Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
An accumulation of ENDOLYMPH in the inner ear (LABYRINTH) leading to buildup of pressure and distortion of intralabyrinthine structures, such as COCHLEA and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. It is characterized by SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; and sometimes VERTIGO.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.
The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
Contagious infection with human B19 Parvovirus most commonly seen in school age children and characterized by fever, headache, and rashes of the face, trunk, and extremities. It is often confused with rubella.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An abnormality in lung development that is characterized by a multicystic mass resulting from an adenomatous overgrowth of the terminal BRONCHIOLES with a consequent reduction of PULMONARY ALVEOLI. This anomaly is classified into three types by the cyst size.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.
An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
Mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by excessive dermatan and heparan sulfates in the urine and Hurler-like features. It is caused by a deficiency of beta-glucuronidase.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A group of enzymes that catalyze an intramolecular transfer of a phosphate group. It has been shown in some cases that the enzyme has a functional phosphate group, which can act as the donor. These were previously listed under PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.7.-). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.4.2.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.

Fetal tachycardias: management and outcome of 127 consecutive cases. (1/193)

OBJECTIVE: To review the management and outcome of fetal tachycardia, and to determine the problems encountered with various treatment protocols. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SUBJECTS: 127 consecutive fetuses with a tachycardia presenting between 1980 and 1996 to a single tertiary centre for fetal cardiology. The median gestational age at presentation was 32 weeks (range 18 to 42). RESULTS: 105 fetuses had a supraventricular tachycardia and 22 had atrial flutter. Overall, 52 fetuses were hydropic and 75 non-hydropic. Prenatal control of the tachycardia was achieved in 83% of treated non-hydropic fetuses compared with 66% of the treated hydropic fetuses. Digoxin monotherapy converted most (62%) of the treated non-hydropic fetuses, and 96% survived through the neonatal period. First line drug treatment for hydropic fetuses was more diverse, including digoxin (n = 5), digoxin plus verapamil (n = 14), and flecainide (n = 27). The response rates to these drugs were 20%, 57%, and 59%, respectively, confirming that digoxin monotherapy is a poor choice for the hydropic fetus. Response to flecainide was faster than to the other drugs. Direct fetal treatment was used in four fetuses, of whom two survived. Overall, 73% (n = 38) of the hydropic fetuses survived. Postnatally, 4% of the non-hydropic group had ECG evidence of pre-excitation, compared with 16% of the hydropic group; 57% of non-hydropic fetuses were treated with long term anti-arrhythmics compared with 79% of hydropic fetuses. CONCLUSIONS: Non-hydropic fetuses with tachycardias have a very good prognosis with transplacental treatment. Most arrhythmias associated with fetal hydrops can be controlled with transplacental treatment, but the mortality in this group is 27%. At present, there is no ideal treatment protocol for these fetuses and a large prospective multicentre trial is required to optimise treatment of both hydropic and non-hydropic fetuses.  (+info)

Intrauterine management of fetal parvovirus B19 infection. (2/193)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to determine the outcome of pregnancies after intrauterine management of fetal parvovirus B19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SUBJECTS: A total of 37 cases of maternofetal parvovirus B19 infection, 35 of which were associated with hydrops fetalis, were referred to our tertiary level center between 1989 and 1996. With regard to fetal hydrops, no apparent cause other than parvovirus B19 infection was found in any patient. METHODS: In all patients, cordocentesis was performed to assess the degree of fetal anemia. When anemia was present, cordocentesis was followed by intrauterine transfusion with packed red cells into the umbilical vein. Further management depended on the degree of fetal anemia and gestational age and included follow-up fetal blood sampling/transfusion as well as ultrasound examinations as deemed appropriate. RESULTS: Packed red cell transfusion was performed in 30 patients with significant fetal anemia (Z-score 1.6-7.8 below the mean for gestational age). The fetal hemoglobin values ranged from 2.1 to 9.6 g/dl. Serum levels of platelets in the transfusion group were 9-228 x 10(9)/l with Z-scores in the range of < 1 to 3.8 below the mean. During treatment and follow-up, there were five intrauterine deaths (13.5%), one neonatal death (2.7%) and 31 live births (83.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Fetal parvovirus infection can lead to marked anemia and hydrops formation. Cordocentesis allows precise assessment of fetal anemia which can then be corrected by intravenous transfusion. Under this regimen, the outcome proved favorable in the majority of fetuses, even those that were severely anemic.  (+info)

Direct intrauterine fetal therapy in a case of bronchopulmonary sequestration associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis. (3/193)

Bronchopulmonary sequestration associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis is generally recognized as a uniformly fatal fetal condition without fetal surgical intervention. We describe here the first case of such a condition treated successfully with direct intrauterine fetal therapy using digoxin and frusemide.  (+info)

Endothelin concentrations in monochorionic twins with severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. (4/193)

The objective of this study was to determine endothelin (ET-1) concentrations in monochorionic twin fetuses with and without twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Fourteen monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by TTTS and six without TTTS were studied. Matched maternal and fetal blood samples were obtained both in utero and at birth. Amniotic fluid samples were also collected from twin pairs. ET-1 concentrations were measured by radio-immunoassay. ET-1 concentrations in recipient fetuses were higher than in the donors both in utero(P < 0.001) and at birth (P < 0.01). Fetal concentrations of ET-1 in donors were similar to non-TTTS twins. Plasma ET-1 concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in recipient fetuses with severe hydrops than those with mild/no hydrops. Maternal concentrations of ET-1 were comparable in the two groups. Endothelin concentrations in recipient twins were 2(1/2) times higher than in their co-twins and this was related to the severity of hydrops.  (+info)

Prenatal diagnosis of parvovirus B19-induced hydrops fetalis by chemiluminescence in situ hybridization. (5/193)

Parvovirus B19 can be transmitted transplacentally from the infected mother to the fetus during pregnancy, and hydrops fetalis, abortion, or stillbirth can result. In our study we explored the use of chemiluminescence in situ hybridization to detect B19 DNA on cord blood cells, amniotic fluid cells, and pleuric fluid cells from several cases of hydrops fetalis. B19 DNA was detected by using digoxigenin-labeled probes immunoenzymatically visualized with the chemiluminescent adamantil-1,2-dioxetane phenyl phosphate substrate for alkaline phosphatase. The luminescent signal emitted from the hybridized probes was detected, analyzed, and measured with a high-performance, low-light-level imaging luminograph connected to an optical microscope and to a personal computer for the quantification and localization of the chemiluminescent emission inside individual cells.  (+info)

Mapping of a new SGBS locus to chromosome Xp22 in a family with a severe form of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. (6/193)

