids. The turnover of acetaldehyde dismutation is high (kcat = 180 min-1) but saturation is reached first at high concentrations (Km = 30 mm) while dismutation of 5-HIAL is saturated at lower concentrations and is thereby more efficient (Km = 150 microm; kcat = 40 min-1). In a system where NAD+ is regenerated, the oxidation of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid proceeds with concentration levels of the intermediary 5-HIAL expected for a two-step oxidation. Butanal and 5-HIAL oxidation is also observed for class-I ADH in the presence of NADH. The class-II enzyme is less efficient in aldehyde oxidation, and the ethanol-oxidation activity of this enzyme is competitively inhibited by acetate (Ki = 12 mm) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (Ki = 2 mm). Reduction of 5-HIAL is efficiently catalysed by class-I gammagamma ADH (kcat = 400 min-1; Km = 33 microm) in the presence of NADH. This indicates that the increased 5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid ratio observed after ethanol intake may be due to the increased NADH/NAD+ ratio on the class-I ADH.  (+info)

Sensitization to the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: neuroendocrine, central monoamine, and behavioral variations. (7/611)

Consistent with the proposition that cytokines act as immunotransmitters between the immune system and the brain, systemic administration of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 1.0-4.0 microg) induced mild illness in CD-1 mice, increased plasma corticosterone concentrations, and altered central norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin turnover. The actions of TNF-alpha were subject to a time-dependent sensitization effect. After reexposure to a subeffective dose of the cytokine (1.0 microgram) 14-28 d after initial treatment, marked illness was evident (reduced consumption of a palatable substance and diminished activity and social exploration), coupled with an elevation of plasma corticosterone levels. In contrast, cytokine reexposure 1-7 d after initial treatment did not elicit illness, and at the 1 d interval the corticosterone response to the cytokine was reduced. The increase of norepinephrine release within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, as reflected by elevated accumulation of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, was augmented at the longer reexposure intervals. In contrast, within the central amygdala and the prefrontal cortex TNF-alpha reexposure at the 1 d interval was associated with a pronounced sensitization-like effect, which was not apparent at longer intervals. Evidently, systemic TNF-alpha proactively influences the response to subsequent treatment; however, the nature of the effects (i.e., the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and central transmitter alterations) vary over time after initial cytokine treatment. It is suggested that the sensitization may have important repercussions with respect to cognitive effects of TNF-alpha and may also be relevant to analyses of the neuroprotective or neurodestructive actions of cytokines.  (+info)

Altered daily rhythms of brain and pituitary indolamines and neuropeptides in long-term hypoxic rats. (8/611)

To determine whether sustained hypoxia alters daily rhythms in brain and pituitary neurotransmitters, the daily variations in vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI), neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) content were determined in discrete brain regions, pineal gland and anterior pituitary of hypoxic (10% O(2); 14 days) and normoxic rats. Hypoxia suppressed daily variations in VIP-LI in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and the anterior pituitary, enhanced the daily rhythmicity in serotonergic elements of the caudal part of the dorsomedial medulla oblongata (DMMc), and even induced daily variations in NPY-LI in the DMMc as well as in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata. In addition, punctual alterations in the rhythmicity of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the pineal gland and of plasma corticosterone were observed in hypoxic rats. Thus results of this study indicate that a permanent nonphotic stimulus, such as sustained hypoxia, may affect the functioning of the internal clock located in the SCN and may alter the daily rhythmicity in neurotransmitter content of some brain nuclei and the pituitary gland.  (+info)

Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin, formed in the body through the enzymatic degradation of serotonin by monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. 5HIAA is primarily excreted in the urine and its measurement can be used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis and metabolism in the body.

Increased levels of 5HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid or urine may indicate conditions associated with excessive serotonin production, such as carcinoid syndrome, while decreased levels may be seen in certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, measuring 5HIAA levels can have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for these conditions.

Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the human body. It is formed in the body when an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) breaks down dopamine. HVA can be measured in body fluids such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma to assess the activity of dopamine and the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Increased levels of HVA are associated with certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, while decreased levels may indicate dopamine deficiency or other conditions affecting the nervous system.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.

Examples of biogenic monoamines include:

1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.

Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a chemical compound that is produced by the body as a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain sensation. 5-HTP is not present in food but can be derived from the amino acid tryptophan, which is found in high-protein foods such as turkey, chicken, milk, and cheese.

5-HTP supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions related to low serotonin levels, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, migraines, and fibromyalgia. However, the effectiveness of 5-HTP for these conditions is not well established, and it can have side effects and interact with certain medications. Therefore, it's important to consult a healthcare provider before taking 5-HTP supplements.

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

P-Chloroamphetamine, also known as PCA or 4-chloroamphetamine, is a synthetic stimulant drug that has been used in scientific research but is not commonly used medically. It is a derivative of amphetamine and has similar effects, such as increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. However, it also has hallucinogenic properties and can cause psychological disturbances.

PCA acts as a releasing agent for the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are involved in regulating mood, appetite, and other physiological processes. It is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States due to its high potential for abuse and lack of accepted medical use.

It's important to note that PCA is not approved for any medical use in humans and should only be used in a controlled research setting with appropriate safety measures in place.

Malignant carcinoid syndrome is a complex of symptoms that occur in some people with malignant tumors (carcinoids) that secrete large amounts of hormone-like substances, particularly serotonin. These symptoms can include flushing of the face and upper body, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, difficulty breathing, and abdominal pain and distention. In addition, these individuals may have chronic inflammation of the heart valves (endocarditis) leading to heart failure. It is important to note that not all people with carcinoid tumors will develop malignant carcinoid syndrome, but those who do require specific treatment for their symptoms and hormonal imbalances.

