Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A fetuin subtype that is synthesized by HEPATOCYTES and secreted into the circulation. It plays a major role in preventing CALCIUM precipitation in the BLOOD.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of muscular ARTERIES due to calcification of the TUNICA MEDIA, the concentric layers of helically arranged SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden local calcification.
A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Rounded objects made of coral, teflon, or alloplastic polymer and covered with sclera, and which are implanted in the orbit following enucleation. An artificial eye (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) is usually attached to the anterior of the orbital implant for cosmetic purposes.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Diseases of BONES.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Small organic molecules that act as allosteric activators of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the PARATHYROID GLANDS and other tissues. They lower the threshold for CaSR activation by extracellular calcium ions and diminish PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) release from parathyroid cells.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
Vascular calcification results from the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals (hydroxyapatite) as a consequence of ... The mechanism of vascular calcification is not fully understood, but probably involves a phenotypic change in the vascular ... calcification of the internal elastic lamina, calcification of cardiac valves and widespread soft tissue calcification. The ... Hydroxyapatite is secreted in vesicles that bleb out from vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes in the arterial wall. ...
This is thought to represent mineralization, or small deposits of calcium hydroxyapatite, in the muscle of the heart. EIFs are ... "ENPP1-Fc prevents mortality and vascular calcifications in rodent model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy". ... These mutations allow for unregulated calcium deposition within muscular arteries. The symptoms are caused by calcification of ... Sodium Thiosulfate (STS) is a calcium-chelating agent. It is typically used by patients who have excess calcium in their ...
... calcification can cause loss of elasticity of vascular walls and disruption of laminar blood flow-and thence to plaque rupture ... As calcium is required for bone development, many bone diseases can be traced to the organic matrix or the hydroxyapatite in ... Other calcium preparations include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, and calcium gluconate. The intestine absorbs ... For example, calcium and phosphorus are supplemented in foods through the addition of calcium lactate, calcium diphosphate, and ...
... ectopic calcification - such as for example, in urolithiasis and vascular calcification ‒ presumably at least in part to ... Such binding of OPN to various types of calcium-based biominerals ‒ such as calcium-phosphate mineral in bones and teeth, ... The inorganic part of bone is the mineral hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Loss of bone may lead to osteoporosis, as the bone ... calcium-carbonate mineral in inner ear otoconia and avian eggshells, and calcium-oxalate mineral in kidney stones - acts as a ...
... in a chemical arrangement known as calcium hydroxylapatite. It is the bone mineralization that give bones rigidity. Bone is ... Zone of calcification. Minerals are deposited in the matrix between the columns of lacunae and calcify the cartilage. These are ... Cancellous bone is highly vascular and often contains red bone marrow where hematopoiesis, the production of blood cells, ... Calcium balance - the process of bone resorption by the osteoclasts releases stored calcium into the systemic circulation and ...
Calcium and phosphorus are needed to properly form the hydroxyapatite crystals, and their levels in the blood are maintained by ... Times for the initial calcification of primary teeth are for weeks in utero. Abbreviations: wk = weeks; mo = months; yr = years ... the tooth is pushed upward by vascular pressure, and (4) the tooth is pushed upward by the cushioned hammock. The cushioned ... In situations where calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D are deficient, the hard structures of a tooth may be less mineralized. A ...
As calcium is required for bone development, many bone diseases can be traced to the organic matrix or the hydroxyapatite in ... calcification can cause loss of elasticity of vascular walls and disruption of laminar blood flow-and thence to plaque rupture ... Other calcium preparations include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, and calcium gluconate.[5] The intestine absorbs ... Calcium Forte)(Calcium Lactate Gluconate 2.94g +Calcium Carbonate 0.3 g) کاربرد کلسیم در کشاورزی(نقش در تغذیه گیاهی)[ویرایش]. ...
... calcification can cause loss of elasticity of vascular walls and disruption of laminar blood flow-and thence to plaque rupture ... As calcium is required for bone development, many bone diseases can be traced to the organic matrix or the hydroxyapatite in ... Other calcium preparations include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, and calcium gluconate.[5] The intestine absorbs ... For example, calcium and phosphorus are supplemented in foods through the addition of calcium lactate, calcium diphosphate, and ...
OPN binds calcium and hydroxyapatite ions, thereby inhibiting crystal formation and vascular calcification; it interacts with ... Vitamin D increases the entry of calcium into vascular cells, resulting in calcification. Oxidized LDL cholesterol induces the ... directly stimulates vascular calcification whereas pyrophosphate acts as an inhibitor of calcification. ... Using a population-based cohort of older men and women, we tested the hypothesis that the progression of vascular calcification ...
Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in ... Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in ... However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone ... However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone ...
Punctate calcifications resulting from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the skin and subcutaneous tissues ... Well-circumscribed calcifications in the soft tissues, frequently peri-articular. *Hands may also demonstrate resorption of the ... Calcinosis Circumscripta in Scleroderma. Radiographs of both hands show multiple, punctate calcifications (circles) in the soft ...
The calcifications in the vascular system are believed to be part of an organized process akin to the calcium hydroxyapatite ... In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the vascular calcification process begins in childhood in obese youth and is ... Coronary artery calcium, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001;53:55-61pmid:11378214. ... Effect of lipid modification on progression of coronary calcification. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005;16(Suppl. 2):S115-S119pmid: ...
... calcium, phosphorus, intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23), calcification propensity (T50), C-telopeptide (CTX), and ... the transformation time of amorphous calcium phosphate-containing primary calciprotein particles to crystalline hydroxyapatite- ... result in vascular calcification because there is a strong graded association between the progression of vascular calcification ... experimental data have shown that an alkaline pH increases vascular calcification, whereas acidosis inhibits calcification (47, ...
Magnesium may be acting as a calcium antagonist (24), and it may directly inhibit hydroxyapatite and crystal precipitation (25- ... and this mineral may play a key role in vascular calcification. A protective role of magnesium in calcification may underlie ... abdominal aortic calcification. AS. Agatston score. CAC. coronary artery calcification. CKD. chronic kidney disease. CT. ... 2012) Relationship between magnesium and clinical biomarkers on inhibition of vascular calcification. Am J Nephrol 35:31-39. ...
Vascular calcification (VC) is caused by hydroxyapatite deposition in the intimal and medial layers of the vascular wall, ... Calcium binds with phosphate to form hydroxyapatite nodes on the inner and outside of "calcifying" exosomes membranes, which ... Exosome Signaling in Vascular Calcification ... calcification/ Calcification of soft tissues occurs in the cardiovascular system with age, one of the processes that causes ...
To examine the role of OPN in vascular calcification, OPN mutant mice were crossed with m ... Inhibition of hydroxyapatite crystal growth by bone-specific and other calcium-binding proteins. Biochemistry. ... showed overt vascular calcification at 4-8 wk, whereas MGP+/− OPN+/+ mice never showed vascular calcification at any time point ... Support for the concept of active regulation of vascular calcification is best exemplified by the occurrence of vascular ...
Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Crystal Deposition Disease --. 35. Calcium Hydroxyapatite Crystal Deposition Disease --. 36. ... Calcification and Ossification of the Posterior Spinal Ligaments and Tissues --. VIII. Crystal-Induced and Related Diseases -- ... Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Collagen Vascular Overlap Syndromes --. 28. Rheumatic Fever --. VII. Degenerative Diseases ... Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Crystal Deposition Disease -- 35. Calcium Hydroxyapatite Crystal Deposition Disease -- 36. ...
... and it is distinct from ligamentum flavum calcification, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, and hydroxyapatite ... No vascular or neurological complications were observed intraoperatively, and no significant postoperative complications were ... Calcium carbonate apatite deposition in the cervical spine with associated vertebral destruction Case report ... Histological examination showed hardened deposits of calcium carbonate involving the soft tissue, and dissolution of the ...
... calcium chloride or angiotensin II; hyperlipidemic diet application and surgical interventions such as xenograft, stenosis or ... ionized calcium intracellularly turns into calcium phosphate (CaPO4) due to alkaline phosphatase activity from vascular smooth ... Vascular smooth muscle cells disappear due to calcification and fragmentation in elastic fibers and they are replaced by ... muscle cells (vSMC) and this compound precipitates as hydroxyapatite crystals in elastin fibers, causing their mechanical ...
Vascular calcification results from the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals (hydroxyapatite) as a consequence of ... The mechanism of vascular calcification is not fully understood, but probably involves a phenotypic change in the vascular ... calcification of the internal elastic lamina, calcification of cardiac valves and widespread soft tissue calcification. The ... Hydroxyapatite is secreted in vesicles that bleb out from vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes in the arterial wall. ...
This is thought to represent mineralization, or small deposits of calcium hydroxyapatite, in the muscle of the heart. EIFs are ... "ENPP1-Fc prevents mortality and vascular calcifications in rodent model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy". ... These mutations allow for unregulated calcium deposition within muscular arteries. The symptoms are caused by calcification of ... Sodium Thiosulfate (STS) is a calcium-chelating agent. It is typically used by patients who have excess calcium in their ...
Vascular calcification is an important predictor of and contributor to human cardiovascular disease. This protocol describes ... An alternative method to detecting calcification of cultured VSMCs is with calcium NIR. To model vascular calcification in ... near-infrared fluorescent imaging probe can be used to mark osteogenic activity in the vasculature by binding to hydroxyapatite ... Leopold, J. A. Vascular calcification: Mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 25, (4 ...
arterial calcification, generalised, of infancy type 1. (redirected from IIAC). Also found in: Acronyms. arterial calcification ... Most die in early infancy from myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure or hypertension due to vascular occlusion.. ... Caused by loss of function mutations in ENPP1, which encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein that regulates soft tissue calcium ... and bone and joint cartilage mineralisation by generating pyrophosphate (PPi), a physiological inhibitor of hydroxyapatite ...
