Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Demeclocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog having a 7-chloro and a 6-methyl. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Magnesium Hydroxide: An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Camphor: A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrocarbons, IodinatedRoot Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents: Materials used in DENTAL PULP CAPPING or PULPECTOMY.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Apexification: Endodontic procedure performed to induce TOOTH APEX barrier development. ROOT CANAL FILLING MATERIALS are used to repair open apex or DENTAL PULP NECROSIS in an immature tooth. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE and mineral trioxide aggregate are commonly used as the filling materials.Dental Cavity Lining: An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Pulpotomy: Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Dental Fistula: An abnormal passage in the oral cavity on the gingiva.Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement: Used as a dental cement this is mainly zinc oxide (with strengtheners and accelerators) and eugenol. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Burns, ChemicalZinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Propolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Uncaria: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain uncarine and other cytotoxic and hypotensive oxindole alkaloids.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Periapical Diseases: Diseases of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE surrounding the root of the tooth, which is distinguished from DENTAL PULP DISEASES inside the TOOTH ROOT.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Porphyromonas endodontalis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PORPHYROMONAS, family Porphyromonadaceae. It is a key pathogen in endodontic infections.Dental Restoration, Temporary: A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Piper betle: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that is indigenous in the Indian Malay region and cultivated in Madagascar, and the West Indies. It contains chavibetol, chavicol and cadinene. The leaf is chewed as a stimulant, antiseptic and sialogogue. The common name of betel is also used for ARECA.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Tooth Avulsion: Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Periapical Tissue: Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
... can also be used to remove hardness from water by exchanging calcium and magnesium ions for sodium ions in an ion- ... Alkali anion exchange membrane Ion Ion chromatography Ion-exchange membranes Ion-exchange resin Mischissin, Stephen G. (7 ... Typical examples of ions that can bind to ion exchangers are: H+ (proton) and OH− (hydroxide). Singly charged monatomic ions ... That happened only when water leaving the exchanger contains more than the desired maximal concentration of the ions being ...
Alkali-aggregate reaction Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) Energetically modified cement (EMC) Cement chemist notation Mehta, P.K ... The quantification of the capacity of a pozzolan to react with calcium hydroxide and water is given by measuring its pozzolanic ... Furthermore, the reduced binder permeability slows down the ingress of harmful ions such as chlorine or carbonate. The ... Lowering the solution alkalinity and increasing alumina concentrations strongly decreases or inhibits the dissolution of the ...
... concentration and the Ca2+ concentration exceeds the allowable limit. Hence, the calcium ions Ca++ are immobilized. The ... and sodium hydroxide (Na+OH-), which is alkaline (or rather basic) and gives high pH values (pH>8.5). Notes: Water (H2O) is ... The ion H3O+ has a positive electric charge (+) and its concentration is usually written as [H+]. The hydroxyl ion OH- has a ... Since Kw = [H+][OH-] then both the concentration of H3O+ and OH- ions equal 10-7, very small concentrations. In neutral water, ...
TH = [H+] + Ka[A−][H+] − Kw/[H+] The term Kw/[H+] is equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions. At neutralization, TH is ... Slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) or limestone (calcium carbonate) may be worked into soil that is too acidic for plant growth. ... In the context of a chemical reaction the term neutralization is used for a reaction between an acid and a base or alkali. ... At the equivalence point: volume (acid) × concentration (H+ ions from dissociation) = volume (base) × concentration (OH− ions) ...
Sulphate ions conduct electricity equally well as chloride at the electrode, but will not produce any chlorine. A salt water ... Electrolysis naturally attracts calcium and other minerals to the plates. Thus, depending on water chemistry and magnitude of ... However, as the ideal saline concentration of a salt-chlorinated pool is very low (. ... sodium hydroxide, NaOH, caustic soda). This requires the frequent addition of hydrochloric acid (HCl, also known as muriatic ...
A chloride ion is a structural component of some proteins, e.g., it is present in the amylase enzyme. The chlor-alkali industry ... "Cell Biology by the Numbers: What are the concentrations of different ions in cells?". book.bionumbers.org. Retrieved 24 March ... In water, it dissociates into Na+ and Cl− ions. Salts such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, potassium chloride have ... This process converts sodium chloride into chlorine and sodium hydroxide, which are used to make many other materials and ...