Phenylacetates are a group of organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group) and an acetic acid group. In the context of medicine, sodium phenylacetate is used in the treatment of certain metabolic disorders, such as urea cycle disorders, to help remove excess ammonia from the body. It does this by conjugating with glycine to form phenylacetylglutamine, which can then be excreted in the urine.

It is important to note that the use of phenylacetates should be under the supervision of a medical professional, as improper use or dosage can lead to serious side effects.

Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is synthesized in the body from the amino acid tyrosine. Norepinephrine plays important roles in various physiological functions such as the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and central nervous system. MHPG is formed when norepinephrine is metabolized by enzymes called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO).

MHPG is primarily found in the urine, and its levels can be measured to assess norepinephrine turnover in the body. Changes in MHPG levels have been associated with various medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. However, the clinical utility of measuring MHPG levels is still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

Fenclonine is not a commonly used medical term or a medication in clinical practice. It's possible that you may have encountered this term in the context of research or scientific studies. Fenclonine is an experimental drug that has been investigated for its potential role as an inhibitor of bacterial enzymes, specifically the D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (DD-transpeptidase) involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

Inhibiting this enzyme can disrupt the integrity and growth of bacteria, making fenclonine a potential antibiotic agent. However, further research is required to establish its safety, efficacy, and therapeutic applications. As such, it's not currently used as a standard treatment option in human medicine.

For accurate information regarding medical definitions or treatments, consult with healthcare professionals or refer to reputable medical resources.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid (3,4-DOPAC) is a major metabolite of dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter in the brain. Dopamine is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase to form dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized to 3,4-DOPAC by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase.

3,4-DOPAC is found in the urine and can be used as a marker for dopamine turnover in the brain. Changes in the levels of 3,4-DOPAC have been associated with various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Additionally, 3,4-DOPAC has been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in protecting against oxidative stress in the brain.

Vanilmandelic acid (VMA) is a metabolite produced in the body as a result of the breakdown of catecholamines, which are hormones such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Specifically, VMA is the major end product of epinephrine and norepinephrine metabolism.

In clinical medicine, measurement of VMA in urine is often used as a diagnostic test for pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor that arises from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland and can cause excessive production of catecholamines. Elevated levels of VMA in the urine may indicate the presence of a pheochromocytoma or other conditions associated with increased catecholamine secretion, such as neuroblastoma or ganglioneuroma.

It's important to note that while VMA is a useful diagnostic marker for pheochromocytoma and related conditions, it is not specific to these disorders and can be elevated in other medical conditions as well. Therefore, the test should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Pargyline is an antihypertensive drug and a irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type B. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, which can help improve mood and behavior in people with depression.

Pargyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects, including interactions with certain foods and medications that can lead to dangerously high blood pressure. It is also associated with a risk of serotonin syndrome when taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain.

Pargyline is available only through a prescription and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

A carcinoid tumor is a type of slow-growing neuroendocrine tumor that usually originates in the digestive tract, particularly in the small intestine. These tumors can also arise in other areas such as the lungs, appendix, and rarely in other organs. Carcinoid tumors develop from cells of the diffuse endocrine system (also known as the neuroendocrine system) that are capable of producing hormones or biologically active amines.

Carcinoid tumors can produce and release various hormones and bioactive substances, such as serotonin, histamine, bradykinins, prostaglandins, and tachykinins, which can lead to a variety of symptoms. The most common syndrome associated with carcinoid tumors is the carcinoid syndrome, characterized by flushing, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and wheezing or difficulty breathing.

Carcinoid tumors are typically classified as functional or nonfunctional based on whether they produce and secrete hormones that cause symptoms. Functional carcinoid tumors account for approximately 30% of cases and can lead to the development of carcinoid syndrome, while nonfunctional tumors do not produce significant amounts of hormones and are often asymptomatic until they grow large enough to cause local or distant complications.

Treatment options for carcinoid tumors depend on the location, size, and extent of the tumor, as well as whether it is functional or nonfunctional. Treatment may include surgery, medications (such as somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies), and radiation therapy. Regular follow-up with imaging studies and biochemical tests is essential to monitor for recurrence and assess treatment response.

Probenecid is a medication that is primarily used to treat gout and hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood). It works by decreasing the production of uric acid in the body and increasing its excretion through the kidneys.

In medical terms, probenecid is a uricosuric agent, which means it increases the urinary excretion of urate, the salt form of uric acid. It does this by inhibiting the reabsorption of urate in the proximal tubules of the kidneys, thereby promoting its elimination in the urine.

Probenecid is also used in conjunction with certain antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, to increase their concentration in the body by reducing their excretion by the kidneys. This is known as probenecid-antibiotic interaction.

It's important to note that probenecid should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use may be contraindicated in certain medical conditions or in combination with specific medications.

Carcinoid heart disease is a rare complication that occurs in some people with carcinoid tumors, which are slow-growing tumors that typically originate in the digestive tract. These tumors can release hormones and other substances into the bloodstream, which can cause various symptoms. In carcinoid heart disease, these substances cause fibrous plaques to form on the heart valves, leading to thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets. This can result in leakage or obstruction of the heart valves, causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Carcinoid heart disease is most commonly affects the tricuspid and pulmonary valves, which are located on the right side of the heart. If left untreated, carcinoid heart disease can lead to serious complications, including heart failure. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications to manage symptoms and control the growth of the tumor, as well as surgery to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

Alcoholic psychosis is a term used to describe a group of psychiatric disorders that are directly related to alcohol abuse or withdrawal. The two most common types of alcoholic psychosis are Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome, which often occur together and are referred to as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Wernicke's encephalopathy is a acute neurological disorder characterized by confusion, memory loss, difficulty with muscle coordination, and abnormal eye movements. It is caused by a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency that is often seen in people who are chronic alcoholics.