Carboxylated MGP stops vascular calcification straight by inhibiting hydroxyapatite development13 and indirectly by inhibiting ... Cross-sectional research indicate a connection between anticoagulant therapy with Coumadin (warfarin) and calcium mineral ... Vascular calcification also affiliates with atherosclerotic plague burden, cardiac valve calcification, and isolated systolic ... At the moment vascular calcification isnt curable, emphasizing a dependence on a better knowledge of its molecular system to ...
Vascular calcification, caused by the deposition of calcium salt crystals (predominantly hydroxyapatite) in the arterial wall, ... hydroxyapatite) crystal, by acting as a calcium core that precedes calcium phosphate deposition. In vitro experiments suggest ... a regulator of vascular calcification produced by vascular smooth muscle cells. To become active, this protein requires γ- ... in which survival is inversely related to the extent of vascular calcification. The degree of arterial calcification has been ...
Further studies to determine the long term effects of Editronate on vascular calcifications, disease outcome, and other ... A diagnosis of Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification was made and a trial of Editronate therapy was given without success ... characterized by wide spread calcifications in arterial walls, leading to vaso-occlusive ischaemia of multiple organs. ... Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, ...
Calcification is associated with loss of functional calcium-sensing receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res. ... Effect of particle size on hydroxyapatite crystal-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by macrophages. Atherosclerosis ... atherosclerotic calcification, diabetic medial artery calcification, vascular calcification of end-stage renal disease, and ... Human vascular smooth muscle cells undergo vesicle-mediated calcification in response to changes in extracellular calcium and ...
Although the majority of vascular calcium deposits seem to be amorphous calcification, ≈15% have advanced to fully formed, ... They concentrate calcium and initiate hydroxyapatite mineral crystallization. Over time, it appears that hydroxyapatite ... Apoptosis regulates human vascular calcification in vitro: evidence for initiation of vascular calcification by apoptotic ... develop extensive vascular calcification63 and that OPG treatment reduced vascular calcification in hyperlipidemic mice.64 This ...
We believe it is potentially confusing to lump vascular disease and its associated calcifications together with calcifications ... One kind is plaque - calcium phosphate as hydroxyapatite - in the interstitium.. The second kind is plugging of the lumens of ... but this is not evidence of a primary calcification. Theoretical papers proposing vascular injury and calcification as causes ... No evidence exists showing calcium deposits within the vasa recta within the medulla or papilla. Deposits of hydroxyapatite can ...
K2 Regulates Calcium Deposition: Mineralizing Bone, Preventing Vascular Calcification Mineralizing Bone. Mechanisms. Only after ... able to attract calcium ions and incorporate them into hydroxyapatite crystals forming the bone matrix. When vitamin K2 levels ... vascular repair, prevention of vascular calcification, regulation of cell proliferation, and signal transduction.15 16 ... Breast vascular calcification and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004 ...
Vascular calcification is caused by the deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in blood vessels, myocardium, and/or ... which supplies the substrate for hydroxyapatite formation and could trigger or potentiate VSMC transdiferentiation. The present ... Abstract: Vascular calcification is caused by the deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in blood vessels, myocardium, ... and it can develop independently from intima calcification. As part of the vascular calcification mechanism, vascular smooth ...
Calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease is accumulation of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in areas of tissue damage. Read ... collagen vascular diseases, Vit D intoxication, tumoral calcinosis. Dystrophic calcifications are also largely calcium ... Calcium hydroxyapatite is the most abundant form of calcium in human bone and the deposition of hydroxyapatite and other basic ... Treatment of Calcium hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease. Treatment of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease is nonspecific. ...
... their high negative charge may reduce the calcification process by chelating calcium ions. These observations suggest that the ... Distribution of PGs and GAGs in vascular tissue has been reported to be complex, district- and layer-specific, associated with ... thereby preventing hydroxyapatite nucleation [13, 14, 42]. Moreover, it is thought that decellularization treatment extracts ... and the presence of negatively charged GAG molecules may reduce calcification by chelating calcium ions, ...
For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis ... MVs are involved in the early stage of mineralization allowing calcium and phosphate to accumulate, and therefore providing an ... and phosphate initiate the formation of hydroxyapatite. To determine the types of lipids essential for mineralization, we ... The latter occurs early in the course of CKD and contributes to the development and progression of vascular calcification. A ...
Vascular Calcification Compared With Skeletal Calcification. Eukaryotic life forms evolved in calcium-rich seas, requiring them ... For example, hydroxyapatite is the predominant mineral in diabetic arterial medial calcification, but in vitamin D toxicity, it ... vascular calcification promoting bone loss, (2) bone loss promoting vascular calcification, or (3) a common etiology. The first ... Human vascular smooth muscle cells undergo vesicle-mediated calcification in response to changes in extracellular calcium and ...
Skeletal formation and prevention of soft tissue calcification Regulation of cellular functions Deficiency Adu ... Vitamin K antagonists and vascular calcification. Several cross-sectional studies have reported increased vascular calcium ... osteocalcin is required for the growth and maturation of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals (see Osteoporosis) (13). ... see Vascular calcification) (17). Moreover, several VKDPs, including MGP, have been associated with calcification sites in ...
Calcium binds with phosphate to form hydroxyapatite nodes on the inner and outside of "calcifying" exosomes membranes, which ... Vascular calcification (VC) is caused by hydroxyapatite deposition in the intimal and medial layers of the vascular wall, ... Exosome Signaling in Vascular Calcification. Permalink , Read 2 Comments , Add a Comment , Posted by Reason ... Exosomes have up-regulated secretion from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vivo after pro-calcifying stimulation and ...
Chin said the micelles are able to specifically target hydroxyapatite, a unique form of calcium present in arteries and ... binds to calcification in the most commonly used mouse model for atherosclerosis and also works in calcified vascular tissue ... of larger-sized calcification, which may not necessarily be dangerous. "If the calcification is on the micro scale, it can be ... The research team developed a nanoparticle, known as a micelle, which attaches itself and lights up calcification to make it ...
  • Phosphate, which penetrates the SMC wall through the Pit-1 co-transporter, directly stimulates vascular calcification whereas pyrophosphate acts as an inhibitor of calcification. (
  • Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in arteries and cardiac valves. (
  • Vascular calcification results from the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals (hydroxyapatite) as a consequence of disordered calcium phosphate regulation in the blood vessel. (
  • 24 However, because calcium phosphate mineral deposition itself elicits inflammatory responses, 25 including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by macrophages, 26,27 a primary role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of clinically relevant vascular calcification was unproven until very recently. (
  • That review begins with a definition: 'Strictly, the term 'nephrocalcinosis' refers to the generalized deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) or calcium phosphate (CaPi) in the kidney. (
  • Vascular calcification is caused by the deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in blood vessels, myocardium, and/or cardiac valves. (
  • The current evidence indicates a key role of increased phosphate uptake by VSMC for calcification, which supplies the substrate for hydroxyapatite formation and could trigger or potentiate VSMC transdiferentiation. (
  • The present review analyzes the sodium-phosphate cotransporter Pit-1, which is implicated in calcification. (
  • On the basis of the available data obtained in the study of vascular and osteoblastic experimental models, we discuss potential regulatory mechanisms that could lead to increased sodium-dependent phosphate uptake in vascular calcification. (
  • Magdalena Gonzalez, Rafael Martinez, Cristian Amador and Luis Michea, " Regulation of the Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Pit-1 and its Role in Vascular Calcification", Current Vascular Pharmacology (2009) 7: 506. (
  • Calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease is a condition where there is deposition of calcium phosphate crystals, mainly hydroxyapatite in the soft tissues around the joint especially tendons. (
  • Calcium hydroxyapatite is the most abundant form of calcium in human bone and the deposition of hydroxyapatite and other basic calcium phosphate crystals occurs as a primary or idiopathic entity and as a secondary process in a number of conditions like an end-stage renal disease, collagen vascular diseases, Vit D intoxication, tumoral calcinosis. (
  • Calcium binds with phosphate to form hydroxyapatite nodes on the inner and outside of "calcifying" exosomes membranes, which further initializes mineral deposition. (
  • Diffuse lung, stomach, and kidney uptake Metastatic calcifications - any process with an elevated calcium-phosphate product - renal failure, metastatic calcification. (
  • Until recently vascular calcification was regarded a biologically passive process dominated by inorganic interactions between excesses in calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (P). Currently vascular calcification is appreciated as a complex and actively regulated process involving cells and proteinous catalysts and inhibitors akin to bone formation. (
  • Vascular calcification is a form of ectopic mineralization which arises from the deposition of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in major arteries and cardiac valves. (
  • Metastatic calcification has abnormal serum levels of calcium and phosphorus with deposition occurring after calcium phosphate product exceeds 70. (
  • Iatrogenic calcification is caused by administration of calcium or phosphate containing agent and inducing precipitation of calcium salts. (
  • The phosphate-binding protein binds phosphate and results in calcification. (
  • High mitochondrial calcium and phosphate levels are released that further lead to crystal formation and cell necrosis. (
  • The calcium salts are composed of hydroxyapatite and amorphous calcium phosphate. (
  • Calcium deposition occurs when the calcium phosphate product exceeds 70 mg^2/dL^2. (
  • It can inhibit the formation, growth, and dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystals and their amorphous precursors by chemisorption to calcium phosphate surfaces. (
  • Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) is a precursor phase frequently present at the early stage of crystallization from aqueous solution. (
  • Recently, a team from Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences have made progress in the study of the structure of amorphous calcium phosphate. (