The synthesis of ununennium was first attempted in 1985 by bombarding a target of einsteinium-254 with calcium-48 ions at the ... The trivial name "alkali metals" comes from the fact that the hydroxides of the group 1 elements are all strong alkalis when ... At low concentrations (below 3 M), the solution is dark blue and has ten times the conductivity of aqueous sodium chloride; at ... the alkali metals do not form highly charged ions, only forming ions with a charge of +1, so only lithium, the smallest alkali ...
The hydroxide ion appears to rotate freely in crystals of the heavier alkali metal hydroxides at higher temperatures so as to ... calcium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide and barium hydroxide. A solution/suspension of calcium hydroxide is known as limewater ... H+] denotes the concentration of hydrogen cations and [OH−] the concentration of hydroxide ions Strictly speaking pH is the ... Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and the hydroxides of the other alkali metals are also strong bases. Beryllium hydroxide ...
The aqueous alkali hydroxide instantly hydrolyzes (CN)Br to alkali cyanide and bromide. The cyanide can then be oxidized by ... sodium or calcium hypochlorite to the less toxic cyanate ion. Note that deactivation is extremely exothermic and may be ... In formic acid, cleavage of Met-Ser and Met-Thr bonds is enhanced with increased water concentration because these conditions ... If the sulfur in cysteine attacked cyanogen bromide, the bromide ion would deprotonate the cyanide adduct, leaving the sulfur ...
... cadmium Calamine Calcite Calcium Calcium carbonate Calcium oxide Californium calomel Calorimeter Canfieldite Carbohydrate ... alchemist Alchemy alcohol aldehyde Alexandrite Alfred Stock Alfred Werner alicyclic compound aliphatic compound Alkali Alkali ... Iodine Ion Ionic bond ionization potential Irène Joliot-Curie Iridium iron Iron (III) oxide Irving Langmuir isocyanate Isomer ... Soapstone Soda niter sodium Sodium bicarbonate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium citrate Sodium cyanide Sodium hydroxide ...
Sodium (or potassium) hydroxide solution is circulated through the cathode compartment, exiting at a higher concentration. A ... The raw brine is treated with sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide to precipitate calcium and magnesium. The reactions are ... where the caustic alkali is produced and the brine is partially depleted. As a result, diaphragm methods produce alkali that is ... After the ion exchangers, the brine is considered pure, and is transferred to storage tanks to be pumped into the cell room. ...
... using hydrogen ion concentration in place of hydroxide ion concentration. The two concentrations are related by the self- ... Thus, for calcium sulfate, Ksp = 6995493000000000000♠4.93×10−5, log Ksp = −4.32. The smaller the value, or the more negative ... The term "intrinsic solubility" is used to describe the solubility of the un-ionized form in the absence of acid or alkali. ... The common-ion effect is the effect of decreasing the solubility of one salt, when another salt, which has an ion in common ...
... ion PoO2−. 3 is known in aqueous solutions of low Cl‒ concentration and high pH.[171][n 19] Polonides such as Na2Po, BePo, ZnPo ... but amphoteric if dissolved in concentrated aqueous alkali, or fused with potassium hydroxide in air.[170] The yellow polonate( ... two ionisation potentials of livermorium should lie between those of the reactive alkaline earth metals magnesium and calcium. ... The Nh+ ion is expected to also have some similarities to the Ag+ ion, particularly in its propensity for complexation. ...
The alkali breaks apart in water, yielding dissolved hydroxide ions: NaOH → Na+. (aq) + OH−. (aq). See also[edit]. *Acid-base ... A solute that causes an increase in the concentration of the solvonium ions and a decrease in the concentration of solvate ions ... Under this definition, pure H2SO4 and HCl dissolved in toluene are not acidic, and molten NaOH and solutions of calcium amide ... When an acid reacts with an alkali salt (a metal hydroxide), the product is a metal salt and water. Acid-alkali reactions are ...
... ions. Examples of bases are the hydroxides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, etc.). These ... calcium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide, iron(II) hydroxide, tin(II) hydroxide, lead(II) hydroxide, copper(II) hydroxide, etc. When ... resulting in an increase in the concentration of the hydroxide ion. An example of this is the reaction between ammonia and ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) Potassium hydroxide (KOH) Rubidium hydroxide (RbOH) Cesium hydroxide (CsOH) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH ...