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked overgrowth syndrome with associated visceral and skeletal abnormalities. Alterations in the glypican-3 gene (GPC3), which is located on Xq26, have been implicated in the etiology of relatively milder cases of this disorder. Not all individuals with SGBS have demonstrated disruptions of the GPC3 locus, which raises the possibility that other loci on the X chromosome could be responsible for some cases of this syndrome. We have previously described a large family with a severe form of SGBS that is characterized by multiple anomalies, hydrops fetalis, and death within the first 8 wk of life. Using 25 simple tandem-repeat polymorphism markers spanning the X chromosome, we have localized the gene for this disorder to an approximately 6-Mb region of Xp22, with a maximum LOD score of 3.31 and with LOD scores <-2.0 for all of Xq. These results demonstrate that neither the GPC3 gene nor other genes on Xq26 are responsible for all cases of SGBS and that a second SGBS locus resides on Xp22.  (+info)

Parvovirus B19 infections. (7/193)

Infections caused by human parvovirus B19 can result in a wide spectrum of manifestations, which are usually influenced by the patient's immunologic and hematologic status. In the normal host, parvovirus infection can be asymptomatic or can result in erythema infectiosum or arthropathy. Patients with underlying hematologic and immunologic disorders who become infected with this virus are at risk for aplastic anemia. Hydrops fetalis and fetal death are complications of intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection.  (+info)

Atrial flutter in the perinatal age group: diagnosis, management and outcome. (8/193)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate perinatal atrial flutter (AF) and the efficacy of maternally administered antiarrhythmic agents, postpartum management and outcome. BACKGROUND: Perinatal AF is a potentially lethal arrhythmia, and management of this disorder is difficult and controversial. METHODS: Forty-five patients with documented AF were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: Atrial flutter was diagnosed prenatally in 44 fetuses and immediately postnatally in 1 neonate. Fetal hydrops was seen in 20 patients; 17 received maternal therapy, 2 were delivered and 1 was not treated because it had a severe nontreatable cardiac malformation. In the nonhydropic group of 24 patients, 18 were treated and the remaining 6 were delivered immediately. In the hydropic group, 10 received single-drug therapy (digoxin or sotalol) and 7 received multidrug therapy. In the nonhydropic group, 13 received a single drug (digoxin or sotalol) and 5 received multiple drugs. One patient with rapid 1:1 atrioventricular conduction (heart rate 480 beats/min) died in utero and another died due to a combination of severe hydrops because of the AF, sotalol medication, stenosis of the venous duct and hypoplastic placenta. Of the 43 live-born infants, 12 were in AF at birth. Electrical cardioversion was successful in eight of nine patients. No recurrences in AF have occurred beyond the neonatal period. Four patients with fetal flutter and hydrops showed significant neurological pathology immediately after birth. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal AF is a serious and threatening rhythm disorder, particularly when it causes hydrops, it may be associated with fetal death or neurological damage. Treatment is required and primarily aimed at reaching an adequate ventricular rate and preferably conversion to sinus rhythm. Digoxin failed in prevention of recurrence at time of delivery in a quarter of our patients, whereas with sotalol no recurrence of AF has been reported, suggesting that class III agents may be the future therapy. Once fetuses with AF survive without neurological pathology, their future is good and prophylaxis beyond the neonatal period is unnecessary.  (+info)

Hydrops Fetalis is a serious condition characterized by the accumulation of excessive fluid in two or more fetal compartments, including the abdomen (ascites), around the heart (pericardial effusion), and/or within the lungs (pleural effusion). This accumulation can also affect the skin, causing it to become edematous. Hydrops Fetalis is often associated with various underlying causes, such as chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infections, genetic disorders, and structural defects that impair the fetus's ability to maintain fluid balance. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. The prognosis for Hydrops Fetalis is generally poor, with a high mortality rate, although early detection and appropriate management can improve outcomes in certain situations.

Endolymphatic hydrops is a term used to describe the abnormal accumulation of fluid (endolymph) within the inner ear. This condition is most commonly associated with Meniere's disease, but can also be seen in other disorders that affect the inner ear.

The inner ear is made up of two main parts: the cochlea, which is responsible for hearing, and the vestibular system, which helps to control balance. Both of these systems are filled with fluid, including endolymph, which is a watery fluid that bathes the sensory hair cells in these structures.

In endolymphatic hydrops, there is an overproduction or decreased absorption of endolymph, leading to an abnormal buildup of fluid within the inner ear. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including vertigo (a spinning sensation), tinnitus (ringing in the ears), hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness or pressure in the affected ear.

The exact cause of endolymphatic hydrops is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to changes in the inner ear's fluid balance. Treatment options may include medications to help control symptoms, as well as surgical procedures to relieve pressure on the inner ear.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Parvovirus B19, Human is a single-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects humans. It belongs to the Parvoviridae family and Erbovirus genus. This virus is the causative agent of erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, a mild, self-limiting illness characterized by a facial rash and occasionally joint pain or inflammation.

Parvovirus B19 has a strong tropism for erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, where it replicates and causes temporary suppression of red blood cell production (aplastic crisis) in individuals with underlying hemolytic disorders such as sickle cell disease or spherocytosis.

Additionally, Parvovirus B19 can cause more severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women, and fetuses. Infection during pregnancy may lead to hydrops fetalis, anemia, or even fetal death, particularly in the first and second trimesters. Transmission of the virus occurs primarily through respiratory droplets and occasionally via blood transfusions or vertical transmission from mother to fetus.

Parvoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Parvoviridae family. These viruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The most well-known member of this family is the human parvovirus B19, which is responsible for a variety of clinical manifestations such as:

1. Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease): A common childhood exanthem characterized by a "slapped cheek" rash and a lace-like rash on the extremities.
2. Transient aplastic crisis: A sudden and temporary halt in red blood cell production, which can lead to severe anemia in individuals with underlying hematologic disorders.
3. Hydrops fetalis: Intrauterine death due to severe anemia caused by parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women, leading to heart failure and widespread fluid accumulation in the fetus.

Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a single-stranded DNA genome. They primarily infect and replicate within actively dividing cells, making them particularly harmful to rapidly proliferating tissues such as bone marrow and fetal tissues. In addition to parvovirus B19, other Parvoviridae family members can cause significant diseases in animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock.

Intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT) is a medical procedure in which blood is transfused into the fetal circulation through the umbilical vein while the fetus is still in the uterus. This procedure is typically performed to treat severe anemia in the fetus, most commonly caused by hemolytic disease of the newborn due to Rh incompatibility or ABO incompatibility between the mother and fetus.

During the procedure, ultrasound guidance is used to insert a thin needle through the mother's abdomen and uterus and into the umbilical vein of the fetus. The blood is then transfused slowly, allowing the fetal body to adjust to the increased volume. The procedure may need to be repeated every 2-4 weeks until the baby is mature enough for delivery.

IUT is a highly specialized procedure that requires significant expertise and experience in maternal-fetal medicine and interventional radiology. It carries risks such as preterm labor, infection, fetal bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), and fetal loss, but it can be life-saving for the fetus when performed appropriately.