  • On the Beamline 4B7A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), the team prepared amorphous calcium phosphate on-site and examined the wet sample using the X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy at calcium K-edge. (
  • The dual character of the wet amorphous calcium phosphate in Ca K-edge XANES spectrum. (
  • dACP: dry amorphous calcium phosphate. (
  • This finding provides a basis for a better understanding and rational control of calcium phosphate crystallization at the molecular level. (
  • Upon formation in the aqueous solution, calcium phosphate clusters aggregate and cross-link through the bridging phosphates. (
  • The formation of calcium phosphate solid in human body, such as bone metabolism and vascular calcification, is mediated by proteins. (
  • Safety outcomes were bone density, serum calcium, and phosphate. (
  • Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) are the two most common forms of calcium crystals found in articular cartilage [ 4 ]. (
  • However, amongst patients with CKD on dialysis, the annual incidence has been estimated at 1-4%, with an apparent increase over the past decades that may reflect an increased use of calcium-based phosphate binders. (
  • An important mechanism for vascular calcification is the induction of vascular type III sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters, which occurs in response to increased levels of serum calcium and phosphate. (
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism predisposes to increased release of calcium and phosphate from bone due to uncoupling of bone resorption from formation, but abnormal calcium and phosphate homeostasis also occurs when bone turnover is low or adynamic because of a reduced capacity of bone to incorporate or 'buffer' calcium and phosphate. (
  • Normalisation of mineral metabolism disorders (high levels of serum calcium and phosphate), intensifying dialysis treatment, avoidance of warfarin treatment as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, supportive wound care and pain management, are frequently applied strategies. (
  • These calcium salts consist primarily of hydroxyapatite crystals or amorphous calcium phosphate. (
  • Ectopic calcification can occur in the setting of hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia when the calcium-phosphate product exceeds 70 mg2/dL2, without preceding tissue damage. (
  • These elevated extracellular levels may result in increased intracellular levels, calcium-phosphate nucleation, and crystalline precipitation. (
  • Calcium then reacts with bound phosphate ions leading to precipitation of calcium phosphate. (
  • Dystrophic calcification occurs in the setting of normal serum calcium and phosphate levels. (
  • Since a recent trial revealed that a phosphate binder containing a combination of magnesium carbonate and calcium acetate was as effective as the polymer-based agent sevelamer hydrochloride and had an equally good tolerability profile, it is time for a re-examination of the role of magnesium in CKD patients. (
  • Dystrophic calcification results from localized trauma or inflammation in patients with normal serum calcium and phosphate levels, some of whom may have connective tissue disorders or benign or malignant neoplasms. (
  • Following the laying down of the collagen matrix by osteoblasts, deposition of calcium and phosphate ions to form hydroxyapatite crystals occurs between the collagen fibres. (
  • Unusually for invertebrates, linguliform brachiopods employ calcium phosphate mineral in hard tissue formation, in common with the evolutionarily distant vertebrates. (
  • The availability of calcium phosphate biomineral from organisms that are evolutionarily distant from the vertebrates gives us an opportunity of investigating whether these mechanisms are universal or whether different biomineralization strategies have evolved independently. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, TNAP, ALPL), a key inducer of mineralization in bone, catalyses dephosphorylation of pyrophosphate resulting in inactivation of this calcification inhibitor and providing phosphate ions for hydroxyapatite crystal formation. (
  • coronary artery calcification: Abbreviation: CAC Calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) in coronary arteries, an indicator of coronary artery atherosclerosis. (
  • Whilst it is tempting to presume that vascular calcification is a product of modern society, this pathological process was actually first documented in an autopsy of the mummy of an elderly Egyptian woman, which revealed calcific aortic atherosclerosis ( Czermack, 1852 ). (
  • Coronary artery calcification (CAC) (1-3) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) (3-5) are measures of advanced atherosclerosis that predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality independently of traditional CVD risk factors. (
  • Its clinical significance and cause are not well understood and its relationship to atherosclerosis and other forms of vascular calcification are the subject of disagreement. (
  • It is unclear whether Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis is a distinct entity or forms part of a spectrum of vascular calcification that includes atherosclerosis and calcification in the inner layer of the artery wall (tunica intima), calcification of the internal elastic lamina, calcification of cardiac valves and widespread soft tissue calcification. (
  • Humanin is released into the blood stream and protects the blood vessel endothelium from atherosclerosis and calcium plaque formation if you have the A allele. (
  • When atherosclerosis occurs in coronary arteries, blockages due to plaque or calcification-induced ruptures can lead to a clot, cutting blood flow to the heart, which is the cause of most heart attacks. (
  • The team has tested their nanoparticle on calcified cells in a dish, within a mouse model of atherosclerosis, as well as using patient-derived artery samples provided by vascular surgeon, Magee, which shows their applicability not only in small animals but in human tissues. (
  • In our case, we demonstrated that our nanoparticle binds to calcification in the most commonly used mouse model for atherosclerosis and also works in calcified vascular tissue derived from patients," Chin said. (
  • Atherosclerosis, another major cause of cardiovascular calcification, shares some common aggravators. (
  • To elucidate the relationship between medial aortic calcification and atherosclerosis, we characterized the cross-sectional distributions of the predominant minerals in aortic tissue, apatite and whitlockite, and the associated extracellular matrix. (
  • Further, the increase in apatite was disproportionately large in relation to whitlockite in the aortic media directly underlying a plaque, indicating that apatite is more pathologically significant in atherosclerosis-aggravated medial calcification. (
  • Has Our Understanding of Calcification in Human Coronary Atherosclerosis Progressed? (
  • Calcification is a key feature of human atherosclerosis, and its macroscopic presence in the coronary arteries can be detected by cardiac computed tomography (CT). (
  • Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular disease where the arterial walls become thick and stiff because of accumulation of white blood cells (foam cells), proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and subendothelial retention of cholesterol and triglycerides. (
  • Intimal calcification takes place in the inner layer of the major blood vessels and is typical of atherosclerosis: small aggregates of crystalline calcium can be detected in the developing lesions of the endothelium that are induced by inflammation and lipid deposition. (
  • In this article, we review the existing literature on the application of 18 F-FDG and 18 F-NaF as PET probes in atherosclerosis and present the findings of original animal and human studies that have examined how well 18 F-NaF uptake correlates with vascular calcification and cardiovascular risk. (
  • Corresponding author Abstract: This paper proposes that atherosclerosis is initiated by a signaling event that deposits calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-AP). (
  • Keywords: calcium hydroxyapatite, atherosclerosis, cholesterol, denitrogenation Lipid Insights 2011: doi: /LPI.S7912 This article is available from the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd. This is an open access article. (
  • 1] Vascular calcification is an important feature of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, and it is an inevitable process, particularly in the advanced stages of atherosclerosis, which can create a break in the vessels and cause the plaque rupture. (
  • Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a surrogate marker for subclinical atherosclerosis, and it is known to reflect the atherosclerotic burden. (
  • In vasculature, atherosclerosis is the most common occurrence of calcification. (
  • We hypothesize that subclinical atherosclerosis, measured as coronary artery calcification (CAC), will be extensive in individuals with type 2 diabetes and that its presence depends on both genetic and environmental factors. (
  • 0.0001) for lumbar aortic calcification, a marker of aortic atherosclerosis. (
  • The amount of calcium deposited in the coronary arteries, as measured with computed tomography (CT), correlates with pathological extent of atherosclerosis and presence of stenosis as identified by coronary angiography ( 7 - 9 ). (
  • Vessel wall imaging can be used to assess various vascular pathologies other than atherosclerosis. (
  • The hardening of the arteries associated with atherosclerosis is in part due to the calcification of plaque which subsequently becomes brittle and susceptible to breaking off into an artery-obstructing clot. (
  • Transmission electron microscopy of electron diffraction studies may be used to specifically identify Calcium hydroxyapatite crystals but have limited access. (
  • this is due to the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals in distinct layers of blood vessels that is responsible for increased stiffness and decreased compliance of arterial walls. (
  • In fact extra-skeletal calcification arises from the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals performed by membrane-bound matrix vesicles. (
  • Etidronate disodium chemisorbs to calcium hydroxyapatite crystals and their amorphous precursors, blocking the aggregation, growth, and mineralization of these crystals. (
  • A 2003 study found that it was possible to dissolve the type of calcium hydroxypatite crystals found in cardiovascular pathologies with organic solutions of hawthorn, onion and garlic. (
  • Four possible mechanisms of anticalcinogenic action of MGP are described: binding with calcium ions and crystals of hydroxya-patite, binding to extracellular matrix components, interaction with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) and elimination the effects of the latter, participation in the regulation of apoptosis. (
  • Calcification is the irregular deposition of mineralized crystals that change both the micro- and macro-scale properties of tissue. (
  • In examining OA meniscal cell function, Sun and colleagues have shown recently that meniscal cells from end-stage OA subjects can generate calcium crystals and that genes involved in calcification are upregulated in OA meniscal cells. (
  • This study should catalyse further work examining the pathological contribution or otherwise of calcium crystals in OA. (
  • Although ample in vitro evidence demonstrates the potent bio logical effects of calcium-containing crystals, controversy exists as to whether these crystals play a causal role, or are merely a consequence of the joint damage seen in OA [ 2 ]. (
  • Carroll GJ, Stuart RA, Armstrong JA, Breidahl BA, Laing BA (1991) Hydroxyapatite crystals are a frequent finding in osteoarthritis synovial fluid, but are not related to increased concentrations of keratan sulfate or interleukin 1 beta. (