... calcium, or sodium hydroxide may be used (eq. 3). 2CuCl2 + 3 NaOH → Cu2(OH)3Cl + 3 NaCl (eq.3) Cu2(OH)3Cl can also be prepared ... Engle, T. E.; Spears, J. W.; Armstrong, T. A.; Wright, C. L.; Odle, J. "Effects of Dietary Copper Source and Concentration on ... 4). CuCl2 + 3 CuO + 3 H2O → 2 Cu2(OH)3Cl (eq.4) If sufficient chloride ions are present in solution, hydrolysis of CuSO4 with ... alkali also produces Cu2(OH)3Cl (eq. 5). 2 CuSO4 + 3 NaOH + NaCl → Cu2(OH)3Cl + 2 Na2SO4 (eq.5) Prior to 1994, large scale ...
If excess aqueous sodium hydroxide is used, the product is a colourless salt, sodium orthovanadate, Na3VO4. If acid is slowly ... The ions are all hydrated to varying degrees. Technical grade V2O5 is produced as a black powder used for the production of ... with lime added to form a calcium silicate slag. Aluminium may also be used, producing the iron-vanadium alloy along with ... H2O It also reacts with strong alkali to form polyoxovanadates, which have a complex structure that depends on pH. ...
Berzelius (1817). "Ein neues mineralisches Alkali und ein neues Metall" [A new mineral alkali and a new metal]. Journal für ... and ion exchange. Lithium ions substitute for magnesium and iron in octahedral sites in clay minerals, where 6Li is preferred ... Lithium hydroxide is a strong base and, when heated with a fat, produces a soap made of lithium stearate. Lithium soap has the ... Certain orange stars can also contain a high concentration of lithium. Those orange stars found to have a higher than usual ...
... and increases the concentration of Ca2+ ions into the cement pore water. Calcium ions then react with the soluble sodium ... The alkali hydroxides are continuously regenerated by the reaction of the sodium silicate with portlandite and thus represent ... For less common types of alkali-driven concrete degradation see alkali-aggregate reaction (disambiguation page). The alkali- ... Alkali-silica reaction - overview FHWA (2010-06-22). "Alkali-Silica Reactivity (ASR) - Concrete - Pavements - FHWA". Alkali- ...
Trace metals readily form complexes with major ions in the ocean, including hydroxide, carbonate, and chloride and their ... Concentrations of iron near hydrothermal vents can be up to one million times the concentrations found in the open ocean. Using ... With high alkalis, soda-bearing pyroxenes and amphiboles may be present. The lower the percentage of silica and alkali's, the ... Phosphoric acid with lime (calcium carbonate) forms apatite. Titanium dioxide with ferrous oxide gives rise to ilmenite. Part ...
... barium hydroxide. It is also more soluble than actinium hydroxide and thorium hydroxide: these three adjacent hydroxides may be ... As the concentration of nitric acid increases, the solubility of radium nitrate decreases, an important property for the ... Small amounts of radium were still extracted from uranium ore by this method of mixed precipitation and ion exchange as late as ... This is because radium is treated as calcium by the body, and deposited in the bones, where radioactivity degrades marrow and ...
Both +4 and +5 states easily form hydroxides in water with the predominant ions being Pa(OH)3+, Pa(OH)2+ 2, Pa(OH)+ 3 and Pa(OH ... Concentrations of protactinium in the Earth's crust are typically a few parts per trillion, but may reach up to a few parts per ... With alkali metals A, the crystals have a chemical formula APaO3 and perovskite structure, or A3PaO4 and distorted rock-salt ... Protactinium metal can be prepared by reduction of its fluoride with calcium fluoride, lithium or barium at a temperature of ...
381.2 and 396.5 nanometers and their strength can be directly converted into the concentration of the ions. The +6 oxidation ... Black CmO2 can be obtained by burning curium oxalate (Cm2(C2O4)3), nitrate (Cm(NO3)3) or hydroxide in pure oxygen. Upon heating ... Keenan, T. (1967). "Lattice constants of K7Cm6F31 trends in the 1:1 and 7:6 alkali metal-actinide(IV) series". Inorganic and ... Thus, bombardment of 248Cm with oxygen (18O), magnesium (26Mg), or calcium (48Ca) yielded certain isotopes of seaborgium (265Sg ...
