Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
Cell surface proteins that bind eicosanoids with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Among the eicosanoid receptors are receptors for the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.
Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).

Endothelin-1 and CYP450 arachidonate metabolites interact to promote tissue injury in DOCA-salt hypertension. (1/901)

Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzymes with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) prevented hypertension, organ hypertrophy, and renal injury induced by DOCA and salt (1% NaCl) in uninephrectomized (UNx) rats. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) rose to 193 +/- 6 mmHg by day 21 from control levels of 150 +/- 7 mmHg in response to DOCA-salt treatment, a rise that was prevented by CoCl2 (24 mg. kg-1. 24 h-1). The effects of DOCA-salt treatment, which increased protein excretion to 88.3 +/- 6.9 mg/24 h on day 21 from 9.0 +/- 1.1 mg/24 h on day 3, were prevented by CoCl2. CoCl2 also attenuated the renal and left ventricular hypertrophy and the increase in media-to-lumen ratio in hypertensive rats. DOCA-salt treatment increased excretion of endothelin (ET)-1 from 81 +/- 17 to 277 +/- 104 pg. 100 g body wt-1. 24 h-1 associated with a fourfold increase in 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) excretion from 3.0 +/- 1.1 to 12.2 +/- 1.9 ng. 100 g body wt-1. 24 h-1 (days 3 vs. 21). CoCl2 blunted these increases by 58 and 72%, respectively. In aortic rings pulsed with [3H]thymidine, ET-1 increased its incorporation. Dibromododec-11-enoic acid, an inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, attenuated ET-1-induced increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation. We distinguished effects of CoCl2 acting via CO generation vs. suppression of CYP450-arachidonic acid metabolism by treating UNx-salt-DOCA rats with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), which suppresses CYP450 enzyme activity, and compared these results to those produced by CoCl2. ABT reduced hypertension, as did CoCl2. Unlike CoCl2, ABT did not prevent organ hypertrophy and proteinuria, suggesting that these effects were partially related to CO formation. Blockade of the ETA receptor with BMS-182874 reduced SBP, organ hypertrophy, and proteinuria, indicating the importance of ET-initiated abnormalities to the progression of lesions in UNx-salt-DOCA.  (+info)

Regulation of human airway mucins by acrolein and inflammatory mediators. (2/901)

Bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, marked by inflammation and mucus hypersecretion, can be caused or exacerbated by airway pathogens or irritants including acrolein, an aldehyde present in tobacco smoke. To determine whether acrolein and inflammatory mediators alter mucin gene expression, steady-state mRNA levels of two airway mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, were measured (by RT-PCR) in human lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H292). MUC5AC mRNA levels increased after >/=0.01 nM acrolein, 10 microM prostaglandin E2 or 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 1.0 nM tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or 10 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (a protein kinase C activator). In contrast, MUC5B mRNA levels, although easily detected, were unaffected by these agonists, suggesting that irritants and associated inflammatory mediators increase mucin biosynthesis by inducing MUC5AC message levels, whereas MUC5B is constitutively expressed. When transcription was inhibited, TNF-alpha exposure increased MUC5AC message half-life compared with control level, suggesting that transcript stabilization is a major mechanism controlling increased MUC5AC message levels. Together, these findings imply that irritants like acrolein can directly and indirectly (via inflammatory mediators) increase airway mucin transcripts in epithelial cells.  (+info)

LXA4, aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA4, and their analogs selectively downregulate PMN azurophilic degranulation. (3/901)

The eicosanoid lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is biosynthesized in vivo by cells present at inflammatory sites and appears to be an endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator. Further, in the presence of aspirin, the 15-epimer of LXA4 (15-epi-LXA4) is biosynthesized and may mediate some of aspirin's desirable bioactions. LXA4, 15-epi-LXA4, and their stable analogs inhibit inflammation in established animal models, indicating that these compounds may be useful for treating inflammatory disease states. To investigate the cellular mechanisms by which these lipid mediators downregulate inflammation, we investigated whether these eicosanoids could influence receptor-mediated degranulation of human neutrophils, an event thought to play a major causative role in several inflammatory disease states. LXA4, 15-epi-LXA4, and their stable analogs potently (IC50 < 1 nM) and selectively downregulated neutrophil release of azurophilic granule contents but did not affect other neutrophil secretory functions. Thus the cellular basis of action of these natural off-switches to inflammation appears to involve downregulation of neutrophil azurophilic granule release.  (+info)

Albumin modifies the metabolism of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids via 12-lipoxygenase in human platelets. (4/901)

12-Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase 1 are the dominating enzymes that metabolize arachidonic acid in human platelets. In addition to the conversion of arachidonic acid to 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 12-lipoxygenase can also utilize 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid to form 5(S), 12(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 14(R), 15(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, respectively. Furthermore, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid works as an inhibitor for 12-lipoxygenase. In the present paper we have studied the influence of albumin on the in vitro metabolism of 5 - and 15 -hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and 5,15 -dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by the platelet 12-lipoxygenase. The presence of albumin reduced the formation of 5(S),12(S)- dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, however, it had no effect on the 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production from endogenous arachidonic acid. In contrast, when 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was incubated with activated platelets, the formation of 14(R), 15(S)- dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was stimulated by the presence of albumin. Furthermore, albumin reduced the inhibitory action 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid had on 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid formation from endogenous arachidonic acid. However, addition of exogenous arachidonic acid (20 microm) to the incubations inverted the effects of albumin on the conversion of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid to 14(R),15(S)- dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and the production of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in these incubations. Based on the Scatchard equation, the estimates of the binding constants to albumin were 1.8 x 10(5) for 15 -HETE, 1.4 x 10(5) for 12-HETE, and 0.9 x 10(5) for 5 -HETE respectively. These results suggest an important role of albumin for the regulation of the availability of substrates for platelet 12-lipoxygenase.  (+info)

Polyisoprenyl phosphate (PIPP) signaling regulates phospholipase D activity: a 'stop' signaling switch for aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4. (5/901)

It is of wide interest to understand how opposing extracellular signals (positive or negative) are translated into intracellular signaling events. Receptor-ligand interactions initiate the generation of bioactive lipids by human neutrophils (PMN), which serve as signals to orchestrate cellular responses important in host defense and inflammation. We recently identified a novel polyisoprenyl phosphate (PIPP) signaling pathway and found that one of its components, presqualene diphosphate (PSDP), is a potent negative intracellular signal in PMN that regulates superoxide anion generation by several stimuli, including phosphatidic acid. We determined intracellular PIPP signaling by autocoids with opposing actions on PMN: leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant, and lipoxin A4 (LXA4), a 'stop signal' for recruitment. LTB4 receptor activation initiated a rapid decrease in PSDP levels concurrent with activation of PLD and cellular responses. In sharp contrast, activation of the LXA4 receptor reversed LTB4-initiated PSDP remodeling, leading to an accumulation of PSDP and potent inhibition of both PLD and superoxide anion generation. Thus, an inverse relationship was established for PSDP levels and PLD activity with two PMN ligands that evoke opposing responses. In addition, PSDP directly inhibited both isolated human recombinant (Ki = 6 nM) and plant (Ki = 20 nM) PLD. Together, these findings link PIPP remodeling to intracellular regulation of PMN function and suggest a role for PIPPs as lipid repressors in signal transduction, a novel mechanism that may also explain aspirin's suppressive actions in vivo in cell signaling.  (+info)

Angiotensin II inhibits HCO-3 absorption via a cytochrome P-450-dependent pathway in MTAL. (6/901)

The role of ANG II in the regulation of ion reabsorption by the renal thick ascending limb is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that ANG II (10(-8) M in the bath) inhibits HCO-3 absorption by 40% in the isolated, perfused medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL) of the rat. The inhibition by ANG II was abolished by pretreatment with eicosatetraynoic acid (10 microM), a general inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, or 17-octadecynoic acid (10 microM), a highly selective inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 pathways. Bath addition of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE; 10(-8) M), the major P-450 metabolite in the MTAL, inhibited HCO-3 absorption, whereas pretreatment with 20-HETE prevented the inhibition by ANG II. The addition of 15-HETE (10(-8) M) to the bath had no effect on HCO-3 absorption. The inhibition of HCO-3 absorption by ANG II was reduced by >50% in the presence of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein (7 microM) or herbimycin A (1 microM). We found no role for cAMP, protein kinase C, or NO in the inhibition by ANG II. However, addition of the exogenous NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 10 microM) or the NO synthase (NOS) substrate L-arginine (1 mM) to the bath stimulated HCO-3 absorption by 35%, suggesting that NO directly regulates MTAL HCO-3 absorption. Addition of 10(-11) to 10(-10) M ANG II to the bath did not affect HCO-3 absorption. We conclude that ANG II inhibits HCO-3 absorption in the MTAL via a cytochrome P-450-dependent signaling pathway, most likely involving the production of 20-HETE. Tyrosine kinase pathways also appear to play a role in the ANG II-induced transport inhibition. The inhibition of HCO-3 absorption by ANG II in the MTAL may play a key role in the ability of the kidney to regulate sodium balance and extracellular fluid volume independently of acid-base balance.  (+info)

Kinetic profile of the rat CYP4A isoforms: arachidonic acid metabolism and isoform-specific inhibitors. (7/901)

20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 4A omega-hydroxylation product of arachidonic acid, has potent biological effects on renal tubular and vascular functions and on the control of arterial pressure. We have expressed high levels of the rat CYP4A1, -4A2, -4A3, and -4A8 cDNAs, using baculovirus and Sf 9 insect cells. Arachidonic acid omega- and omega-1-hydroxylations were catalyzed by three of the CYP4A isoforms; the highest catalytic efficiency of 947 nM-1. min-1 for CYP4A1 was followed by 72 and 22 nM-1. min-1 for CYP4A2 and CYP4A3, respectively. CYP4A2 and CYP4A3 exhibited an additional arachidonate 11,12-epoxidation activity, whereas CYP4A1 operated solely as an omega-hydroxylase. CYP4A8 did not catalyze arachidonic or linoleic acid but did have a detectable lauric acid omega-hydroxylation activity. The inhibitory activity of various acetylenic and olefinic fatty acid analogs revealed differences and indicated isoform-specific inhibition. These studies suggest that CYP4A1, despite its low expression in extrahepatic tissues, may constitute the major source of 20-HETE synthesis. Moreover, the ability of CYP4A2 and -4A3 to catalyze the formation of two opposing biologically active metabolites, 20-HETE and 11, 12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, may be of great significance to the regulation of vascular tone.  (+info)

Regulation of P-450 4A activity in the glomerulus of the rat. (8/901)