  • Remarkably, some characteristics of OA - that is, articular chondrocyte proliferation, the expression of hypertrophy markers (for example, MMP-13 and collagen X), remodeling of the cartilage matrix by proteases, vascularization and focal calcification of joint cartilage with calcium hydroxyapatite crystals - resemble chon drocyte differentiation processes during skeletal development by endochondral ossification (EO). (
  • Vascular calcification is the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in the blood vessel wall. (
  • Following this report, Johann Georg Mönckeberg described medial calcific sclerosis, a form of arteriosclerosis or vessel hardening, where calcium deposits are found in the muscular middle layer of the walls of arteries ( Mönckeberg, 1903 ). (
  • Mice deficient in MGP alone (MGP −/− OPN +/+ ) showed calcification of their arteries as early as 2 weeks (wk) after birth (0.33 ± 0.01 mmol/g dry weight), and the expression of OPN in the calcified arteries was greatly up-regulated compared with MGP wild-types. (
  • Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis, or Mönckeberg's sclerosis, is a form of arteriosclerosis or vessel hardening, where calcium deposits are found in the muscular middle layer of the walls of arteries (the tunica media). (
  • Typically calcification is observed in the arteries of the upper and lower limb although it has been seen in numerous other medium size arteries. (
  • These mutations allow for unregulated calcium deposition within muscular arteries. (
  • The symptoms are caused by calcification of large and medium-sized arteries, including the aorta, coronary arteries, and renal arteries. (
  • An autosomal recessive disorder (OMIM:208000) characterised by calcification of medium to large arteries, myointimal proliferation resulting in arterial stenosis, and focal periarticular calcification. (
  • Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with widespread calcification and degeneration of the elastic lamina of arteries [ 1 ]. (
  • Biomechanical analyses indicate that rigid inclusions in distensible materials, such as calcium deposits in arteries, introduce compliance mismatch and failure stress at the surfaces facing the principal direction of stress and thereby increase the risk of rupture. (
  • 60 years have progressively enlarging deposits of calcium mineral in their major arteries. (
  • In coronary arteries, calcium deposits weaken vasomotor responses 10 and alter atherosclerotic plaque stability, depending on the size and distribution of deposits. (
  • The VKORCI gene SNP's rs9934438 and rs2359612 are known to keep Vitamin K and suppress calcification of arteries if you are homozygous for the G allele, which I have in duplicate. (
  • I had my arteries scanned about 2 years ago and no calcium plaques were found, and I am 77 years old. (
  • Chin said the micelles are able to specifically target hydroxyapatite, a unique form of calcium present in arteries and atherosclerotic plaques. (
  • Chung said that the next step for the team was to harness the micelle particles to be used in targeted drug therapy to treat calcification in arteries, rather than just as means of detecting the potential blockages. (
  • Inflammation and stiffness in the arteries is referred to as vascular calcification. (
  • The new nanoparticles are designed to seek out hydroxyapatite, a type of calcium that is found within arteries and atherosclerotic plaques. (
  • Elastocalcinosis is characterized by a deposition of hydroxyapatite on the elastic lamellae of arteries. (
  • Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is a severe, rare disease characterized by excessive calcification and stenosis of large- and medium-sized arteries. (
  • The report discussed how despite the observation that fluoride accumulates in the main arteries, "the effects on the vascular wall are not clear. (
  • Also fluoride may be taken up by calcium plaques in arteries making them more brittle. (
  • Genetic studies suggest that certain endogenous inhibitors are essential for the normal suppression of this process in arteries and soft tissues [7] and that a deficiency in any of these inhibitors is sufficient to unleash calcification. (
  • Mutations in NT5E gene, which encodes CD73, have also been implicated in pyrophosphate regulation and associate with extensive lower extremity arterial calcification and small joint capsule calcification in some families (arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency (ACDC) or calcification of joints and arteries (CALJA), OMIM: 211800) [11, 13-17]. (
  • fluoride is likely contributing to the epidemic of cardiovascular disease by stimulating calcification of the vascular system, including the coronary arteries. (
  • In a study published in the journal Nuclear Medicine Communications this month (Jan. 2012), researchers assessed fluoride uptake and calcification in the major arteries of 61 patients who were administered sodium fluoride, the active ingredient in most fluoridated toothpastes. (
  • They also found that there was a signification correlation between fluoride uptake and calcification observed in most of the arterial walls, indicating that the fluoride itself likely stimulates the precipitation of calcium within the arteries. (
  • To investigate the effects of combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on vascular impedance of the uterine, the inferior vesicle, and the ophthalmic arteries. (
  • 15-18 Of note, calcification of the elastic lamina with elastinolysis in the absence of overt histological inflammation has been reported, 19-23 and intimal CD68 + macrophage accumulation is more commonly associated with atherosclerotic versus medial calcification. (
  • Many patients and experimental models with diabetes mellitus have both hyperlipidemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in both intimal atherosclerotic calcification and medial calcification in the same arterial segment. (
  • Medial calcification in the human aorta accumulates during aging and is known to be aggravated in several diseases. (
  • Nevertheless the most severe form of calcific vasculopathy is medial calcification which occurs in the tunica media, the layer that supplies mechanical strength and contractile power. (
  • Patients who are affected by an end-stage renal disease (ESRD) show a severe widespread form of medial calcification that is called calcific uremic arteriolopathy . (
  • showed that inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 by warfarin resulting in undercarboxylation of MGP leads to medial calcification of the arterial vessel wall. (
  • Within chronic kidney disease (CKD), vascular calcification is an aggregate of both intimal (atherosclerotic) and medial calcification [5], with a high prevalence of risk factors for both in this population [6]. (
  • It is often a very painful and potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by medial calcification of small arterioles, intimal proliferation, fibrosis and thrombosis resulting in ischaemia, necrosis and superinfection of the skin and subcutis. (
  • In women, there was a significant association in that women in the highest quartile of bone loss had significantly greater adjusted increase in the aortic calcification score than women in the lowest quartile (P = 0.02). (
  • In men, no asso- ciation was apparent between the progression of bone loss and the progression of aortic calcification. (
  • To determine if men with greater bone loss might experience a significant progression of vascular calcification, we repeated our analy- ses in the subgroup of men above the median value of bone loss and found no significant associations. (
  • Any unifying etiology to our findings of an association between bone loss and aortic calcification must account for the observed differences between men and women. (
  • However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone formation. (
  • Secondary end points included changes in markers of inflammation, bone turnover, mineral metabolism, and calcification. (
  • There was no significant change in bone markers or serum calcification propensity with treatment. (
  • Histological examination showed hardened deposits of calcium carbonate involving the soft tissue, and dissolution of the vertebral bone trabeculae. (
  • The mechanism of vascular calcification is not fully understood, but probably involves a phenotypic change in the vascular smooth muscle cells in the wall with activation of bone-forming programs. (
  • ARHR2 can cause weakening in the bones, pain in bones and joints bone deformities (knocked knees, bowed legs), dental problems, calcification of ligaments and short stature. (
  • Caused by loss of function mutations in ENPP1, which encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein that regulates soft tissue calcium and bone and joint cartilage mineralisation by generating pyrophosphate (PPi), a physiological inhibitor of hydroxyapatite crystal formation and a suppressor of chondrogenesis. (
  • 4,5 Moreover, as in skeletal development - where unique biology controls matrix mineralization in membranous bone, endochondral bone, dentin, and enamel, 6,7 mechanistic diversity exists in the pathobiology of vascular calcium deposition. (
  • Different types of calcific vasculopathy, such as inflammatory versus metabolic, have parallel mechanisms in skeletal bone calcification, such as intramembranous and endochondral ossification. (
  • Recent advances in our understanding of the complimentary roles played by vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 in vascular and bone health provide support for this hypothesis, along with insight into key metabolic dysfunctions underlying cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. (
  • Part II, The Vitamin K Connection to Cardiovascular Health, reviews the ways in which vitamin K regulates calcium utlization, preventing vascular and soft tissue calcification while complimenting the bone-building actions of vitamin D, and also discusses vitamin K safety and dosage issues, and the necessity of providing vitamin K and vitamin A along with vitamin D to preclude adverse effects associated with hypervitaminosis D. (
  • First recognized by German researchers as a nutrient required for normal blood "koagulation," vitamin K is actually a family of structurally similar, fat-soluble compounds, some of which (the K2 forms) play essential roles in cardiovascular health, primarily through regulating the body's use of calcium - both promoting its integration into bone and preventing of its deposition within blood vessels - and also by exerting anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing actions. (
  • Previously considered passive and degenerative, vascular calcification is now recognized as a pathobiological process sharing many features with embryonic bone formation. (
  • Overall, intervention trials have been inconclusive regarding the role of supplemental vitamin K in further reducing bone loss in otherwise calcium - and vitamin D -replete adults. (
  • Because this is an active process similar to bone formation, it is hypothesized that osteoclasts (OCs), bone-resorbing cells in the body, could potentially work to reverse existing calcification by resorbing bone material. (
  • Therapeutic and prophylactic complex contains a digestible form Calcimax calcium and most balanced according to the laws of physiology other vitamins and minerals for absorption and retention of calcium in the bone structure. (
  • 3 Moreover, it involves phenotypic changes of vascular smooth muscle cells with the expression of bone-related proteins. (
  • Recent study have pointed out that ectopic calcification instead is a highly regulated cell-mediated process which shares many similarities with the physiological mineralization in the bone. (
  • Objective To look for the presence of SIBLING and bone components in Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM) pathologic calcifications. (
  • Conclusion The disorganized JDM calcifications differ in structure, composition and protein content from bone, suggesting that they may not form through an osteogenic pathway. (