Gallium, notably, is sourced mainly from bauxite, an aluminum hydroxide ore in which gallium ion substitutes for chemically ... The more soluble minerals formed by the alkali metals tend to concentrate in seawater or extremely arid regions where they can ... Although they are present in the Earth's crust in concentrations quite close to their solar abundances, phosphorus and the ... calcium). The process of smelting these metals is extremely energy-intensive. With emissions of greenhouse gases suspected of ...
... to a strong solution of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime), leading to a metathesis reaction which caused calcium carbonate to ... Potassium hydroxide solutions with concentrations around 0.5 to 2.0% are irritating when coming into contact with the skin, ... 2002). "7Li, 23Na, 39K and 133Cs NMR comparative equilibrium study of alkali metal cation hydroxide complexes in aqueous ... an anodic oxidation of the chloride ion takes place, forming chlorine gas as a byproduct. Separation of the anodic and cathodic ...
... is a chemical reaction in which calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide and forms insoluble calcium carbonate: Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O The process of forming a carbonate is sometimes referred to as "carbonation", although this term usually refers to the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water. Carbonatation is a slow process that occurs in concrete where lime (calcium hydroxide) in the cement reacts with carbon dioxide from the air and forms calcium carbonate. The water in the pores of Portland cement concrete is normally alkaline with a pH in the range of 12.5 to 13.5. This highly alkaline environment is one in which the steel rebar is passivated and is protected from corrosion. According to the Pourbaix diagram for iron, the metal is passive when the pH ...
Calcium nitrate is made by reacting calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate with nitric acid. It is made when nitric acid reacts with calcium phosphate. It can be made by reacting ammonium nitrate and calcium hydroxide.. ...
... is a popular strong base used in industry. Around 56% of sodium hydroxide produced is used by industry, 25% of which is used in the paper industry. Sodium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of sodium salts and detergents, pH regulation, and organic synthesis. It is used in the Bayer process of aluminium production.[15] In bulk, it is most often handled as an aqueous solution,[29] since solutions are cheaper and easier to handle. Sodium hydroxide is used in many scenarios where it is desirable to increase the alkalinity of a mixture, or to neutralize acids. For example, in the petroleum industry, sodium hydroxide is used as an additive in drilling mud to increase alkalinity in bentonite mud systems, to increase the mud viscosity, and to neutralize any acid gas ...
A lime kiln is a kiln used for the calcination of limestone (calcium carbonate) to produce the form of lime called quicklime (calcium oxide). The chemical equation for this reaction is CaCO3 + heat → CaO + CO2 This reaction takes place at 900 °C (1650 °F; at which temperature the partial pressure of CO2 is 1 atmosphere), but a temperature around 1000 °C (1800 °F; at which temperature the partial pressure of CO2 is 3.8 atmospheres) is usually used to make the reaction proceed quickly. Excessive temperature is avoided because it produces unreactive, "dead-burned" lime. Slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) can be formed by mixing water with quicklime. Because it is so readily made by heating limestone, lime must have been known from the earliest times, and all the early civilizations used it in building mortars and as a stabilizer ...
... is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca3N2. It exists in various forms (isomorphs), α-calcium nitride being more commonly encountered. α-Calcium nitride adopts an anti-bixbyite structure, similar to Mn2O3, except that the positions of the ions are reversed: calcium (Ca2+) take the oxide (O2−) positions and nitride ions (N3−) the manganese (Mn3+). In this structure, Ca2+ occupies tetrahedral sites, and the nitride centres occupy two different types of octahedral sites. Calcium nitride is formed along with the oxide, CaO, when calcium burns in air. It can be produced by direct reaction of the elements: 3 Ca + N2 → Ca3N2 It reacts with water or even the moisture in air to give ammonia and calcium hydroxide: Ca3N2 + 6 H2O → 3 Ca(OH)2 + 2 NH3 Like sodium oxide, ...
... (CaSi2), also called calcium disilicide, is an inorganic compound, a silicide of calcium. It is a whitish or dark grey to black solid matter with melting point 1033 °C. It is insoluble in water, but may decompose when subjected to moisture, evolving hydrogen and producing calcium hydroxide. Decomposes in hot water. It is flammable and may ignite spontaneously in air. Its CAS number is 12013-56-8. Industrial calcium silicide usually contains iron and aluminium as the primary contaminants, and low amounts of carbon and sulfur. Calcium silicide is used for manufacture of special metal alloys, e.g. for removing phosphorus and as a deoxidizer. In pyrotechnics, it is used as fuel to make special mixtures, e.g. for production of smokes, in flash compositions, and in percussion caps. Specification for pyrotechnic ...