Korsakoff's syndrome, on the other hand, is a chronic memory disorder characterized by severe memory loss and confusion. People with Korsakoff's syndrome often have difficulty learning new information and may confabulate, or make up information, to fill in gaps in their memory.

Both Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome are serious conditions that require immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves administering thiamine and other vitamins, as well as providing supportive care to help manage symptoms. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

It is important to note that alcohol abuse can also lead to other types of psychosis, such as delirium tremens (DTs), which is a severe form of alcohol withdrawal that can cause confusion, hallucinations, and seizures. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol abuse, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (also known as MDA) is a synthetic psychoactive drug that belongs to the class of amphetamines. It acts as a central nervous system stimulant and hallucinogen. Chemically, it is a derivative of amphetamine with an additional methylenedioxy ring attached to the 3,4 positions on the aromatic ring. MDA is known for its empathogenic effects, meaning that it can produce feelings of empathy, emotional openness, and euphoria in users. It has been used recreationally as a party drug and at raves, but it also has potential therapeutic uses. However, MDA can have serious side effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, hyperthermia, dehydration, and in some cases, serotonin syndrome. As with other psychoactive drugs, MDA should only be used under medical supervision and with a clear understanding of its potential risks and benefits.

The Raphe Nuclei are clusters of neurons located in the brainstem, specifically in the midline of the pons, medulla oblongata, and mesencephalon (midbrain). These neurons are characterized by their ability to synthesize and release serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating various functions such as mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

The Raphe Nuclei project axons widely throughout the central nervous system, allowing serotonin to modulate the activity of other neurons. There are several subdivisions within the Raphe Nuclei, each with distinct connections and functions. Dysfunction in the Raphe Nuclei has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain.

Tryptophan hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hormones, including serotonin and melatonin. It catalyzes the conversion of the essential amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is then further converted to serotonin. This enzyme exists in two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, with TPH1 primarily located in peripheral tissues and TPH2 mainly found in the brain. The regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase activity has significant implications for mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

Serotonin agents are a class of drugs that work on the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They include several types of medications such as:

1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption (reuptake) of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of serotonin in the synapse to interact with postsynaptic receptors. SSRIs are commonly used as antidepressants and include medications such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram.
2. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption of both serotonin and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of these neurotransmitters in the synapse. SNRIs are also used as antidepressants and include medications such as venlafaxine and duloxetine.
3. Serotonin Receptor Agonists: These drugs bind to and activate serotonin receptors, mimicking the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including migraine prevention (e.g., sumatriptan) and Parkinson's disease (e.g., pramipexole).
4. Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: These drugs block serotonin receptors, preventing the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including nausea and vomiting (e.g., ondansetron) and as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder (e.g., olanzapine).
5. Serotonin Synthesis Inhibitors: These drugs block the enzymatic synthesis of serotonin, reducing its availability in the brain. They are used as antidepressants and include medications such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) like phenelzine and tranylcypromine.

It's important to note that while these drugs all affect serotonin, they have different mechanisms of action and are used for various indications. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting any new medication.

Serotonin antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, at specific receptor sites in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They work by binding to the serotonin receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the natural serotonin from binding and transmitting signals.

Serotonin antagonists are used in the treatment of various conditions such as psychiatric disorders, migraines, and nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. They can have varying degrees of affinity for different types of serotonin receptors (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, etc.), which contributes to their specific therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

Examples of serotonin antagonists include ondansetron (used to treat nausea and vomiting), risperidone and olanzapine (used to treat psychiatric disorders), and methysergide (used to prevent migraines). It's important to note that these medications should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have potential risks and interactions with other drugs.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Neurotransmitter agents are substances that affect the synthesis, storage, release, uptake, degradation, or reuptake of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron to another. These agents can be either agonists, which mimic the action of a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor, or antagonists, which block the action of a neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor without activating it. They are used in medicine to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance.

Fluoxetine is available under the brand name Prozac and is also available as a generic medication. It comes in various forms, including capsules, tablets, delayed-release capsules, and liquid solution. The typical starting dose for adults with depression is 20 mg per day, but the dosage may be adjusted based on individual patient needs and response to treatment.

Fluoxetine has a relatively long half-life, which means it stays in the body for an extended period of time. This can be beneficial for patients who may have difficulty remembering to take their medication daily, as they may only need to take it once or twice a week. However, it also means that it may take several weeks for the full effects of the medication to become apparent.

As with any medication, fluoxetine can cause side effects, including nausea, dry mouth, sleepiness, insomnia, dizziness, and headache. In some cases, it may also increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, particularly during the initial stages of treatment. It is important for patients to discuss any concerns about side effects with their healthcare provider.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique used in clinical and research settings to continuously monitor the concentration of various chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, drugs, or metabolites, in biological fluids (e.g., extracellular fluid of tissues, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid). This method involves inserting a small, flexible catheter with a semipermeable membrane into the region of interest. A physiological solution is continuously perfused through the catheter, allowing molecules to diffuse across the membrane based on their concentration gradient. The dialysate that exits the catheter is then collected and analyzed for target compounds using various analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry).

In summary, microdialysis is a valuable tool for monitoring real-time changes in chemical concentrations within biological systems, enabling better understanding of physiological processes or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, leading to an improvement in mood and other symptoms associated with these conditions.