  • The pathological soft tissue calcifications found in JDM, although similar in composition to bone, however, are quite distinct. (
  • A previous study using Western Blot analysis identified osteopontin (OPN), osteonectin (ON), and bone sialoprotein (BSP) in JDM calcifications (5). (
  • These proteins are also found in bone, but based on Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the JDM calcifications exhibit a higher mineral to matrix ratio than bone (5), leading to the speculation that the mechanism of mineral deposition in JDM NVP-BEZ235 inhibitor might differ from that of bone formation. (
  • There may be other mediators of mineralization present in both bone and JDM calcifications, since calcifications of smooth tissue within additional diseases, such as for example rheumatic valvular center scleroderma and disease contain markers of bone tissue development (6, 7). (
  • Signs and symptoms may include bone pain and/or deformity, neurologic disorders, elevated cardiac output and other vascular disorders, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase and/or urinary hydroxyproline levels. (
  • The ECM contains a number of noncollagenous matrix molecules such as proteoglycans, which are important regulators of bone mineralization, as they regulate collagen fibril formation and directly control hydroxyapatite crystal growth. (
  • Calcium ions outside cells are important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes as well as proper bone formation. (
  • Gelsolin is an actin-binding protein that can modulate inflammation, correlated inversely with hemodialysis (HD) mortality and involved in bone calcification homeostasis. (
  • A large volume of studies have indicated that vitamin K-dependent proteins bear additional activities that extend their roles beyond hemostatic and bone metabolism, perhaps in vascular calcification and atherosclerotic complications. (
  • Associations of vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor and parathyroid hormone gene polymorphisms with calcium homeostasis and peripheral bone density in adult Finns. (
  • G SNPs role on bone mineral density (BMD) and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), the markers of calcification. (
  • These findings offer new insights into the bone-vascular axis in CKD, identifying a novel role for CD73 of potential clinical importance, but further studies are needed to expound the biology driving these observations. (
  • Arterial calcification is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) [1], and is associated with bone loss, fractures, and arterial stiffening [2-4]. (
  • Anderson HC, Sipe JB, Hessle L, Dhanyamraju R, Atti E, Camacho NP (2004) Impaired calcification around matrix vesicles of growth plate and bone in alkaline phosphatase-deficient mice. (
  • Calcium hydroxyapatite is deposited in arterial walls in an active process similar to bone formation. (
  • In addition, low magnesium levels are associated with low bone mass, osteoporosis and vascular calcification. (
  • Calcium plays a number of critically important roles in physiology and pathology, in addition to its most widely recognised function as a critical structural component of bone. (
  • Bone is, thus, a composite material with tensile strength provided by collagen and compressive strength provided by hydroxyapatite. (
  • Bone formation is not directly influenced by calcium supply but in severe calcium deficiency that results in hypocalcaemia, mineralisation of osteoid can be impaired. (
  • However, their fluoroapatite-like mineral is highly crystalline, unlike the poorly ordered hydroxyapatite of bone. (
  • The aortic calcification score increased over eight-fold in women (from 1.2±2.7 (SD) to 9.9±6.7) and six-fold in men (from 1.6±2.8 to 9.6±6.3). (
  • Figure 2 shows the adjusted change in the aortic calcification index according to the quartile of change in metacarpal cortical area for women and men separately. (
  • Objectives The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium intake is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). (
  • Aortic calcification promotes congestive heart failure by eroding compliance and elastance. (
  • A brief review of the literature shows highly contradictory results, with some studies implying fluoride exposure actually reduces aortic calcification and others showing (as would be expected) deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system. (
  • Calcium carbonate deposition disease represents an unusual clinical entity that is possibly associated with scleroderma or other collagen-vascular diseases, and it is distinct from ligamentum flavum calcification, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, and hydroxyapatite deposition disease. (
  • ENPP1 regulates extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a major inhibitor of extracellular matrix calcification. (
  • Calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease is a type of crystal deposition like gout and calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate deposition disease and there appears to be considerable overlap among these crystal deposition diseases. (
  • Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is a rare, life-threatening disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 ( ENPP1 ), which normally hydrolyzes extracellular ATP into AMP and pyrophosphate (PP i ). (
  • The main function of ENPP1 is to hydrolyze extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate (PP i ), a potent physiological inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation and vascular calcification. (
  • Pyrophosphate (PPi) is one of the most important of these inhibitors, produced in almost all extracellular matrices [9] and shown to inhibit calcification through direct physiochemical inhibition of hydroxyapatite formation in vitro [10]. (
  • Pyrophosphate regulation is believed to play a particularly important role in the development of vascular calcification in CKD, as suggested by the negative association between plasma PPi levels and quantity of vascular calcification in ESRD [18]. (
  • Indeed, calcium deposition in other soft tissues (such as the kidneys or muscles) has adverse effects on tissue function, and to prevent this there is a complex system of mineralisation inhibitors (such as pyrophosphate, fetuin-A, matrix GLA protein etc. (
  • CPPD (calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease) is one of the entities known to cause crystal deposition in cartilage. (
  • By understanding better the molecular pathways and genetic circuitry responsible for the pathological mineralization process novel drug targets may be identified and exploited to combat and reduce the detrimental effects of vascular calcification on human health. (
  • In this review, we will describe the mechanisms underpinning vascular calcification and discuss the risk factors, clinical consequences, and potential therapeutic targets for this pathological process. (
  • However, it can occur in pseudoxanthoma elasticum and idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy as a pathological condition, as well. (
  • The existence of Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis has been disputed and it has been proposed that it is a part of a continuum of atherosclerotic disease: the majority of atherosclerotic plaques contain some calcium deposits and calcification of the internal elastic lamina is common in pathological specimens labelled as Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis. (
  • This unprecedented biomolecular characterization of the aortic tissue furthers our understanding of pathological and physiological cardiovascular calcification events in humans. (
  • The work presented here represents another major step forward towards the development of targeted EDTA chelation therapy as an unconventional therapeutic approach to reverse pathological calcifications in CKD patients. (
  • Background The noninvasive assessment of coronary artery plaque biology would be a major advance particularly in the identification of vulnerable plaques, which are associated with specific pathological characteristics, including micro-calcification and inflammation. (
  • under pathological conditions instead the balance described in the picture below is completely upset and ectopic calcification takes place. (
  • As many as 30% of JDM patients develop the painful complication of pathological soft tissue calcifications (3). (
  • SNF472 selectively blocks the pathological cardiovascular calcification progression and poses an innovative solution for these unmet medical needs. (
  • Anderson HC (1988) Mechanisms of pathological calcification. (
  • Anderson HC (2007) The role of matrix vesicles in physiological and pathological calcification. (
  • Therefore the identification and characterization of novel mediators of vascular calcification will offer the potential for future therapeutics to inhibit progression or induce regression of vascular calcification. (
  • It selectively binds to hydroxyapatite and directly inhibits the initiation and progression of ectopic calcification. (
  • Preclinical models demonstrate that SNF472 reduces the progression of calcium deposition in blood vessels and cardiac tissue. (
  • In addition to a calciphlyaxis program, SNF472 is being developed for the reduction in progression of cardiovascular calcification in dialysis patients. (
  • Indeed, a study published in the International Journal Cardiology indicates that aged garlic extract, in combination with vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin B6 and arginine, is capable of favorably altering the ratio of brown to white adipose (fat) tissue surrounding the heart muscle, reducing homocysteine (a blood vessel damaging amino acid) and slowing the progression of coronary artery calcification in human subjects. (
  • They found that at 1 year, the risks of coronary artery calcium progression and increased wEAT and homocysteine were significantly lower in the supplement group when compared to the placebo group. (
  • A 2004 study found a 3-fold reduced progression in coronary calcification in those taking an aged garlic supplement versus a placebo. (
  • In the early phases of this progression, cytokines released by inflammatory cells, such as TNF-α and IGF-1, induce the formation of lipid-laden plaques as well as the osteogenic transformation of the surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • In this report, we aim to characterize progression in aortic arch calcification (AAC) and investigate its association with gelsolin. (
  • Compared to those with no AAC, patients with AAC progression had older age, lower gelsolin, higher waist circumference and prevalence of vascular disease. (
  • These variations in the prevalence of calcification and its progression may be related to the differences in ethnicity, comorbidity, length of observation, and methods of assessment. (
  • Both diseases show that the endothelial layer and its regulation of nitric oxide is crucial to calcification progression. (
  • Calcification is then examined in both tissues in terms of disease prediction, progression, and treatment. (
  • Vascular calcification can be categorized into four main types according to location: atherosclerotic intimal calcification, medial artery calcification (Mönckeberg's sclerosis), cardiac valve calcification, and calcific uremic arteriolopathy. (
  • 34 OPG-deficient mice develop severe medial and intimal arterial calcification in conjunction with high-turnover osteoporosis driven by excessive osteoclast formation. (
  • Vascular calcification (VC) is caused by hydroxyapatite deposition in the intimal and medial layers of the vascular wall, leading to severe cardiovascular events in patients. (
  • In the initial stages, vascular permeability is increased, allowing for infiltration and retention of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and peripheral monocytes are drawn into the intimal layer and transformed into macrophages. (