We recently reported that an enzyme of the cytochrome P-450 4A family is expressed in the glomerulus, but there is no evidence that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) can be produced by this tissue. The purpose of present study was to determine whether glomeruli isolated from the kidney of rats can produce 20-HETE and whether the production of this metabolite is regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and dietary salt intake. Isolated glomeruli produced 20-HETE, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (4.13 +/- 0.38, 4.20 +/- 0.38, and 2. 10 +/- 0.20 pmol. min-1. mg protein-1, respectively) when incubated with arachidonic acid (10 microM). The formation of 20-HETE was dependent on the availability of NADPH and the PO2 of the incubation medium. The formation of 20-HETE was inhibited by NO donors in a concentration-dependent manner. The production of 20-HETE was greater in glomeruli isolated from the kidneys of rats fed a low-salt diet than in kidneys of rats fed a high-salt diet (5.67 +/- 0.32 vs. 2.83 +/- 0.32 pmol. min-1. mg protein-1). Immunoblot experiments indicated that the expression of P-450 4A protein in glomeruli from the kidneys of rats fed a low-salt diet was sixfold higher than in kidneys of rats fed a high-salt diet. These results indicate that arachidonic acid is primarily metabolized to 20-HETE and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids in glomeruli and that glomerular P-450 activity is modulated by NO and dietary salt intake.  (+info)