Paroxetine is available under various brand names, such as Paxil and Seroxat, and it comes in different forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. The medication is typically taken once daily, although the dosage may vary depending on the individual's needs and the specific condition being treated.

As with any medication, paroxetine can have side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and sleep disturbances. In some cases, it may also cause more serious side effects, including increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding and hyponatremia (low sodium levels).

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting paroxetine or any other medication, and to follow their instructions carefully regarding dosage, timing, and potential interactions with other drugs or medical conditions.

Serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as serotonin transporters (SERTs), are membrane-spanning proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of serotonergic neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and allowing for its recycling or degradation.

Structurally, SERTs belong to the family of sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and contain 12 transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The binding site for serotonin is located within the transmembrane domain, while the substrate-binding site is formed by residues from both the transmembrane and extracellular loops.

Serotonin transporters are important targets for various psychotropic medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These drugs act by blocking the SERT, increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin, and enhancing serotonergic neurotransmission. Dysregulation of serotonin transporters has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse.

Dialysis is a medical treatment that is used to remove waste and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This life-sustaining procedure uses a specialized machine, called a dialyzer or artificial kidney, to filter the blood outside of the body and return clean, chemically balanced blood back into the body.

There are two main types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

1. Hemodialysis: In this method, a patient's blood is passed through an external filter (dialyzer) that removes waste products, toxins, and excess fluids. The cleaned blood is then returned to the body with the help of a specialized machine. Hemodialysis typically requires access to a large vein, often created by a surgical procedure called an arteriovenous (AV) fistula or graft. Hemodialysis sessions usually last for about 3-5 hours and are performed three times a week in a clinical setting, such as a dialysis center or hospital.
2. Peritoneal Dialysis: This method uses the lining of the patient's own abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to clean the blood. A sterile dialysate solution is introduced into the peritoneal cavity via a permanently implanted catheter. The solution absorbs waste products and excess fluids from the blood vessels lining the peritoneum through a process called diffusion. After a dwell time, usually several hours, the used dialysate is drained out and replaced with fresh dialysate. This process is known as an exchange and is typically repeated multiple times throughout the day or night, depending on the specific type of peritoneal dialysis (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or automated peritoneal dialysis).

Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them depends on various factors, such as a patient's overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences. Dialysis is a life-saving treatment for people with end-stage kidney disease or severe kidney dysfunction, allowing them to maintain their quality of life and extend their lifespan until a kidney transplant becomes available or their kidney function improves.

Serotonin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). They are widely distributed throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they play important roles in regulating various physiological processes such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and cognition.

There are seven different classes of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), each with multiple subtypes, that exhibit distinct pharmacological properties and signaling mechanisms. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or ligand-gated ion channels, which activate intracellular signaling pathways upon serotonin binding.

Serotonin receptors have been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. Therefore, selective serotonin receptor agonists or antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. It involves the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move, resulting in the transfer of electrical charge, and the reverse processes by which electrical energy can be used to drive chemical reactions. This field encompasses various phenomena such as the generation of electricity from chemical sources (as in batteries), the electrolysis of substances, and corrosion. Electrochemical reactions are fundamental to many technologies, including energy storage and conversion, environmental protection, and medical diagnostics.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The most well-known catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. They play important roles in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. In addition to their role as hormones, catecholamines also function as neurotransmitters, transmitting signals in the nervous system. Disorders of catecholamine regulation can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, mood disorders, and neurological disorders.

The corpus striatum is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in movement, learning, and cognition. It consists of two structures called the caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are surrounded by the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus. Together, these structures form the basal ganglia, a group of interconnected neurons that help regulate voluntary movement.

The corpus striatum receives input from various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other brainstem nuclei. It processes this information and sends output to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, which then project to the thalamus and back to the cerebral cortex. This feedback loop helps coordinate and fine-tune movements, allowing for smooth and coordinated actions.

Damage to the corpus striatum can result in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. These conditions are characterized by abnormal involuntary movements, muscle stiffness, and difficulty initiating or controlling voluntary movements.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Enterochromaffin cells, also known as Kulchitsky cells or enteroendocrine cells, are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. These cells are responsible for producing and secreting a variety of hormones and neuropeptides that play important roles in regulating gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and sensation.

Enterochromaffin cells are named for their ability to take up chromaffin stains, which contain silver salts and oxidizing agents that react with the catecholamines stored within the cells. These cells can be further classified based on their morphology, location within the gastrointestinal tract, and the types of hormones they produce.

Some examples of hormones produced by enterochromaffin cells include serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), histamine, gastrin, somatostatin, and cholecystokinin. Serotonin is one of the most well-known hormones produced by these cells, and it plays a critical role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and secretion, as well as mood and cognition.

Abnormalities in enterochromaffin cell function have been implicated in a number of gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and gastroparesis. Additionally, mutations in genes associated with enterochromaffin cells have been linked to several inherited cancer syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