  • Amongst chelating agents known for their affinity to Calcium ions (Ca2+), we found that EDTA chelates Ca2+ from hydroxyapatite better than others. (
  • Our group discovered annexin A5 (anxA5), a protein that binds in the presence of calcium-ions to cell surface expressed PS with a Kd of less then 10-9M. (
  • As shown in the following diagram, the wet amorphous phase (wACP) exhibits a dual character in its short-range order: Some of its clusters are similar to hydrated calcium ions (Ca), and some others to those in crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). (
  • Factors that regulate expression and activity of MGP include vitamin D, retinoic acid, extracellular calcium ions, cytokines, and some hormones. (
  • Alternatively, damaged tissue may allow an influx of calcium ions leading to an elevated intracellular calcium level and subsequent crystalline precipitation. (
  • Magnesium is required for the active transport of ions like potassium and calcium across cell membranes . (
  • Many cells have calcium-sensing receptors, with evidence that the concentrations of calcium ions in the extracellular fluid directly regulate cell function (e.g., parathyroid, renal tubule, and many more). (
  • Calcification decreases artery wall compliance, and arterial calcification is associated to mortality in hyperphosphatemic renal failure and diabetes mellitus. (
  • Young adults with childhood-onset chronic renal failure (CRF) are uniquely suited for risk factor assessment because of their long-term exposure at an age when vascular pathology in the general population is still minimal. (
  • A positive association between the presence of vascular calcification and renal failure has been reported in several studies. (
  • Calciphylaxis involves calcification of small and medium-sized vessels and is associated with chronic renal failure and dialysis. (
  • Patients with metastatic calcification most frequently have a history of chronic renal failure. (
  • Trials of calcium supplements in patients on dialysis and those with less severe renal failure demonstrate increased mortality and/or acceleration of vascular disease, and meta-analyses of trials in those without overt renal disease suggest a similar adverse effect. (
  • However, the precise mechanisms through which vascular calcification occurs still remains unclear. (
  • Vitamin K-dependent γ-carboxylation that occurs only on specific glutamic acid residues in identified vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP) is critical for their ability to bind calcium (5) . (
  • Calcification of soft tissues occurs in the cardiovascular system with age, one of the processes that causes arterial stiffening and other pathogenic conditions such as aortic stenosis . (
  • Arterial stenosis occurs due to severe myointimal proliferation and reduced vascular elasticity, and can eventually lead to hypertension, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. (
  • Milk-alkali syndrome occurs with excessive ingestion of foods or antacids that contain calcium. (
  • Idiopathic calcification occurs when there is deposition of calcium salts without underlying tissue damage or abnormal calcium or phosphorus levels. (
  • Calcification occurs around major joints and can be subcutaneous or intramuscular. (
  • Understanding the key differences and similarities between these two anatomic areas where calcification occurs may guide research efforts toward better treatments for both. (
  • Increased expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) occurs in some in vitro models of VSMC calcification and is thought to be crucial for mineralization, however, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ALP in VSMCs. (
  • Thus, rigid deposits of calcium mineral in the artery wall have important biomechanical consequences on circulatory function. (
  • Nephrocalcinosis means kidneys contain many calcium deposits. (
  • That paper described calcium deposits in kidneys of patients with hyperparathyroidism - a mineral disorder caused by enlargement of one or more parathyroid glands. (
  • Midway between these two, type 2 patients had stones and kidney tissue calcium deposits but adequate kidney function. (
  • Variable sized calcium deposits within a rotator cuff that shows considerable destructive changes. (
  • Although the shoulder region by far the common site for Calcium hydroxyapatite deposition, these deposits occur in the number of other sites. (
  • Tendinous Calcium hydroxyapatite deposits loosely occur close to the site of tendon insertion near the joint though distant deposits have been noted. (
  • On x-rays, calcium hydroxyapatite deposits are homogenous amorphous densities and lack trabeculations which allows them to be different from heterotropic ossification or accessory bones. (
  • Lesions associated with unstable angina or infarction tend to have multiple, small calcium deposits, in "spotty" or "speckled" patterns, whereas those in stable angina are associated with few, large calcium deposits. (
  • 15,16 Thus, vascular calcification introduces compliance mismatch that can promote mechanical failure due to stress concentration at the interfaces of calcium deposits with softer plaque components. (
  • Chung said that when small calcium deposits, called microcalcifications, form within arterial plaques, the plaque can become rupture prone. (
  • Chelating agents bind to metal cations, can dissolve and "wash away" calcium deposits if delivered in close proximity to the calcification sites. (
  • Over the 18 months of observation up to the present, she has had no inflammatory calcinosis, or needed any hospitalization, although established calcium deposits still remain. (
  • Fluoride is removed from serum not only through the urinary pathway, but also by linking to the various calcium deposits in the body. (
  • Weingarten's syndrome is a term used to describe a group of disorders in which calcium deposits form in the skin of the male genitals. (
  • On physical examination, calcinosis cutis' dermal calcium deposits present as numerous, firm dermal or subcutaneous papules, nodules, or plaques with either a white or yellow coloring (Figure 1, Figure 2). (
  • Recent studies have provided impetus to shift from cellular interaction-based calcification models to models emphasizing on the important role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in calcification. (
  • In turn this can promote transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells to cells with an osteoblast phenotype, capable of producing ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, collagen rich extracellular matrix and matrix vesicles that initiate hydroxyapatite crystallization. (
  • Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a result of dedifferentiation into an osteogenic CSM that secretes hydroxyapatite in the extracellular matrix. (
  • Vascular calcification has severe clinical consequences and is considered an accurate predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. (
  • Most die in early infancy from myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure or hypertension due to vascular occlusion. (
  • 1 This vascular calcification reduces aortic and arterial elastance, which impairs cardiovascular hemodynamics, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality 2-4 in the form of hypertension, aortic stenosis, cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial and lower-limb ischemia, congestive heart failure, and compromised structural integrity. (
  • There are calcium-sensing receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells and on platelets, calcium plays a role in smooth muscle contraction and its role in the electrophysiology of the heart and myocardial function have already been alluded to. (
  • The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying ectopic calcium depositions remain, however, largely unknown. (
  • Of course ectopic calcification also influences the general cardiac efficiency, leading to deterioration of coronary perfusion and episodes of sub-endocardial ischemia. (
  • The condition is seen predominantly in patients receiving dialysis therapy due to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and is related to the abnormal deposition of calcium in small blood vessels and other tissues, a process known as ectopic calcification. (
  • Methods In the Treatment of Ectopic Mineralization in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum trial, adults with PXE and leg arterial calcifications (n = 74) were randomly assigned to etidronate or placebo (cyclical 20 mg/kg for 2 weeks every 12 weeks). (
  • Generalized arterial calcification of infancy should always be considered in infants and children presenting with hypertension, cardiac failure, or sudden death. (
  • There is currently no effective treatment available, but bisphosphonates - nonhydrolyzable PP i analogs - are being used off-label to reduce arterial calcification, although this has no reported impact on the hypertension and cardiac dysfunction features of GACI. (
  • This study suggests that ENPP1 enzyme replacement therapy could be a more effective GACI therapeutic than bisphosphonates, treating not just the vascular calcification, but also the hypertension that eventually leads to cardiac failure in GACI patients. (
  • Also, the incidence of pagetic fractures may be reduced and elevated cardiac output and other vascular disorders may be improved by Etidronate disodium therapy. (
  • White Paper of the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance on Dual-Energy CT, Part 3: Vascular, Cardiac, Pulmonary, and Musculoskeletal Applications. (
  • Annexin A5 binds PS with high affinity in a calcium dependent manner. (
  • DMP1 binds calcium, and is a nucleator of hydroxyapatite, the mineral which is present in high concentrations in JDM calcification (36). (
  • It is emphasized that MGP is an important inhibitor of calcification of soft tissues. (
  • However studies in animals suggest that a predominantly medial pattern of vascular calcification reflects different underlying mechanisms of disease, and despite involvement of the internal elastic lamina, evidence of inflammation is rare in Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis. (
  • In this brief review and perspective, we recount recent data that emphasize inflammation and oxidative stress signaling as key contributors to the pathogenesis of vascular mineral deposition. (
  • Some degree of vascular inflammation is a frequent concomitant of most forms of arterial calcification. (
  • 28-32 In this section, we review this new data and also highlight distinctions between the LDLR −/− and apoE −/− murine disease models 33 ( Table 2 ) that provide insights into the mechanistic complexities of inflammation-dependent arterial calcium accumulation. (
  • Objectives With combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (CT), we investigated coronary arterial uptake of 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) as markers of active plaque calcification and inflammation, respectively. (
  • These calcifications are associated with chronic inflammation, usually occurring after a long period of untreated symptoms (4). (
  • The presence of DPP within calcifications, soft tissue, and vascular endothelial cells may serve as an effective attractant for macrophages in an effort to disperse the calcifications, consequently recruiting additional lymphocytes and exacerbating inflammation. (
  • This tissue damage also results in chronic inflammation and vascular hypoxia. (
  • Calcifications under 50 μm in size are generally considered microcalcifications, which are a marker of cell death and inflammation and carry an increased risk of plaque rupture and associated complications. (
  • However, more recently a close connection between the calcium depositions and epithelial cysts, many with evidence of inflammation, has been demonstrated. (
  • A variety of systemic inflammatory diseases can cause vascular inflammation and stroke. (
  • These spectral features are quite different from those of dry amorphous phase (dACP) that shows close resemblance to hydroxyapatite in the short-range order throughout the whole spectrum, well described by the early structure model. (