15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid. Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HpETE). This initial hydroperoxide product is extremely short-lived in cells: if not otherwise metabolized, it is rapidly reduced to 15(S)-HETE. Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz., the lipoxins, a class of pro-inflammatory mediators, the eoxins, and other products that have less well-defined activities and functions. Thus, 15(S)-HETE and 15(S)-HpETE, in addition to having intrinsic biological activities, are key precursors to numerous biologically active derivatives. Some cell types (e.g. ...
LOXs form a heterogeneous family of lipid-peroxidizing enzymes that introduce molecular oxygen into PUFA such as AA and linoleic acid (LA). Based on their ability to oxidize the corresponding carbon atom of AA they are classified as 5-, 8-, 12-, and 15-LOXs.8 A large body of literature suggests that LOXs, including 15-LOX, play a role in the pathogenesis of vessel wall diseases.10,11,14 However, the mechanism(s) of their action is not very clear. Therefore, here we studied the effect of 15(S)-HETE, a product of 15-LOX1/2, on VSMC migration and explored the underlying mechanisms. We observed that: (1) Among the 3 LOX products of AA tested, 15(S)-HETE was found to be most potent in inducing VSMC migration; (2) 15(S)-HETE induced CREB phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner and adenovirus-mediated expression of its dominant-negative mutant inhibited 15(S)-HETE-induced VSMC migration; (3) 15(S)-HETE stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK in a time-dependent manner; (4) ...
22 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is the principal arachidonic acid metabolite in tubular and vascular structures of the rat kidney. In the tubules it inhibits sodium reabsorption, while in the renal microcirculation it is a vasoconstrictor and a regulator of myogenic tone. 20-HETE synthesis is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A isoforms (4A1, 4A2, 4A3 and 4A8). Our studies indicated that despite the high homology, these isoforms display distinct catalytic properties. CYP4A1 is the low Km isoform and thus, by far, the most efficient 20-HETE synthesizing enzyme. Whereas CYP4A1 is solely an ω-hydroxylase, CYP4A2 and CYP4A3 also catalyze arachidonate 11,12-epoxidation. Systemic administration of CYP4A1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides reduced the level of CYP4A proteins and 20-HETE synthesis in renal vessels by 50%, and decreased blood pressure in SHR from 137±3 to 121±4 mmHg (p , 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and inhibitor studies indicated that within the renal vasculature CYP4A1 ...
Title:20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid is a Potential Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Diseases. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Osama H. Elshenawy, Anwar Anwar-Mohamed and Ayman O.S. El-Kadi. Affiliation:Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2142J Katz Group-Rexall Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1.. Keywords:Cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 20-hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE), Arachidonic acid (AA), Cardiovascular diseases.. Abstract:Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A and CYP4F subfamilies to 20- hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE), which plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. In the current work, we reviewed the formation of 20-HETE in different species by different CYPs; 20-HETE metabolism by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and different isomerases; and the current available inducers and inhibitors of 20-HETE formation in addition to its agonists and antagonists. ...
Elshenawy OH, Shoieb SM, Mohamed A et al.. Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1, AB, Canada. [email protected] Pharmaceutics. Feb 2017.. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) is an important pathway for the formation of eicosanoids. The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. In the current review, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in the kidney, liver, lung, and brain during physiological and pathophysiological states. Moreover, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in tumor formation, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In the kidney, 20-HETE is involved in modulation of preglomerular vascular tone and tubular ion transport. Furthermore, 20-HETE is involved in renal 19 ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and polycystic kidney diseases. The role of 20-HETE in the liver is not clearly understood although it represents 50%-75% of liver CYP-dependent AA ...
P164 Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes arachidonic acid (AA) release via activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and D (PLD) in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Ang II also stimulates the Ras/MAP kinase pathway, and MAP kinase activates cPLA2 and PLD in VSMC. The increase in Ras/MAP kinase activity elicited by Ang II in VSMC is mediated by 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and to a lesser extent by 12(S)-HETE, metabolites of AA generated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) and lipoxygenase (LO), respectively, upon activation of cPLA2 by calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase II. The purpose of this study was to determine if Ang II-induced PLD activation stimulation in VSMC from rabbit aorta is mediated by the Ras/MAP kinase pathway via AA metabolites generated by cPLA2. Ang II (100 nM) increased PLD activity measured as the production of 3H-phosphatidylethanol from phospholipids in VSMC prelabeled with 3H-oleic. Inhibitors of PLD (C2-ceramide, 10 μM), phosphatidate phosphohydrolase ...
CONTEXT:High-density lipoproteins (HDL) possess atheroprotective properties including anti-thrombotic and antioxidant effects. Very few studies relate to the functional effects of oxidized HDL on platelets in type 2 diabetes (T2D).OBJECTIVE:The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of in vitro glycoxidized HDL, and HDL from T2D patients on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid signaling cascade. At the same time, the contents of hydroxylated fatty acids were assessed in HDL.RESULTS:Compared to control HDL, in vitro glycoxidized HDL had decreased proportions of linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids in phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, and increased concentrations of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9-HODE and 13-HODE) and 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), derived from LA and AA respectively, especially hydroxy derivatives esterified in phospholipids. Glycoxidized HDL dose-dependently decreased collagen-induced platelet aggregation by binding to SR-BI. Glycoxidized HDL
Leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase (EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the unstable epoxide intermediate LTA4 into the proinflammatory substance LTB4 and also exhibits an amidase/peptidase activity toward synthetic substrates. Based on proposed reaction mechanisms for other zinc hydrolases, we have synthesized inhibitors of LTA4 hydrolase and evaluated their effects on the formation of LTB4 from LTA4 using both purified enzyme and intact polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The two most effective inhibitors, an alpha-keto-beta-amino ester (compound IV) and a thioamine (compound VIII), exhibited IC50 values of 1.9 +/- 0.9 and 0.19 +/- 0.12 microM (mean +/- SD, n = 4), respectively. Compounds IV and VIII were also potent inhibitors of LTB4 biosynthesis in ionophore stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes with IC50 , 200 nM. At higher concentrations, the biosynthesis of 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid was also inhibited with IC50 approximately 10 microM for both ...
In the present study, we have provided evidence that although CYP4A11 functions as a 20-HETE synthase, CYP4A22 does not contribute to renal 20-HETE biosynthesis. Furthermore, to determine the relevance of genetic variation in CYP4A11 to hypertension, we identified a coding polymorphism (T8590C), biochemically characterized 8590C as a loss-of-function variant, and demonstrated its association with hypertension in whites. Initial findings of associations between biologically plausible functional variants are often not replicated in follow-up studies, and even when associations are replicated, they are often less strong than in the initial validation cohort.27 For this reason, we conducted a study of replication in a population-based cohort of whites. Our results suggest the existence of a modest association finding in the Framingham cohort. Clearly, our findings strongly support further study of the relationship of variants in this gene with hypertension in other populations.. Both animal14,16 and ...
The present study evaluated the contribution of cGMP-dependent versus cGMP-independent pathways in mediating the effects NO on K+ channel activity and vascular tone in renal arterioles. The results indicate that NO selectively enhances the NPo of a large-conductance (195±9 pS) K+ channel in renal VSM cells in a concentration-dependent manner. NO had no significant effect on the activity of the two smaller conductance channels in renal VSM cells that were previously identified as a small-conductance, apamin-sensitive, KCa channel33 and the 4-aminopyridine-sensitive delayed rectifier channel.28 34 35 36 The K+ channel activated by NO is voltage-sensitive and is blocked by TEA and iberiotoxin which are selective inhibitors of the KCa channel.37 38 39 Thus, the present findings indicate that NO activates KCa channels in renal VSM cells, and they are consistent with the results of recent studies with smooth muscle cells isolated from other tissues.6 7 9 11 13 15 Additional experiments were performed ...
Previous studies demonstrated a requirement for arachidonic acid metabolites in tumor development in mouse skin. The goal of this study was to determine whether the arachidonate content of epidermal phospholipids could be altered by increasing dietary levels of linoleate and whether specific metabolites of linoleate and arachidonate have dissimilar biological effects. In a series of tumor studies in which the quantity of dietary linoleate was incrementally increased, a slight reduction in phospholipid levels of arachidonate was observed that correlated with an increased phospholipid level of linoleate and a suppression in tumor yield. A comparison of the arachidonate lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) with the 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) lipoxygenase metabolite of linoleate revealed that 12-HETE has biological activities that mimic the phorbol ester tumor promoters, whereas 13-HODE has antithetical effects. Specifically, 12(S)-HETE enhanced the ...
We studied arachidonic acid metabolism and the expression of cyclooxygenase (Cox) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) in the human colorectal carcinoma cell line, Caco-2, which undergo apoptosis and cell differentiation in the presence of sodium butyrate (NaBT). Caco-2 cells expressed very low levels of Cox-1 but highly expressed Cox-2. NaBT treatment shifted the arachidonic acid metabolites by cell lysates from prostaglandins to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, indicating the presence of a 15-LO. Linoleic acid, an excellent substrate for 15-LO, was metabolized poorly by the Caco-2 cells, but NaBT treatment shifted metabolism to 15-LO metabolite, 13(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. Caco-2 cells expressed a 15-LO but only after treatment with NaBT, as determined by Northern blotting. Immunoblotting with anti-human 15-LO antibody detected a 72-kDa band in NaBT-treated Caco-2 cells. Expression of 15-LO mRNA was dependent on the duration of NaBT treatment, with the highest expression observed between 10 and ...
The present study tested the hypothesis that the Dahl SS (salt-sensitive) rat has vascular dysfunction due, in part, to the up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE (cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase 4A)/20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) system. To assess the role of vascular 20-HETE, SS rats were compared with SS-5(BN) consomic rats, carrying CYP4A alleles on chromosome ...
Õhulõhe avatust muudavad õhupilu ümbritsevad sulgrakud. Avatuse regulatsioon toimib paljude tegurite keerulisel koostoimel. Kui sulgrakud on suhteliselt lõdvas olekus, on õhulõhe peaaegu suletud. Valguse toimel suureneb sulgrakkudes K⁺ kontsentratsioon ja tõuseb osmootne rõhk, mis põhjustab sulgrakkudes veepotentsiaali langemise. Sellises olukorras on veepotentsiaalid sulgrakkude ja epidermi rakkude vahel erinevad ning vesi liigub osmoosi teel spontaanselt epidermist sulgrakkudesse. Vee sisenemisel sulgrakkudesse tõuseb neis hüdrostaatiline rõhk, rakud paisuvad ja muutuvad nõgusaks - õhupilu suureneb. Õhulõhede avanemisel on oluline roll ka kaasrakkudel, mis reguleerivad mõnel määral sulgrakkudes vee ja lahustunud ainete, näiteks K⁺, sisaldust, muutes sellega sulgrakkudes hüdrostaatilist rõhku.. Õhulõhede avatuse aste sõltub tihti CO₂ sisaldusest sulgrakkudes. Valges on CO₂ sisaldus fotosünteesi tõttu lehe rakuvaheruumides väiksem, mis põhjustab CO₂ ...
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Az autoimmun thyreoiditisre (AT-re) jellemz sz vettani s cytol giai k pet mutat a HT-os betegek pajzsmirigye. Lymphocyt s s plazmasejtes infiltr ci jellemzi, helyenk nt germin lis centrumok, esetleg n. Askenazy-sejtek is l that k. Immunhisztok miai m dszerekkel a thyreoglobulin (Tg), ill. pajzsmirigy-peroxid z (TPO) elleni antitestek is kimutathat ak. Az AT egyes llatokban spont n el fordul, m sokban pedig kiv lthat . A BG-k rnak, ill. a HT-nak megfelel betegs get azonban llatokban nem figyeltek meg. Az emberi megbeteged shez legink bb a csirk kben tanulm nyozhat autoimmun pajzsmirigybetegs g hasonl t. Siker lt ugyanis a Cornell csirket rzsb l (CS) egy olyan t rzset kiteny szteni, amelyben 8-10 hetes korban a Hashimoto-thyreoiditishez hasonl megbeteged s jelentkezik s a pajzsmirigy elleni antitestek titere is emelkedett, az llatok pedig hypothyreosisosakk v lnak (Obese Strain=OS csirke). Ezekben az llatokban a neonatalis bursectomia megakad lyozta, a thymectomia pedig el seg tette a ...
12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis-trans isomerism configuration (Z=cis, E=trans) in its four double bonds. It was first found as a product of arachidonic acid metabolism made by human and bovine platelets through their 12S-lipoxygenase (i.e. ALOX12) enzyme(s). However, the term 12-HETE is ambiquous in that it has been used to indicate not only the initially detected S stereoisomer, 12S-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE or 12S-HETE), made by platelets, but also the later detected R stereoisomer, 12(R)-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 12(R)-HETE or 12R-HETE) made by other tissues through their 12R-lipoxygenase enzyme, ALOX12B. The two isomers, either directly or after being further metabolized, have been suggested to be involved in a variety of human physiological and pathological reactions. ...
Recent studies have indicated that renal arteries can produce 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and suggest the potential involvement of a P450 metabolite of arachidonic acid in the myogenic activation of canine renal arteries. In the present study, the effects of 20-HETE on isolated canine renal arcuate arteries were studied. Administration of 20-HETE to the bath or the lumen at concentrations of 0.01-1 microM produced a graded reduction in the diameter of these vessels. In contrast, 19(R)-HETE was a vasodilator, whereas 19(S)-HETE was relatively inactive. The vasoconstrictor response to 20-HETE was not altered by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, endoperoxide/thromboxane receptor antagonist SQ29548, or combined blockade of the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and P450 pathways using indomethacin, baicalein, and 7-ethoxyresorufin. The response to 20-HETE was associated with depolarization and a sustained increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in renal vascular smooth ...
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that trophoblast produces 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and its level is elevated in trophoblast from preeclamptic women compared with normal. We also used selective enzymatic inhibitors to determine the relativ