Erythroblastosis, fetal is a medical condition that occurs in the fetus or newborn when there is an incompatibility between the fetal and maternal blood types, specifically related to the Rh factor or ABO blood group system. This incompatibility leads to the destruction of the fetal red blood cells by the mother's immune system, resulting in the release of bilirubin, which can cause jaundice, anemia, and other complications.

In cases where the mother is Rh negative and the fetus is Rh positive, the mother may develop antibodies against the Rh factor during pregnancy or after delivery, leading to hemolysis (breakdown) of the fetal red blood cells in subsequent pregnancies if preventive measures are not taken. This is known as hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).

Similarly, incompatibility between the ABO blood groups can also lead to HDN, although it is generally less severe than Rh incompatibility. In this case, the mother's immune system produces antibodies against the fetal red blood cells, leading to their destruction and subsequent complications.

Fetal erythroblastosis is a serious condition that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Treatment options include intrauterine transfusions, phototherapy, and exchange transfusions in severe cases. Preventive measures such as Rh immune globulin (RhIG) injections can help prevent the development of antibodies in Rh-negative mothers, reducing the risk of HDN in subsequent pregnancies.

Alpha-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. It is caused by deletions or mutations in the genes that produce the alpha-globin chains of hemoglobin.

There are several types of alpha-thalassemia, ranging from mild to severe. The most severe form, called hydrops fetalis, occurs when all four alpha-globin genes are deleted or mutated. This can cause stillbirth or death shortly after birth due to heart failure and severe anemia.

Less severe forms of alpha-thalassemia can cause mild to moderate anemia, which may be asymptomatic or associated with symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and jaundice. These forms of the disorder are more common in people from Mediterranean, Southeast Asian, and African backgrounds.

Treatment for alpha-thalassemia depends on the severity of the condition and may include blood transfusions, iron chelation therapy, or occasionally stem cell transplantation.

Rh isoimmunization is a condition that occurs when an Rh-negative individual (usually a woman) develops an immune response to the Rh-positive blood of another individual (usually a fetus during pregnancy or a transfused blood). The Rh-negative person's immune system recognizes the Rh-positive blood as foreign and produces antibodies against it. This sensitization can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn if the mother becomes pregnant with another Rh-positive fetus, as the maternal antibodies can cross the placenta and attack the fetal red blood cells, potentially causing anemia, jaundice, or more severe complications.

The first exposure to Rh-positive blood typically does not cause a significant reaction because the mother's immune system has not yet produced enough antibodies. However, subsequent exposures can lead to increasingly severe reactions due to the presence of pre-existing antibodies. Preventive measures such as administering Rh immunoglobulin (RhIg) to Rh-negative women during pregnancy and after delivery help prevent sensitization and reduce the risk of hemolytic disease of the newborn.

Abnormal hemoglobins refer to variants of the oxygen-carrying protein found in red blood cells, which differ from the normal adult hemoglobin (HbA) in terms of their structure and function. These variations can result from genetic mutations that affect the composition of the globin chains in the hemoglobin molecule. Some abnormal hemoglobins are clinically insignificant, while others can lead to various medical conditions such as hemolytic anemia, thalassemia, or sickle cell disease. Examples of abnormal hemoglobins include HbS (associated with sickle cell anemia), HbC, HbE, and HbF (fetal hemoglobin). These variants can be detected through specialized laboratory tests, such as hemoglobin electrophoresis or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Erythema infectiosum is a viral infection commonly known as "fifth disease." It is caused by the human parvovirus B19 and primarily affects children. The characteristic symptom of erythema infectiosum is a distinctive red rash on the cheeks, which gives the appearance of having been slapped, hence one of its other names, "slapped cheek syndrome." After a few days, the rash may spread to the arms, legs, and trunk, often in a lacy or net-like pattern. The rash is usually not itchy or painful.

In addition to the rash, people with erythema infectiosum may experience mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue. Some individuals may also develop joint pain and swelling, particularly adolescents and adults. In most cases, erythema infectiosum is a self-limiting illness that resolves within one to three weeks without specific treatment. However, the rash may come and go for several weeks, especially when exposed to sunlight, heat, or emotional stress.

Erythema infectiosum is usually spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be transmitted through blood transfusions and from mother to fetus during pregnancy. While most cases of erythema infectiosum are mild, the infection can cause more severe complications in people with weakened immune systems, sickle cell disease, or chronic hemolytic anemia. Pregnant women who contract erythema infectiosum may have a higher risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, or premature delivery, especially during the first half of pregnancy.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Hydrothorax is a medical term that refers to the abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the pleural space, which is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. This condition often results from various underlying pathological processes such as liver cirrhosis, heart failure, or kidney disease, where there is an imbalance in the body's fluid regulation leading to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. The presence of hydrothorax can cause respiratory distress and other symptoms related to lung function impairment.

Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (CCAM) of the lung is a rare developmental anomaly of the lungs that affects the terminal ends of the bronchus. It is characterized by the presence of abnormal masses or nodules filled with mucus or air-filled cysts in the lung tissue. These malformations are typically present at birth but may not cause any symptoms until later in life, if at all.

CCAMs are classified into three types based on their size, location, and the number of cysts present. Type I CCAMs have one or more large cysts (greater than 2 cm in diameter), type II CCAMs have multiple small cysts (less than 1 cm in diameter), and type III CCAMs are solid masses without any visible cysts.

CCAMs can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory distress, coughing, wheezing, recurrent lung infections, and difficulty gaining weight. In severe cases, they may lead to heart failure or fetal hydrops (a condition characterized by fluid accumulation in the fetus).

The diagnosis of CCAMs is typically made through prenatal ultrasound or imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs after birth. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the affected lung tissue, which can be done safely with minimal risk to the child's health and development.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

Polyhydramnios is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of amniotic fluid in the sac surrounding the fetus during pregnancy, typically defined as an amniotic fluid index (AFI) greater than 24 cm or a single deepest pocket (SDP) measurement of more than 8 cm. It occurs in approximately 1-2% of pregnancies and can be associated with various maternal, fetal, and genetic conditions. If left untreated, polyhydramnios may increase the risk of premature labor, premature rupture of membranes, and other pregnancy complications. Proper diagnosis and management are essential to ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Alpha-globins are a type of globin protein that combine to form the alpha-globin chains of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is composed of four globin chains, two alpha-globin chains and two beta-globin chains, that surround a heme group. The alpha-globin genes are located on chromosome 16 and are essential for normal hemoglobin function. Mutations in the alpha-globin genes can lead to various forms of hemoglobin disorders such as alpha-thalassemia.

Hemoglobin H (Hb H) is a type of abnormal hemoglobin that can occur in individuals with certain genetic disorders, such as hemoglobinopathies. It is formed when four beta-globin chains come together, instead of the usual two alpha and two beta chains found in normal adult hemoglobin (Hb A).