... (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin. In chemical analysis of urine samples, 5-HIAA is used ... Feldman JM, Lee EM (October 1985). "Serotonin content of foods: effect on urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid". Am ... Deacon AC (May 1994). "The measurement of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine". Ann Clin Biochem. 31 (Pt 3): 215-32. doi: ... ISBN 0-7216-1777-8. - Johnson HC Jr, "Urine Tests," Volume 1, 342-7. Schultz AL, "5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid," Methods in ...
There follows oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the indole acetic-acid derivative. ... One product of serotonin breakdown is 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), which is excreted in the urine. Serotonin and 5-HIAA ... Feldman JM, Lee EM (October 1985). "Serotonin content of foods: effect on urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid". The ... Serotonin is metabolized mainly to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, chiefly by the liver. Several classes of antidepressants, such ...
... raised 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the brain. Dopamine levels changed as well as a ... Psoralidin production starts with a based catalyzed condensation between phenyl acetate and acid chloride. To form the ring of ...
"5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid: Measurements in wakefulness, slow-wave and paradoxical sleep". Brain ... "Similar effects of tryptophan and sleep on cisternal cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic and homovanillic acids in cats ... Buckingham, RL; Radulovacki, M (1975). "The selective effects of alpha-methyl aromatic amino acids on brain monoamine ...
In 1963 Tyler and Smith found that this mushroom contains serotonin, 5-HTP and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. In many field guides ...
... disease motor subtypes classification and correlation to cerebrospinal homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels ...
He was one of the earliest researchers into 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid of cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients. Even after ...
List of investigational anxiolytics 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid Kynurenic acid "Bionomics Begins Phase 1b Study With Anxiety ...
Other evidence includes reduced levels of a breakdown product of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, in the cerebral spinal ...
... vanilmandelic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the urine of volunteers treated with adepren]". Eksperimentalna Meditsina ...
The level of serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid turned out to be higher in tame than in unselected females ...
... studies of serotonin in depression examined peripheral measures such as the serotonin metabolite 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5- ...
Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed a two-fold increase of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid immediately ...
... kynurenic acid, as well as by 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (a metabolite of serotonin) and various other small non-fatty acid ... as well as long-chain unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid, and ... Based on its binding and activation by medium-chain fatty acids i.e., capric acid, undecaenoic, and lauric acids, GPR84 has ... In general, these binding/activating fatty acids are straight-chain fatty acids consisting of a carboxylic acid residue, i.e ...
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid which all can affect sexual behavior. The prenatally stressed male pups showed a significant latency ... Particularly in the striatum of the prenatally stressed male pups showed an increase in vanilmandelic acid, dopamine, serotonin ...
... levels with normal 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a serotonin metabolite) levels. DTDS patients demonstrate a HVA:5-HIAA ... Various other symptoms present less commonly (30-79%), including bradykinesia (slowness of movement), acid reflux, muscular ... All individuals tested with classical early-onset, SLC6A3-related DTDS display raised homovanillic acid (HVA) ...
Decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, a byproduct of serotonin, are present in the cerebrospinal fluid of persons ... Lithium and the anticonvulsants carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproic acid are classed as mood stabilizers due to their ... Montgomery P, Richardson AJ (April 2008). "Omega-3 fatty acids for bipolar disorder". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD005169 ...
5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid, or by measuring the serotonin precursor, tryptophan. In one placebo controlled study funded by the ...
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), the end product of serotonin metabolism. Chromogramin A, a glycoprotein released by neuroendocrine ...
... charged with operating Halifax Stanfield International Airport on behalf of Transport Canada 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA ...
... indoleacetic acids MeSH D03.438.473.404.200 - etodolac MeSH D03.438.473.404.478 - hydroxyindoleacetic acid MeSH D03.438.473.412 ... pipemidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.900 - 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6- ... niflumic acid MeSH D03.066.515.635 - pipemidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.950 - xanthinol ... MeSH D03.066.288.200 - etodolac MeSH D03.066.288.478 - hydroxyindoleacetic acid MeSH D03.066.349.220 - ethionamide MeSH D03.066 ...
Nevertheless, increased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (a metabolite of serotonin), and ...
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The presence of these chemicals in the blood activate 5-HT3 receptors in the chemoreceptor ...
... indicated by a low concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This substrate ...
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-hydroxytryptamine - 506U78 - 5Q- syndrome - 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene - 9-cis retinoic acid - ... 13-cis retinoic acid - 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin - 18F-EF5 - 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ... sialic acid - sialyl Tn-KLH - side-to-end coloanal anastomosis - sideropenic dysphagia - sigmoidoscope - sigmoidoscopy - signal ... citric acid/potassium-sodium citrate - cladribine - clarithromycin - clear cell adenocarcinoma - clear-cell sarcoma - clear ...
... homovanillic acid), norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol), and serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid). Although less ...
... which lead to an increase of 5-HT in the hippocampus and 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in striatum. Geniposide shows a ...
... of metastatic carcinoid tumors urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) neuron-specific enolase (NSE, gamma-gamma dimer) ...
... may disrupt certain screening tests as it can cause color interference in laboratory tests for 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5- ... with acetylsalicylic acid as Robaxisal in the U.S. and Canada. However, in Spain the tradename Robaxisal is used for the ... HIAA) and in urinary testing for vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) using the Gitlow method. The mechanism of action of methocarbamol ...
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin. In chemical analysis of urine samples, 5-HIAA is used ... Feldman JM, Lee EM (October 1985). "Serotonin content of foods: effect on urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid". Am ... Deacon AC (May 1994). "The measurement of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine". Ann Clin Biochem. 31 (Pt 3): 215-32. doi: ... ISBN 0-7216-1777-8. - Johnson HC Jr, "Urine Tests," Volume 1, 342-7. Schultz AL, "5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid," Methods in ...