15-Lipoxygenases and their metabolites have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, but little is known regarding their expression and function in chondrocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 and -2 in human articular chondrocytes, and to investigate the effects of their metabolites 13(S)-hydroxy octadecadienoic and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids on IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-13 expression. The expression levels of 15-lipoxygenase-1 and -2 were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting in chondrocytes, and by immunohistochemistry in cartilage. Chondrocytes or cartilage explants were stimulated with IL-1β in the absence or presence of 13(S)-hydroxy octadecadienoic and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-13 protein production and type II collagen cleavage were evaluated using immunoassays. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine mean percentage change from baseline in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) within ACF pre and post 30 days of curcumin administration at a specified dose.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVS:. I. To determine mean percentage change from baseline in 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) within ACF pre and post 30 days of curcumin administration at a specified dose.. II. To determine mean percentage change from baseline in PGE2 and 5-HETE within comparison normal mucosa pre and post 30 days of curcumin administration at a specified dose.. III. To quantify corresponding enzyme changes in the cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2,) and lipoxygenase (5-LOX) protein abundance. Semi-quantitative changes in these proteins will be measured by western blotting and correlated with changes in prostaglandins and leukotrienes respectively.. IV. Document changes in total ACF number. V. Determine proliferation by Ki-67 IHC in rectal mucosa pre and post therapy and correlate with changes in ACF number and ...
The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) product 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE), which is a potent chemoattractant for myeloid cells, is known to promote the survival of prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we found that PC3 prostate cancer cells and cell lines derived from breast (MCF7) and lung (A-427) cancers contain 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase (5-HEDH) activity and have the ability to synthesize 5-oxo-ETE from its precursor 5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) when added as an exogenous substrate. H2O2 strongly stimulated the synthesis of 5-oxo-ETE and induced dramatic increases in the levels of both glutathione disulfide and NADP+. The effects of H2O2 on 5-oxo-ETE and NADP+ were blocked by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), indicating that this effect was mediated by the glutathione reductase-dependent generation of NADP+, the cofactor required by 5-HEDH. 5-Oxo-ETE synthesis was also stimulated by agents that have cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, including ...
Title: Role of Cytochrome P450 Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Hypertension. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):A. Sarkis and R. J. Roman. Affiliation:Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.. Keywords:cytochrome p450, eicosanoids, hypertension, 20-hete, eets. Abstract: Considerable evidence has accumulated over the last decade implicating a role of cytochrome P450 (CYP)- dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Indeed, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is produced by vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells and is a potent vasoconstrictor that depolarizes VSM by blocking large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. In contrast, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are synthesized by the vascular endothelium and have opposite effects on VSM (hyperpolarization and vasodilatation). Inhibition of the synthesis of 20-HETE attenuates myogenic tone and autoregulation of blood flow and ...
15-HETE, also known as 15S-hete or icomucret, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. These are eicosanoic acids with an attached hydroxyl group and four CC double bonds. Thus, 15-HETE is considered to be an eicosanoid lipid molecule. 15-HETE is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral ...
Downloadable! This paper examines four different daily datasets of hedge fund return indexes: MSCI, FTSE, Dow Jones and HFRX, all based on investable hedge funds, and three different monthly datasets of hedge fund return indexes: CSFB, CISDM and HFR which comprise both investable and non-investable hedge funds. Our study, based on standard statistical analysis, non-parametric analysis of the distribution and non-parametric regressions with respect to the S&P500 index shows that key data biases and disparate index construction methodologies lead to different statistical properties of hedge fund databases. One key variable that highly affects the statistical properties of hedge fund index returns is the �investability� of hedge funds
The healthy corneal epithelium has tight junctions and forms a barrier between the environment and the inside of the eye. The tear film aids in protecting the corneal surface, and artificial tear...
Al-Naamani N CTS, Sagliani KD, Dolnikowski GG, Warburton RR, Toksoz D, Kayyali U, Hill NS, Fanburg BL, Roberts KE, Preston IR. Plasma 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosanoids are predictors of survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pulmonary circulation. 2016;6(2):224-33; PMID: 27252849.. Bugaev N, Breeze JL, Alhazmi M CTS, Anbari HS, Arabian SS, Holewinski S, Rabinovici R. Magnitude of rib fracture displacement predicts opioid requirements. The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2016; PMID: 27389132.. Cotter K CMP, Liberman R, Sun-Wada G, Wada Y, Sgroi D, Naber S, Brown D, Breton S, Forgac M. The a3 isoform of subunit a of the vacuolar ATPase localizes to the plasma membrane of invasive breast tumor cells and is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Oncotarget. 2016; PMID: 27323815.. Graham RJ, Rodday AM CTS, Weidner RA, Parsons SK. The impact on family of pediatric chronic respiratory failure in the home. J Pediatr. 2016; PMID: 27289498.. Guedj F, Pennings JL, Ferres MA, Graham LC GENE, Wick ...
Systemic risk is commonly used to describe the possibility of a series of correlated defaults among financial institutions---typically banks---that occur over a short period of time, often caused by a single major event. However, since the collapse of Long Term Capital Management in 1998, it has become clear that hedge funds are also involved in systemic risk exposures. The hedge-fund industry has a symbiotic relationship with the banking sector, and many banks now operate proprietary trading units that are organized much like hedge funds. As a result, the risk exposures of the hedge-fund industry may have a material impact on the banking sector, resulting in new sources of systemic risks. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the potential impact of hedge funds on systemic risk by developing a number of new risk measures for hedge funds and applying them to individual and aggregate hedge-fund returns data. These measures include: illiquidity risk exposure, nonlinear factor models for hedge-fund ...
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15H-11,12-EETA; (5Z,8Z,13E)-(15S)-11,12-Epoxy-15-hydroxyeicosa-5,8,13-trienoic acid; (5Z,8Z,13E)-(15S)-11,12-Epoxy-15-hydroxyicosa-5,8,13-trienoic acid; 15-Hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; C14781 ...
In a staggered start race all drivers can choose their favourite car regardless of its performance. I set calculate different start times according to previously measured average speeds of the cars. Ideally all cars will meet again just before the finish line. Should be fun!. ...
The latest hedge fund news with assets flow updates, hedge funds performances, commentary and discounts for top alternative investments events in the industry.
The latest hedge fund news with assets flow updates, hedge funds performances, commentary and discounts for top alternative investments events in the industry.
A pruning lapse leaves bigger gaps. Dont be fooled into leaving your hedge to grow to the height you want it before cutting it back. Start pruning it back in the first month or two, and repeat a light pruning every few months during the growing season. It may take longer to reach the height youre wanting, but with regular pruning, the plants send out more lateral branches, and will fill the gaps in-between much better. The last thing you want is to have a fully grown hedge with big gaps at the bottom, that you can do nothing about ...
Thirty-eight firms participated in the Hedge Fund Administrator Survey with the five largest accounting for 67.32% of total administered hedge fund assets
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This paper empirically decomposes hedge fund excess return into factor timing, security selection, and risk premium using Lo (2008)s performance measure. Portf
Join us live where our expert panel - ASIs Duncan Moir and senior members of the alternatives strategies research team Joe Mizzoni and Jennifer Lau - will discuss how hedge funds and liquid alternatives coped during March. Also covered will be strategy p...
One of the ideas when setting up its own shop was to launch a hedge fund. However, this being in the wake of the demise of hedge fund LTCM, selling the idea of a new hedge fund was not all that easy. The firm therefore focused more on its macro research efforts, which have always been at the heart of the operation, and sold that to proprietary traders at banks and hedge funds. It was not until 2003 that the Weavering Macro Fixed Income Fund was launched. Since then it has had a great run and annual return since launch has been 11.98% (at the end of February) with an annual standard deviation of 6.87%. The fund has so far had 78% positive months and all months since September 2007 have been positive ...
At this point the Central Bank has one of two options: 1) Monetize everything OR 2) Let the bond market fall to where it deems rates are appropriate given the new default risk.
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Net inflows to Asian hedge funds outpaced flows to both US and European strategies in the second quarter and boosted the asset classs investment level to the highest since 2007.
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On March 23rd, we completed the exit of our hedges generating proceeds of $2.6 billion for the Pershing Square funds compared with premiums paid and commissions totaling $27 million.
CNBCs Kate Kelly reports the results of a survey of hedge fund employees reveals some unethical and even illegal conduct at some firms.
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The trees and the hedges are encoaching onto the path to such a level that people are having to walk on the road, this includes my children of 13 and 10 who cannot duck under the overgrowth.. ...
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Factor investing is part of the broader world of computer-powered quantitative finance. But rather than scour markets and oceans of data for fleeting signals, factors are the big, persistent market drivers that in theory exploit timeless human foibles, such as our tendency to favour glamorous stocks over solid ones. Financial academics argue that a lot of what asset managers do is take advantage of these well-known patterns, anomalies and inefficiencies. But if one can do so systematically and cheaply, why pay for an expensive fund manager? ...
I had a very long day today dealing with legal bills in mediation but I am home and I am done with all my major to do projects for the rest of the year, so I guess I can finally relax for the rest of the year. Anyway, the market continued its bull run today which was not all that surprising but I do think we will see a profit correction very soon to the levels I mentioned yesterday. So I decided to add some hedge at 1769 by way of VXX, which I said I would not trade again but the damn thing is so tempting at this price! so I have a small hedge and hopefully Ill be able to squeeze a dollar out of that. I am keeping my long position I bought couple of days ...
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Akrilamid ali akril amid je kemična spojina s kemijsko formulo C3H5NO. Njegovo IUPAC ime je prop-2-enamide. Je bela kristalna snov brez vonja, topen v vodi, etanolu, etru in kloroformu. Akrilamid je nezdružljiv s kislinami, bazami, oksidanti, železom in železovimi solmi. Pri ne-termičnem obdelovanju nastaja amonijak, pri termičnem pa proizvaja ogljikov monoksid, ogljikov dioksid in dušikov oksid. Akrilamid se pripravlja na industrijski ravni s hidrolizo akrilonitrila z nitril hidratom. Največ akrilamida se uporablja za sintezo poliakrilamidov, ki nudi veliko načinov uporabe na primer v vodi topnih sredstev za zgoščevanje. Te vključujejo uporabo pri čiščenju odpadne vode, gelsko elektroforezo, izdelavo papirja, predelavo rude in izdelavo trajnih tiskarskih tkanin. Nekaj akrilamida se uporablja za proizvodnjo barv in izdelavo drugih monomerov. Akrilamid se uporablja tudi v mnogih kuhanih škrobnih živilih in se smatra za možno rakotvorno snov.[1] Akrilamid je bil naključno odkrit ...
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വിവരങ്ങൾ ക്രിയേറ്റീവ് കോമൺസ് ആട്രിബ്യൂഷൻ-ഷെയർഎലൈക്ക് അനുമതിപത്ര പ്രകാരം ലഭ്യമാണ്; മേൽ നിബന്ധനകൾ ഉണ്ടായേക്കാം. കൂടുതൽ വിവരങ്ങൾക്ക് ഉപയോഗനിബന്ധനകൾ കാണുക ...
... hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), e.g. 5-HETE and 12-HETE; and oxoeicosanoids (oxo-ETE), e.g. 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid ... Lipoxins are derived enzymatically from arachidonic acid, an ω-6 fatty acid. Structurally, they are defined as arachidonic acid ... which are metabolites of the omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid, as well as a range of ... 13E-eicosatetraenoic acid 15-epi-LxB4: 5S,14R,15R-trihydroxy-6E,8Z,10E,12E-eicosatrienoic acid Note that the two LXs have their ...
12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (S isomer)= 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (S isomer)>15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (S ... 5S-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid>5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; the 5-oxo-eicosatrienoic and 5-oxo-octadecadienoic acid ... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... see 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid); relative potencies of the latter metabolites in binding to and activating OXER1 are: 5- ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Sok DE, Kang JB, Shin HD (1988). "15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ... H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 15(S)-15-hydroxy-5,8,11-cis-13-trans- ...
... to 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 19-HETE; see 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid); eicosapentaenoic acid (i.e. EPA) to ... 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) to 5,20-diHETE, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) to 5-oxo,20-hydroxy-ETE, 12- ... arachidonic acid or fatty acid metabolism. 6 subfamilies, 12 genes, 10 pseudogenes. CYP4A11, CYP4A22, CYP4B1, CYP4F2, CYP4F3, ... CYP4F22 ω-hydroxylates extremely long "very long chain fatty acids", i.e. fatty acids that are 28 or more carbons long. The ω- ...
... as active in metabolizing arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) by an omega oxidation reaction with the ... and therapeutic modulation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthase and fatty acid ω-hydroxylase activities". ... "Functional variant of CYP4A11 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthase is associated with essential hypertension". Circulation ... "Functional variant of CYP4A11 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthase is associated with essential hypertension". Circulation ...
5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic ... Main articles: 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, 12-HETE, 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and 20- ... metabolize arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by an omega ... 5-HETE, 12-HETE, 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 15-HETE), 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 20-HETE), and 19-HETE ( ...
... see 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) and 12(S)-HETE (see 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). 15(S)-HpETE and 15(S)-HETE bind to ... gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid when presented not only as free acids ... By metabolizing the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, into 17-HpDHA, 17-HDHA, ... By metabolizing ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, into lipoxins and resolvins, ...
... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and Epoxydocosapentaenoic acid sections on activities and ... CYP4A11 along with CYP4A22, CYP4F2, and CYP4F3 metabolize arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) by an ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). In its capacity to form hydroxyl fatty acid, CYP4A11 is classified as a CYP monooxygease ... 20-epoxy-eicosapentaenoic acid isomers [i.e. 19,20-EDPs]) and eicosapentaenoic acid to epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs, ...