This abnormal structure can result from a mutation that causes the absence or deficiency of alpha-globin chains, leading to an excess of beta-globin chains. Hemoglobin H is often associated with conditions such as thalassemia, particularly when there is a severe deficiency of alpha-globin chain production (alpha-thalassemia).

Hemoglobin H can cause hemolytic anemia, which means that the red blood cells are destroyed prematurely. The severity of the condition depends on the degree of imbalance between alpha and beta chains and other genetic factors. Symptoms may include fatigue, jaundice, and splenomegaly (enlarged spleen).

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

An "eugenic abortion" is not a medical term, but rather a descriptive phrase that combines two concepts: eugenics and abortion.

Eugenics refers to the belief and practice of improving the human species by encouraging reproduction of individuals with desired traits and preventing reproduction of those with undesired traits. This concept has been widely criticized for its potential to be used as a tool for discrimination and oppression.

Abortion, on the other hand, is the medical procedure to end a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb.

A "eugenic abortion," therefore, generally refers to the practice of terminating a pregnancy based on the perceived genetic traits or characteristics of the fetus, such as disability, race, or sex. This phrase is often used in discussions about the ethics and morality of selective abortions, and it raises important questions about discrimination, reproductive rights, and medical ethics. It's worth noting that the vast majority of abortions are not performed for eugenic reasons, but rather due to a variety of personal, medical, and socioeconomic factors.

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII, also known as Sly syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down complex sugars called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), or mucopolysaccharides, in the body. When this enzyme is not present in sufficient amounts, GAGs accumulate in various tissues and organs, leading to progressive damage.

The symptoms of MPS VII can vary widely, but often include coarse facial features, short stature, skeletal abnormalities, hearing loss, heart problems, and intellectual disability. Some individuals with MPS VII may also have cloudy corneas, enlarged liver and spleen, and difficulty breathing due to airway obstruction. The severity of the condition can range from mild to severe, and life expectancy is often reduced in those with more severe symptoms.

MPS VII is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition. Treatment for MPS VII typically involves enzyme replacement therapy, which can help to slow down the progression of the disease and improve some symptoms. However, there is currently no cure for this condition.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Thalassemia is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. The disorder results in less efficient or abnormal hemoglobin, which can lead to anemia, an insufficient supply of oxygen-rich red blood cells.

There are two main types of Thalassemia: alpha and beta. Alpha thalassemia occurs when there is a problem with the alpha globin chain production, while beta thalassemia results from issues in beta globin chain synthesis. These disorders can range from mild to severe, depending on the number of genes affected and their specific mutations.

Severe forms of Thalassemia may require regular blood transfusions, iron chelation therapy, or even a bone marrow transplant to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Hypoalbuminemia is a medical condition characterized by having lower than normal levels of albumin in the blood. Albumin is a type of protein produced by the liver, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining oncotic pressure (the force that keeps fluid inside blood vessels) and transporting various substances throughout the body.

A serum albumin level below 3.5 g/dL (grams per deciliter) is generally considered hypoalbuminemia, although some laboratories may define it as a level below 3.4 g/dL or even lower. This condition can be caused by various factors, including liver disease, malnutrition, kidney disease, inflammation, and protein-losing enteropathy (a disorder that causes excessive loss of protein in the gastrointestinal tract).

Hypoalbuminemia is often associated with poorer clinical outcomes in several medical conditions, such as increased risk of infection, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. It's essential to identify and address the underlying cause of hypoalbuminemia for appropriate treatment and improved patient outcomes.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Amniocentesis is a medical procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal cells, is withdrawn from the uterus through a hollow needle inserted into the abdomen of a pregnant woman. This procedure is typically performed between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy.

The main purpose of amniocentesis is to diagnose genetic disorders and chromosomal abnormalities in the developing fetus, such as Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome, and neural tube defects. The fetal cells obtained from the amniotic fluid can be cultured and analyzed for various genetic characteristics, including chromosomal structure and number, as well as specific gene mutations.

Amniocentesis carries a small risk of complications, such as miscarriage, infection, or injury to the fetus. Therefore, it is generally offered to women who have an increased risk of having a baby with a genetic disorder or chromosomal abnormality, such as those over the age of 35, those with a family history of genetic disorders, or those who have had a previous pregnancy affected by a genetic condition.

It's important to note that while amniocentesis can provide valuable information about the health of the fetus, it does not guarantee a completely normal baby, and there are some risks associated with the procedure. Therefore, the decision to undergo amniocentesis should be made carefully, in consultation with a healthcare provider, taking into account the individual circumstances and preferences of each woman.

Menière disease is an inner ear disorder that is characterized by episodes of vertigo (a spinning sensation), tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ear), hearing loss, and aural fullness (a feeling of pressure or blockage in the ear). It is caused by an abnormal accumulation of endolymphatic fluid in the inner ear, which can lead to damage of the vestibular system and cochlea. The exact cause of this fluid buildup is not known, but it may be related to genetics, allergies, or autoimmune disorders. Menière disease is typically a chronic condition, with symptoms that can vary in frequency and severity over time. Treatment options include dietary modifications, diuretics, vestibular rehabilitation therapy, and, in some cases, surgery.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