... , Ca(BrO3)2, is a calcium salt of bromic acid. It can be prepared through the reaction of bromine with calcium hydroxide suspension; the calcium hypobromite formed decomposes with heating to yield calcium bromate and bromide.[citation needed] In theory, electrolysis of calcium bromide solution will also yield calcium bromate. It is used as a flour improver (E number E924b) in some countries ...
Calcium oxide is a chemical compound of calcium and oxygen. Its chemical formula is CaO. It is known as quicklime. It is made in a lime kiln. It releases heat when dissolved in water and changes into calcium hydroxide. It is a white powder. It is also a base. It reacts with acids to make calcium salts. Quicklime is an important ingredient of cement ...
... (calcium stearoyl lactylate or CSL) or E482 is a versatile, FDA approved food additive. It is one type of a commercially available lactylate. CSL is non-toxic, biodegradable, and typically manufactured using biorenewable feedstocks. Because CSL is a safe and highly effective food additive, it is used in a wide variety of products from baked goods and desserts to packaging. As described by the Food Chemicals Codex 7th edition, CSL is a cream-colored powder. CSL is currently manufactured by the esterification of stearic acid and lactic acid with partial neutralization using food-grade hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide). Commercial grade CSL is a mixture of calcium salts of stearoyl lactic acid, with minor proportions of other salts of related acids. The HLB for CSL is 5.1. It is slightly soluble in hot water. The pH of a 2% aqueous ...
It is a red-brown solid. It reacts with water to make calcium hydroxide and ammonia. It reacts with hydrogen to make calcium hydride and calcium amide. ...
It is used in spaceships to absorb carbon dioxide. It reacts with carbon dioxide to make lithium carbonate. This prevents people from suffocating in a spaceship. Lithium hydroxide is used to make lithium greases. They are resistant to water and can be used in high or low temperatures. It is used to transfer heat. It can be used in electrolytes. It is also used to prevent corrosion in some nuclear reactors. It can be used to glaze ceramics and make cement.. ...
Acids and bases typically exist together in equilibrium. This means that within a sample of an acid, some molecules will give up their protons and others will accept them. Even water is a mixture of an acidic ion, H3O+ (called a hydronium ion) and a basic ion, OH- (called a hydroxide ion). A hydronium ion will give up its proton to a hydroxide ion, forming two molecules of H2O, which is neutral. This reaction happens continuously in a sample of water, but overall the sample is neutral because there are equal amounts of hydronium and hydroxide in the sample. For most reactions, however, the acids and bases are not present in equal amounts, and this imbalance is what allows a chemical reaction to occur. Every acid has a conjugate base formed by removing the ...
ലഘുവായ ഒരു പോളിയോൾ (കൂടുതൽ ഹൈഡ്രോക്സിൽ ഗ്രൂപ്പുകൾ ചേർന്ന) ഒരു സംയുക്തമാണ് ഗ്ലിസറിൻ അഥവാ ഗ്ലിസറോൾ (Glycerol) (/ˈɡlɪsərɒl/;[3] glycerine അല്ലെങ്കിൽ glycerin എന്നും എഴുതും, അക്ഷരവ്യത്യാസം നോക്കുക). ഗ്ലിസറിൻ ഒരു കളറില്ലാത്ത, മണമില്ലാത്ത, മധുരരസമുള്ള, വിഷമില്ലാത്ത സാന്ദ്രതയുള്ള ഒരു ദ്രാവകമാണ്. ലിപിഡുകളുടെ നട്ടെല്ലായ ഗ്ലിസറോളുകൾ ട്രൈഗ്ലിസറൈഡുകൾ എന്നാണ് അറിയപ്പെടുന്നത്. ഭക്ഷ്യവ്യവസായത്തിലും ...
noun) Lye and calcium carbonate are each an example of an alkali.... ... The definition of an alkali is a soluble salt that comes from the ashes of plants and is made up of mostly potassium or sodium ... any base or hydroxide, as soda, potash, etc. that is soluble in water and gives a high concentration of hydroxyl ions in ... alkali. noun. pl. al·ka·lis, or al·ka·lies *A carbonate or hydroxide of an alkali metal, the aqueous solution of which is ...