5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid unit converter calculator - Calculators 5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid unit converter ... 5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid unit converter calculator converts the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid:. *from mg ... 5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid unit converter calculator - calculate it!. To convert 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ... 5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid unit converter calculator. Posted on 2023-02-28. 2023-02-28. by Anna ...
Discard first morning urine then collect all urine for 24 hours, keep refrigerated throughout collection. Mix well and send 25.0 mL urine refrigerated in a screw-capped plastic urine container. Record total volume on container label.. Alternate collection with preservative: Refrigerate urine during collection (critical) and add 25.0 mL 6N HCl to the entire collection within 4 hours of collection completion. Mix collection well, and check pH to ensure pH is between 1 and 3. Send a 25.0 mL urine aliquot refrigerated in a screw-capped plastic urine container. Record total volume on container label.. **Patients should not eat avocados, bananas, butternut, cantaloupe, dates, eggplant, grapefruit, hickory nuts, honeydew, kiwi fruit, melons, nuts, pecans, pineapple, plums, tomatoes, or walnuts for a 48 hour period prior to start and duration of collection. Could result in falsely elevated 5-HIAA excretion. Medications affecting metabolism of serotonin must be avoided at least 72 hours before and during ...
5-HIAA is a urine test that measures the amount of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). 5-HIAA is a breakdown product of a ... 5-HIAA is a urine test that measures the amount of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). 5-HIAA is a breakdown product of a ...
High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of catecholamine metabolites and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in human ... High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of catecholamine metabolites and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in human ...
Evaluation of whole blood serotonin and plasma and urine 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in diagnosis of carcinoid disease. Ann ... 20, 21, 22] Measurement of biogenic amine levels (eg, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid [5-HIAA], chromographin-A, ...
... homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the nucleus accumbens of the rat, prior, during, and after ... homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the nucleus accumbens of the rat, prior, during, and after ... In vivo microdialysis with HPLC-ED was used to measure dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), ...
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid reflects serotonergi... Brain Res. 1988. Ricaurte GA, Forno LS, Wi.... (+/-)3 ...
5-Hydroxyindole Acetic Acid, Kynurenine, 3-Hydroxykynurenine, Kynurenic Acid, Anthranilic Acid, Xanthurenic Acid, Indole-3- ... 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), kynurenine (KYN), xanthurenic acid (XA), anthranilic acid (AA ... Malyszko, J., Urano, T., Takada, Y. and Takada, A. (1995) Amino Acids, Serotonin, and 5-Hydroxyindole Acetic Acid Following ... TRP is an essential amino acid needed not only for the protein synthesis but its metabolites have important functions in many ...
24-hour urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid; certain foods may cause false-positive results; if elevated, the tumor must be ...
This effect should be kept in mind when urinary 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid is determined. ... Naproxen may interfere with some urinary assays of 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid ... Naproxen, USP is a propionic acid derivative related to the arylacetic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ... The chemical name for naproxen, USP is (+)-6-methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid. It has the following structural formula ...
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid in the Spinal Cord and Spinal Fluid Subject Area: Pharmacology ... View articletitled, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid in the Spinal Cord and Spinal Fluid ... Transcription Factor MITF Inhibits the Transcription of CPT1B to Regulate Fatty Acid β-Oxidation and Thus Affects Stemness in ... Impairment of Autophagy Mediates the Uric-Acid-Induced Phenotypic Transformation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells ...
Acetaminophen may produce false-positive test results for urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. ... barbituric acid (about 4.8% of the dose), products with the barbituric acid ring hydrolyzed with excretion of urea (about 14% ... Hepatic biotransformation prior to excretion, results in about equal amounts of 1-methylxanthine and 1-methyluric acid. Of the ... Urinary excretion products include parent drug (about 3.6% of the dose), 5-isobutyl-5-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) barbituric acid ( ...
Naproxen may interfere with some urinary assays of 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5HIAA). ... Most of a radiolabeled dose of sumatriptan excreted in the urine is the major metabolite indole acetic acid (IAA) or the IAA ... Naproxen sodium is chemically designated as (S)-6-methoxy-α-methyl-2- naphthaleneacetic acid, sodium salt, and it has the ... a member of the arylacetic acid group of NSAIDs. ...
Additionally, urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), the major metabolite of serotonin, is also elevated in patients ... Carcinoid heart disease: the role of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion and plasma levels of atrial natriuretic ... Carcinoid Heart Disease: Prognostic Value of 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Levels and Impact on Survival: A Systematic Literature ... Monitoring the treatment of carcinoid disease using blood serotonin and plasma 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid: three case examples ...
The excretion of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid was reduced by benactyzine and not influenced by LSD. . The excretion of 17- ...
Uric Acid. 24 Hour Urine Tests Requiring an Additive. *5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (5-HIAA) ...
... in the platelets while the excesses are inactivated in the liver and lung and transformed into 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5- ... Serotonin is derived from the amino acid tryptophan, which also serves as a precursor to niacin and several proteins. Increased ... Carcinoids arising in the stomach are usually associated with low gastric acid production, a condition termed hypochlorhydria ... Scintigraphy with indium-111 diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) octreotide (In-111 DTPA Octr), or OctreoScan, localizes ...
EA treatment at CV12 reduced the levels of plasma monoamine neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, ... The suppression of IK(M) was attenuated by the addition of flupirtine or ZnCl2 but not by L-quisqualic acid or sorafenib. ... While a number of the more-affected sites resemble the CTD in amino acid sequence and are likely direct CDK12 substrates, other ... Tuning Structure and Dynamics of Blue Copper Azurin Junctions via Single Amino-Acid Mutations by Maria Ortega ...
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions: Acetaminophen may produce false-positive test results for urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ... stearic acid and sugar spheres which are composed of starch derived from corn, sucrose, and FD&C Red #3. ...
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid in brain tissue from an autopsy material. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 50, 496-507. ...