... or hydrops foetalis is a condition in the fetus characterized by an accumulation of fluid, or edema, in at ... Erythroblastosis fetalis, also known as Rh disease, is the only immune cause of hydrops fetalis. Rh disease is a hemolytic ... Hydrops Fetalis resulting from fetal CPAM can be treated using either a fetal needle drainage of effusion or placement of ... Therapy for hydrops fetalis derived from TTTS or TAPS requires laser ablation of placental anastomoses or selective termination ...
Kaiser L, Arany A, Veszprémi B, Vizer M (March 2007). "[Hydrops fetalis--a retrospective study]". Orvosi Hetilap (in Hungarian ... Goto M, Makino Y, Tamura R, Ikeda S, Kawarabayashi T (2000). "Sacrococcygeal teratoma with hydrops fetalis and bilateral ... Fetal hydrops can be a cause, or conversely a complication. Pulmonary hypoplasia is associated with oligohydramnios through ... Walton JM, Rubin SZ, Soucy P, Benzie R, Ash K, Nimrod C (September 1993). "Fetal tumors associated with hydrops: the role of ...
Hydrops fetalis can also occur early. The finding of anti-Kell antibodies in an antenatal screening blood test (indirect Coombs ... as well as fetal signs of anemia or hydrops. Blood is generally drawn from the father to help determine fetal antigen status. ...
Concerning Hydrops fetalis) 1759 - De Lana (Concerning Wool) c. 1760 - De Logica (Concerning Logic) c. 1760 - Varia ( ... Concerning Hydrops fetalis; 1759) Dell'Osteologia (Concerning Osteology; 1764) De Angiologia (Concerning Angiology; 1764) De ...
Signs of hydrops fetalis such as the enlargement of spleen, heart and liver, along with severe edema, will continue after birth ... These are typically signs of hydrops fetalis. After birth, the symptoms of the child are similar to that of incompatible blood ...
Hydrops fetalis, when accompanied by liver dysfunction, is a particularly poor prognostic combination in TMD. Clinical features ... These complications include severe: a) hydrops fetalis; b) increases in circulating white blood cells (e.g. >10-fold elevations ... hydrops fetalis, i.e. the accumulation of excessive fluid in two or more bodily compartments; cardiomegaly and other cardiac ... Traisrisilp K, Charoenkwan P, Tongprasert F, Srisupundit K, Tongsong T (October 2016). "Hemodynamic assessment of hydrops ...
Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in these cases it is called hydrops fetalis. If a pregnant woman is known to have anti- ...
Clinical Signs for GACI can include: Decreased fetal activity Gestation with an antenatal diagnosis of hydrops fetalis ... "Antenatal Detection of Idiopathic Arterial Calcification With Hydrops Fetalis". Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 22 (6): 653- ... "Prenatal diagnosis of idiopathic infantile arterial calcification with hydrops fetalis". Ultrasound in Obstetrics and ...
Nonimmune hydrops fetalis associated with maternal infection with syphilis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:56, 1992. Hager WD, Rapp RP ...
Njølstad, P. R.; Reigstad, H.; Westby, J.; Espeland, A. (1998-05-01). "Familial non-immune hydrops fetalis and congenital ... Njølstad syndrome is a syndrome characterized by non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL ...
... also known as fetalis ascites), in which oedema form in the developing foetus. Hydrops fetalis can be observed in utero via ... heart displacement and hydrops fetalis. Other congenital malformations such as genitourinary, gastrointestinal and ... resulting in a condition known as hydrops fetalis ( ...
Complications may include ovarian torsion, testicular torsion, or hydrops fetalis. They are a type of germ cell tumor (a tumor ... or hydrops, of the fetus. In certain cases, fetal surgery may be indicated. Beyond the newborn period, symptoms of a teratoma ...
"KLF1-null neonates display hydrops fetalis and a deranged erythroid transcriptome". Blood. 125 (15): 2405-17. doi:10.1182/blood ...
More specifically, HbH disease is seen in Southeast Asia and the Middle East, while Hb Bart hydrops fetalis is acknowledged in ... Songdej D, Babbs C, Higgs DR (March 2017). "An international registry of survivors with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome". ...
Patients that survive hemoglobin Barts hydrops fetalis will become transfusion dependent. Bata-thalassemia causes decreased ... Jatavan, Phudit; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Tongsong, Theera (2017-03-21). "Fetal hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis: pathophysiology ... Hemoglobin Barts hydrops fetalis is the most severe form of alpha-thalassemia, and individuals with this disease have severe ...
Bart's disease before the development of hydrops fetalis is crucial because fetuses that develop hydrops fetalis will either be ... The chance of a fetus developing Hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis is dependent upon if one or both parent carries the alpha- ... In this situation, a fetus will develop hydrops fetalis and normally die before or shortly after birth, unless intrauterine ... Songdej D, Babbs C, Higgs DR (March 2017). "An international registry of survivors with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome". ...
The deficiency has presented as hydrops fetalis and HELLP syndrome in fetuses. A compound heterozygous mutation of the HADHB ...
In utero, it causes nonimmune hydrops fetalis that may result in stillbirth. There is no association with neurologic symptoms ... "Novel mutations in PIEZO1 cause an autosomal recessive generalized lymphatic dysplasia with non-immune hydrops fetalis". Nature ...
... a new cause of hydrops fetalis and neonatal multi-organ disease". J. Pediatr. 149 (5): 713-7. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.08.016. ...
The review showed that those born with parvovirus B19 that caused hydrops fetalis did have an association with higher mortality ... In some cases, fetuses would develop hydrops fetalis due to congenital parvovirus B19. This condition was studied as a ... Vertical transmission from maternal infection may also occur, which can lead to hydrops fetalis due to the infection's ... infection in the first trimester has been linked to hydrops fetalis, causing spontaneous miscarriage. In people with sickle- ...
Less commonly there have been systemic abnormalities such as hydrops fetalis, where there is abnormal accumulation of fluid in ... A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise". PLOS Negl Trop Dis. 10 (2): e0004517. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd. ...
This disease can be extremely debilitating for the patient or can result in hydrops fetalis prior to birth. In addition, mental ... Wu BM, Sly WS (1994). "Mutational studies in a patient with the hydrops fetalis form of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII". Human ... Vervoort R, Lissens W, Liebaers I (1994). "Molecular analysis of a patient with hydrops fetalis caused by beta-glucuronidase ... "Molecular analysis of patients with beta-glucuronidase deficiency presenting as hydrops fetalis or as early ...
The second defining feature of hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten skeletal dysplasia is hydrops fetalis. Ectopic ... Hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten skeletal dysplasia causes the bones in a fetus to develop abnormally. This leads to a ... Hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten skeletal dysplasia is a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis. Greenberg characterized ... calcification Hydrops Trajkovski Z, Vrcakovski M, Saveski J, Gucev ZS (September 2002). "Greenberg dysplasia (hydrops-ectopic ...
... claims increased rates of hydrops fetalis, Large Offspring Syndrome, and other systemic abnormalities. Farm ...
Also, kids presented with hydrops fetalis and / or EFE and / or cardiomyopathy have poor outcome. Some studies showed a genetic ... while the echocardiogram is useful to detect other complications such as the hydrops fetalis. In the absence of cardiac ...
Death in the neonatal period occurs due to the severe anemia resulting in Hydrops Fetalis. Patients most often present ...
"Novel mutations in PIEZO1 cause an autosomal recessive generalized lymphatic dysplasia with non-immune hydrops fetalis". Nature ...