  • Hydroxyapatite is secreted in vesicles that bleb out from vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes in the arterial wall. (
  • Vascular calcification (VC), typical in aging, several genetic and metabolic disorders, is now recognized as a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality, not only in diabetic and CKD patients, even in the general population. (
  • Elastin-associated medial arterial calcification (CKD) is more specific to CKD and contributes significantly to cardiovascular mortality in these patients. (
  • Vascular calcification is recognized as a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. (
  • GACI is associated with a high mortality rate, with death typically occurring from vascular occlusion and additional cardiovascular complications. (
  • Vascular calcification is a life-threatening complication of cardiovascular disease and is an independent risk factor for high morbidity and mortality. (
  • Vascular calcification (VC) is a key process associated with cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. (
  • Vascular calcification (VC) is increasingly recognized as a key process contributing to the high cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients [ 2 - 4 ]. (
  • Our previous study on 712 prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients showed a strong correlation between aortic arch calcification (AAC) and 10-year mortality [ 5 ]. (
  • Moderate hypermagnesaemia, however, seems to have beneficial effects on vascular calcification and mortality rates in CKD patients. (
  • It is already well-known that vascular calcification is highly correlated with cardiovascular disease mortality. (
  • Beyond the excessive consumption of inorganic calcium, fluoride may be an essential factor in mediating calcium's contribution to enhanced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (
  • The presence of vascular calcification results in vascular stiffness and increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. (
  • Common pathogenetic mechanisms in vascular calcification and osteoporosis. (
  • In this article, we outline the current understanding of key mechanisms governing vascular calcification and highlight the clinical consequences. (
  • A variety of mechanisms have been proposed for vascular calcification. (
  • Eukaryotic life forms evolved in calcium-rich seas, requiring them to evolve mechanisms to prevent widespread calcium crystallization in tissues. (
  • While in vitro results yielded a decrease in calcification using OC therapy, in vivo delivery mechanisms did not provide control or regulation to keep cells localized long enough to induce calcification reduction. (
  • However, the mechanisms of cardiovascular calcification remain poorly understood. (
  • It focuses on molecular players and mechanisms involved in processes of calcification, blood coagulation and apoptosis. (
  • Furthermore clinical and epidemiological evidence shows that the process is particularly severe in patients who undergo dialysis and cannot be easily reversed through successful transplantation of kidneys ( Mechanisms and clinical consequences of vascular calcification, 2012 ). (
  • It is characterized by generalized calcification of the arterial internal elastic lamina, leading to rupture of the lamina and occlusive changes in the tunica intima with stenosis and decreased elasticity of the vessel wall. (
  • Metastatic calcinosis cutis may involve visceral calcifications as well as potentially generalized dermal or symmetrical periarticular distribution. (
  • Tumoral calcinosis presents as large, painless periarticular calcifications, most commonly in the hips and shoulders. (
  • In fact, while these conditions are seemingly similar, treatments that help reduce calcification in vasculature have been shown to have no effect on valvular calcification. (
  • As such, most research has looked at vascular and valvular calcification separately although they share similar risk factors and may have overarching parallels. (
  • For many years, vascular calcification was regarded as a passive and degenerative disease without treatment options ( Virchow, 1989 ). (
  • No interventional trials have been performed examining the effect of alkali therapy on vascular endothelial function in patients with kidney disease. (
  • Background Animal and cell studies suggest that magnesium may prevent calcification within atherosclerotic plaques underlying cardiovascular disease. (
  • Conclusions In community-dwelling participants free of cardiovascular disease, self-reported magnesium intake was inversely associated with arterial calcification, which may play a contributing role in magnesium's protective associations in stroke and fatal coronary heart disease. (
  • One year postoperatively the patient developed severe pulmonary disease associated with the collagen-vascular disorder, scleroderma ( c alcinosis, R aynaud's phenomenon, e sophageal hypomotility, s clerodactyly, and t elangiectasia [CREST] syndrome). (
  • The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. (
  • Further studies to determine the long term effects of Editronate on vascular calcifications, disease outcome, and other treatment options are needed. (
  • 2,4,11 We end by summarizing the importance of considering these disease stage- and context-specific contributions arterial mineralization when crafting therapeutic strategies to address the disease burden of vascular calcification that increasingly afflicts our patients. (
  • All of his patients suffered from primary hyperparathyroidism, a disease found in only 5% or so of calcium stone formers we see today in our clinics. (
  • The calcification of the tunica media characterizes the arteriosclerosis observed with age, diabetes and end stage-renal disease, and it can develop independently from intima calcification. (
  • Calcium hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease or Calcific periarthritis most commonly affects a middle-aged person. (
  • The factors contributing to ESRD-related vascular disease are incompletely understood. (
  • Methods We prospectively recruited 119 volunteers (72 ± 8 years of age, 68% men) with and without aortic valve disease and measured their coronary calcium score and 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG uptake. (
  • The disease is characterized by extensive arterial calcification and stenosis of large- and medium-sized vessels, leading to vascular-related complications of hypertension and heart failure. (
  • There is an underlying disease, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, or lupus, that induces tissue damage and creates a nidus for calcification. (
  • San Diego, USA and Palma, Spain - Laboratoris Sanifit S.L., a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on treatments for calcification disorders, today announced successful initiation of the first clinical trial of its lead candidate, SNF472, for the treatment of the orphan disease calciphylaxis (calcific uraemic arteriolopathy, CUA). (
  • SNF472 is an experimental drug for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases linked to calcification in the End Stage Renal Disease population undergoing haemodialysis. (
  • Patients suffering from myositis ossifications traumatica deposit Ca-AP in muscle after trauma that is associated with premature stress loading (Fig. 2) steoarthritis is characterized by depositions of Ca-AP that is commonly associated with structural deterioration of the joint from trauma and loss of cartilage Pancreatic, granulomatous and neoplastic diseases develop partitions of calcium within the tissue to possibly separate disease and non-disease zones (Fig. 3). (
  • The study was aimed to evaluate the influence of the vascular disease, atherosclerotic obliterans (AO), on the location and concentration of elements in the arterial wall and serum. (
  • Increased coronary artery calcium score (CACS) correlates with the risk of future cardiovascular disease. (
  • EBCT was recently determined as a strong predictor that comforts the prediction of future cardiovascular events, particularly in intermediate-risk patients, while in the past, CAC has been proposed as a poor prognostic factor for vascular disease. (
  • Calcification is a prevalent disease in most fully developed countries and is predominantly observed in heart valves and nearby vasculature. (
  • In valves, calcification presents as Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD), in which the aortic valve becomes stenotic when calcific nodules form within the leaflets. (
  • In valves, calcification is present as Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD). (
  • Articular calcification correlates with osteoarthritis (OA) severity but its exact role in the disease process is unclear. (
  • Lansoprazole, currently used for treating gastroesophageal disease, by inhibiting PHOSPHO1 and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase could prevent hydroxyapatite-deposition disease and could serve as an adjunct treatment for osteoarthritis. (
  • Patients with dystrophic calcification may provide a history of an underlying disease, a preexisting dermal nodule (which represents a tumor), or an inciting traumatic event. (
  • High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) is the most important and popular vessel wall imaging technique for directly evaluating the vascular wall and intracranial artery disease. (
  • When assessing intracranial artery disease, HR-MRI is one of the most important and popular vessel wall imaging techniques for directly evaluating the vascular wall. (
  • Metastatic calcinosis cutis presents with altered calcium and phosphorus metabolism, typically in the setting of chronic renal disease. (
  • Circulating calcium is a risk factor for vascular disease, a conclusion arising from prospective studies involving hundreds of thousands of participants and extending over periods of up to 30 years. (
  • Polymorphisms of the calcium-sensing receptor associated with small elevations of serum calcium are also associated with cardiovascular disease, suggesting that calcium plays a causative role. (
  • Calcium deposition in the vasculature is a consistent feature of vascular disease and is predictive of adverse cardiovascular events. (
  • The typical MRI findings are multiple focal T2 signal abnormalities, restricted diffusion in the acute phase of disease, and patchy vascular and leptomeningeal enhancement. (
  • Although these studies did reveal that exosomes participated in the calcification procession through promoting mineral deposition sites formation, they did not discuss exosomes functioning as mediators for RNAs transportation, which is vital for exosome function. (
  • The targeted nanoparticles delivered EDTA at the sites of vascular calcification and reversed mineral deposition without any side effects. (
  • Balanced curative and prophylactic formula for optimal absorption, restore and maintain normal levels of calcium and other minerals in the body, maintaining mineral metabolism. (
  • Doctors long prescribed calcium for strong bones, but in recent years, scientists are finding more evidence that this humble mineral also plays a huge role in the prevention of serious diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer and polyposis colon breast and pancreas, etc. (
  • According to the layer that is affected by mineral deposition, several kinds of vascular calcification can be identified. (
  • Additional non-SIBLING mineralization mediators such as for example Matrix Gla proteins (MGP) and ON will also be of interest because they bind to calcium mineral (10, 11). (
  • Patients with CKD are prone to developing soft tissue calcification due to disturbed mineral metabolism and an imbalance between factors that promote and inhibit calcification. (
  • Background and objectives We examined the effect of alkali replacement for metabolic acidosis on vascular endothelial function in patients with CKD. (