In Vivo microdialysis of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and glutamic acid in the hamster suprachiasmatic nuclei. Am. Zool. 33:212- ... Diurnal variation in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid output in the suprachiasmatic region of the Siberian hamster assessed by in ... Removal of polysialic acid from the SCN potentiates non-photic circadian phase-resetting. Physiology and Behavior 77:361-369. ... Photoperiod affects the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule and polysialic acid in the hypothalamus of the Siberian ...
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and normetanephrine. The decreases in the metabolites under the effects of Δ 9-THC were interpreted ... These nucleic acids are involved in the storage of immediate memory which is known to be impaired during cannabis intoxication. ... Carlini, G. R. and Carlini, E. A. (1965) "Effects of strychnine and cannabis sativa (Marihuana) on the nucleic acid content in ... Hecht, F., Beals, R. K., Lees, M. H., Jolly, H. and Roberts, R. (1968) "Lysergic-acid diethylamide and cannabis as possible ...
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were ...
Suicidality and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration associated with a tryptophan hydroxylase polymorphism. Nielsen, D.A., ... that plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were negatively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ... Essential fatty acids predict metabolites of serotonin and dopamine in cerebrospinal fluid among healthy control subjects, and ... CONCLUSIONS: Dietary studies are indicated to determine if essential fatty acid supplementation can influence central nervous ...
There was no corresponding increase in the urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Children with cystic ...
Subjects with a history of MDMA exposure had lower levels of CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (the major metabolite of 5-HT) than ...
  • 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were analyzed via HPLC. (erowid.org)
  • These studies revealed lasting reductions in regional brain serotonin, serotonin's major metabolite (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, or 5-HIAA), and the serotonin transporter (SERT). (mdma.net)
  • After intracellular conversion into 11 C-serotonin and uptake into secretory vesicles by vesicular monoamine transporter 2 or biodegradation by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) into 11 C-5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 11 C-HIAA), the tracer is rapidly excreted into the urine. (snmjournals.org)
  • 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid reflects serotonergi. (erowid.org)
  • Low cerebrospinal fluid 5- hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration differentiates impulsive from nonimpulsive violent behavior. (bvsalud.org)
  • In vivo microdialysis with HPLC-ED was used to measure dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the nucleus accumbens of the rat, prior, during, and after 15-min periods of electrical brain stimulation at sites in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that supported intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this work was to determine if riboflavin (B 2 ) and pyridoxine (B 6 ) provide protection to the brain against free radicals generated by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) by measuring the levels of dopamine (DA) and selected oxidative stress markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subjects with a history of MDMA exposure had lower levels of CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (the major metabolite of 5-HT) than controls (p = .001). (erowid.org)
  • The excretion of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid was reduced by benactyzine and not influenced by LSD. (erowid.org)
  • There was no corresponding increase in the urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). (bmj.com)
  • Urinary excretion products included parent drug (about 3.6% of the dose), 5-isobutyl-5-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) barbituric acid (about 24% of the dose), 5-allyl-5(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propyl) barbituric acid (about 4.8% of the dose), products with the barbituric acid ring hydrolyzed with excretion of urea (about 14% of the dose), as well as unidentified materials. (drugs.com)
  • In plasma, about 50%-80% of the salicylic acid and its metabolites are loosely bound to plasma proteins. (drugs.com)
  • 5-HIAA is a urine test that measures the amount of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • As urinary screens, they are noninvasve and apble on a large scale with current labo techniques For short-term esue, glucaric acid, thloetbers, and mug tests are usefl. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that over-the-counter amino acid supplement 5HTP (isolated from the plant Griffonia Simplifolia) reduces human allergic lung responses and consequently improves lung function. (centerwatch.com)
  • l -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine , is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of some plants [3] and animals, including humans. (cloudfront.net)
  • 5-HIAA may be normal with nonmetastatic carcinoid tumor and may be normal even with the carcinoid syndrome, particularly in subjects without diarrhea, because some patients with the carcinoid syndrome excrete nonhydroxylated indolic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scintigraphy with indium-111 diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) octreotide (In-111 DTPA Octr), or OctreoScan, localizes the primary carcinoid and eventual recurrences, as well as other neuroendocrine tumors, with high sensitivity and specificity. (medscape.com)
  • The severity of renal involvement correlates with the duration and magnitude of serum uric acid elevation. (medquizzes.net)
  • Uric acid and monosodium urate deposit in the renal parenchyma. (medquizzes.net)
  • Two agents have been proposed for GEP tumor imaging: pentetreotide ([DTPA- d -Phe 1 ]octreotide, where DTPA is diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) ( 6 - 8 ) and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) ( 9 , 10 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • The plasma half-life for aspirin is about 12 minutes and for salicylic acid and/or total salicylates is about 3 hours. (drugs.com)
  • 4 In addition, low 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the prefrontal cortex has been associated with inhibition disorders resulting in aggressive or impulsive behavior. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Most of these tumors produce 5-hydroxytryptamine, which, in physiologic conditions, is taken up and stored in the platelets while the excesses are inactivated in the liver and lung and transformed into 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). (medscape.com)
  • In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, micro-crystalline cellulose, povidone, pregelatinized starch, stearic acid and sugar spheres which are composed of starch derived from corn, sucrose, and FD&C Red #3. (globalrph.com)
  • Butalbital (5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid) is a short- to intermediate-acting barbiturate. (drugs.com)
  • To convert 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration, enter the value and select the unit. (fremitus.pl)
  • In Wistar rats, it has been reported that 3-nitropropionic acid leads to neurodegeneration and that the intravenous administration in rats provides valuable insight of Huntington's disease model [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The level of this hormone can be raised in patients with a diagnosis of NET, or in patients taking proton pump inhibitors (tablets to reduce acid production in the stomach) and can be measured in the blood. (christie.nhs.uk)