... hydrops fetalis)". Nature. 251 (5474): 392-393. Bibcode:1974Natur.251..392T. doi:10.1038/251392a0. PMID 4424635. S2CID 4154498 ...
... hydrops fetalis)". Nature. 251 (5474): 392-393. Bibcode:1974Natur.251..392T. doi:10.1038/251392a0. PMID 4424635. S2CID 4154498 ...
... cardiac failure and ultimately hydrops fetalis. If hydrops is not present, the fetus has a 95% chance of survival. When hydrops ... If non-immune hydrops fetalis develop, there is a near universal mortality of the fetus without intervention. Fetal surgery can ... Fetuses with a CVR less than 1.6 and without a dominant cyst have less than a 3% risk of hydrops. After delivery, if the ... has been developed to predict the risk of hydrops. The lung mass volume is determined using the formula (length × width × ...
Hydrops fetalis or hydrops foetalis is a condition in the fetus characterized by an accumulation of fluid, or edema, in at ... Erythroblastosis fetalis, also known as Rh disease, is the only immune cause of hydrops fetalis. Rh disease is a hemolytic ... Hydrops Fetalis resulting from fetal CPAM can be treated using either a fetal needle drainage of effusion or placement of ... Therapy for hydrops fetalis derived from TTTS or TAPS requires laser ablation of placental anastomoses or selective termination ...
... fetal hydrops) is a serious fetal condition defined as abnormal accumulation of fluid in 2 or more fetal compartments, ... encoded search term (Pediatric Hydrops Fetalis) and Pediatric Hydrops Fetalis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Hydrops fetalis (fetal hydrops) is a serious fetal condition defined as abnormal accumulation of fluid in two or more fetal ... Hydrops is an end-stage process for numerous fetal diseases. One study reviewed 225 relevant nonimmune hydrops fetalis articles ...
Hydrops fetalis is a life-threatening condition in which abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in an unborn baby. Learn about ... There are two types of hydrops fetalis:. *Non-immune hydrops. This type of hydrops fetalis accounts for approximately 80 ... What is hydrops fetalis?. Hydrops fetalis (HIGH-drops fee-TAH-lis) is a life-threatening condition in which abnormal amounts of ... How is hydrops fetalis managed before birth?. The prenatal management of babies with hydrops fetalis starts with acquiring as ...
Hydrops Fetalis. What is hydrops fetalis?. Hydrops fetalis is severe swelling (edema) in an unborn baby or a newborn baby. It ... Key points about hydrops fetalis. *Hydrops fetalis is severe swelling (edema) in an unborn baby or a newborn baby. It is a life ... What causes hydrops fetalis?. There are two types of hydrops fetalis. The type that a baby has will depend on the cause. ... How is hydrops fetalis treated?. Treatment of hydrops depends on the cause. During pregnancy, hydrops may be treatable only in ...
Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories, as recommended by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: Chronic hypertension Preeclampsia-ecla...
Hydrops fetalis in the baby. Sometimes, no specific cause is found.. When to Contact a Medical Professional. ...
Nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Not stated. HSV (positive; patient tested negative following treatment), rubella PCR (IgG positive, ...
A treatable cause of hydrops fetalis. Roper HP. Roper HP. J R Soc Med. 1986 Feb;79(2):109-10. doi: 10.1177/014107688607900213. ...
Congenital syphilis can lead to newborn and childhood illness including hydrops fetalis; hepatosplenomegaly; rashes; fevers; ...
hydrops fetalis 653.7. *. causing obstructed labor 660.1. *. hypertension - see Hypertension, complicating pregnancy ...
Non-immune hydrops fetalis: changing contribution to perinatal mortality. Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 90:636-39 [Google Scholar] ... Non-immune hydrops fetalis: changing contribution to perinatal mortality. Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 90:636-39 [Google Scholar] ... Resolution of hydrops fetalis in congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation after prenatal steroid therapy. J. Pediatr. Surg. ... Resolution of hydrops fetalis in congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation after prenatal steroid therapy. J. Pediatr. Surg. ...
Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy and hydrops fetalis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:183-6. * Bond PR, Caul EO, Usher J, Cohen BJ ... Parvovirus as a cause of hydrops fetalis: detection by in situ DNA hybridisation. J Clin Pathol 1988;41:381-3. * Anderson MJ, ... In a survey of 50 fetuses with nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis, an uncommonly diagnosed cause of fetal death, four (8%) were ... Human parvovirus B19 and hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1988;1:535. * Franciosi RA, Tattersall P. Fetal infection with human ...
CASE REPORT: A routine check-up of a healthy 34-year-old woman at 27 5/7 wks GA revealed a severe hydrops fetalis with …pleural ... Nonimmune hydrops fetalis management from the perspective of fetal cardiologists: A single tertiary center experience from ... DISCUSSION: For all cases of non-haemolytic hydrops fetalis, a prenatal or postnatal sonography with Doppler examination of the ... Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite advances in managing nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), perinatal mortality is still significant. ...
Hydrops fetalis + Immune hydrops (erythroblastosis fetalis, hemolytic disease of the newborn) + Nonimmune hydrops ...
Hydrops fetalis, in utero fetal death and neonatal distress are prominent features. When hydrops is absent, neurologic ... Non-immune hydrops fetalis is not a diagnosis in itself but a symptom, a feature of many genetic disorders, and the end-stage ... Note=Perinatal lethal Gaucher disease is associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis, a generalized edema of the fetus with ...
The more severe congenital form of type II sialidosis has onset in utero and results in hydrops fetalis, hepatomegaly, and ... Investigation of lysosomal storage diseases in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Prenat Diagn. 2004 Aug. 24(8):653-7. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Sialidosis presenting as severe nonimmune fetal hydrops is associated with two novel mutations in lysosomal alpha-neuraminidase ...
... and can involve blood transfusion for transient aplastic crisis and hydrops fetalis and immune globulin intravenous therapy for ...
Deletion of all four α-globin genes (Hb Barts hydrops fetalis) results in complete absence of α-chain production, a scenario ... Deletion of all four α-genes is a lethal abnormality, and causes severe fetal anaemia and hydrops fetalis. ...
Caron discovered early in her career that mice lacking the gene for adrenomedullin develop hydrops fetalis and die before birth ... They identified a previously undiscovered gene mutation underlying hydrops fetalis - a fatal condition to fetuses due to fluid ... Initial genetic testing failed to reveal any of the known mutations previously associated with hydrops fetalis. However, by ... Failure of lymphatic development is a prominent cause of hydrops fetalis. ...
Epidemiology of Live Born Infants with Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis-Insights from a Population-Based Dataset. J Pediatr. 2017 08; ... The many faces of hydrops. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Jan; 50(1):50-4; discussion 54. Derderian SC, Jeanty C, Fleck SR, Cheng LS, ...
The combination of increased fluid and skin edema is a condition known as hydrops fetalis, a severe form of swelling that is ... 12-week-old fetus that was diagnosed with Turner syndrome and hydrops fetalis, two defects that are often fatal to the fetus ...
Infants may have a condition called hydrops fetalis in which excess fluid accumulates in the body before birth. Individuals ...
Hydrops fetalis. Therapy for hydrops fetalis can be challenging in utero and after birth. A staged approach with stabilization ... Fetuses with hydrops fetalis secondary to maternal autoimmune disease have successfully received pacing in utero; however, this ... Some centers recommend cesarean and preterm delivery for fetuses with CAVB and hydrops fetalis. ... have been used by some centers with satisfactory results at the first evidence of heart block and bradycardia with hydrops, ...