  • Methods We performed a pilot, prospective, open-label 14-week crossover study examining the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate treatment on vascular function in 20 patients with an eGFR of 15-44 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 with low serum bicarbonate levels (16-21 mEq/L). Each period was 6 weeks in duration with a 2-week washout period in between. (
  • Conclusions Treatment of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate significantly improved vascular endothelial function in patients with stages 3b and 4 CKD. (
  • Patients with CKD demonstrate impaired vascular endothelial function and increased arterial stiffness ( 3 - 7 ). (
  • The link between aortic rigidity and heart failure is most evident in the hypertensive cardiomyopathy observed in patients with idiopathic infantile arterial calcification and in animal models with aortic banding. (
  • Unfortunately, there is no FDA-approved treatment available that reverses calcification in countless CKD patients. (
  • It has been observed that patients who develop calcification during dialysis exhibit a particular pattern of gene expression that is associated to higher coronary Ca score and higher pulse pressure if compared to the one of those patients who instead do not develop calcification during the same therapy. (
  • Previous studies found JDM Rabbit Polyclonal to ELOVL5 patients with calcifications have a higher urinary MGP output (12), and identified MGP within the calcifications (13). (
  • The enrollment of the first patients in this Phase II trial is a significant milestone in the clinical development of SNF472 for calcification disorders. (
  • SNF472 is an intravenous formulation with a novel mechanism of action for haemodialysis patients with cardiovascular diseases linked to calcification. (
  • Conclusions In patients with PXE, etidronate reduced arterial calcification and subretinal neovascularization events but did not lower femoral 18 fluoride sodium positron emission tomography activity compared with placebo, without important safety issues. (
  • Lower serum calcium levels are associated with greater calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in native aortic valves of male patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis. (
  • 302 CKD patients from LACKABO study with calcification markers, haemodynamic and genetic data were studied. (
  • Deficiency in PPi caused by inherited mutations in the ENPPI gene, which encodes the PPi-generating enzyme, ectonucleotide-pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase (ENPPI), result in rare calcification disorders like generalised arterial calcification of infancy (GACI, OMIM: 20800) [11], and the ENPP1 genotype has been shown to associate with higher coronary artery calcification score in patients with ESRD [12]. (
  • Calcification of either tissue leads to deterioration and, ultimately, failure causing poor quality of life and decreased overall life expectancy in patients. (
  • First, calcium crystal deposition is common in the menisci of end-stage OA patients and the pattern of calcification seen is different from that of primary chondrocalcinosis. (
  • To confirm the potential delay of arterial calcification and improved survival outcomes by long-term intervention with magnesium powered randomized studies are required in dialysis patients. (
  • Some patients with ACTD may experience calcinosis universalis with widespread calcification of the subcutaneous tissue, muscles, and tendons. (
  • The most common cause of metastatic calcification is chronic kidney failure. (
  • As part of the vascular calcification mechanism, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) experience a transition from a contractile to an osteochondrogenic phenotype and a sequence of molecular events that are typical of endochondral ossification. (
  • Exosomes have up-regulated secretion from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vivo after pro-calcifying stimulation and become "calcifying" exosomes to induce VC. (
  • Within the vasculature, it is expressed in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts [20], as well as in circulating lymphocytes [21]. (
  • Further, there are similarities between vascular smooth muscle cells and valvular interstitial cells in terms of their roles in ECM overproduction. (
  • Osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a key role in this process. (
  • Clinicopathological studies suggest that superficial nodules of calcium deposition in vascular intima are closely associated with rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. (
  • Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by wide spread calcifications in arterial walls, leading to vaso-occlusive ischaemia of multiple organs. (
  • Coronary Artery Calcification in Obese Youth: What Are the Phenotypic and Metabolic Determinants? (
  • the molecular "fingerprints" of activated Wnt signaling identified in diabetic medial artery calcification can also be detected in calcifying aortic valves. (
  • It is found that exosomes with diverse origins mainly mediate microRNAs (miRs) transporting to VSMCs in coronary artery calcification. (
  • A lot of artery calcification is probably under genetic control and is dependent on what gene SNP's and alleles you inherited. (
  • From baseline to 12 months, the researchers found a strong correlation between the increase in the white fat tissue surrounding the heart muscle, also known as white epicardial adipose tissue (wEAT), and the level of coronary artery calcification. (
  • Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is utilized as an important tool for the global risk assessment of cardiovascular events in individuals with intermediate risk. (
  • None of these studies have focused on individuals with diabetes per se, whose vessels are often characterized by increased amounts of connective tissue, glycoproteins, and calcium ( 13 , 14 ), nor have any studies reported the extent to which coronary artery calcification (CAC) is under genetic control. (
  • Blocking metalloproteinases activation with doxycycline and TGF-β signaling with SB-431542 were able to prevent calcification. (
  • It is an example of dystrophic calcification. (
  • Bioprosthetic valves, although associated with a lower risk of thromboembolism with respect to the mechanical ones, possess limited longevity due to dystrophic calcification consequent to glutaraldehyde (GA) treatment used for preventing rejection [ 1 ] and suffer for many of the same degenerative processes that afflict native valves [ 2 ]. (
  • Dystrophic calcification is the most common cause of calcinosis cutis and is associated with normal laboratory values of calcium and phosphorus. (
  • Dystrophic calcification is the most common type of calcinosis cutis. (
  • Dystrophic calcification is associated with diseases that lead to connective tissue damage. (
  • Serum calcium and phosphorus levels are normal. (
  • Metastatic calcification is deposition of calcium salts in the presence of abnormal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. (
  • These associations may be partially mediated by other cardiovascular risk factors such as circulating lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index, but there appears to be a residual independent effect of serum calcium. (
  • Metastatic Weingarten's syndrome: Calcium deposition frequently is widespread. (
  • Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is an extremely rare genetic disorder. (
  • However, identifying whether blood vessel calcification is unstable and likely to rupture is particularly difficult using traditional CT and MRI scanning methods, or angiography, which has other risks. (
  • A diagnosis of Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification was made and a trial of Editronate therapy was given without success. (
  • Another genetic factor that reduces artery calcium plaque from forming is Humanin, a peptide produced by a mitochondria gene MT RNR2 SNP rs2854128 A allele. (
  • A new nanoparticle innovation from researchers in USC Viterbi's Department of Biomedical Engineering may allow doctors to pinpoint when plaque becomes dangerous by detecting unstable calcifications that can trigger heart attacks and strokes. (
  • Increased concentration of calcium found in the inner part of the atherosclerotic arterial wall and in the plaque, as compared to the control arterial wall samples, demonstrates the unquestionable role of this element in the calcification of the wall observed in AO. (
  • 2,3 Although vascular calcification was once considered only a passive process of dead and dying cells, work from laboratories worldwide has now highlighted that arterial biomineralization is an actively regulated form of calcified tissue metabolism. (
  • Our micelle nanoparticles demonstrate minimal toxicity to cells and tissue and are highly specific to hydroxyapatite calcifications," Chin said. (
  • Calcinosis cutis is a condition in which calcium salts are deposited in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. (
  • Idiopathic calcification has no underlying tissue damage or abnormal laboratory values. (
  • Calciphylaxis is a serious and rare condition characterized by vascular calcification and thrombosis leading to necrosis (cellular death) of the skin and fatty tissue. (
  • Researchers also found an increase in brown epicardial adipose tissue (wEAT) and improved vascular reactivity (an indication of lessened vascular dysfunction) in subjects who received the supplement. (
  • For decades the skeleton has been thought of as a calcified, less active tissue providing a strong framework to support the body and implicated in calcium homeostasis. (
  • Mutations in NT5E gene are linked to premature onset of arterial and distal joint calcification in families, possibly due to the downstream effects of CD73 on tissue-non-specific-alkaline-phosphatase (TNAP) , an important enzyme in the calcification process. (
  • This review summarizes valvular and vascular tissue in terms of their basic anatomy, their cellular and ECM components and mechanical forces. (
  • Dystrophic Weingarten's syndrome: Calcification is usually localized to a specific area of tissue damage, though it may be generalized in some disorders. (
  • o Localized tissue damage: Extraosseal calcification can occur in the setting of many local and destructive processes, including burns, arthropod bites, acne lesions, varicose veins, and rhabdomyolysis, among others. (
  • Objective- Isolated systolic hypertension is associated with increased elastase activity, vascular calcification, and vascular stiffness. (
  • In this case the degree of calcification is correlated with age and level of hypertension. (
  • The cell adhesion stimulating protein can be a structural protein or a polypeptide growth factor, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. (
  • 7. The medical article of claim 1 wherein the cell adhesion stimulating protein comprises vascular endothelial growth factor. (
  • 8. The medical article of claim 7 wherein the vascular endothelial growth factor is selected from the group consisting of hVEGF 165 , hVEGF 121 , VEGF II, hVEGF 728 , VEGF2, and VEGF-B. (
  • 9. The medical article of claim 7 wherein the vascular endothelial growth factor is selected from the group consisting of polypeptide fragments of natural vascular endothelial growth factor proteins, chemically modified VEGF proteins and recombinant modified VEGF polypeptides. (
  • Until recently, vascular calcification was considered a purely degenerative, unregulated process. (
  • The first robust evidence for the primary contributions of inflammatory cytokine signaling to pathogenesis of vascular calcification arose from the generation and evaluation of the osteoprotegerin (OPG) −/− mouse. (
  • Hemodynamic parameters, calcium deposition, elastin degradation, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, and elastase activity were evaluated at different time points in the in vivo model. (
  • Conclusions- Early MMP-9 activation precedes the increase of TGF-β signaling, and overt vascular elastocalcinosis and stiffness. (