  • urinary excretion of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were assessed. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Two weeks, 10 weeks, 8 months and 18 months after drug treatment, groups (n = 3) of MDMA-treated monkeys, along with controls, were examined for regional brain content of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and for the number of [3H] paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites. (erowid.org)
  • In the hypothalamus, concentrations of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were 140 and 187% of control, respectively. (erowid.org)
  • 2. Simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the concurrent determination of the amine metabolites vanillylmandelic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in urine using electrochemical detection. (nih.gov)
  • Dopaminergic neurones (concentrations of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) were not deficient but some markers of the other neurones were affected. (ox.ac.uk)
  • insert a swab coated with a liquid called acetic acid through the anoscope and into the anus. (nih.gov)
  • a) In vivo (urinary excretion): 5-HT was excreted mainly as 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (HIAA), but bufotenine and Psilocybin mainly unchanged or conjugated wtih glucuronic acid. (erowid.org)
  • 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is a metabolite of serotonin, a chemical/neurotransmitter that is needed by the nervous system, mainly the brain, and also needed by special cells in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. (medscape.com)
  • Our data on the contents of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and the metabolite of serotonin 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-H. (nel.edu)
  • Concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, homovanilic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol were within normal limits in all five subjects. (erowid.org)
  • 5-HIAA may be normal with nonmetastatic carcinoid tumor and may be normal even with the carcinoid syndrome, particularly in subjects without diarrhea, because some patients with the carcinoid syndrome excrete nonhydroxylated indolic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was a marked increase in the penetration of 5-HTP-14C into brain and in the appearance in brain of 5-HT-14C and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid-14C (5-HIAA-14C). (aspetjournals.org)
  • 4. Urinary 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic (vanillylmandelic) acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic (homovanillic) acid, and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid determined by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Direct determination of urinary vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography on an anion-exchange column. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Urinary catecholamines, vanillylmandelic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and homovanillic acid measured by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and use of a single mobile phase. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic determination of urinary vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Brain amino acid (gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate) and cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase activity) systems were either normal or less severely affected. (nih.gov)
  • The amino acid tryptophan is needed to produce serotonin in the brain. (lifeextension.com)
  • Tryptophan is one of the eight essential amino acids found in the human diet. (lifeextension.com)
  • Essential amino acids are defined as those that cannot be made in the body and therefore must be obtained from food or supplements. (lifeextension.com)
  • A ninth amino acid, histidine, is sometimes considered essential for children. (lifeextension.com)
  • Our bodies do need additional amino acids, but these other amino acids are made from the eight essential amino acids when we are in optimal health. (lifeextension.com)
  • In any normal diet, be it omnivorous or vegetarian, tryptophan is the least plentiful of all amino acids. (lifeextension.com)
  • Yet even maintaining a minute amount of tryptophan provides little benefit in boosting serotonin in the brain due to competition with other amino acids for transport through the blood-brain barrier. (lifeextension.com)
  • Tryptophan competes for these transport molecules with other amino acids. (lifeextension.com)
  • Children may require the amino acid histidine in addition to those listed above. (lifeextension.com)
  • As you will soon read, even eating tryptophan-containing foods like turkey may not always provide the body with enough of this essential amino acid. (lifeextension.com)
  • The_ latter amino acid is then decarboxylated by l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase to form the biogenic amine serotonin. (nih.gov)
  • Tryptophan (TRP) is an essential dietary amino acid that, unless otherwise committed to protein synthesis, undergoes metabolism via the Tryptophan-Kynurenine (TRP-KYN) pathway in vertebrate organisms. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, pregelatinized corn starch, sodium metabisulfite, sodium starch glycolate and stearic acid. (drugcite.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid levels in rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Assay of urinary vanilmandelic, homovanillic, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acids by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. (nih.gov)
  • 8. [Simultaneous evaluation by gas chromatography of urinary acids: homovanillic, vanilmandelic, indoleacetic and 5 hydroxyindoleacetic]. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Measurement of urinary vanilmandelic acid and homovanillic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection following extraction by ion-exchange and ion-moderated partition. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Determination of urinary vanilmandelic acid and homovanillic acid by high performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Simultaneous assay for urinary 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-mandelic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid by isocratic HPLC with electrochemical detection. (nih.gov)
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Brain levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and substance P are altered. (medscape.com)
  • Beta-adrenergic binding sites in the cerebral cortex are increased and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding sites are decreased. (medscape.com)
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. (frontiersin.org)
  • 3 In a study of the percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid from Salicylic Acid 6% Gel in four patients with extensive active psoriasis, Taylor and Halprin 4 showed that peak serum salicylate levels never exceeded 5 mg/100 mL even though more than 60% of the applied salicylic acid was absorbed. (nih.gov)
  • In Alzheimer subjects, a significant relationship (inverse) was found between 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration and the number of neurofibrillary tangles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Peeling of the skin may increase as the salicylic acid works to loosen excess keratin. (nih.gov)
  • those derived from percutaneous absorption contain more glucuronides and less salicyluric and salicylic acid. (nih.gov)
  • i. chloride, i. trichloride Cl3In;used in electron microscopy to stain nucleic acids in thin tissue sections. (theodora.com)
  • Salicylic acid has been shown to produce desquamation of the horny layer of skin while not affecting qualitative or quantitative changes in structure of the viable epidermis. (nih.gov)
  • No significant changes in hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-methoxytryptophol are detected at this time. (nih.gov)
  • The enzyme-substrate reaction is terminated by the addition of a sulphuric acid solution and the color change is measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450 nm ± 2 nm. (biobool.com)