Pfaudler Ultra-Glas 6500 ® 1 . potassium hydroxide. 6. inhibition effects by calcium ions. Other factors. Provides extended ... Alkalis As alkali concentration rises. the isocorrosion curves for diluted alkaline solutions have to be consulted for ... Stabilization of high-molecular alkalis sensitive to metal contact. or where concentration and/or temperature conditions exceed ... Isocorrosion curves for sodium hydroxide. even very slight contamination (tap water in sodium hydroxide. procedures are carried ...
In conclusion, a strong alkali dissociates almost completely in water to give a high concentration of hydroxide ions, whereas ... Other examples of strong alkalis include potassium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide. These substances, when dissolved in water ... ion. Since sodium hydroxide almost completely dissociates (100%), it is considered to be a strong alkali. The concentration of ... 46and of course hydroxide ions are already hydroxide ions 2:51species in this red box we call the week basis 2:56they are all ...
... alkalies? Find out information about alkalis, alkalies. hydroxide hydroxide , chemical compound that contains the hydroxyl ... Organic compounds that have... Explanation of alkalis, alkalies ... ions. Alkalies include the hydroxides of the alkali metals, the ... Alkalies are commonly used in laboratory work and in industry (seeSODIUM HYDROXIDE; POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE; and CALCIUM HYDROXIDE ... Alkali. a base in aqueous solution. Aqueous alkaline solutions have high concentrations of OH- (hydroxyl) ...
... their presence decreases the effective concentration of ions available for nucleation and growth; complex ions may adsorb at ... Zircon sand is mixed with an alkali salt such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, etc. The mixture is heated to between 500 ... Appropriate quantities of calcium nitrate, magnesium nitrate and yttrium nitrate were added to give a dual concentration of ... Typical temperatures to hydrothermally leach the zirconium ions range from 120 C. to 175 C. Typical acid concentrations range ...
earth ions, preferably calcium ions, may be for example What I claim is: a solution of an alkaline earth metal hydroxide or an ... 55 1. A process for the production of a concentrate of alkaline earth metal salt and an alkali. Calcium hy active substance ... The extract is con The extraction and concentration of the liquid extract are centrated in vacuo (15 torr). The precipitate ... eg a mixture of chloro ions is a solution of an alkaline earth metal hydroxide. form and ether. 3. A process as claimed in ...
Ion exchange can also be used to remove hardness from water by exchanging calcium and magnesium ions for sodium ions in an ion- ... Alkali anion exchange membrane Ion Ion chromatography Ion-exchange membranes Ion-exchange resin Mischissin, Stephen G. (7 ... Typical examples of ions that can bind to ion exchangers are: H+ (proton) and OH− (hydroxide). Singly charged monatomic ions ... That happened only when water leaving the exchanger contains more than the desired maximal concentration of the ions being ...
But then, what has a 1 Molar concentration of hydroxide ions got to do with the concentration of cupric ions? EVERYTHING! ... Alkali metals having a trivalent cation is an unheard statement for me. Tribromide ion is a possibility because we know I3- ion ... Calcium Carbide[edit]. On hydrolysis, CaC2 gives ethyne. This is enough to tell that the anionic part of calcium carbide is the ... At equilibrium, from the kSP of cupric hydroxide, we get the concentration of cupric ions at pH14 to be 10(-19) M. Plug this ...
Some hydroxides dissolve when we add more water. Like these differeces are with hydroxide compounds. And also different ... When calcium and hydroxyl ion concentration are high (concentrated), calcium hydroxide is precipitated as a white solid. When ... Alkali Metals. All alkali metals hydroxides are soluble in water.. Alkali earth metals. Only strontium hydroxide ( Sr(OH)2) and ... How do you identify magnesium hydroxide and zinc hydroxide. Both magnesium hydroxide and zinc hydroxide are insoluble in water ...
... alkali [sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide (overliming), and ammonium hydroxide], anion and cation ion-exchange resins, and ... Up to 4 mM chlorate ions, the highest concentration tested, had no inhibitory effect on oxalate decarboxylase. Analysis of the ... 10%. At higher concentrations of clay, the enzyme activity decreased until the critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC) was ... The concentration of clay in the coating formulation was shown to have a marked impact on the oxygen-scavenging ability of the ...
Alkali-aggregate reaction Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) Energetically modified cement (EMC) Cement chemist notation Mehta, P.K ... The quantification of the capacity of a pozzolan to react with calcium hydroxide and water is given by measuring its pozzolanic ... Furthermore, the reduced binder permeability slows down the ingress of harmful ions such as chlorine or carbonate. The ... Lowering the solution alkalinity and increasing alumina concentrations strongly decreases or inhibits the dissolution of the ...