"15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is a preferential peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta agonist". Mol. ... These agents include various polyunsaturated fatty acids like arachidonic acid and arachidonic acid metabolites such as certain ... The medium-chain triglyceride decanoic acid has been shown to be a partially-activating PPAR-gamma ligand that does not ... members of the 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid family, e.g. 5-oxo-15(S)-HETE and 5-oxo-ETE or 15- ...
... to 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 19-HETE; see 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid); eicosapentaenoic acid (i.e. EPA) to ... 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) to 5,20-diHETE, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) to 5-oxo,20-hydroxy-ETE, 12- ... They also metabolize AA to 18-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (18-HETE) and 19-HETE. CYP4F11 inactivates or reduces the activity ... CYP4F22 ω-hydroxylates extremely long "very long chain fatty acids", i.e. fatty acids that are 28 or more carbons long. The ω- ...
... along with CYP4A22, CYP4A11, and CYP4F3 and CYP2U1 also metabolize arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ( ... Lasker JM, Chen WB, Wolf I, Bloswick BP, Wilson PD, Powell PK (Feb 2000). "Formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a ... Powell PK, Wolf I, Jin R, Lasker JM (Jun 1998). "Metabolism of arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxy-5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraenoic acid ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid for details)., Members of the CYP4A and CYP4F sub-families may also ω-hydroxylate and ...
The enzyme also hydroxylates arachidonic acid (i.e. eicosatetraenoic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) (20-HETE) ... 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) to 12,20-diHETE, lipoxins and possibly 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) to ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). In spite of its relative impotency and/or importance in accomplishing these omega- ... "Functional variant of CYP4A11 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthase is associated with essential hypertension". Circulation ...
... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... Arachidonic acid[edit]. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid ... Eicosapentaenoic acid[edit]. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ... Mead acid[edit]. Mead acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid) is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double ...
... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by an omega oxidation reaction, i.e. by adding a hydroxyl ... CYP4F3A and/or CYP43B also omega oxidize arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) as well as ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid#cancer). EETS have a similar set of regulatory functions but often act in a manner opposite ...
5-oxo-15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid, and 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. This family of agonists stimulates chemotactic ... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... 5-hydroxyeicosatrieonic acid and 5-oxoeicosatrienoic acid are metabolites of Mead acid (5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrirenoid acid); they ... 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an eicosanoid metabolite of arachidonic acid made by ALOX12 which stimulates leukocyte ...
... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... 8Z-octadecadienoic acid (5-LO metabolites of sebaleic acid, i.e. 5Z,8Z-octadecadienoic acid); and 5(S)-hydroxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z, ... 11Z-eicosatrienoic acid (a 5-LO metabolite of mead acid); 5(S)-hydroxy-6E,8Z-octadecadienoic acid and 5(S)-oxo-6E, ...
12) Tandem cyclopropanation/fragmentation is a key step in the synthesis of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. (12) Simmons-Smith ...
... increased production of 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE); it is hypothesized that CYP4Z1 metabolizes arachidonic acid ... "Human CYP4Z1 catalyzes the in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid and myristic acid". Biological Chemistry. 390 (4): 313-7. doi: ...
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. A study has shown that humans bearing this variant in one or both of their CYP4A11 genes have ... Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln are the two common polymorphisms of XPD that result in a change in a single amino acid. This variation ... This variant protein has reduced enzyme activity in metabolizing arachidonic acid to the blood pressure-regulating eicosanoid, ... nucleotide 8590 position encodes a CYP4A11 protein that substitutes phenylalanine with serine at the protein's amino acid ...
15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, and 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic ... 16Z-docosapentaenoic acid or osbond acid) is an isomer of n-3 DPA (clupanodonic acid) differing form the latter fatty acid only ... SPM are metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or n-3 DPA (i.e. 7,10Z, ... hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (e.g., 5-HETE, 12-HETE), the hydroxylated heptadecatreineoic acid, 12-HHT, and oxoeicosanoids (e. ...
... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). The EDP (see Epoxydocosapentaenoic acid) and EEQ (see epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid) ... Thus, it acts as a monooxygenase to metabolize arachidonic acid to 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE) (see 20- ... Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). However, it also acts as an epoxygenase activity to metabolize docosahexaenoic acid to epoxides ... and eicosapentaenoic acid to epoxides, primarily 17R,18S-eicosatetraenic acid and 17S,18R-eicosatetraenic acid isomers (termed ...
14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid, i.e. 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid or 12S-HETE: 12S-hydroperoxy-5(Z),8(Z),10(E),14(Z)- ... It metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA i.e., 4(Z),7(Z),10(Z),13(Z),16(Z),19(Z)-docosahexaenoic acid ... 13E-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 15(S)-HpETE; see 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). Accordingly, rodent leukocyte 12- ... 14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) and O2 (i.e. oxygen) and its product is 12S-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. ...
... the 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid family of pro-inflammatory and pro-allergic reactions mediators, 5-HETE and 5-oxo- ... eicosatetraenoic acid. ALOX5 also contributes to the metabolism of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids to ... ALOX5 is the first committed enzyme in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to an array of biologically important cell signaling ...
5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid from arachidonic acid. The chemical name of zileuton is (±)-1-( ... Zileuton is 93% bound to plasma proteins, primarily to albumin, with minor binding to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Elimination of ...
The GPR31 receptor is a receptor for very different arachidonic acid metabolite, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), ... 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), 5-oxoicosanoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) and other members of this family of broadly bioactive ... The human gene is located on chromosome 6q27 and encodes a G-protein coupled receptor protein composed of 319 amino acids. The ... Oxoeicosanoid receptor 1 is the receptor for a family of arachidonic acid metabolites made by 5-lipoxygenase viz., ...
... polyunsaturated fatty acids such as the Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and HODEs (i.e. hydroxyoctadecaenoic acids). ... arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, and adrenic acid; the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, ... ALOX15 actually prefers linoleic acid over arachidonic acid, metabolizing linoleic acid to 12-hydroperoxyoctadecaenoic acid (13 ... docosahexaenoic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid; and the omega-9 fatty acid, mead acid. Certain types of the lipoxygenases, e.g ...
... of 15-Hydroperoxyicosatetraenoic acid which is commonly reduced to the S stereoisomer 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by ... 15-LOX-2 has 38-39% amino acid sequence identity to human 15-LOX-1 and 12-lipoxygenase and 44% amino acid sequence identity to ... hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid through a negative feedback mechanism that involves peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ... converting this fatty acid to the S stereoisomer of 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid which is likewise rapidly reduced to the ...
... is also reported to have fatty acid monooxgenase activity for metabolizing arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ... see 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid#cancer). The CYP3A4 gene exhibits a much more complicated upstream regulatory region in ... CYP3A4 also possesses epoxygenase activity in that it metabolizes arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), i.e ... The EETs have a wide range of activities including the promotion of certain types of cancers (see epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid# ...
... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid" ... Arachidonic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid), ... Eicosapentaenoic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ... Mead acidEdit. Mead acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid) is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double ...
... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid» ... Zhu D, Ran Y (May 2012)։ «Role of 15-lipoxygenase/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension»։ J ... 5,8,11,14-all-cis-Eicosatetraenoic acid; all-cis-5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid; Arachidonate. ... Li B, Birdwell C, Whelan J (1994)։ «Antithetic relationship of dietary arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid on eicosanoid ...
If arachidonate is acted upon by a lipoxygenase instead of cyclooxygenase, Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and leukotrienes are ... The fatty acids in the fats obtained from land animals tend to be saturated, whereas the fatty acids in the triglycerides of ... Fatty acids are broken down to acetyl-CoA by means of beta oxidation inside the mitochondria, whereas fatty acids are ... Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is ...
"Oxidation of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and other hydroxy fatty acids by lung prostaglandin dehydrogenase". Archives of ... 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrenoic acid (also termed 12-HHT, 12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid, or 12(S)-HHTrE) is a 17 ... 8E-heptadecadienoic acid (12-oxo-5Z,8E-heptadecadienoic acid) and 12-hydroxy-heptadecadienoic acid.[11] ... the two stereoisomers of 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) and 15(S)-HpETE and 15(S)-HETE (i.e. the two stereoisomers of 15- ...
Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by ... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid ... and phosphatidic acid. Brain[edit]. Arachidonic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and is present in ...
Also in a series of studies, they found that leukotrienes, HETEs (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), inositol lipids and ... In addition, he showed that the concept commonly described in textbooks, that the essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid is ... Bazan demonstrated that brain ischemia triggers the release of free essential fatty acids (arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid ... Neurosci Lett 80:75-79, 1987 Reddy TS, Bazan NG: Arachidonic acid, stearic acid and diacylglycerol accumulation correlates with ...
... (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, ... 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid Hamberg, M; Samuelsson, B (1974). "Prostaglandin endoperoxides. ... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... Herbertsson H, Kühme T, Hammarström S (Jul 1999). "The 650-kDa 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid binding complex: occurrence ...
... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid" ... Zhu, D; Ran, Y (May 2012). "Role of 15-lipoxygenase/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension ... Li, B; Birdwell, C; Whelan, J (1994). "Antithetic relationship of dietary arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid on ... 아라키돈산(영어: arachidonic acid)은 20:4 ω-6 또는 20:4(5,8,11,14)로 표기되는 다불포화 오메가-6 지방산이다.[1] 아라키돈산은 쿠푸아수 버터에서 발견되는 포화 지방산인 아라키드산과 구조적으로 ...
Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by ... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... and phosphatidic acid. BrainEdit. Arachidonic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and is present in ... Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6)[citation needed], or 20:4(5,8,11,14)[2] ...
... cytochrome p450 or cyclooxygenase Mead acid can form various hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and hydroperoxy (HpETE) ... Two fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, are considered essential fatty acids (EFAs) in humans and other ... Mead acid, also referred to as eicosatrienoic acid, is chemically a carboxylic acid with a 20-carbon chain and three methylene- ... Both are 18 carbon fatty acids unlike mead acid, which has 20 carbons. Linoleic is an ω-6 fatty acid whereas linolenic is ω-3 ...
... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), i.e. 19-hydroxyhydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and/or 20-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid, take ... 13-epoxides isomers termed coronaric acids or isoleukotoxins. They metabolize the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, ... They metabolize the omega-6 fatty acids arachidonic acid, which possess four double bonds, to 8 different epoxide isomers which ... 17Z-eicosatetraenoic acid), 8,9-EEQ (i.e. 8,9-epoxy-5Z,11Z,14Z,17Z-eicosatetraenoic acid), 11,12-EEQ (i.e. 11,12-epoxy-5Z,8Z, ...
... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). The EDP (see Epoxydocosapentaenoic acid) and EEQ (see epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid) ... activity for certain of these fatty acids in that it metabolizes arachidonic acid to 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) but also has epoxygenase activity in that it metabolizes docosahexaenoic acid to epoxides ... as products of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, the EDP and EEQ metabolites contribute ...
... and therapeutic modulation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthase and fatty acid ω-hydroxylase activities". ... The final products after successive oxidations include succinic acid, which can enter the citric acid cycle, and adipic acid. ... metabolize arachidonic acid (also known as eicosatetraenoic acid) to 20-hydroxyeicosatetreaneoic acid (20-HETE). 20-HETE ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). Among the CYP450 superfamily, members of the CYP4A and CYP4F subfamilies viz., CYP4A11, ...
... see 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) and the hepoxilins (Hx), HxA3 (i.e. 8R/S-hydroxy-11,12-oxido-5Z,9E,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid ... The epoxide, 4,5-epoxy-8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (4,5-EET) made by the metabolism of arachidonic acid by any one of ... Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and RvD2 (see resolvinss) and maresin 1 are metabolites of the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid. ... 14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid 4,5-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid HC030031 GRC17536 A-967079 ALGX-2513 ALGX-2541 ALGX-2563 ALGX-2561 ALGX- ...
... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). The EDPs (see Epoxydocosapentaenoic acid) and EEQs (see epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid) have ... docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) to their corresponding epoxides, the epoxydocosapentaenoic acids ( ... capable of oxidizing arachidonic acid by adding a hydroxyl residue to carbons 18 or 19 to form 18-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ... The enzyme metabolizes DHA primarily to 19R,20S-epoxyeicosapentaenoic acid and 19S,20R-epoxyeicosapentaenoic acid isomers ( ...
5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid to 5-oxo-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid to 12,20- ... eicosatetraenoic acid) to the cell signaling molecules, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid or to reduce or totally inactivate the ... dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to 20-hydroxy-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. They are classified as ... is used by cells to metabolize arachidonic acid (i.e. ...