Hydrops fetalis. *Hyperbilirubinemia *Kernicterus. *Neonatal jaundice. *Velamentous cord insertion. *Intraventricular ...
Hydrops fetalis *Overview. *Chromosomes *Features. *Management. *Tumors *Lymphangioma. *Mediastinal tumor. *Neuroblastoma. * ...
Hydrops Fetalis. Saber Shins. Notched Teeth. Saddle Nose. Blindness. Deafness. Hepatitis. PLAY. ...
Hydrops Fetalis mean :-*One deleted α-Genes (-α/αα). *Two deleted α-Genes (- -/αα) ...
Nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Green KCNH2 in Short QT syndrome Version 3.10 Latest signed off version: v3.1 (22 Mar 2023) ... No list KCNH2 in Fetal hydrops Level 3: Fetal disorders Level 2: Dysmorphic and congenital abnormality syndromes Version 1.64 ...
Nonimmune hydrops fetalis accounts for 76 to 87% of all described cases of hydrops fetalis (Bellini et al., 2009). Genetic ... Heterogeneity of Hydrops Fetalis In southeast Asia, alpha-thalassemia (604131) is the most common cause of hydrops fetalis, ... Non-immune hydrops fetalis. MedGen UID: 105327. •Concept ID: C0455988. •. Disease or Syndrome. ... Hydrops fetalis is a descriptive term for generalized edema of the fetus, with fluid accumulation in extravascular components ...
  • Hydrops fetalis or hydrops foetalis is a condition in the fetus characterized by an accumulation of fluid, or edema, in at least two fetal compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Hydrops fetalis usually stems from fetal anemia, when the heart needs to pump a much greater volume of blood to deliver the same amount of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-immune hydrops can also be unrelated to anemia, for example if a fetal tumor or congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation increases the demand for blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in pregnancies in which twins share a single placenta (hydrops affects the recipient twin) Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAPS) Maternal hyperthyroidism Fetal cardiac defects and skeletal defects Noonan syndrome Mirror syndrome, in which fetal and placental hydrops develops in association with maternal preeclampsia, edema and hypertension Down syndrome Hydrops fetalis can be diagnosed and monitored by ultrasound scans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrops fetalis (fetal hydrops) is a serious fetal condition defined as abnormal accumulation of fluid in two or more fetal compartments, including ascites , pleural effusion , pericardial effusion , and skin edema. (medscape.com)
  • Hydrops fetalis has been a well-recognized fetal and neonatal condition throughout history. (medscape.com)
  • More recent recognition of factors other than isoimmune hemolytic disease that can cause or be associated with fetal hydrops led to the use of the term nonimmune hydrops to identify those cases in which the fetal disorder was caused by factors other than isoimmunization. (medscape.com)
  • With the introduction of widespread immunoprophylaxis for red blood cell alloimmunization and the use of in-utero transfusions for immune hydrops therapy, nonimmune causes have become responsible for at least 85% of all cases of fetal hydrops. (medscape.com)
  • Nevertheless, in developing countries, the incidence of immune fetal hydrops is still high. (medscape.com)
  • Several hypotheses regarding the pathophysiologic events that lead to fetal hydrops have been suggested. (medscape.com)
  • The basic mechanism for the formation of fetal hydrops is an imbalance of interstitial fluid production and the lymphatic return. (medscape.com)
  • However, in the sheep model, a 41% reduction in total serum protein accompanied by a 44% decline in colloid osmotic pressure failed to produce fetal hydrops. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Furthermore, a study in humans showed that, despite a significant negative correlation between the fetal serum albumin level and the degree of fetal hydrops, most fetuses with hydrops had albumin levels within the reference range. (medscape.com)
  • For hydrops fetalis, your care team will include a maternal-fetal specialist, a pediatric cardiologist, a neonatologist, a geneticist, a nurse specialist care coordinator, a fetal care clinical social worker and several other technical specialists. (childrensmn.org)
  • Fetal blood transfusion may be used with immune hydrops. (lluch.org)
  • RESULTS: The … most frequent diagnosis was Idiopathic hydrops 42(62.6%), followed by hydrops due to cardiac diseases 19(28.4%), and 3 dead fetuses were detected at the first fetal echocardiography. (iospress.com)
  • Treatment of fetal tachyarrhythmia (n = 7) had 100% success rate in terms of antenatal hydrops resolution. (iospress.com)
  • Tachyarrhythmia induced hydrops can be entirely reversed with antenatal therapy while non-tachyarrhythmia fetal cardiac disease outcomes are unfavorable regardless of therapy. (iospress.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Despite advances in managing nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), perinatal mortality is still significant. (iospress.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Nonimmune hydrops is the worst complication of diverse etiologies. (iospress.com)
  • Erythroblastosis fetalis, also known as Rh disease, is the only immune cause of hydrops fetalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Rh disease is currently an uncommon cause of immune-mediated hydrops fetalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The non-immune form of hydrops fetalis has many causes including: Iron deficiency anemia Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia resulting in heart failure Deficiency of the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1970s, the major cause of immune hydrops (ie, RhD antigen) was conquered with the use of immunoglobulin (Ig) prophylaxis in at-risk mothers. (medscape.com)
  • Non-immune hydrops. (childrensmn.org)
  • Immune hydrops. (childrensmn.org)
  • Since the 1960s, the incidence of immune hydrops has fallen significantly due to the introduction of a medicine called RhoGAM. (childrensmn.org)
  • In some cases, however, there is no identifiable reason for non-immune hydrops to appear. (childrensmn.org)
  • Immune hydrops is caused by an incompatibility of red blood cells between the mother and her unborn baby. (childrensmn.org)
  • Treatment for parvovirus B19 varies according to the symptoms, and can involve blood transfusion for transient aplastic crisis and hydrops fetalis and immune globulin intravenous therapy for chronic infections. (osmosis.org)
  • In cases of idiopathic hydrops, 14 fetuses received digoxin with intrauterine hydrops resolution in 2/14 (14%) while non-treated cases had intrauterine or early neonatal death. (iospress.com)
  • They identified a previously undiscovered gene mutation underlying hydrops fetalis - a fatal condition to fetuses due to fluid buildup in the space between organs. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Some centers recommend cesarean and preterm delivery for fetuses with CAVB and hydrops fetalis. (medscape.com)
  • Before routine immunization of Rh-negative mothers, most cases of hydrops were due to erythroblastosis from Rh alloimmunization. (medscape.com)
  • Hydrops fetalis is severe swelling (edema) in an unborn baby or a newborn baby. (lluch.org)
  • The combination of increased fluid and skin edema is a condition known as hydrops fetalis, a severe form of swelling that is often fatal. (invw.org)
  • or severe anemia and excess fluid and swelling (edema) in the fetus (hydrops fetalis). (msdmanuals.com)
  • On the other hand, idiopathic hydrops shows a limited potential response to digoxin in utero. (iospress.com)
  • The more severe congenital form of type II sialidosis has onset in utero and results in hydrops fetalis , hepatomegaly, and either still birth or death within a period of months. (medscape.com)
  • Therapy for hydrops fetalis can be challenging in utero and after birth. (medscape.com)