... hydroxide ion). The hydroxides of the Group I (alkali metals) and Group II (alkaline earth) metals usually are considered to be ... The other bases make solutions of 1.0 M and are 100% dissociated at that concentration. There are other strong bases than those ... CsOH - cesium hydroxide. **Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide. **Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide ... The strong bases are excellent proton (hydrogen ion) acceptors and electron donors. The strong bases can deprotonate weak acids ...
... a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide anions when ... The ability of a solution to conduct electricity depends on the concentration of ions. A strong base has more ions in the ... Common examples of strong bases are the hydroxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals. ... Strontium hydroxide (Sr(OH)2);. *Barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2);. *Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2); ...
... an alkali, such as sodium hydroxide; or a buffer solution, such as an aqueous acetate buffer solution. The pH of the reaction ... such as magnesium or calcium ions.. These superior properties of the lysophospholipids means that they are particularly suited ... Similarly, the concentration of the substrate is not essential to the present invention. The source and properties of ... 50 ml of a solution defined under Experiment 3-A, 4-A, 4-B or 5-B, below, and 0.2 g of calcium chloride were placed in a 100 ml ...
Water temperature, pH and concentration of calcium ion were selected as the parameters in order to control stable and high ... A practical operation of the crystallization process using calcium hydroxide was demonstrated to obtain the long-term ... And phosphorus recovery from the adsorbent using alkali was about 95 %. All results suggests that adsorbent developed here can ... reaction decreased in proportion to the decrease in the calcium ion concentrations.. u ԍ :A-35. Development of Low-cost ...
... calcium and magnesium ions form white precipitates when sodium hydroxide solution is added but only the aluminium hydroxide ... and the determination of concentrations of strong acids and strong alkalis (links to A-level AT d). ... Solutions of copper(II), iron(II) and iron(III) ions form coloured precipitates when sodium hydroxide solution is added. ... Sodium hydroxide solution can be used to identify some metal ions (cations). ...
... potential across the anode and cathode to evolve halogen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode and recovering alkali metal ... A process and an apparatus for producing alkali metal hypohalite by passing an alkali metal brine solution through the anode ... When the hydroxide ion concentration in the catholyte reaches the steady state value, the hydroxide ion flow throughout the ... 229910052791 calcium Inorganic materials 0 description 5 * OYPRJOBELJOOCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N calcium Chemical compound data:image/svg ...
According to the curves, the calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 content of calcium hydroxide for cement stored in the wet conditions is ... This solution is also accompanied by a release of calcium ions Ca+2, which are able to react with the carbonate ions , forming ... Obviously, there is a close link between CO2 concentrations in atmosphere and materials, especially the cementitious materials ... if the different buffering effects of their hydrated phases and alkali contents are considered. In the absence of carbonation ...
... which exhibit a pH of greater than 9.0 at a concentration of 1% by weight in water, are disclosed. The alpha-amine oxides have ... mixtures of sodium sesquicarbonate and calcium hydroxide having a particle diameter of 0.01 micron; and a 3:3:1 wt. mixture of ... All solutions were first passed through a Chelex-100 ion exchange resin to reduce the iron concentration to a uniformly low ... Suitable alkaline materials include the alkali metal (preferably sodium) hydroxides and metasilicates. However, such highly ...
... in the presence of an alkali condensation and dehydrohalogenation catalyst such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. ... Zirconium ions are often present, added as fluorozirconic acid, at a level of about 75 to about 225 ppm based upon total weight ... The concentration of the NUPAL 4568ZR (the rhodamine B-grafted organophosphate composition of Examples 1 and 2) was 3%, 5% and ... and calcium, barium, magnesium, zinc, cadmium and strontium dichromate. Usually, the treating solution is free of chromium- ...
The applied detoxification methods included: treatment with alkali (sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide); treatment with ... An ion exchange at pH 5.5 or 10, treatment with laccase, treatment with calcium hydroxide, and treatment with T. reesei were ... The changes in the concentrations of fermentable sugars and three groups of inhibitory compounds-aliphatic acids, furan ...