12-hydroxyicosatetraenoate dehydrogenase which metabolizes 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and LTB4 to their ... hydroxy-eicosamonoenoic acid, 5(S)-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid, 5(S),15(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the 6-trans ... hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid, 5(S)-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid, 5(S)-hydroxy-eicosadeinoic acid, 5(S)- ... The reaction (where R indicates a long chain [14 or more carbons] fatty acid) is: NADP+ + 5(S)-hydroxy fatty acid (i.e. 5(S)-OH ...
5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, and specialized pro-resolving mediators of the lipoxin and ... FLAP functions as a membrane anchor for 5-lipooxygenase and as an amine acid-bind protein. How FLAP activates 5-lipooxygenase ... Peters-Golden M, Brock TG (2003). "5-lipoxygenase and FLAP". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids. 69 (2-3 ... and Essential Fatty Acids. 81 (1): 9-15. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2009.05.022. PMID 19524426. Zintzaras E, Rodopoulou P, ...
... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), i.e. 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and/or 20-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid, take on ... Epoxide docosapentaenoic acids (epoxydocosapentaenoic acids, EDPs, or EpDPEs) are metabolites of the 22-carbon straight-chain ... arachidonic acid, to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs); another CYP epoxygenase pathway metabolizes the 20-carbon omega-3 fatty ... acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), to epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs). CYP epoxygenases similarly convert various other ...
The CYP4A11 arachidonic acid monooxygenase oxidizes endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20- ... The CYP4A arachidonic acid (AA) monooxygenases oxidize endogenous AA to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). The 20-HETE ... McGiff JC, Quilley J. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and blood pressure. Curr Opin Nephrol ... Functional Variant of CYP4A11 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Synthase Is Associated With Essential Hypertension. James V. ...
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Mediates Angiotensin Ii-Induced Phospholipase D Activation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. ... The increase in Ras/MAP kinase activity elicited by Ang II in VSMC is mediated by 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and to ... 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Mediates Angiotensin Ii-Induced Phospholipase D Activation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells ... 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Mediates Angiotensin Ii-Induced Phospholipase D Activation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells ...
20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is the principal arachidonic acid metabolite in tubular and vascular structures of ... Synthesis and Function of Cytochrome P450 4A1-Derived 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in Rat Renal Arteries. Michal Laniado- ... Synthesis and Function of Cytochrome P450 4A1-Derived 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in Rat Renal Arteries ... Synthesis and Function of Cytochrome P450 4A1-Derived 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in Rat Renal Arteries ...
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid is a Potential Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Diseases. Author(s): Osama H. Elshenawy, ... Osama H. Elshenawy, Anwar Anwar-Mohamed and Ayman O.S. El-Kadi, "20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid is a Potential Therapeutic ... Title:20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid is a Potential Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Diseases ... Keywords: Cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 20-hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE), Arachidonic acid (AA), Cardiovascular diseases. ...
Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids Stimulate VSMC Migration. Toward understanding the role of eicosanoids in the pathophysiology of ... Formation of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) as the predominant eicosanoid in aortas from Watanabe Heritable ... A novel role for activating transcription factor-2 in 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced angiogenesis. J Lipid Res. ... CREB-Mediated IL-6 Expression Is Required for 15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration ...
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an endogenous vasoconstrictor of canine renal arcuate arteries. Circ Res. 1993;72:126-136. ... Nitric Oxide-20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Interaction in the Regulation of K+ Channel Activity and Vascular Tone in Renal ... Nitric Oxide-20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Interaction in the Regulation of K+ Channel Activity and Vascular Tone in Renal ... Nitric Oxide-20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Interaction in the Regulation of K+ Channel Activity and Vascular Tone in Renal ...
Author Alejandro Soza, MDCategories Pubmed articlesTags 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), arachidonic acid (AA), brain ... The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. In the ... Clinical Implications of 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in the Kidney, Liver, Lung and Brain: An Emerging Therapeutic Target. ... The value of paradoxical uptake of hepatocellular carcinoma on the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver ...
The expression of 15-LO and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid or 13(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid formation correlates with cell ... NaBT treatment shifted the arachidonic acid metabolites by cell lysates from prostaglandins to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ... Linoleic acid, an excellent substrate for 15-LO, was metabolized poorly by the Caco-2 cells, but NaBT treatment shifted ... We studied arachidonic acid metabolism and the expression of cyclooxygenase (Cox) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) in the human ...
... acids in phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, and increased concentrations of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9-HODE and 13- ... At the same time, the contents of hydroxylated fatty acids were assessed in HDL.RESULTS:Compared to control HDL, in vitro ... HODE) and 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), derived from LA and AA respectively, especially hydroxy derivatives ... and HDL from T2D patients on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid signaling cascade. ...
5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ... 19-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). ...
5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE, 5(S)-HETE, or 5S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is ... 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is more properly termed 5(S)-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid or 5(S)-HETE) to signify the (S) ... dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), or 5-oxo-15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE). 5(S)-HETE, 5- ... arachidonic acid 5-hydroperoxide i.e. 5S-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S)-HpETE). 5-(S)-HpETE may then be ...
12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, ... 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid Hamberg, M; Samuelsson, B (1974). "Prostaglandin endoperoxides. ... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ... Herbertsson H, Kühme T, Hammarström S (Jul 1999). "The 650-kDa 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid binding complex: occurrence ...
12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid;. LLC,. Lewis lung carcinoma;. LXD,. domain having one LXXLL motif (X meaning any amino acid ... The eicosanoid 12(S)-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-(Z,Z,E,Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE] is formed from arachidonic acid by the ... A 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid receptor interacts with steroid receptor coactivator-1. Yuko Kurahashi, Helena Herbertsson ... 4C). Three C-terminal deletion mutants [SRC-1/AatII (amino acids 1-1,393), SRC-1/NheI (amino acids 1-947), and SRC-1/BamHI ( ...
We tested the hypothesis that trophoblast produces 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and its level is elevated in trophoblast ... and aspirin reduces 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid secretion. We suggest 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid plays a role in the ... 0/Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids; 0/Isoenzymes; 0/Lipoxygenase Inhibitors; 50-78-2/Aspirin; 500-38-9/Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid; ... Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids / metabolism*. Isoenzymes / antagonists & inhibitors, physiology. Lipoxygenase / physiology. ...
20-Hydroxyeicosa-tetraenoic acid (20 HETE) activates protein kinase C. Role in regulation of rat renal Na+,K+-ATPase.. S ... It is well documented that the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase can be inhibited by the arachidonic acid metabolite, 20-hydroxyeicosa- ... The results indicate that phospholipase A2-arachidonic acid-20 HETE pathway can exert important biological effects via ... tetraenoic acid (20 HETE). Evidence is presented here that this effect is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC). PKC inhibitors ...
Mounting evidence implicates nonprostanoid eicosanoids, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids ( ... Measurement of vasoactive metabolites (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) in uterine tissues of normal and ...
Identification of a G-Protein coupled receptor for esterified 15(S)hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid on human primary bronchial ... Identification of a G-Protein coupled receptor for esterified 15(S)hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid on human primary bronchial ... Identification of a G-Protein coupled receptor for esterified 15(S)hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid on human primary bronchial ... Identification of a G-Protein coupled receptor for esterified 15(S)hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid on human primary bronchial ...
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an endogenous vasoconstrictor of canine renal arcuate arteries.. Y H Ma, D Gebremedhin, M L ... 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an endogenous vasoconstrictor of canine renal arcuate arteries. ... 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an endogenous vasoconstrictor of canine renal arcuate arteries. ... 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an endogenous vasoconstrictor of canine renal arcuate arteries. ...
Combined inhibition of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid formation and of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids degradation attenuates ... 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) and the vasodilator EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids), play an important role in the ... Combined inhibition of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid formation and of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids degradation attenuates ... Recent studies have shown that the renal CYP450 (cytochrome P450) metabolites of AA (arachidonic acid), the vasoconstrictor 20- ...
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid (20-HETE) Metabolism in Coronary Endothelial Cells. Terry L. Kaduce, Xiang Fang, Shawn D. ... 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid (20-HETE) Metabolism in Coronary Endothelial Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2004 Jan ... 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid (20-HETE) Metabolism in Coronary Endothelial Cells. / Kaduce, Terry L.; Fang, Xiang; Harmon, ... title = "20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid (20-HETE) Metabolism in Coronary Endothelial Cells",. abstract = "We have investigated ...
12Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 12HETE is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid containing a ... 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, ... ALOX12 metabolizes arachidonic acid almost exclusively to 12(S)-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HpETE or ... However, 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (i.e. 12-(S)-hydroxy-5Z,8E,10E-heptadecatrienoic acid or 12-HHT), a product made when ...
ELISA Kit can measure Rat 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related ... Rat 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12HETE) ELISA Kit Rat 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12HETE) ELISA Kit. (No reviews yet ... Rat 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12HETE) ELISA Kit. The ELISA Genie Rat 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12HETE) ELISA kit ... Rat 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12HETE) ELISA Kit. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars ( ...
Synthesis of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and leukotrienes in rat nephrotoxic serum glomerulonephritis. Role of anti- ... Synthesis of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and leukotrienes in rat nephrotoxic serum glomerulonephritis. Role of anti- ... This mutation, a G to T substitution at the first position of codon 43, changes the glutamic acid coding triplet (GAG) to a ... Incubation of liver endothelium with double-labeled TF (sialic acids with 3H and protein core with 125I or 59Fe) led initially ...
... epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; leukotriene; lipoxygenase; nordihydroguaiaretic acid; phospholipase A(2 ... 12 and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) but not LTD4, 20-HETE and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. We also found that ... Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; LOX; LT; Leukotriene; NDGA; PG; PLA(2); Prostaglandin; arachidonic acid; cyclooxygenase; ... Role of arachidonic acid metabolites on the control of non-differentiated intestinal epithelial cell growth.. Cabral M1, Martín ...
Treatment with lisinopril, losartan, or the 20-HETE antagonist 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z), 15(Z)-dienoic acid decreased blood ... dienoic acid. In cultured endothelial cells, 20-HETE specifically and potently induced ACE expression without altering the ... We have shown previously that increased vascular endothelial expression of CYP4A2 leads to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (20-HETE ... CYP4A2-induced hypertension is 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-and angiotensin II-dependent. Hypertension. 2010;56(5):871-8. ...
... and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) [19], have multiple additional ... and novel triterpenoid compounds derived from oleanic acid such as 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) [16]. ... Y. Wang, W. W. Porter, N. Suh et al., "A synthetic triterpenoid, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), is a ... Its most preferential binding partner is the retinoid X receptor (RXR), with 9-cis retinoic acid acting as its natural ligand [ ...
14Z-tetraenoic acid; 12-HETE, 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; LC/MS/MS, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass ... Collection and identification of HXA3 and 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). Method 1.. The apical surface of polarized ... For 5-LOX inhibition, the T84 cells were incubated for 24 h in the presence of caffeic acid (stock concentration at 22 mM in ... 5⇓a). Similar treatment with caffeic acid, a 5-LOX inhibitor, failed to affect enhanced MRP2 expression induced by S. ...
HETE: hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; HDHA: hydroxy-DHA; RvD1: resolving D1; NPD1: neuroprotection D1. Similar letters in ... Graphs represent (a) arachidonic acid, (b) adrenic acid, (c) eicosapentaenoic acid and (d) docosahexaenoic acid measured in ... Graphs represent (a) arachidonic acid, (b) adrenic acid, (c) eicosapentaenoic acid and (d) docosahexaenoic acid measured in ... Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and ...
In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to ... This review article provides an overview of arachidonic acid metabolism and targeted chiral methods that have been utilized for ... A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is ... hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; HPETE, hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid; HX, hepoxillin; LOX, lipoxygenase; LT, leukotriene; LX, ...
... acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic ... NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) ... hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; HEPE, hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids; RvE2, ResolvinE2; HDoHE, hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid; PD1, ... Note: PLA, palmitic acid; STA, stearic acid, OLA, oleic acid; LA, linolenic acid; ARA, arachidonic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic ...
Oxygenation of ω-3 fatty acids by human cytochrome P450 4F3B: Effect on 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production. ... Oxygenation of ω-3 fatty acids by human cytochrome P450 4F3B : Effect on 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production. / Harmon, ... Cytochrome P450 (CYP) ω-oxidases convert arachidonic acid (AA) to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a lipid mediator ... title = "Oxygenation of ω-3 fatty acids by human cytochrome P450 4F3B: Effect on 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production", ...
... we have studied the effect of the major 15-LOX1 metabolite of arachidonic acid, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE ... we have studied the effect of the major 15-LOX1 metabolite of arachidonic acid, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE ... we have studied the effect of the major 15-LOX1 metabolite of arachidonic acid, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE ... we have studied the effect of the major 15-LOX1 metabolite of arachidonic acid, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE ...
  • 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis-trans isomerism configuration (Z=cis, E=trans) in its four double bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse e-12LO metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly to 12(S)-HETE and to a lesser extent 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE, 5(S)-HETE, or 5S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells may then metabolize the formed 5(S)-HETE to 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE), 5(S),15(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), or 5-oxo-15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is more properly termed 5(S)-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid or 5(S)-HETE) to signify the (S) configuration of its 5-hydroxy residue as opposed to its 5(R)-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (i.e., 5(R)-HETE) stereoisomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nobel laureate, Bengt I. Samuelsson, and colleagues first described 5(S)-HETE in 1976 as a metabolite of arachidonic acid made by rabbit neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since a previously discovered arachidonic acid metabolite made by neutrophils, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), also stimulates human neutrophil calcium rises, chemotaxis, and auto-aggregation and is structurally similar to 5(S)-HETE in being a 5-(S)-hydroxy-eicosateraenoate, it was assumed that 5-(S)-HETE stimulated cells through the same cell surface receptors as those used by (LTB4) viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5(S)-HETE is a product of the cellular metabolism of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid), by ALOX5 (also termed arachidonate-5-lipoxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LO, and 5-LOX). (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-(S)-HpETE may then be release and rapidly converted to 5(S)-HETE by ubiquitous cellular peroxidases: Arachidonic acid) + O2 → 5(S)-HpETE → 5(S)-HETE Alternatively, 5(S)-HpETE may be further metabolized to its epoxide, 5(6)-oxido-eicosatetraenoic acid viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewis lung carcinoma cells contain specific high-affinity binding sites for the eicosanoid 12( S )-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid [12( S )-HETE]. (pnas.org)
  • Glutathione S -transferase (GST) pulldown experiments and far Western analyses demonstrated that the N-terminal region of SRC-1 (amino acids 1-212) alone does not bind the 50-kDa 12( S )-HETE binding protein, whereas GST/ΔSRC-1 1-1138 ligand-dependently pulled down a protein of ≈50 kDa in size. (pnas.org)
  • The eicosanoid 12( S )-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-( Z , Z , E , Z )-eicosatetraenoic acid [12( S )-HETE] is formed from arachidonic acid by the enzyme 12-lipoxygenase ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Background- The CYP4A11 arachidonic acid monooxygenase oxidizes endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a metabolite with renovascular and tubular functions. (ahajournals.org)
  • The CYP4A arachidonic acid (AA) monooxygenases oxidize endogenous AA to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (ahajournals.org)
  • The increase in Ras/MAP kinase activity elicited by Ang II in VSMC is mediated by 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and to a lesser extent by 12(S)-HETE, metabolites of AA generated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) and lipoxygenase (LO), respectively, upon activation of cPLA 2 by calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase II. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is the principal arachidonic acid metabolite in tubular and vascular structures of the rat kidney. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20-Hydroxyeicosa-tetraenoic acid (20 HETE) activates protein kinase C. Role in regulation of rat renal Na+,K+-ATPase. (jci.org)
  • It is well documented that the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase can be inhibited by the arachidonic acid metabolite, 20-hydroxyeicosa-tetraenoic acid (20 HETE). (jci.org)
  • The results indicate that phospholipase A2-arachidonic acid-20 HETE pathway can exert important biological effects via activation of PKC and that this effect may occur in the absence of a rise in intracellular calcium. (jci.org)
  • 05, 15-HETE vs. other fatty acids) whereas biotin-hydrazide:SA-ALF or SA-ALF were ineffective. (jimmunol.org)
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A and CYP4F subfamilies to 20- hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE), which plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Recent studies have indicated that renal arteries can produce 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and suggest the potential involvement of a P450 metabolite of arachidonic acid in the myogenic activation of canine renal arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Microsomes prepared from the renal cortex of dogs produced 20-HETE and 20-carboxyarachidonic acid when incubated with [14C]arachidonic acid. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, inhibition of the formation of 20-HETE with 17-octadecynoic acid (1 μmol/L) activated this channel and masked the response to NO. Preventing the NO-induced reduction in intracellular 20-HETE levels also blocked the effects of NO on this channel. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have investigated the role of endothelial cells in the metabolism of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a vasoactive mediator synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 ω-oxidases. (elsevier.com)
  • PCEC also converted 20-[ 3 H]HETE to 20-carboxy-arachidonic acid (20-COOH-AA) and 18-, 16-, and 14-carbon β-oxidation products. (elsevier.com)
  • Our data show that non-differentiated Caco-2 cells cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) synthesize appreciable amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 5-, 12 and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) but not LTD4, 20-HETE and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. (nih.gov)
  • We have shown previously that increased vascular endothelial expression of CYP4A2 leads to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (20-HETE)-dependent hypertension. (marshall.edu)
  • Treatment with lisinopril, losartan, or the 20-HETE antagonist 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z), 15(Z)-dienoic acid decreased blood pressure to control values, but blood pressure returned to its high levels after cessation of treatment. (marshall.edu)
  • all were attenuated by treatment with HET0016, an inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, or with 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z), 15(Z)-dienoic acid. (marshall.edu)
  • The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. (hepaton.com)
  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP) ω-oxidases convert arachidonic acid (AA) to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a lipid mediator that modulates vascular tone. (elsevier.com)
  • We observed that a microsomal preparation containing recombinant human CYP4F3B, which converts AA to 20-HETE, converted eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to 20-OH-EPA. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings suggest that some functional effects of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation may be due to inhibition of 20-HETE formation or the conversion of EPA to the corresponding ω-oxidized product. (elsevier.com)
  • To understand the role of human 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LOX1) in vascular wall remodeling, we have studied the effect of the major 15-LOX1 metabolite of arachidonic acid, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration both in vitro and in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Rat carotid arteries that were subjected to balloon injury and transduced with Ad-15-LOX1 upon exposure to [ 3 H]arachidonic acid ex vivo produced 15-HETE as a major eicosanoid and enhanced balloon injury-induced expression of MCP-1 in smooth muscle cells in Src and STAT-3-dependent manner in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • 12-hydoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z- eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and 13-hydroxy-9Z,11E octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) are biologically active compounds derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid through the action of 12- and 15-lipoxygenase, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The integrity of cultured microvascular endothelial cell (CD3 cells) monolayers was perturbed by 12[S]-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE), a lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid, as well as by tumor cells (i.e. (nih.gov)
  • Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (abcam.com)
  • 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE) produced by cytochrome P -450 monooxygenases in NADPH-dependent manner is proinflammatory, and it contributes to the pathogenesis of systemic and pulmonary hypertension. (physiology.org)
  • 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. (physiology.org)
  • 20-hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE), the ω-hydroxylation metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA), is produced by cytochrome P -450 monooxygenases of the (CYP4A and CYP4F gene) families in an NADPH-dependent manner ( 49 ). (physiology.org)
  • 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) is an endogenous eicosanoid. (hmdb.ca)
  • 5-HETE is an intermediate in arachidonic acid metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the formulation is adapted to deliver a dosage of synthetic carotenoid analog or a carotenoid derivative to the subject such that the levels of 11-HETE and the 11- HETE/arachidonic acid ratio in fluid samples collected from the subject are reduced. (google.es)
  • 5-HpETE then can be reduced to 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) or converted further by 5-LO to LTA 4 , which then is rapidly converted to LTB 4 by LTA 4 hydrolase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that Sema3A treatment stimulates the synthesis of the eicosanoid, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), whereas Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse is prevented when 12(S)-HETE synthesis is blocked with an inhibitor of 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO). (jneurosci.org)
  • 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a vasoconstrictor ω-hydroxylation product of arachidonic acid that is produced by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, mainly by CYP4A and CYP4F isoforms. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 4 Two principal CYP products-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) generated by ω/ω-1 hydroxylases and 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) generated by epoxygenases-had been identified in a study of renal zonal CYP derived AA metabolites (fig 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • Plasma F 2 -isoprostane and 24-hour urinary 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) levels were measured as systemic oxidative stress markers. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The change in prostaglandin E_2 (PGE_2) is assessed by enzyme immunoassay, 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) by high-performance liquid chromatography, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) by western blotting, Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by spectrophotometric assay. (knowcancer.com)
  • We linked this protective mechanism to an augmented expression of the enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO), which produces 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) from arachidonic acid. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The 12-LO metabolite 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HpETE) is effectively reduced by glutathione peroxidase (GPx) to 12-HETE ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For example, 12-lipoxygenase ( ALOX12 ) converts arachidonic acid to 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid ( 12-HPETE ) which than converts to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ( 12-HETE ) by glutathione peroxidase 1 ( GPX1 ) and peroxiredoxin 6 ( NSGPeroxidase ). (bio-rad.com)
  • Significant decreases in serum palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and marked increases in tauro-β-muricholate, taurocholate and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) were detected in mice with NASH. (elsevier.com)
  • In agreement with these metabolite changes, hepatic mRNAs encoding enzymes and proteins involved in LPC degradation (lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase [Lpcat] 1-4), basolateral bile acid excretion (ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member [Abcc] 1/4/5 and organic solute transporter β), and 12-HETE synthesis (arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase) were significantly up-regulated. (elsevier.com)
  • Regio- and stereospecific metabolites of arachidonic acid have been reported to affect important physiological functions such as inflammation, neutrophil activation, ion transport, cellular proliferation, and vascular tone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid that are produced by the vascular endothelium in responses to various stimuli such as the agonists acetylcholine (ACH) or bradykinin or by shear stress which activates phospholipase A(2) to release arachidonic acid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 7 - 9 Recently, we implicated the leukotrienes, 5-lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, as mediators of inflammation in diabetic retinopathy. (arvojournals.org)
  • a class of metabolites of arachidonic acid (that is, 8,15-diHETE and 14,15-diHETE) that may affect sensory nerve endings and modulate leukocyte function. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Metabolite-by-metabolite comparison, tumor immunoreactivity, and gene expression analyses showed that CYP epoxygenases and arachidonic acid-epoxygenation products, EET metabolites, are strongly associated with TNBC metastasis. (springer.com)
  • Building upon current knowledge, we hypothesized that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and related CYP450 epoxygenases may have differential roles in breast cancer signaling, and better understanding of which may uncover potential directions for molecular stratification and personalized therapy for TNBC patients. (springer.com)
  • Objective- Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are potent vasodilators produced by endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly, essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) in humans clinically manifests as dermatitis (scaling and dryness of the skin) and increased TEWL (3, 4) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Humans can synthesize longer omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids from the essential fatty acids LA and ALA, respectively, through a series of desaturation (addition of a double bond) and elongation (addition of two carbon atoms) reactions. (syromonoed.com)