  • Hydrops has been produced in the ovine fetus by anemia, tachyarrhythmia, occlusion of lymphatic drainage, and obstruction of cardiac venous return. (medscape.com)
  • Hydrops can occur if the developing baby's organs can't overcome the anemia. (lluch.org)
  • By comparison, hydrops allantois or hydrops amnion is an accumulation of excessive fluid in the allantoic or amniotic space, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrops fetalis (HIGH-drops fee-TAH-lis) is a life-threatening condition in which abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in two or more body areas of an unborn baby. (childrensmn.org)
  • Hydrops develops when too much fluid leaves the baby's blood and goes into the tissues. (lluch.org)
  • Infants may have a condition called hydrops fetalis in which excess fluid accumulates in the body before birth. (myriad.com)
  • Congenital disorders of glycosylation Parvovirus B19 (fifth disease) infection of the pregnant woman (most common cause) Cytomegalovirus in mother Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (formerly called congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation) Maternal syphilis and maternal diabetes mellitus Alpha-thalassemia can also cause hydrops fetalis when all four of the genetic loci for α globin are deleted or affected by mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial genetic testing failed to reveal any of the known mutations previously associated with hydrops fetalis. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The severe swelling that occurs with hydrops can overwhelm the baby's organ systems. (lluch.org)
  • Regular and close monitoring for heart block and transplacental therapy with fluorinated steroids (dexamethasone) and beta sympathomimetics have been used by some centers with satisfactory results at the first evidence of heart block and bradycardia with hydrops, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • Parmi les nouveau-nés présentant un caryotype anormal ( n = 3), l'un, souffrant de trisomie 18 (47,XX), est décédé à l'âge de trois mois, tandis que les deux autres enfants étaient atteints de différents types de syndrome de Turner en mosaïque. (who.int)
  • What are the symptoms of hydrops fetalis? (lluch.org)
  • Below are the most common symptoms of hydrops. (lluch.org)
  • [ 3 ] These results suggest that hypoalbuminemia is unlikely the sole cause for the primary onset of hydrops. (medscape.com)
  • Hydrops fetalis is often diagnosed during a routine prenatal ultrasound exam. (childrensmn.org)
  • Hydrops is almost always diagnosed during pregnancy or right at birth. (lluch.org)
  • During pregnancy, hydrops may be treatable only in certain cases. (lluch.org)
  • The research was done in collaboration with Fuad Al Mutairi, MD, a clinical geneticist who was asked to consult on the case of a woman who experienced repeated pregnancy losses due to hydrops fetalis. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Caron discovered early in her career that mice lacking the gene for adrenomedullin develop hydrops fetalis and die before birth. (technologynetworks.com)
  • This type of hydrops fetalis accounts for approximately 80 percent to 90 percent of all cases of the condition. (childrensmn.org)
  • Uncommonly, Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NPC) and Gaucher disease type 2 can present with hydrops fetalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of hydrops fetalis occurs when there is an incompatibility between the red blood cells of the mother and baby. (childrensmn.org)
  • This type of hydrops is not very common. (lluch.org)
  • This type of hydrops is not common today because Rh negative women are often treated with Rh immunoglobulin to prevent this problem. (lluch.org)
  • This is the more common type of hydrops. (lluch.org)
  • Hydrops fetalis is not a disease, but a symptom of an underlying health problem with the baby. (childrensmn.org)
  • In about one in four cases, however, the situation becomes more serious and leads to the development of hydrops fetalis. (childrensmn.org)
  • Risks for other problems are also high for babies born with hydrops. (lluch.org)
  • We use a comprehensive team approach to hydrops fetalis and any associated anomalies. (childrensmn.org)
  • Nonimmune hydrops fetalis is more common. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Immune and nonimmune hydrops fetalis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aetiology and pathophysiology of nonimmune hydrops fetalis is listed in this review. (amedi.sk)
  • 2009). Nonimmune hydrops fetalis accounts for 76 to 87% of all described cases of hydrops fetalis (Bellini et al. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have used a rapid DNA sequencing technique to identify gene variants in roughly a third of cases of nonimmune Hydrops fetalis ( NIHF ), a serious condition in which a fetus develops fluid buildup inside the abdominal cavity, lungs, or other parts of the body. (nih.gov)
  • Exome sequencing for prenatal diagnosis in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. (nih.gov)
  • Hydrops Fetalis/Erythroblastosis Fetalis (Children's Hospital and Health System, Inc. (nih.gov)
  • Mirror syndrome is reported with various conditions associated with hydrops fetalis and is life threatening to both the mother and fetus if unnoticed and untreated. (medscape.com)
  • Hydrops fetalis is a descriptive term for generalized edema of the fetus, with fluid accumulation in extravascular components and body cavities. (nih.gov)
  • or severe anemia and excess fluid and swelling (edema) in the fetus (hydrops fetalis). (msdmanuals.com)
  • There are two types of hydrops fetalis, immune and nonimmune. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Immune hydrops fetalis is most often a complication of a severe form of Rh incompatibility , which can be prevented. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The number of babies who develop immune hydrops fetalis has dropped due to a medicine called RhoGAM. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are other, much rarer, blood group incompatibilities that can also cause immune hydrops fetalis, but RhoGAM does not help with these. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For immune hydrops, direct transfusion of red blood cells that match the infant's blood type. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Non-immune hydrops fetalis: a short review of etiology and pathophysiology. (medscape.com)
  • UNLABELLED Non-immune hydrops fetalis may find its origin within genetically determined lymphedema syndromes , caused by mutations in FOXC2 and SOX-18. (bvsalud.org)
  • We describe a newborn girl , diagnosed with non-immune hydrops fetalis at a gestational age of 30 weeks. (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, in sporadic patients diagnosed with non-immune hydrops fetalis , lymphangiogenic genes should be systematically screened for mutations . (bvsalud.org)
  • A few cases have been reported that had 1 apparently normal alpha-globin gene, termed the hemoglobin H (613978) hydrops fetalis syndrome (summary by Chui and Waye, 1998). (nih.gov)
  • The more severe type is known as hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis syndrome, which is also called Hb Bart syndrome or alpha thalassemia major. (nih.gov)
  • Mirror syndrome is a rare entity characterized by maternal disease that mimics fetal hydrops. (medscape.com)
  • Babies who have a structural defect, and those with no identified cause for the hydrops are also at higher risk. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Babies who have hydrops fetalis usually die before or shortly after birth. (nih.gov)
  • In pregnant women, infection can lead to spontaneous abortions and hydrops fetalis and, in patients with haemolytic anaemias or in immunocompromised individuals, can induce aplastic crisis and chronic anaemias. (actamedicaportuguesa.com)
  • Hydrops fetalis often results in death of the infant shortly before or after delivery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Atrial natriuretic peptide production in association with nonimmune fetal hydrops. (medscape.com)
  • The association between FOXC2 mutation and neonatal hydrops resulting in terminal respiratory failure is not reported so far. (bvsalud.org)