... hydrogen ion concentration, ion chromatography, electrical conductivity, ICP, elemental analysis, and atomic absorption ... After washing, the cellulose acetate butyrate was put into a 0.005% by mass aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide. The mixture ... As an alkali for the alkali-saponification coating solution, an alkali soluble in the above described solvent is preferable, ... calcium carbonate, talc, clay, calcined kaolin, calcined calcium silicate, hydrated calcium silicate, aluminum silicate, ...
Calcium. Because of the use of calcium hydroxide in converting maize into tortillas, the calcium content of the product ... Since higher levels of LAL were obtained with NaOH and KOH, the authors suggested that calcium ions may in some way interfere ... Lime concentration varied from 0.6 to 8 percent, and analyses were done on maize, masa, tortillas and cooking waters. In ... In 1969, De Groot and Slump demonstrated that alkali treatment of proteins gave rise to peptides such as Iysinoalanine (LAL), ...
77 Reactions of positive ions with sodium hydroxide (microscale version) * 78 Testing for negative ions ... 50 Alkali metals * 51 Heating Group 1 metals in air and in chlorine ... 62 The effect of concentration on reaction rate * 63 Iodine clock reaction ... 23 Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate * 24 Reacting elements with oxygen * 25 Reacting elements with chlorine ...
... metal can be prepared by reducing uranium halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals or by reducing uranium oxides by calcium ... Oxidation state +6 as the UO22+ ion (yellow in color) is the most stable state in solution. Uranium in the +5 state as the UO2+ ... In sufficient concentration, these isotopes maintain a sustained nuclear chain reaction. This generates the heat in nuclear ... 4 state in near-neutral pH solutions readily hydrolyzes to form black oxy-hydroxide precipitates. ...
  • Also amphoteric hydroxides dissolve in dilute acids such as HCl, H 2 SO 4 . (chemistryscl.com)
  • AT 8 Use of appropriate qualitative reagents and techniques to analyse and identify unknown samples or products including gas tests, flame tests, precipitation reactions, and the determination of concentrations of strong acids and strong alkalis (links to A-level AT d). (google.com)
  • The changes in the concentrations of fermentable sugars and three groups of inhibitory compounds-aliphatic acids, furan derivatives, and phenolic compounds-were determined and the fermentability of the detoxified hydrolyzate was assayed. (springer.com)
  • Calcium bioavailability increased when lime-treated maize was supplemented with its limiting amino acids, lysine and tryptophan. (fao.org)
  • Such alpha/iso-alpha-acids may be further removed from the ethanol extraction liquor obtained in the double extraction process by subjecting such liquor to an ion exchange medium, or precipitation by a metal ion, heavy metal ion, or alkali metal ion, to provide an alpha/iso-alpha-acid is free extraction liquor which may be added to the light stable hops residue obtained in the initial double extraction process. (google.co.in)
  • 1 . A method for the preparation of light stable hops, comprising the steps of double extraction of hop solids by alcohol, whereby iso-alpha-acids are removed from the hop solids by mixing said hops with aqueous alcohol with a concentration of greater than about 10 percent by weight, and filtering to obtain a filtrate containing said alpha/iso-alpha-acids, and a light stable hops residue. (google.co.in)
  • 7 . The method of claim 1 , further comprising the steps of subjecting said filtrate to an ion exchange resin to remove alpha/iso-alpha-acids, blending the effluent of said ion exchange with the light stable hop residue of said extraction, and evaporating off the aqueous alcohol to obtain light stable hops. (google.co.in)
  • Due to its amphoteric character, it is rapidly attacked by alkalis (such as lye) and by mineral acids. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Fluoride appears to bind to calcium ions in the hydroxyapatite of surface tooth enamel, preventing corrosion of tooth enamel by acids. (avselettronica.it)
  • Hydrogen gas is formed by acids as H+(aq) ions are present in acid solutions. (gcestudybuddy.com)
  • Through experiment, the effects of their suspension concentrations, alkalinity and charge properties on the coagulation behaviors were discussed. (or.jp)
  • Because of a potential imbalance between the amount of magnesium and strontium used by corals, and the amount delivered by limewater, using limewater can potentially lead to depletion of both ions in aquaria. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • Consequently, if one wanted a calcium supplement to be the sole source of strontium in an aquarium, then it would have to include approximately this same Sr/Ca ratio (0.02) to preclude building up or depleting strontium over time. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • 3) The volume of alkali needed for neutralisation is then noted, this is called the endpoint volume. (docbrown.info)