  • Dietary supplementation with certain omega-6 fatty acids alleviates symptoms associated with skin sensitivity and inflammatory skin disorders. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The linoleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid in nature, and it is the precursor of other omega-6 fatty acids. (intechopen.com)
  • Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids , 75 (3), 169-177. (elsevier.com)
  • Lipoxygenase (LO) products generated by human PMN were examined utilizing a gradient-HPLC and rapid spectral detector which permitted continuous UV-spectral monitoring of leukotrienes, lipoxins and related oxygenated products of arachidonic acid. (nih.gov)
  • The stimulation of human leukocytes by various agents such as calcium ionophores, soluble agonists, or phagocytic stimuli results in the biosynthesis of the bioactive arachidonic acid (AA)-derived leukotrienes (LTs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the transformation of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes (LT). In stimulated human PMN, activation of 5-LO involves calcium, p38 MAP kinase (p38) phosphorylation, and translocation of 5-LO from the cytosol to nuclear membranes containing the 5-LO activating protein (FLAP). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Consuming oils rich in n-6 and n-3 fatty acids can alter the fatty acid composition and eicosanoid content of the epidermis . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Methods TFW (n=69) and referents (n=69) were investigated for bulky DNA adducts (by 32 P-postlabelling) and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) (by small RNA sequencing) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as circulating free arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosanoid profiles in plasma (by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). (bmj.com)
  • Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important to human health, as they have been reported to protect against cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration and to reduce inflammation [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. (mdpi.com)
  • Likewise, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was converted to 22-OH-DHA, indicating that human CYP4F3B also can oxidize 22-carbon ω-3 fatty acids. (elsevier.com)
  • Lysophospholipids or their metabolites, such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and platelet-activating factor (PAF), are categorized into another class of [PLA.sub.2]-driven lipid mediators (Fig. 2A, B). More recently, a novel class of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators derived from [omega]3 PUFAs, such as eicosa-pentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), has also been attracting much attention (Fig. 2C). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on antioxidant defence in macrophages from patients with AAA. (nature.com)
  • Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The topical administration of a combination of nerve growth factor (NGF) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been discovered to synergistically increase the effects of NGF in re-innervating the cornea. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method to enhance nerve re-generation in an injured cornea, said method comprising topically administering to the injured cornea an effective amount of a combination of nerve growth factor and docosahexaenoic acid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. A method to alleviate symptoms of dry eye from an injury to a cornea, said method comprising topically administering to the injured cornea an effective amount of a combination of nerve growth factor and docosahexaenoic acid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • An eventual implication of the lowered glutathione peroxidase activity in the observed abnormalities of arachidonic acid metabolism in cells from aged subjects is discussed. (clinsci.org)
  • We also used selective enzymatic inhibitors to determine the relative contributions of 15-lipoxygenase and the two isozymes of prostaglandin H synthase to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aspirin, an inhibitor of both the prostaglandin H synthase-1 and prostaglandin H synthase-2 isozymes, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a selective inhibitor of lipoxygenases, both significantly inhibited 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, the selective prostaglandin H synthase-2 inhibitor NS-398 had no effect on 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid release in the absence of aspirin, but NS-398 reduced 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in normal trophoblast pretreated with aspirin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both lipoxygenase and prostaglandin H synthase contribute to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production, and aspirin reduces 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid secretion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lipidomics analysis revealed that PLA2G2D in the LNs contributed to mobilization of a pool of polyunsaturated fatty acids that could serve as precursors for antiinflammatory/pro-resolving lipid mediators such as resolvin D1 and 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 , which reduced Th1 cytokine production and surface MHC class II expression in LN cells or DCs. (rupress.org)
  • The enzymes cyclooxygenase -1 and -2 (i.e. prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2 { PTGS1 and PTGS2 }) metabolize arachidonic acid to Prostaglandin G2 and prostaglandin H2 , which in turn may be converted to various prostaglandins , to prostacyclin , to thromboxanes , and to the 17-carbon product of thromboxane metabolism of prostaglandin G2/H2, 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHT). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma profiles showed higher levels of free AA and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and lower levels of prostaglandin D 2 and 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid in TFW compared with referents. (bmj.com)
  • Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Oltman CL, Weintraub NL, VanRollins M, Dellsperger KC (1998) Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids are potent vasodilators in the canine coronary microcirculation. (springer.com)
  • The lipoxygenase products of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were shown to play a role in these diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • CYP1A1 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were fed an n-3 or n-6 PUFA-enriched diet for 8 weeks and were analyzed for tissue fatty acids and metabolites, NO-dependent blood pressure regulation, NO-dependent vasodilation of acetylcholine (ACh) in mesenteric resistance arterioles, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phospho-Ser1177-eNOS expression in the aorta. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In particular, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the two major endocannabinoids in the brain, are directly derived from arachidonic acid (ARA), the more abundant ω-6 PUFA in the brain. (intechopen.com)
  • EFAs are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that cannot be synthesized in our bodies and must therefore be obtained from the diet. (oregonstate.edu)
  • If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4 Stimulation and Inhibition of Oxygen Radical Formation by Ascorbic Acid and 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid. (weltbild.de)
  • CYP4A2-Induced Hypertension Is 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid- and An" by Komal Sodhi, Cheng-Chia Wu et al. (marshall.edu)
  • Phospholipids comprise numerous molecular species that contain various combinations of fatty acids esterified at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions and several polar head groups at the sn-3 position. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the phospholipids (especially phosphatidylethanolamine , phosphatidylcholine , and phosphatidylinositides ) of membranes of the body's cells , and is abundant in the brain , muscles , and liver . (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to absorption in the small intestine, fatty acids must be hydrolyzed from dietary fats (triglycerides and phospholipids) by pancreatic enzymes (2). (syromonoed.com)
  • Treatment of PMN with the PKA inhibitors H-89 and KT-5720 prevented the inhibitory effect of cAMP-elevating agents on LT biosynthesis, 5-LO translocation, and p38 phosphorylation, whereas the p38 inhibitor SB 203,580 dose-dependently inhibited arachidonic acid-induced LT biosynthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The biosynthesis of LT involves the sequential release of arachidonic acid (AA) from cellular glycerolipids and its initial transformation by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), which catalyzes both the hydroperoxydation of AA at carbon 5 and a dehydrase reaction resulting in the formation of LTA 4 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ethanol is metabolized by the body as an energy-providing carbohydrate nutrient, as it metabolizes into acetyl CoA, an intermediate common with glucose metabolism, that can be used for energy in the citric acid cycle or for biosynthesis. (hmdb.ca)
  • This is achieved via regulation of P450-dependent prostacyclin, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acid formation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The ability of COXs to convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane A 2 was recognized over 50 years ago [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Thromboxane A 2 is derived from arachidonic acid through the action of cyclooxygenases and thromboxane synthase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analogues of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid were shown previously to modulate platelet activation and to block thromboxane receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2. This defect was accompanied by a marked increase (+106%) in the oxygenated metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid by lipoxygenases as judged by the radiolabel associated with hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in [ 3 H]arachidonic acid-prelabelled peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the cyclo-oxygenase activity, estimated by the radiolabel associated with thromboxane B 2 , was not significantly altered. (clinsci.org)
  • In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo , targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • 5 Fatty Acid Cyclooxygenase Metabolism of Arachidonic Acid in Human Tumor Cells. (weltbild.de)
  • Using a bacterial cDNA expression system, we found that recombinant proteins for each of the five full-length murine CYP2Cs metabolize arachidonic acid to different regio- and stereospecific products, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HpETE). (wikipathways.org)
  • Upon concanavalin A stimulation, the radioactivity of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids was increased by only 96% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the elderly group compared with 350% in control cells. (clinsci.org)
  • 4. Reverse phase h.p.l.c. of the hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids showed that, in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the 12-hydroxyeicosatetra-enoic acid level tended to be higher in the elderly group than in the control group, which might be indicative of an hyperactivity of the contaminating platelets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects. (clinsci.org)
  • These results suggest that the major defect of arachidonic acid metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects might be located at the level of its mitogen-induced liberation known to occur during the early steps of lymphocyte activation. (clinsci.org)
  • Consequently, this chapter synthesizes the most important physiological and pathological implications of fatty acids in human body functioning. (intechopen.com)
  • One of these (amino acids 701-781) was within the nuclear receptor interaction domain in SRC-1 required for binding of various steroid and thyroid hormone receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is recruited by several nuclear receptors, e.g., the estrogen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, peroxisome proliferator-activated, thyroid hormone, and the 9- cis retinoic acid receptor, RXR ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Starting from these analogues, we synthesized compounds of types I and II (Figure 1 ) and tested their effects on aggregation of human blood platelets in response to arachidonic acid, collagen and TX receptor agonist, and on COX-1 activity in cells overexpressing the recombinant human COX-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here that the apparent inability of isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to efficiently transform arachidonic acid (AA) is the consequence of A 2a receptor engagement by endogenous adenosine accumulating in incubation media. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been reported to limit oxidative stress in animal models of AAA. (nature.com)
  • Among these fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) seem to be the most important, due to their multiple biological roles, such as influencing the inflammatory cascade, reducing the oxidative stress, presenting neuroprotection and cardiovascular protection. (intechopen.com)
  • Arachidonic acid monooxygenase: Genetic and biochemical approaches to physiological/pathophysiological relevance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes arachidonic acid (AA) release via activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA 2 ) and D (PLD) in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). (ahajournals.org)
  • Arachidonic acid is freed from a phospholipid molecule by the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA 2 ), which cleaves off the fatty acid , but can also be generated from DAG by diacylglycerol lipase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Arachidonic acid generated for signaling purposes appears to be derived by the action of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA 2 , 85 kDa), whereas inflammatory arachidonic acid is generated by the action of a low-molecular-weight secretory PLA 2 (sPLA 2 , 14-18 kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement of vasoactive metabolites (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) in uterine tissues of normal and compromised human pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 5. Furthermore, the concanavalin A-induced release of arachidonic acid from the phosphoinositide pool was also decreased in the elderly group as compared with the control group. (clinsci.org)
  • Arachidonic acid is metabolized to an array of oxidized bioactive lipids by a series of different oxygenases that can introduce molecular oxygen with extraordinary regioselectivity and stereospecificity ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • Campbell WB, Gebremedhin D, Pratt PF, Harder DR (1996) Identification of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. (springer.com)
  • The skin abnormalities associated with EFAD have prompted scientists to investigate the effect of essential fatty acid (EFA) supplementation, both topically and through diet, on skin health. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In summary, although preliminary data suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may have clinical benefits, formal recommendations encouraging omega-3 supplementation of dialysis patients are premature until long-term and adverse effects are better defined. (asnjournals.org)
  • It briefly discusses the determinants, status, and biology of omega-3 fatty acids in healthy individuals and dialysis patients and then examines in greater detail the clinical and biologic effects of omega-3 supplementation in the dialysis population. (asnjournals.org)
  • Regulation of renal 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in diabetes by angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids have shown promise in the general population in modifying a host of disease processes involving the inflammatory and immune pathways, arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, cardiac dysrhythmias, rheology, and BP and lipid regulation, among others ( 3 - 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids and 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid on Endothelial and Vascular Function. (semanticscholar.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that trophoblast produces 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and its level is elevated in trophoblast from preeclamptic women compared with normal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a prerequisite, we addressed the question of whether CYP4A22 had enzymatic activity or a role in renal fatty acid metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an endogenous vasoconstrictor of canine renal arcuate arteries. (ahajournals.org)